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ELY CATHEDRAL ,... Frontis.


IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM . . To face page 21


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. 400


Connection of Secular and Ecclesiastical Story Renewal of the Danish Invasion Changes in Eng
land which favoured It Ethelred the Unready Marries Emma the Norman, and thus Intro
duces Norman Influence into England Swein s Great Invasion Wessex Accepts Swein as
King His Death and Recall of Ethelred Edmund Ironside Divides the Kingdom with
Canute Death of the Ironside, and Accession of Canute to the Kingdom of all England His
Character His Reign a Victory for Christianity End of the Conflict with Paganism Earl
Godwin and His Sons Canute s Sons Harold and Harthacanute Canute s Earnest Religious
Character His Ecclesiastical Cabinet of State

Letter to the People

" "

Memorial to "

Edmund Ironside Canute s Influence upon the Church.

reader of this History may perhaps what these Vikings were, and what a stern

THEand sometimes feel surprised that

again the purely ecclesiastical

now spirit of hatred to Christ and His religion

inspired their fierce war-bands, would have

story should be apparently interrupted by given but a maimed and distorted narrative
what may seem to him only secular matters. at best, and have presented a totally in
But we are travelling during this period over adequate view of the work of noble and
a comparatively little known district of religious Alfred. So here, to have written
history, when names and bishops
of kings about Canute and his times, and the
suggest but little to the reader, and in them powerful influence which English Christi
selves possess little or no meaning. To anity had upon the great northern mon
have passed from Alfred and his archbishop arch who so strangely came to sit upon
Plegmund to the work of Dunstan, without the throne of Alfred, and so ably took up
a short sketch of the great kings who his work among us, would have been
intervened between these two periods, a hopeless confusing task, without
would have been at once confusing and gathering up the threads of the history

misleading. At an earlier stage, to have which tell us how it came to pass that
painted the which the great
desolation the northern Viking entered into the in
Viking raids brought upon the church and heritance he ruled so well. Later in our
state of England, without
telling who and story, again, to introduce the
last Saxon
2 E

monarch, known in history as the


Con busied himself exclusively in ecclesiastical

Norman in spirit rather than matters, dying in 988, and leaving behind
English, and relate the great change in him a name and fame perhaps unequalled
church and state begun by him and carried in the long and honoured line of the

out by his kinsman the Norman William, primates of the English Church.
But on
whom men call the Conqueror, without the day when his strong, wise hand was

dwelling a little upon the origin and removed from the helm of English govern

character of these wonderful Normans, ment, may be said to have begun that
who exercised such a wide-spread in terribleand long-drawn-out fresh drama
fluence on the continent of Europe, and of Danish raids and wars, which ended in
who England changed the theology
in the submission of all England to a Danish
and the practice, though not interfering king.
with the unbroken continuity of our In the north of Europe various events
church, would be both misleading and had been taking place, which led to the
not a little confusing. gradual consolidation of the Danish power.
Such are the reasons which determine A great northern monarchy had in the
u breaks
the days of Ethelred taken the place of the

any seeming in purely

ecclesiastical story, and render it
necessary many petty jarls and Vikings, whose war
in these far-back periods to introduce a ships had been the terror of England in
thin thread for it is little more of the days of Alfred. It was towards the
the secular history of that time into the close of the ninth century that a mighty
narrative.They will necessarily become Viking chief, Gorm the Old, had welded
more rare, as we advance into periods into one a number of Danish families or
more generally known, in which names tribes, and in a half mythical city called
of and great ministers of state
kings set up his new kingdom.
Lethra in Zeeland,
become to most readers something more For many years the famous chieftain met
than shadows. From the eleventh century with varying success and failure, till in
downwards there are also no more 934 the emperor of Germany, Henry the
of Fowler, routed his invading army of pirates,
" "

startling comings strange peoples

among change by their advent the
us, to and shortly after his defeat we hear of
whole current of our history, sacred as well Gorm s death. Two great mounds, mark
as civil n as was the case in the earlier days ing the place of sepulture of the dreaded
of the story of England and her church. Viking and his wife,queen Thyra, preserve
still the memory of his exploits near the

King Ethelred the second, son of Edgar, town of Weile. His son Harold Blaatand,
after the short reign of his brother, or Blue Tooth, succeeded to the authority
Edmund the Martyr (murdered at Corfe), of Gorm, and the chroniclers of that age

began to reign in 978. As we have related, of confusion and bloody wars again and
Dunstan, finding no favour in the eyes of again tell us of his deeds and valour. For
the young king and his advisers, quietly a long period this Harold was the principal
retired to his arch-see t and for ten years figure in the north.
circa 1000.] THE DANES.
The deadly conflict between Paganism giving place to the man who did suit
and Christianity still occupied the foremost and service to a master, to whom he
place in the disputes and endless fighting looked for protection and guidance. No
which occupied these Northmen even at doubt this change in the position of the
home, when their fleets and armies were was largely
old free cultivators of the soil
not engaged in foreign invasion. Harold owing to the state of perpetual unrest
Blue Tooth in later life was persuaded of and danger to home and hdarth brought
the truth of Christianity, forsook the old about by the long-continued wars and
heathen sanctuary of Lethra, and earnestly raids of the Vikings.Every man needed
busied himself in turning his people from some powerful protector in those rough
their old northern gods to the faith of and stormy days.
Jesus. Not so his son, the subsequently But there was another cause which only
famous Swein, who all his life was a too helped forward the Danish
fanatical supporter of Woden andThor. The invaders. For the long period of thirty-
pagan son rebelled against the Christian eight years England was ruled by the only
father and in the end the forces of
; incompetent sovereign of the house of
heathendom triumphed, and Harold Blue Alfred. Ethelred, the second of the name,
Tooth died of his wounds at Jomsborg, a surnamed "

the Unready

or rather the
great Viking city at the mouth of the river
king (for that is the
Oder. Swein succeeded Harold as king, real meaning of the well-known epithet),
but was soon, in the varying fortunes of was a bad man and a bad king. He was
the endless wars and jealousies of the not "


or shiftless by any means,

north, driven from the throne. He then as the modern signification of the term
became a wandering Viking chief the would suggest, but restless and even ener
terror of the seas. Wealthy England, getic only with an energy irregulated and

especially during the reign of Ethelred, misapplied an energy which, as it has

was the scene of his perpetually recurring been well began enterprises and rarely
raids ;
and for many years he led the ended them. He
never seems to have had
life In the year
of a successful sea-pirate. the good fortune in his long reign of meet
1000 the fortunes of the Viking changed. ing with any man of commanding genius,
Swein was recalled to Denmark, and for or with any true patriot. His advisers
the next years, with short in
fourteen" were unworthy favourites, who too often
tervals, continued his wars with England played him and their country false. In
no longer, however, as a mere sea-rover, that age much depended on the ability
but as king of the great Danish nation. and character of the ruler of a country ;

A considerable change had gradually one great king like Alfred was often
been coming upon English life since able to raise it to great prosperity,
the days Alfred, of and in no small while an incompetent and weak sovereign
degree assisted the designs of the Danish like Ethelred could bring it to ruin and
invaders in the days of Ethelred (978- degradation.
1016). The old free-man was disappearing, During the earlier years of Ethelred s

unhappy reign, the Danish attacks took Swein remained ever a deadly foe to the

the form of mere piratical raids, re religion of Jesus. In the year 995 both

sembling closely the old Viking method the great sea rovers had recovered or won
of harassing a land, and bringing in their their crowns, but for a time the deadly
train untold misery and ruin but being; enmity which had succeeded to the old
local and temporary, making no great friendship of king Olaf and king Swein,
impression upon the nation generally. gave harassed England some respite for

Gradually, as the reign of Ethelred a season.

advanced, however, the invaders grew The wild life of one of these mighty
more in earnest ;
the raid often ended Vikings Olaf came to a fitting close in
in a permanent settlement, until the 1000. The two old friends met together
Viking hero, who for so many years had in deadly conflict. The scene of the fatal
harassed the land and plundered the battle was their own loved Northern ocean,
people, again determined to make of and the fight was long famous in the

England an enduring conquest.* North. The words of the old saga are
For many of these earlier years, another worth quoting, as they give us a vivid

figure appears by the side of Swein, and picture of the man who so long was a
one equally terrible to the hapless English terror to our English forefathers King :

folk, the hero of many of the famous Olaf stood on the Serpents quarter-deck
Northern sagas Olaf Tryggvasson. In high above the rest. He had a gilded
the somewhat and
confused chronicles shield, and a helm inlaid with gold over ;

sagas which tell the story of this un his armour he wore a short red coat, and
happy age, these two mighty Vikings was easy to be distinguished from other
both sons of kings, both claimants to the men He asked, Who is the
chief thrones of the north (Swein to that chief of the coming upon us.
many ships
of Denmark, Olaf to that of Norway), answered it was king Swein with the
both exiles from their country, and in the Danish host." The fight was long and
end both kings again of their respective stubborn the great ships of Swein pressed

peoples are found associated in their closer and closer. So thick," says the

piratical work, now engaged together in saga,


flew spears and arrows into the

the now again Serpent, king Olaf s ship, that the men
plundering expeditions ;

fighting alone on their own account ;

shields could scarce contain them." Olafs
but for a long period they were the two men fell fast. His fleet was far out
most conspicuous figures among the dreaded numbered. At last the little group of
northern Vikings. Then, in the many- fighting men about the king were all slain.

coloured story of their lives, comes in Then king Olaf, tossing his shield over his
the strange deadly combat between the head, leaped into the sea, and so perished.
two religions. Olaf became a Christian ;
The disastrous reign of Ethelred wore
on. Though for some eight or nine years
See generally for this period, Green Con "

king Swein, occupied with home affairs,


quest of England," chapters viii., ix., and Freeman s

"Norman Conquest," chapters v., vi.
ceased to harass England, other Viking

chiefs at short intervals kept coming, and Emma as his second wife. From his first

with fire and sword desolating various marriage his brave but ill-fated son and
districts in England. It was in the year successor, Edmund Ironside, sprang ;


1002 that Ethelred entered into that his second, with the Norman princess, the
solemn alliance with the Norman settlers saint-king Edward the Confessor.
in Gaul, which was fraught with such
momentous consequences to our land in This second marriage of Ethelred the
after days. The duke of the Normans, Unready with the beautiful Norman princess
Richard the Good, gave him his sister was one of the momentous marriages of

the world, and has affected the entire reign of Ethelred and Emma, and that
history of western Christendom. Queen of Canute the Dane and Emma, and
Emma inherited the well-known beauty of during the rule of queen Emma s two sons,
the princesses of her house, while the great Harold Harefoot and Harthacanute. It

talents, the surpassing ambition, the in became stronger than ever in the course

domitable will of the more prominent of of the long life of Harthacanute s successor,
the children of Rollo were also character Emma s son, Edward the Confessor,
istic features of this famous u Lady of the who had been trained and brought up
English." With her arrival in England, in Norman Rouen, who passed away
and influence over her husband, Ethel- but nine short months before the fatal

red the Unready, began the settlement field of Hastings, A.D. 1066. Thus the
of Normans in England, their gradual shadow of Norman influence passed over
admission to English offices, their posses Anglo-Saxon England in the year 1002 ;

sion of English estates, and that friendship and the shadow ever deepened, until her
and close connection between Normandy great-nephew William the Conqueror
and England which, a little more than made the Norman and Anglo-Saxon one
half a century after the landing of Emma people.
as queen on the English shores, rendered The same year in which he brought
possible the Norman
Conquest. year The home his Norman bride, king Ethelred
1 002 thus witnessed the dawn of the new planned and carried out the hideous
state of things in England. From that massacre known by the name of the mass-
year onward Anglo-Saxon England was no day on which the deed was carried out
longer the great solitary power which stood St. Brice. Allowing for considerable
and acted alone in all important questions, exaggeration on the part of later writers,
ecclesiastical and civil, which agitated west enough is
certainly known of that fatal
ern Christendom. Slowly and gradually day to stamp the memory of Ethelred
at first, but surely, Norman thought and and his advisers for ever with undying
Continental ways of working were intro shame. It was, of course, no general
duced into the hitherto lonely island. massacre of the Danes in England, for
How ceaselessly queen Emma worked that would have included a large propor
for this end, is shown b,y her strange tion of the dwellers in the north and
second marriage with the bitter and east of the island. The slain on St.

triumphant foe of her

English hus first Brice s day were probably the Danes of
band. Her second alliance with Canute, the more recent invasions who had settled
the Danish king, enabled her, after the in different parts of England, and v/hose
death of Ethelred, still to exercise the safety a hostile people had been
same, or even an extended influence, over guaranteed on the faith of some recently
English affairs. Indeed, from the day of concluded treaty of peace. Among the
her marriage with Ethelred in 1002, the slainwas Gunhild, a sister of king Swein.
Norman never loosed his hold on England. That the Danes were ruthless enemies in
The grip was never relaxed through the war-times, and treacherous guests in peace,
is but the massacre
certain ;
deliberately silver and amber, which adorned the
planned by Ethelred and his ministers, war-ships of king Swein. The ravages
and carried out, with a certain measure committed by his host after
they landed
of success, on St. Brice s
day, was at once are painted in lurid colours. "

cruel and senseless, and
immediate its
says the chronicler, the most

eifect was to inflame the Danish evil that
people Farms and
any host might do."
with a new spirit of hatred, and to fieldswere ravaged, towns were burned,
them with a determination to avenge the churches were plundered, men were
bloody and shameful deed. slaughtered with a cruel slaughter. The
The story of the next ten years of south as well as the north of the island
Ethelred s reign, 1002 to 1012-13, is a was ruthlessly At Bath, after this
dreary recital of Danish wars and raids, destructive campaign,theWitan of Wessex
some of the more formidable invasions formally acknowledged Swein as king, de
being under the command of king Swein posing Ethelred, who fled to his wife s

himself. The defenders of England, on relations in Normandy ;

and Swein was
sea and were by no means supine,
land, generally acknowledged king of England.
and many a stubborn battle was fought ;
In one short month after the flight of
but treacbeiy and want of national union Ethelred, a sudden change came over the
seem again and again to have crippled strange scene of conquest and ruin. At
and marred the many gallant attempts the beginning of 1014 all England lay
on the part of the English to drive out at the feet of Swein, who, in the south
their formidable antagonists. read, We as in the north, was recognised as king
too, of constant efforts on the part of in place of the fugitive Ethelred ;
in the
Ethelred to buy off the invaders with February of the same year, about the

large sums of money each ransom, how

feast Candlemas, the mighty pagan

ever, so paid, only served to purchase a conqueror lay dead in his tent at Gains
short peace, and really encouraged the borough, in the midst of his victorious
pirates to make fresh efforts against so army. Our Latin chronicler, Florence
wealthy a nation. of Worcester, usually discreet and seem
The last invasion of king Swein in ingly truthful, preserves the legend of his
1013, which resulted in his permanent strange and terrible death. Swein, the
conquest of well-nigh the whole land, was pagan champion, had a special hatred for
conducted on a larger scale than any of the of St. Edmund, the East
the The chroniclers Anglian king, martyred by the Danish
preceding attacks.
dwell on the splendour of the Danish Vikings Ivar and Hubbo in 870. He de

fleet, which brought, it is said, the

whole manded a great ransom from the famous
in whose
force of Denmark to the shores of the monastery of St. Edmundsbury,
doomed island. We
read of the magnifi famous minster rested the revered body
cence of the stately Viking craft, of the of the threatening (a threat he
birds and dragons floating on the tops of was only too likely to carry out), if the
to burn
the masts, of the carved work in gold and huge ransom was not forthcoming,

the church and religious house, and the comrades cried the awe-stricken

town which clustered round the sanctuary, warrior ;

I see St. Edmund coming with

and to torture to death the hapless dwel a spear to slay And, falling from

lers in the sacred walls. The story goes his horse, he died that same night in
great agony. The framework of
this strange legend is evidently
based on authentic history. Swein
clearly did die as he was about to
plunder and to destroy the shrine
of St. Edmund and the great reli

gious house which had arisen

around the sanctuary and the ;

special reverence which his son

Canute afterwards showed to St.

Edmund, suggests that the Danes

did, in some way, connect the
death of the Danish conqueror
with the vengeance of the out
raged English saint.

The consequences of the death

of Swein were memorable. The
sudden removal
mighty of the

conqueror from the scene, seems

to have fired the hearts of the

English people with new hope.

The disheartened Witan, which
had so lately dethroned Ethelred
and recognised the Dane as king,

at once recalled its own discredited

sovereign. The words of the in

vitation recorded in the Chronicle
are evidently copied from the

original document. They are

[Photo: F. R. Turntr, Teviketbury.
SAXON WORK IN DEERHURST CHURCH. singular, and throw a strong light

upon the feeling of England

on to tell how king
Swein, riding from towards Ethelred sorrow and indignation

his Gainsborough camp at the head of his at his past misrule alternating with loyalty

army a march which had the minster of and devotion to the descendant of Cerdic
St. Edmund as its goal saw of a sudden and the head of the beloved house of
a vision of king Edmund, in full war Alfred. "No
ran the document
panoply, coming against him. "

Help, inviting him back to his kingdom,


be dearer to them than their lord rapidly gaining ground in various parts of
by birth, only he rule them more
England, when the news of Ethelred s
righteously than he did before." death, in 1016, in some respects changed
Ethelred quickly returned, and at once the position of affairs.
marched against the dispirited Danish It was during the last years of Ethelred
host, still encamped at Gainsborough, that we hear of London taking its

where had died under

their king, Swein, position as the leading city of England.
such strange circumstances. Canute his From its unrivalled position it had gradu
son was elected at once king in his father s ally become the centre of the rapidly-
room but the Danes evidently offered
; growing English commerce, and its steady
but a half-hearted resistance to Ethelred s loyalty to the Saxon king during the
force, for very soon we read of the for Danish wars had given it a new and com
midable army of the once dreaded Swein manding position in the kingdom. In
re-embarking in the stately fleet, and sail London, then, in the year 1016, Edmund
ing away to Denmark. This happened in Ironside was chosen king by the Witan

1014, and for a brief season England was there assembled, and received the crown
free from the Danish in
vaders ;
but the end of

the long and terrible drama

was at hand. Ethelred was
now sickening with the

malady which put an end

to his unhappy reign, which
had lasted so many years.
By his side was Edmund,
surnamed Ironside, his

eldest son, a worthy repre

sentative of the great line
of Alfred. The relations,

however, between the father

and his gallant son were evi
dently strained, and when Photo : F. R. Turner,


successor, returned in the

following year, 1015, the resistance to the of Alfred. It was but a sad inheritance.
great invading army of the young Danish Almost at the same moment his formidable

king was fitful and uncertain. The splendid rival Canute the Dane was elected king by
gallantry and military skill of Edmund Iron another Witan assembled at Southampton :

sidewere sorely hampered by the indecision, and in the power of this doughty descend
perhaps by the jealousy, of Ethelred and ant of the Vikings lay, alas ! most of
his ministers. Canute and his host were England. During the next seven months

a most astonishing spectacle was presented. and his hero race, with the exception of
With an energy and skill which have been Ethelred, were but short-lived and the ;

fairly termed almost superhuman, Edmund excitement and ceaseless labours and fight

by appealing to the patriotism of

Ironside, ing of the past months had worn out what
England, so long and so cruelly harried, was probably a feeble constitution. The
gathered together in succession five con ancient minster of Glastonbury received
siderable armies, and fought with the con the remains of Edmund Ironside, which

quering Dane five pitched battles with ;

were brought from his faithful city of

varying success, but, on the whole, the London and laid beside the grave of his
balance of victory remaining with the grandfather, Dunstan s friend, Edgar the
In the sixth, how Peaceful. In later times, through all

noble English king.

ever, of these deadly encounters, at Assan- the rebuilding of that wonderful pile, the

dun, probably in Essex (Ashington), the memory of the hero still lived. Behind
most hotly disputed of all, there is no the high altar, in his own chapel as a
doubt but that the Ironside was defeated. canonised saint, rested the body of Edgar
Assandun was the grave of most of his the Peaceful. Before the altar lay the
devoted patriot friends. supposed remains of the legendary Arthur
Though, however, victory the was and his yet more legendary queen. North
Canute s, it was evidently no decisive and south slept two champions of England,
success ;
for soon after the battle the alike in name and glory. On the north
Englishman and the Dane met together side layEdmund the Magnificent, one of
on the Isle of Olney in the Severn, hard by the brother heroes of Brunanburgh, the
the ancient church and religious house of conqueror of Scot and Cumbrian and
Deerhurst. Part of the Saxon church, in Northman, the deliverer of English cities
which no doubt the Ironside worshipped, from the heathen yoke. To the south lay
and not unlikely his great rival Canute his namesake and descendant, as glorious

also, after the celebrated Olney pact, is in defeat as in victory, the more than
with us still. Then and thus was England equal rival of the mighty Canute, the man

again divided between its native Cerdic- who raised England from the lowest depth
descended prince and a Dane nor was the ;
of degradation, the guardian whose arm
division very unlike that made between and heart never failed her Edmund the
Alfred and Guthrun. Edmund Ironside Ironside."

kept England south of the Thames, with

East Anglia, Essex, and London Canute ; The death of king Ethelred, followed
taking the rest of the island. Apparently to the grave a few months later by his
it was arranged that each prince was to hero-son Edmund Ironside, left England
succeed to the dominion of the other at the mercy of Canute and his Danes.
certainly if he died childless. But no period of terror or oppression, as
But the pact of Olney, after all, proved might have been expected, succeeded. The
useless. Before that fateful year closed, Danish conqueror was no ordinary man.
the gallant English king was dead. Alfred * Freeman :

The Norman Conquest." ch. v. 6.


Although the son of a long line of pirate part in the story of England. The
chiefs, the Viking king Canute
spirit in other possible claimants to the Eng
scarcely outlived his youth. His father, lish crown were also children Alfred
king Swein, was a pagan of the old type, and Edward, the sons of Ethelred the
who hated Christianity, who evidently re Unready. They were in safe exile at the
garded the extirpation of the Christian reli court of their kinsman, the Duke of the

gion as the great mission of the Northern Normans, at Rouen.

Edward, afterwards
peoples, and, indeed, died in endeavouring famous as Edward the Confessor, became
to carry out what he looked on as his in later days king of England. Canute
destined work for it will be remembered
further strengthened his claim to the
that he met his death as he was on his throne, and secured the friendship of

way to destroy one of the principal sanc his powerful Norman neighbours, by
tuaries of Christian England, the abbey marrying the widow of king Ethelred,
and religious house of St. Edmundsbury. Emma, the daughter of the Norman duke
Canute, on the other hand, when once Richard Sans Peur.
firmly seated on the English throne, was At an early period of his great reign,
distinguished as an earnest and devoted king Canute who had been formally
Christian sovereign. crowned king of England in London at
master of England,
Although absolute a Witan heldat Oxford, renewed and

the Danish king was determined to base ratifiedthe laws of Edgar, the well-loved
his rule upon the formal acceptation of English king. This act marked his firm
the English people, and at a great Witan resolve to rule his kingdom exclusively
assembled in London he was acknowledged after the English fashion. The mighty
as the lawful sovereign of the island. A Danish and army he had brought

few severities, evidently necessary for the with him to combat Edmund Ironside,
peace of the country, marked the begin he sent back to Denmark, only retaining
ning of the Danish conqueror s reign. forty ships, as a nucleus for an English
Certain men whose fidelity he had reason fleet, and a small force of some 3,000
to suspect, were put to death or outlawed. Danish warriors, known as his house-carls,

The natural heirs of the house of Alfred for a permanent body-guard, who served
the two children of Edmund Ironside as the nucleus of a standing English army.
he despatched to his half-brother Olaf, Throughout his reign of nineteen years,
king of Sweden, intending, apparently, Canute s conduct and policy were that of a
that Olaf should quietly kill them ;
but wise and patriotic Englishman rather than
Olaf, though dreading Canute s power, ab of a Danish conqueror. He took up and
horred the suggested crime, and sent them developed the work of the great kings
to the far distantkingdom of Hungary, of the house of Alfred, and the country
where they grew up under the care of the under his wise rule made enormous strides
saint-king Stephen. One of the children, in wealth and power. The student of
under the name of Edgar Atheling, played his reign is surprised to find how little
in later a somewhat distinguished trace of a conquest is discoverable in the

Danish conqueror s English kingdom. Christianity in the north, the triumph

After the death of his native rival Edward of Canute really strengthened it, as we

Ironside, the true nobility

of Canute s shall see, in lands where hitherto pagan
character appeared. The Danish king ism still prevailed. Had the Dane won
elected to live in England, to make England a century before, when Alfred
his home, the seat of his wide was waging his life and death struggle
with the Viking Guthrun, English
Christianity would indeed have been in
some danger of extermination ;
but what
was possible a hundred years before, was
impossible when Canute became sole king
in England.The long-drawn-out Danish
wars, the wise government of the kings
of the house of Alfred, had awakened a
national feeling which nothing could undo.
Still more, the work of the Church of

England had succeeded in welding into

one great nation the various kingdoms
and peoples whose jealousies and divisions
had once so materially assisted the Viking
raids and settlements. Under the rule
of ministers like archbishop Dunstan,
the Jute of Kent, the West Saxon on the
Severn and the Avon, the East Saxon of
London and Bury, the Engle of Lichfield
and York, were closely knit together
they had the same interests, the same
BATTERSEA. (British Museum.) hopes, the same training. All this was
clearly seen by the wise Danish king
dominions, and at the same time deter Canute, and he quickly became an English
mined to become an Englishman to all man among Englishmen, a Christian
intents and
purposes. He
would have among a Christian people.
men forget here that he was a Dane. Then, too, in his broad Danish dominions
It would seem, at first, that the un the old period of wandering was over for

disputed accession of a great Danish king the Scandinavian peoples themselves.

to the throne of England marked the Their own revolutions had transformed
complete success of the long struggle of the petty realms of the north also into
the pagan Northman to win the country, great monarchies. The result of their
and to stamp out, least here, the
at long and destructive raids upon the
religion of the Crucified, so hated by the Prankish peoples, had been the establish
Viking spirit. But instead of destroying ment of a powerful and settled dominion
ioi6 1035.] KING CANUTE.
in the north of France, under the name the north of Europe. Thus the apparent
of the Norman duchy. Thus the result victors in the long and bloody strife were
of the Danish conquest of England was The Danish king
really the vanquished.
not to establish a Scandinavian kingdom dom of Canute in England, and the mighty
in the island, but rather to Danish realm in Normandy, became the
the Anglo-Saxon Christian power, and to most prominent and successful Christian
make it paramount in the north; not to nations of Europe.


Witnessed by Aethelnoth, Archbishop of York; Mlfgifu (Emma), the Queen; Earl God-wine, and many Bishops,
Abbots, Earls, and Thanes. (British Museum.)

destroy Christianity in England, but The nineteen years of Canute s reign

rather to destroy paganism in the whole were years of an almost unbroken quiet.
of the northern or Viking kingdoms. Within the English border no record has
Under Canute we find English bishops reached us of any disturbance. One
and English missionaries active and Scottish invasion, and one English in
successfulin spreading Christianity over vasion of Wales, make up all the story of
the length and breadth of the northern wars within the limits of the island. The
realm. His victory and complete success result of the border warfare was,
finished the long and terrible
pagan important. Malcolm, the Scottish king,
efforts to root out the religion of Jesus in agreed to recognise the supremacy of the

English sovereign, and as part of the during the nineteen years of the reign of
political arrangement with Canute, the the great Dane, the universal respect and
northern half of the old realm of consideration which England, as the central

Northumbria, including Lothian, became and most important division of the wide
henceforth part of the Scottish realm, empire of Canute, enjoyed, gave an extra
and Edinburgh was chosen as the usual ordinary and rapid development to English
royal Scottish residence. In the north, commerce. For the first time for more
in the kingdoms claimed by Canute, we than a hundred years, the Viking raiders
hear of. several short wars and insurrec were no longer dreaded. We hear of the
tions but during most of his reign the
; growing importance and increasing wealth
English king was the acknowledged of many of the older cities, such as Chester
master of Denmark and Norway, and for and Gloucester, York and Lincoln ;
the later years of his life absolute peace the needs of this rapidly-expanding com

reigned in those turbulent countries. merce were the occasion of the foundation
The administration of England was little or at least of the extension of comparatively
altered from the arrangements sanctioned new centres, such as Oxford and Bristol.

by thekings of the house of Alfred. The greatness and wealth of London, al

Four great governments divided the realm. ready alluded to, become more noticeable
These answered to the four most power as the reign advanced. The riches and
ful and permanent among the ancient importance of London in the early part of
kingdoms Northumberland, Mercia, East the eleventh century can partly be gauged
Anglia, and Wessex. Their governors from the proportion which the city paid
were known as earls, a title which now of a Danegelt levied in the first year of
supplanted the more
ancient name of Canute s
reign. The amount imposed
aldermen. But these great officials were upon the whole of England was seventy-
evidently more really subject to Canute two thousand pounds, and of this sum
than to any of his Anglo-Saxon prede London paid ten thousand five hundred
cessors. Before the times of the Danish pounds, about one-seventh of the entire
king, Wessex and the south had been more amount.
immediately under the direct government The name of Godwin has been men
of the kings themselves than the other tioned as the favourite minister and adviser
three great divisions. Alfred and his of the Danish reign. A thane of West
children belonged to the old royal house Saxon blood, tradition ascribes his rise
of Wessex hence the retention of Wessex
entirely royal favour, and represents
under the more direct rule of the princes him as springing originally from a humble
of their ancient house. After he had This remarkable man, who after
become the
acknowledged king of all the sovereign occupied the most prominent
England, Canute conferred the earldom of position in England during the reigns of
Wessex on his best beloved minister and Canute and his sons and of Edward the
adviser, the famous Godwin. Confessor, has been well styled as one who,
The long and almost unbroken peace never a king himself, was the maker, the
kinsman, the father of kings. Very early a time retained Wessex. Swein, the
in Canute s reign we find this Godwin brother of Harold Harefoot, succeeded to
occupying high office. His valour in war, the crown of Norway.
prudence in counsel, diligence in business, Harthacanute s affections seem to have
his commanding eloquence and winning been altogether given to his northern
manner, won him the friendship and con realm of Denmark, and no persuasion on
fidence of the far-seeing Danish conqueror, the part of earl Godwin and his Wessex
who advanced him rapidly from post to subjects could persuade him to show him
post till he became the chief minister of self inEngland. Popular feeling at last
the reign and earl of Wessex, the wealthiest brought about a bloodless revolution, and
and most influential division of the king aftersome two years we read the following
dom. Through the favour of the monarch, entry in the Abingdon and "Wor
" "

earl Godwin obtained the hand of Gytha, which


cester Chronicles, tell the story

the sister of the Danish earl Ulf, the of the quiet revolt :

They chose Harold

husband oftanute s sister Estrith. Gytha (Harefoot) to be king over all (England),
was descended from one of the more and forsook Harthacanute, for that he was
famous heroes of the north, Thorgils, whom too long in Denmark."

tradition speaks of as the grandson of a The election of Harold Harefoot was

bear. The children of Godwin and Gytha "the formal act of the Witan of Wessex ;

played the most distinguished parts in the but he seems to have attracted neither
story of England before the Norman Con love nor devotion, and some of the

quest, and Harold, the most celebrated of accounts of his short, uneventful reign
this band of Godwin s heroic sons, will represent him as a careless, godless king.
be ever memorable in the annals of our One dark story certainly disfigures his
country as the last of the Anglo-Saxon reign. Alfred, the son of Ethelred and
kings. Emma, made an attempt to invade
England. He was taken prisoner, and
When Canute died in A.D. 1035, the great barbarously tortured and put to death.
northern empire he had built up at once Godwin was accused of instigating this
fell to pieces. Sweden and Norway were cruel act, was formally
but after-wards
divided again, and England once more acquitted of any share in the deed by
ceased for a time to be one nation. the Witan of England. Harold Harefoot
Neither of Canute s sons inherited their died at Oxford after a short reign, in

father s conspicuous ability. The elder 1040.

one, Harold Harefoot, so named from his His brother Harthacanute, king of
remarkable swiftness in running the son Denmark, who was far from acquiescing

of Canute and his first wife, to whom he was in his deposition from the Wessex throne,
never legitimately married became king when the news of his brother Harold s

of Mercia, Northumbria, and East Anglia. death reached him, was busy preparing
Harthacanute succeeded to Denmark, and, for an invasion of England in order to

through the influence of earl Godwin, for secure his rights. On his half-brother s

death he was chosen at once to succeed tersely relate the tragic scene thus :

him. But his short reign was absolutely This year (A.D. 1042) died Harthacanute

eventless ;
it has been well described as as he at his drink stood." He was buried
that of one worthless youth following in the old minster in the royal city of

another equally worthless. His first act Winchester. The Chronicles tell of the
was an act of senseless brutality towards immediate succession of his half-brother

the dead body of his half-brother Harold. Edward thus :


Before the king was

The body was exhumed, decapitated, and buried, all folk chose Edward as king in
then tossed into the Thames. The remains London."

were subsequently brought up by a fisher Thus within seven years the four children

man, and re-interred, tradition says, by of Canute had passed away Harold Hare-
some of the Danish inhabitants of London, foot, Swein (who had died shortly before),
in their cemetery, situated outside London, Harthacanute, and Gunhild, their sister.
surrounding the site of the present St. All died childless save Gunhild, the wife
Clement Dane s church. The few events of the German Henry III., whose only
recorded in Harthacanute s reign represent child became a nun and thus once more;

him as a cruel, revengeful, self-indulgent the crown of England rested on the brows

tyrant. His failing health and the fact of an heir of the West Saxon house of
of his being childless induced him to send "Cerdic,
a direct descendant of Alfred ;

for his half-brother Edward from Rouen, for Edward, the new king of England,
with a view to the future succession to known in history as the "


the crown. We hear of Edward living, was the son of the Saxon king Ethelred
during the short period which remained and Emma, the Norman princess. With
of Harthacanute s reign, in great honour Edward the Confessor (A.D. 1042)
at his brother s court. commences a new era in the story of
The end came more quickly than was England.
expected. The young Danish king died
in a way as has been quaintly described During the twenty-six years of the rule
most prince whose chief
befitting a of the Danish line in England in the
recorded merit was that he provided his reigns of Canute and his two sons no
courtiers with four meals a day. The great churchman arose in England.
king was at
Lambeth, in the house Neither Lyfing, who crowned Canute,
of Osgod Clapa, one of the most influential nor his successor in the arch-see of
men of the day, on the occasion of Osgod s Canterbury, Ethelnoth the Good, were
daughter Githa s marriage to Tofig, the in any sense distinguished for great
proud and powerful Danish thane who ability or originality. Plain, honest,
was standard-bearer to the king. In the God-fearing men especially the latter
course of the state banquet, as Hartha- Ethelnoth they did their duty quietly
canute rose to propose the bride s health, and unostentatiously, carrying on the
he fell to the ground in a fit, accompanied great traditions of the school of Dunstan.
with frightful struggles. The Chronicles Their chief title to honour was the quiet
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influence for they undoubtedly Danish king of England. No student of

exercised over the great Danish conqueror his life can for one moment doubt that

Canute. he became an earnest Christian from

The character of Canute is one of the conviction.

most interesting in early English history. Nor can we hesitate to assert that it

The descendant of a line of pirate kings was the spirit of the Church of England
and we find him in the early which so powerfully influenced the heart
at the head of Canute, and brought about the great
years of his eventful career
of a great fleet and army of Vikings, carry change in his character. The church of
ing out the dread traditions of his race Dunstan, Canute found, was a real and
only too faithfully, plundering, burning, living power in the land he came quickly

Then, no sooner to love so well,and his acute genius was

destroying ruthlessly.
had he obtained all and more than all not slow to perceive what was its work
his ambition could ever have allowed him and influence among the people of Eng
to dream of, when seated firmly on the land. The king of Denmark compared it

throne of England, backed up with all with the paganism of the north, and, re
the mighty power of the north, the cognising its power and influence for good,
once into the it as his own and for
Viking warrior changed at adopted religion,

wise and patriotic prince, second to none ever swept away the long-cherished Viking

of those great men of the house of Alfred idea of destroying Christianity and sub

who had succeeded in making a united stituting paganism in its place.

and prosperous England.

And what was perhaps strangest of all, The relations between the Church of
we find the Viking chief quietly putting England and the state, in the days of the
aside the pagan traditions of his race, and great kings of the house of Alfred, of
during the nineteen years of his beneficent Canute, and of Edward the Confessor,
reign adopting the maxims of the Christian who may be looked upon as Canute s

faith, and living up to them in the reality immediate successor, were close and inti

of his private life, as well as in the open mate. The period in question to which
publicity of his state life. That wise we allude extends from the middle of

statesmanship which induced Canute to be the ninth century to the middle of the
come an Englishman in all the best sense eleventh century some 200 )r ears. We
of the word
among Englishmen, might have already had several occasions to men
perhaps have led him to adopt the re tion the constant presence in the Witan r

ligion as well as the manners and customs or great council of the nation, of th,e
and laws of the people over whom he archbishops, bishops, and certain abbots of
found himself called to rule but no mere
; important houses. The archbishop, and
statecraft would have evoked the writings in not a few cases the bishop, was the

we possess from his hand, or supplied the chosen adviser of the king and in the ;

motives of the intensely religious acts case of archbishop Dunstan, he was the
which illustrate the career of the great minister of a great reign like that of
ioi6 1035.]
Edgar, stretching over many years.
In marked political character of the English
deed, that most able prelate (Dunstan) had episcopate, and its close connection with
identified with the office of the sovereign. This peculiar state of
of standing counsellor things went on from Canute s days to
primate the position
of the realm, in other words, of the king s the Reformation.
chief minister. The power of the sovereign in the
This extraordinary position of power in appointment of bishops is clear. In
the state, after Dunstan s disappearance earlier times these appointments were
from public affairs, seems to have been spoken of somewhat vaguely : now as the

much modified ;
and we do not find, as result of the choice of the clergy and the
a rule, the primate again occupying the people, now as proceeding from the abso

of chief minister. Under Canute lute will of the sovereign. Under Canute
he did not occupy the position filled by and his successors, however, the will of

Dunstan, but the more natural one of a the king was notified in a more imperious
royal counsellor whenever the privileges manner ;
and by them the practice of in
of the Church or the relation of the Church vestiture by the ring and crozier seems to
to the liberties of the people were in ques have been introduced. No mention ever
tion. But same time (in the days
at the appears of any interference on the part
of Canute) a new and close connection be of the Pope. His part in these episcopal
tween the church and state grew up in the
appointments was strictly confined to the
of the king himself, and which bestowal of a pall upon the archbishops,


had great ultimate consequences conse and this dignity was of course bestowed
quences stretching, in fact, over centuries. after the appointment had been definitely
A staff of secretaries was formed for carry made.

ing outthe details of government,

all When a prelate of commanding intellect

arranged, in the first instance, by the king and vigour lived, his influence was para
and his lay-advisers. These secretaries mount in the church ;
but in times when
were Their number has been
ecclesiastics. such a great personality was not at its

given and among them were

as twelve, head, the king exercised the chief influ
to be found certain foreigners, no doubt ence ;
and when the monarch was, as we
trusted with foreign affairs ;
but usually find usually to have been the case in the
men of house of Alfred, at once able and
the majority were Englishmen, religious,

marked ability, whose reward,

in most his willand mind were stamped upon the
cases, in the long run, was an episcopal laws and regulations and general adminis
see. We notice this in the tration of the church. These command
ing influences of the bishop and
and Edward the Con the king
reigns of Canute
fessor. Under the Conqueror the clerks seem to have alternated. In early days, the
of the king chapel or chancery are even
s mind and will of Theodore of Canterbury,
more prominent in the administration of Aldhelm of Sherborne, Wilfrid and

public affairs, and we find these more Egbert in York, and in the later days
Hence the of Dunstan of Canterbury, was stamped
frequently becoming bishops.
20 THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. [1016 10.35.

upon the church of their times ;

and Church of England." Something more
the effect of their influence was felt was required in a king before he could
long after they had passed away. Sove exercise this strange spiritual power, so
reigns, like Alfred and Canute, in their potent in its on our great

day, however, towered high above any church, than merely acute and far-seeing
ecclesiastic, and their influence in the statesmanship, which saw in the church a
contemporary Church of England was great and matchless power of usefulness.
absolutely paramount in its turn.* To exercise such spiritual power, he must


It seems incredible that a child of the have been an intense believer in the
pagan Vikings Canute, himself in
like religion of which the church was the
early life a Viking chief, should ever have earthly exponent. Such an one was
come to rank among the more prominent Alfred, and, in a degree, perhaps, such an
religious Anglo-Saxon kings, who helped one was Canute also. No one who has
and work to u
by their life make the studied contemporary documents, such as
* See generally Bishop Stubbs :

Constitutional the Encomium of Emma," or the strik


vi. and chap, xix., etc. Freeman

History," chap.
ing letter of king Canute to his people


Norman Conquest," chap. viii. and appendix i.

etc. Green:
and the church after his Roman pilgrim
(vol. ii.), "Conquest of England,"
chap. vii. and chap. ix. age, or has pondered over Canute s quiet
ioi6 1035.] CANUTE AND THE CHURCH. 21

church work at St.

Edmundsbury, on the walked humbly, fixing his eyes upon the
bloody hill of Assandun, or at
Canterbury, ground with wonderful reverence, and
Ely, and Romsey, or in his native Den pouring out if I may say so rivers of
mark, can for a moment
doubt the intense reality of
the Christianity of our
Viking-descended king. A
few details will be specially 1 p 1
fl . Jfi

interesting not only as >u>Fin

throwing light upon that
hcmmituf k<mru/t<urU3ia{-

inner life of one of our 1 .

. f x
_ ]
noblest Christian princes,
who must be ever regarded
J*^\ *L
-C ? 7

cmuiscai^dCt; IWIWIUIHIL ttntov



as one of the makers jtTwtj^t 7 iV^-^

" "
of i
jagemet cxdnpcg nun** L^.tu^^tmiT . r- :

our church, but as picturing

I.IV^I? *

/ 1
eaJr tv*rmu5 urrtum
U -

vividly something of public

church life, with its errors

M * 5 i^Jk^i^M
- t
I *M 7V *

and its earnestness, in the 4 n- f r J /

early years of the eleventh .

jrv^ftr frtna^utm*
i-lT.v TV
lauamf^^ee:- ---
t. >
-^ -r

The Encomium

as successively the
., etbet* fefpttiif (H* antm
1 ^.
ttfiMMHwi* 4q;

WORKS \j uMlwtmui IV
t f 1 I
^T \<K&

j 1 . 1
mncnt tuA^4f^ 4t>**v*t*m
wife of Ethelred and of y

Canute, and mother of two ;*

fw^f Umtf- f tW"-wm
Harthacanute and }..K. j..;,-;,,,, 5;
Edward the Confessor, as a
contemporary writing is of

great importance, although

the writer was often preju
diced in his statements. In cu*tvp<utr

this curious and interesting

composition the writer thus
at St. Omer in the course WITHOUT LINES, TENTH CENTURY. (British Museum.)
of his Roman
pilgrimage. It
gives a
good idea of the great king s tears, he implored the aid of the saints.
inner life when he was at the height of But when the moment had arrived when
his power. he was to present his gifts upon the altar,
Entering the monasteries, where he was

how often did he impress the pavement

received with great honour, he (Canute) with his kisses, how often did he strike

his venerable breast ! What sighs, what I have lately taken a journey to Rome to

prayers, that he might not be found un pray for the forgiveness of my sins, and for

worthy of the mercy of the Supreme ! the welfare of my dominions ... now I
At length his attendants stretched forth return most humble thanks to my God
his munificent oblation, which the king Almighty for suffering me in my lifetime
himself placed on the altar. But why do to visit the sanctuary of the apostles St.
I say the altar, when I remember that I Peter and St. Paul, and all others that I
myself saw him go round every part of could find either within or without the
the monasteries, and pass no altar, how city of Rome, and these in person I rever
ever small, on which he did not leave a entially worshipped according to my
present, and which he did not salute ? desire. This I have performed chiefly
Then came the poor, and they were all because I learnt from wise men that St.
separately relieved. These and other Peter the apostle has received from God
bounties of the Lord Canute, O St. Omer great power in binding and in loosing, and
and St. Berlin, I myself beheld in your that he carries the keys of the kingdom of
monasteries ;
for which do you pray that Heaven, and therefore I esteemed it
such a king the heavenly
may live in profitable to seek his special patronage
habitations, as your servants the canons with the Lord."

and the monks are daily petitioning. It is clear from this passage that in the
About the year 1027 Canute went on Anglo-Saxon church were taught some of
this pilgrimage to Rome. Subsequently the unscriptural doctrines especially con
he addressed a letter to the metropolitan demned by the Reformation teachers of the

Ethelnoth, and others whom he named, sixteenth century :

notably the invocation
and to the whole nation of the English. of saints such as St. Peter, whose special
Such pilgrimage was an ordinary and
a patronage a curious way of putting it

favourite piece of devotion in those days, Canute desired with the Lord. After
but evidently with Canute it was some dwelling at some length upon his reception
thing more. His whole soul was stirred by the chiefs of continental Christendom,
within him at the sight of the sacred the Pope and the emperor, and after de
shrines and their deathless memories. He scribing the honours and presents with
pours out his whole heart in this celebrated which he was loaded by these potentates,
letter to the nation, which has been well and how he had obtained from them privi
compared to that of an absent father leges and exemption from dues for future

writing to his children, whose love he felt

English pilgrims as well as for traders and
he possessed and deserved. The letter merchants, the king goes on to speak for
begins thus Canute, King of all England

himself in the following striking words

and of Denmark, Norway, etc., to Ethel peculiarly striking when
remembered it is

noth metropolitan, and Alfric, archbishop who was the writer, had been what
of York, and to all the bishops and pre his early training and the immemorial
lates and to the whole nation of the traditions of his wild, fierce race ;
English greeting. I notify to you that enormous, too, was his present power as
the undisputed king of England and the payable to every one s parish church."
north : Canute s

Letter to the English Nation "


I have vowed," wrote Canute, "

to was a writing in some respects worthy of

amend my life in all respects, and to rule being ascribed to Alfred, or in later

the kingdoms and the people subject to me days to a sovereign like St. Louis of
with justice and clemency and ;
. . . France.*
if,through the intemperance of youth or Thelaws of king Canute repeat in re

negligence, I have hitherto exceeded the ligious matters much of the legislation of
bounds of justice in any of my acts, I the kings of the house of Alfred; and the
intend by God s aid to make an entire same devout spirit which lived in every

change for the better. I therefore adjure line of the remarkable "

Letter to the
and command my counsellors to whom I Nation "

we have just been dwelling on,

have entrusted the affairs of my kingdom, inspired much of the laws, and even seems
that they suffer no injustice to prevail, to have dictated some of the very language
either through fear of me or from favour in which they are written down. They
to any powerful person."
He then pro open with the precept charging men to
ceeded to charge and magistrates fear God and honour the king. First

all sheriffs

on their allegiance to treat high and low, above all things are men ever to love
rich and poor, with absolute impartiality, and worship one God, and with one mind
and that regard to royal
neither for to hold one Christendom, and with right

favour, or for respect of the great, or for truthfulness to love king Canute." The
the sake of money, was this rigid im laws themselves, as we have said, repeat

partiality ever to be departed from. much of the legislation of Canute s great

A long passage follows, promising the predecessors, and deal with the reformation
blessings of peace with all surrounding of manners, the administration of justice,

nations, so that England in the future the strict discharge of all ecclesiastical
would have nothing to fear from war or duties on the side of the priests, and the
hostilities from any quarter. What a pro strict payment of all ecclesiastical dues on
mise from the great descendant of the the part of the laymen. Again the ob
Vikings But the promise was faithfully
! servance of the Lord s day is earnestly
kept, and England long enjoyed the pressed. On that day no popular assembly
blessings of the profound peace Canute is to be held ;
there is to be no market, no

spoke of, to which for so many long years hunting. Heathen superstitions are all to
the land had been a stranger. The be given up a strange insertion in the
the Letter to the law-code of one who was in his youth a

last part ot Eng

lish Nation "

was occupied with a strict pirate chief, and the descendant of a long
injunction to the bishops and governors line of pagan Vikings The traffic in !

of the kingdom to take care that all slaves is also denounced. All English
church dues were punctually paid all

and customs are in

rights rigidly preserved
dues belonging to God, tithes, the pence * See Hook Lives of the Archbishops," vol. i.,

due to St. Peter at Rome, the first-fruits chap. vii. Freeman "Norman Conquest," chap. vi.
24 THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. [10161035.

the code of the Danish king. We find in memory of his great victory over the

bishop and alderman associated as before gallant Edmund Ironside.


It was reared
a* presidents of the shire-assemblies ;
the as the hallowing of his victory, as the
u alderman "

in the later clauses, atonement for his earlier crimes."* It

becomes the "

earl." The bishop and was, perhaps, the first of the many churches
earl are to be joint expounders of all laws, of "expiation," which only a few years
ecclesiastical and civil. The feasts of the later began to be built and endowed in

two new national saints are specially men sorrowful memory of

great a s nation

tioned, and men are enjoined to keep holy wrong ;

the dark shadow of which, very
the day of the boy-martyr Edward and the soon after king Canute passed away, be

day of the statesman-archbishop Dunstan. gan to creep over Canute s prosperous

But not only have the laws and some of England. The "priest" of the new church
the public utterances of this great king, of Assandun was the friend and chaplain
who was also a great churchman, come of Canute, and in after-years this priest

down to us the stories of not a few quiet

rose to great eminence in the church and
unostentatious acts, done for the love of state. The memory of Stigand of Assan

God, serve also to make the memory of dun will be ever cherished and reverenced
Canute a loved one in our church annals. as that of the last of the
by Englishmen,
Anglo-Saxons who was to occupy
the seat of Augustine in the
proud minster of Canterbury.
The stone church of Assandun,
consecrated in 1020, was only
the first of a long list of eccle
siastical foundations of the
Danish Canute. A restoration
on a very large scale was under
taken and carried out, of all
churches, monasteries, and
abbeys which had suffered

during his own or his father

Swein s wars. Among these
SCANDINAVIAN BROOCHES. (British Museum.) numerous works was the re-

founding as well as the rebuild

In the fifth year of his reign, when all was of the famous religious house and
quiet at home, and no serious claimant or
abbey of St. Edmundsbury, erected and
discontented subject threatened his thrones, endowed in of the East Anglian
either in England or in his northern realm
king who had suffered martyrdom at
of Denmark, with solemn rites was con the hands of the Danes in the invasion
secrated the stone church king Canute of Ivar and Hubbo before the days of
had built on the hill of Essex (Assandun), * Freeman.
Alfred. This house of St. Edmund had
been especially the object of king Swein s
destructive hatred and the mysterious

story, alluded to already, of Swein s death

in the Viking camp at Gainsborough,
closely connected with the supposed
anger of the offended saint. Canute was
especially anxious to make every possible
amends to this well-loved Anglo-Saxon
hero. The minster was rebuilt ;
but the
foundation being changed accordance in

with the views of the Church of England

at the beginning of the eleventh century,

an abbot and monks replaced the secular

canons of the older house. In the im
portant monasteries of the Fen districts in
the east of England, the generosity and

religious zeal of Canute were peculiarly

marked. Ely and Ramsey both owed him
Nor was Canute s earnestness on behalf
of the" Christian faith confined to his

English dominions. In Denmark he also

showed himself a zealous supporter of
Christianity. Several new bishops were
appointed for the struggling church in

this last home of a dying paganism. Some

of these were Englishmen. We hear of
bishops in Funen, Zealand, and Scania, for CNUT (CANUTE) AND ^LFGYFU (EMMA) MAKING
instance in Roeskilde, near Lethra, the old
From an Early Eleventh Century MS. (British Museum. )
royal seat of the Danish kings, an English
bishop consecrated by an English primate which distinguished the great dames of
carriedon the work of the once hated re her illustrious house. Her devotion to
ligion of Jesus, among the time-honoured the two monasteries of the royal city of
sanctuaries of the old paganism of the Winchester is well known. Nor was the
splendid bounty of king Canute and his
The ardent zeal of Canute for Christian Norman queen confined to England and
ity was shared by queen Emma his wife Denmark. Among many generous gifts of
the daughter of the Norman house of the mighty Danish king to churches on
Rollo who evidently had inherited that the continent of Europe, his donations
intense love for the Christian religion to the famous church of Chartres deserve
26 THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. [10161035.

special notice, while his queen Emma bore king once his bitterest foe
with a gor
a very considerable share in rebuilding the geous robe, bright with the many-coloured
minster of St. Hilary of Poictiers, where embroidery of skilful English workwomen,
much of her work still remains. forwhich the island was then, and for long
The state visit of Canute to Glastonbury, after that day, especially celebrated.

in company with archbishop Ethelnoth, One more of these acts of piety and

who, in common with so many of the devotion, which formed so prominent a

archbishops and distinguished ecclesias feature in Canute s life and work in Eng

tics, was connected with the school and land, must be recorded. The body of the

religious house of that time - honoured martyred Alphege (Elf heah), who had been
sanctuary, is historical. Canute formally so cruelly murdered by the Danes at
confirmed every gift and privilege which Greenwich in the wars of Ethelred, was
his English predecessors on the throne had solemnly translated from St. Paul s cathe
granted to the famous Celtic sanctuary. dral in London where the remains, it will
The object of this state visit of the Danish be remembered, had in the first instance
conqueror to Glastonbury, was to do been interred to his metropolitan church
honour to the tomb in which slept his of Canterbury. In this solemn work of

great rival, king Edmund Ironside. There, expiation king Canute personally assisted,
in front of the
high altar of Dunstan s and with him on that memorable day,
minster of stone, which had replaced the when paganism, in the person of the
yet older wooden basilica, the scene of so greatest Danish sovereign who ever lived,
many immemorial traditions of
England made sorrowful reparation for one of the
and the yet older Britain, Canute knelt memorable Viking crimes, were his queen
and prayed ;
and the story tells us how he and their boy Harthacanute, afterwards
covered the new tomb of the noble hero- king of England.



England Normanised by Edward The Viking Rollo, Founder of the Norman Realm Rouen Extent
of His Dominions Normandy a Christian State Guillaume of the Long Sword Richard the
Fearless Richard the Good The Normans in Italy Robert le Diable William the Conqueror
His Marriage with Matilda Friendship with Lanfranc Strength of the Normans Vestiges of
Paganism in their Character.

king Harthacanute, the son Edward the Confessor was certainly not

WHEN of Canute, fell stricken with

a mortal sickness "

as he at his
one of the few exceptions, but most dis
tinctly an able man, and as we have said
drink stood "

atthe marriage feast of from his point of view, a successful

Osgod Clapa, and thus made room for sovereign.
his young kinsman Edward, surnamed He was who prepared the way for a

the Confessor, a new spirit came over great and momentous change in England.
England. The new monarch was in From the day of his accession, Anglo-
tensely religious, and history istoo ready to Saxon England became gradually Norman
smile at the "

monk-king," as he is not in England. The Anglo-Saxon Church of

aptly often called too ready to deride his
; England became, for good or for evil,
influence ;
too ready to look on him as a the Norman Church of England. It is not
monkish visionary, occupied with thoughts the historian province to discuss whether

and aspirations belonging rather to a this change in the church from the spirit
cloistered monk than to the occupant of of Dunstan and Elfric to that of Lanfranc
a mighty throne. But Edward the Con and Anselm was, in truth, for good or evil

fessorwas certainly more than a mere as regards the English church : we have
monkish visionary he had a settled ; simply and truthfully to tell the story of
purpose in his mind all through his gener how the momentous change came about.
ally quiet reign. He determined, with a But in telling that story we must first very
dogged determination, to "

Normanise "

briefly set forth who these Normans were^

his England and from his point of view
and what had been their history, who in
his reign was on the whole successful, for the eleventh and twelfth centuries exer
he so far changed his country as to render cised so vast an influence in Europe ;

possible the Norman Conquest, which whose conquest of England worked so

followed hard upon his death. It must great a change in the manners, customs,
be remembered that with rare exceptions views and doctrines of the Anglo-Saxon
the kings of the house of Alfred were peoples and whose history, from the year

most able men and successful sovereigns. of the accession of Edward the Confessor,
28 THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. [911 1066.

becomes inseparably interwoven with that and plundering and slaying, would seem
of our own country. a curious preparation for one who was
to organisethe government of a new
It was early in the last quarter of the settlement, and to lay the strong ground

ninth century, when Alfred was king, that work of a realm destined in a few short

we first hear of Rollo, the founder of the years mightily to influence the history
famous Norman realm. The son of a of the world. Yet, strange to say, this
is what Rollo the northern pirate did in
Norwegian petty king or chieftain, Rollo,
driven by some bloody family feud from Rouen and on the Seine banks, between
his northern home, sought his fortune the years 911 and 927. Although still
abroad, and, as a Viking commander, for vigorous, he must have been more than
some thirty or forty years roamed the sixty years old when he began the strange
northern seas. With varying fortunes, at work of organising his Norman settlement
the head of a wild band of sea-pirates in France.

sometimes large, sometimes comparatively The country originally ceded to him by

few in number he harried with his black the Frankish king Charles the Simple, and

ships many a fair and prosperous district, which was only slightly increased in after-
now in England, but more often in France. years, may be said roughly to have
While still in the prime of life, the great included that portion of France we now
sea-rover dreamed of founding a perma know as Normandy, and parts of Brittany.

nent settlement. He chose for his home Maine was a later annexation. Rollo had
the banks of the Seine, and the rich six successors in Rouen before the great
country which the Seine waters, and he Conquest ofEngland in A.D. 1066, four
made the seat of his government the once of whom were certainly men of unusual
flourishing city of Rouen. It was a country genius and skill. What Rollo began, the

impoverished by many cruel raids ;

it famous dukes of Normandy, as they were
was a city half in ruins, of which Rollo usually called, went on with treading in ;

the Viking took possession, and to which their great ancestor s footsteps, and de
he acquired a sort of legal right by the veloping the strong, firm government, the
terms of a somewhat vague treaty which respect, and even devotion to the Christian
he made with the king of the Franks, faith,the love for order and law, which
Charles the Simple. were evidently the characteristics of Rollo
After Rollo and his Vikings had taken after he ceased to be a sea-rover, and had
possession of his new home, follows the settled down into the life of a ruler of an
romantic and marvellous story of the industrious colony. We
watch with some
sea-king s life at Rouen. A quarter of a surprise the gradual but rapid development
century spent in sailing the wild northern of the work of Rollo and his successors,
seas as a pirate, living a life disfigured which went on chiefly whilst the kings
by innumerable deeds of cruelty and wrong of the house of Alfred were reigning in
done to helpless monasteries and quiet England. Rollo and his descendants were
villages and farms, and filled with burning ruling in Rouen and Bayeux when Alfred,

Athelstan, and Edgar were kings in more felt we watch the gradual welding

England and Canute s beneficent reign

; together of the Danish conquerors and
was contemporary with the most splendid the old dwellers in the land, which
era of the government of Rollo s children in produced the Norman ;
till in the time


Normandy. Gradually along the Seine of Edward the Confessor Normandy had
banks, in the Rouen and Bayeux districts, become famous throughout western
even in more distant Brittany, we see the Christendom. It was famous as much for
old ruined religious houses rising from the reckless gallantry of its soldier nobles,
their ashes we see a powerful Christian
as for the exalted devotion of its eccle

church making its influence more and siastics ; famous, too, for its new school

of architecture, for its lordly minsters, these children of the Vikings ;

but for
its vast monasteries, its schools, and even more than a hundred years there was
for its literature. ever a strong party among these Normans
Rollo and his son, his grandson, and great- who clung to the old pagan rites, and
grandson Guillaume Longue Epee (Long perhaps secretly still worshipped Woden and
Sword), Richard Sans Peur (The Fearless), Thor and the fierce Scandinavian gods.
and Richard the Good, whose long lives and In the old city of Bayeux, the centre of the

reigns extended over some hundred and old Danish or heathen party, paganism and

twenty years, were more than nominal its bloody rites lingered long after the rest
Christians. Each of them did much to of Normandy had become Christian.
restore the ruined churches and monasteries The Trouveur poet sang the praises of
of their adopted country. Many singular this duke Guillaume, and tells us of his

recitals ofthe intensely religious impulses mighty prowess in war, and of his rare
which ever and anon affected these chief personal beauty and winning charm of
tains of a people still half pagan, have come manner ;
but in spite of all his earthly
down to us. When Rollo lay dying, it successand grandeur, he longed, we read,
is said, terrible memories of his acts in to throw off his armour and his ducal

bygone years, when as a pagan Viking ornaments, and to exchange them for the
he had been the terror of the Frankish monk s cowl and robe. The abbot of

coasts, alternated with Christian hopes Jumieges, one of the restored Seine
and onlooks. In the intervals of these monasteries, with difficulty persuaded
disturbing memories, he showed himself duke Guillaume to retain his royal dignity,
the steadfast friend of the church he had telling him, with a true Christian insight
once hated and persecuted ;
and he died, only too rare in those days, how he could
his poet biographer tells us, a devout serve God and his people better on the
Christian. throne than in the monk s cell. When
Guillaume Longue Epee (L6ng Sword), the Norman chief at last fell, stricken by
Rollo s son. and successor, inherited his an assassin, a silver key to a much prized
father s love for justice and right and coffer his person, and when
was found on
order. He adopted the customs and the coffer was opened, the monk s cowl
state of the kings of France at his court, and robe were found they were his most

encouraging the Romance tongue, identify prized treasure. Secretly he had become
ing himself and his adventure-loving people a monk, but had consented to lay the
as much as possible with Frankish interests monk s dress by, on the prayer of the
and feeling ;
and though
still, with good abbot of Jumieges, and to continue to rule
reason,proud of their Norman ancestry over his turbulent subjects.
and name, his subjects were content to His son, still a child when Guillaume
call themselves Franks and Frenchmen, was murdered, grew up to manhood amidst
"though Frenchmen on a far nobler and many perils, and then, under the honoured
grander scale than other Frenchmen." name of Richard Sans Peur (The Fear
Christianity made rapid progress among less) during a long reign of fifty years,
continuing his fatherand grandfather s
s The poor of Fecamp were allowed each
work, raised his Normandy to the first rank week to fill from this chest a little measure

among the Christian powers of Europe. of grain, to which was added a small dole
It was this Richard s beautiful daughter of money. When the end came, duke
Emma, known as the "Gem of Normandy," Richard was found to have left some
who married the Anglo-Saxon Ethelred curious directions as to his burial. The
the Unready, and became the mother of well-known stone chest, which had held
Edward the Confessor. In later years, for so long the wheat for the poor, was
when Ethelred was dead, she married, as to be his coffin. The coffin was not to be
we have seen, king Canute; and Hartha- interred in the walls of the great Fecamp
canute, afterwards king of England, was abbey Richard said he was not
the offspring of this second marriage. to lie within those sacred walls. The
Fifty years of restless, brilliant, busy stone chest containing his remains was to

life, prematurely aged the

grandson of be interred just beneath the abbey wall,
Rollo. When scarcely past middle age where, through an overhanging spout or
his health declined, and, worn out before gargoyle, the rain of heaven, dropping
he had reached his sixtieth year, he went from the lofty roof of God s house, might
to his loved palace and monastery of ever and anon water the earth which
Fecamp, by the sea, and quietly prepared covered his last resting place.

to die. He gathered his Norman nobles Such memories as these help to show,
round him, and received their homage for perhaps more vividly than the dry record
his son, named after himself Richard. He of restored monasteries,and of the building
had many other sons these he commended
or reconstruction of minsters and abbeys,
to the love and care of his eldest born, what a powerful influence the religion of
and very generously did the elder brother Jesus exercised upon these children of the
carry out his father s wishes. This noble Vikings, the most determined, and certainly
group of boys Richard Sans Peur s sons the most dangerous foes Christianity has
became the founders of great and ever met with. When, however, once
historic Norman houses, destined in a no these Northmen saw the beauty of the
distant future to play a great part in our Christian teaching, and were convinced of

English story ;
houses which bore the the truth of the Redeemer s words, they
well-known names of Tankervill, Gournay, became the most ardent supporters and
Gifford, Warren, and Mortimer names defenders of the faith which once they
written large, in days to come, on many hated and despised. We have seen what
a stirring page of English history. a friend to the church was Canute, the son
Outside the transept of the great abbey of the pagan Swein, another of these child
church of Fecamp, which Richard had ren of the dreaded Vikings, and how he
loved so well, and which he had rebuilt also equalled, if he did not surpass, the

with much lavish care, stood a huge stone greatest kings of the house of Alfred in
chest. Every Lord s day this stone chest his devotion to, and in his work for, the
was filled with the finest wheat corn. church of Christ.

The Sans Peur (The

son of Richard by the sovereign of Normandy himself,
Fearless) was perhaps a more devoted son wielding the whole force of the land which
to the church than even his father and gave birth to men For what
like them ?

grandfather had been. His ordinary epithet

was the story of the conquest of Apulia
in history is

le bon,"
but some of the and its historic towns ? "A few private
older chroniclers, instead of giving him Norman adventurers pilgrims returning
this surname of "the Good," style him from the Holy Land, .... gentle
"Richard, the monks friend" (1
ami des men of small estate whom the paternal

moines), in memory of his devotion to acres couldno longer maintain, gradually

monasticism. deprived the Roman empire of the East
It was during this second Richard s long of the remnant of its western possessions.
rule of thirty years that the Norman ex The sons of Tancred of Hauteville began

peditions to Southbegan Italy first to as Vikings who had changed their element
attract the attention of Europe. This [had exchanged the sea for the land] ;

was another of those strange episodes in they gradually grew into counts, dukes,
Norman development which so mightily kings, and when the first horrors
etc. ;

influenced the early mediaeval history of of conquest were over, no conquerors

church and state in the West. It was ever deserved better of the conquered.
some ten years before the death of duke The rule of these Norman freebooters
Richard II. (the date is 1016) that the old was the one example of really equal

spirit of adventure peculiarly belonging and tolerant government which the world
to the Vikings of the north, seems again could then show."* Under their rule
to have been awakened among the Norman- South Italy was at once prosperous and
Frenchmen. Invited, in the first instance, secure. In an incredibly short space of
by a prince of Salerno in South Italy to time these Norman adventurers, by their
assist him in repelling a raid of the splendid bravery, their skill in negotiation,
Saracens, the first little band of Norman their, marvellous aptitude for government,

adventurers free-lances, as they would be won for themselves countships, dukedoms,

termed in later mediaeval history was principalities, and kingdoms. The whole
by and ever fresh companies
fresh of the beautiful south of Italy, and
of Norman wanderers attracted by the eventually Sicily, with its fair cities,
wealth and defenceless condition of South its boundless wealth, gradually became
Italy. It has been well suggested that the Norman. The strange story of these
wonderful successes of these Normans in Norman settlements in the eleventh and
South Italy, may have put into the minds twelfth centuries in South Italy and Sicily,
of their countrymen who stayed at home reads like a romance.
the idea of a yet more important conquest One illustrious family from the district

of a country almost visible from their own in Normandy known as "the


shores. When
private adventurers like

were distinguished beyond all others of

the sons of Tancred of Hauteville grew these adventurers from the north worthy
into sovereigns, what might not be done * Freeman: "

Norman Conquest."

descendants indeed of their Viking fore- who for some two hundred years power-
fathers The castle of Hauteville near
fully influenced the fortunes of southern
Coutances, whose beautiful cathedral, built Europe, including most of the historic


somewhat later by the generous gifts of lands lying around the Mediterranean Sea.
the Hauteville house, still ranks among In southern Italy there was but a little
the noblest of Norman minsters, furnished stretch of sea which separated the Norman
in the persons of the sons of Tancred, the adventurers from Sicily, the fairest island
seigneur of Hauteville, a marvellous group in the world. Sicily then, as now, was
of Norman counts, dukes, and even kings, the garden of the Mediterranean, with its
34 THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. [911 1066.

fair cities of Palermo and Messina. The of Sicily was added to the long roll ot

pennons of the Hautevilles of Coutaifces Norman triumphs southern Europe.


were not long before they passed over the In the hour of their proudest triumphs
little silver streak of sea. But in Sicily the greatest of the Norman Hautevilles
the Norman Viking for the Hauteville even dreamed of winning and wearing the
warrior, whether known as Guiscard, Roger, diadem of the empire of the East, and for
or Bohemond, strangely resembled his a brief season even that superb prize seemed
to be within the reach of these daring
wanderers. This was not to be, and after
a century and a half of brilliant rule the
Sicilian Hautevilles, as a family, became
extinct, and their kingdom passed into the
hands of another race ;
but the marvellous
story of these pirate Normans in the south
will never be forgotten.
To return to proper. On the
death of duke Richard the extraordinary

prosperity of the Norman settlers in the

north of France experienced a temporary
check. Dissensions and jealousies divided
the sons of Richard II. We read of a short

war, then of a reconciliation, then of the

sudden death of the young duke Richard III.
men said owing to poison administered
by his brother Robert at a great feasting
in Rouen. The true story will perhaps
never be known, but the dark shadow of a
crime seemed ever to brood over and cloud
WINDOW OF FALAISE CASTLE the younger brother s life. Without op
NORMANDY position thisyounger brother Robert be
came duke of the Normans in a little more
pirate found a doughtier foe
ancestors than a year after Richard II.,

the friend
than the effeminate Lombard or the de of the monks," was laid to sleep in the
generate Greek who in central or southern royal abbey of Fecamp.
Italy had so quickly submitted to his arms. Duke Robert, whom some of the older
Across the narrow strait the Norman found chroniclers surname the Magnificent, while
the Saracen in possession of, and deter others style him u le Diable," reigned some
mined to do battle for, his charmed Sicilian six years in Rouen, when he determined
land. Here the fighting was a reality, and to go on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land.
lasted many years, but in the end Norman It would seem as though remorse for some
skill and valour prevailed, and the crown awful crime perhaps the remembrance of

his brother s murder embittered his life honourable years for Normandy. They
and thus induced him thus to leave his include three signal victories. The first, at

duchy and his child-heir for this danger Val-es-Dunes, we have already referred
ous Eastern expedition, from which duke to ;
signified the end of internal dis
Robert never returned. His heir was sension ;
after the day of Val-es-Dunes,.
William, still a child when the news of Duke William had no foes at home to-

his father s death at Nica;a reached Nor contend with. The second of his great

mandy. This child-duke was that famous battles was fought at Mortemer in 1054,

William, surnamed the Conqueror, whom There he defeated a great invading army
we shall meet with again in the recital of of Frenchmen, and so complete was the
the reign of Edward the Confessor, and rout that we read how in all Normandy
who eventually became king of England. there was not a prison that was not full of
Duke Robert died in 1035, the same Frenchmen. The third battle, at Varaville,
year which the great Canute passed
in in 1058, was fought again with the
away. The son of Robert by Arietta was French, and the victory of William was
only eight years old his was a joyless
so decisive that it partook rather of the
childhood. grave Norman
The stern, nature of a massacre than a battle. This
barons separated him at once from his was the last act of the long wars between
mother Arietta, whom the chiefs of that William and his suzerain, the king of

proud race regarded with some contempt France, and the great battle won at Vara-
as the daughter of a despised tanner. At ville in the year 1058, left William perhaps
an age when young men have seldom to the most powerful and dreaded ruler on

cope with the stern realities of life, the continent of Europe. Five years later
William had to fight for his ducal coronet. the Norman dominion was increased by
A dangerous rebellion of the barons had the great and rich province of Maine, and
to be grappled with. On the field of the of its noble capital, Le Mans, which hence

Val-es-Dunes, near Caen, in 1047, the forth was as much a Norman city as
young duke first showed his great skill as Rouen or Bayeux.
a military commander and his influence In this necessarily very brief sketch of
as a leader of men, and from the day of William Normandy, two singular
s life in
that great victory he reigned as absolute pieces good fortune
of which befel the
master in his Norman duchy. Edward great duke whose fortunes later became
the Confessor, William
near kinsman, s bound up with England, must not be for
during the greater part of William s rule gotten. He was singularly happy in his>

in Normandy, was reigning in England. choice of a wife. His marriage with

Thirty years passed from the accession Matilda, the daughter of Baldwin, Count of
of the boy-duke, to the year of the inva Flanders, was no doubt a love marriage,,
sion of England, and although the years but it was a fortunate connection for the
were largely filled with wars, with invasions duke of Normandy. The alliance with
undertaken and invasions repelled, they the powerful and wealthy house of Flanders

were, on the whole, prosperous and Strengthened Normandy in Northern


Europe. But it was the woman, rather the monk-archbishop Lanfranc possesses a
than the princess, who helped William so history so pure, a record so white, that to
markedly during his stormy, prosperous impute to him, in the matter of the Nor
reign. Here and there the patient man claim to and subsequent invasion of
student of history detects in the beautiful England, any but the highest motives,
story of Matilda s career the faults and would be impossible. Alone among the
errors of a woman. But these, after all,
Normans in the age of the Conquest, does
are only spots on a very noble and pure Lanfranc appear to have won the love of
life. Her court was, with its brilliancy the Anglo-Saxon people. It was indeed

and splendour, a very model of an early the crowning gift of fortune which gave
mediaeval court, as a centre of knightly to the Conqueror a queen such as Matilda,

virtues and true chivalry. Her patient and a minister like Lanfranc.

love for her great husband, her unwearied This little digression on the story of the
devotion to the many hard state questions Normans was necessary to the understand
which so constantly harassed her life after ing of the story of the reign of Edward
William became king of England when the Confessor because on the failure

she was often alone as regent of Nor

left of the Danish line of kings, and with the

mandy her constant care for the poor and accession of Edward the Confessor, Norman

suffering, make up many a varied title to influencebecame gradually and increas

honour in Matilda s eventful story. After ingly felt till it became
in England, para
the Conqueror lost Matilda in the year mount when the Norman duke William
1083, men say that he never had another defeated and slew the Saxon Harold,
hour of brightness. Edward s successor, at Hastings.
By William s side also stood, from about It has not been by any means in the
the year 1059 until the day, twenty-eight
language of exaggeration that we have
years later, when the wearied Conqueror painted this brief sketch of the career of
closed his eyes at St. Gervais on the hill the descendants of Rollo and his handful
above Rouen, the greatest scholar and of Vikings. They became in an
divine in England ;
but Lanfranc, the mighty short space of time, as their historian*
Duke s friend and constant adviser, was loves to the foremost"

paint them,
more than a great student and churchman ; apostles alike of French chivalry and of
he was one of the wisest and most far- Latin Christianity among the nations of
seeing of statesmen. He will come before Europe. In the tenth and two following
us again, for next to William he
played centuries the Normans of France, England,
the most prominent part among the and were
Italy the foremost among
Normans after the conquest of England. in devotion the most ardent
peoples ;

Although he was the chief and the most religious reformers, the most fervent wor
trusted of the advisers of the Norman shippers, the
most lavish givers to churches
duke both before and after the and monasteries in war they were in the
year 1066, ;

and the minister to whose counsels the front rank, as crusaders and conquerors ;

invasion of England was * Prof. Freeman.

principally due,

in the arts of peace, the children of Rollo hold the old worship of the Scandinavian

learned, improved, adapted everything." gods exercised upon the Viking peoples of
Itworth while to bestow a little further
is the north.. There seems so little that

thought on the character and ideas of the would be likely to attract men who had
men whom we know under the name of made any progress in culture and the arts
dukes of Normandy, who were the chief of civilisation, and above all in the teach
instruments in raising the Normans from ings of Christianity, in the religion which
a state of semi-barbarism to the proud, taught men to worship Thor and Woden
even unique position they held among the and the cruel battle-loving gods of Scan
nations of Europe at the period of the dinavia. It seems to have appealed in

Conquest of England. From the latter a special way to their national feeling.

days of their famous ancestor Rollo, each They probably believed that their pagan
of the six Norman dukes [Richard III., ism and its bitter hostility to Christianity,

who scarcely reigned one year, is not would alone keep them distinct as a
reckoned here] were evidently firmly per nation. They feared, and withgood
suaded of the truth of Christianity, and no distant period they, the
reason, that at
were at times even passionately "religious," conquerors, would blend with the con
but there is no doubt that the
paganism of quered, whom they despised, and that
their forefathers ever coloured their Christ with the adoption of the religion of the

ianity. The old cult of Scandinavia and vanquished peoples, in England the Danes
its associations was never entirely forgotten, would become Englishmen, and that in
not even after the dukes of Normandy had France they would become Frenchmen.
become kings of England. This lingering One singular feature of this lingering
shadow of another faith and its ideals, spirit of the paganism of the north, is

which so long brooded over the Normans, specially noticeable in the story of these
helps us to understand better certain mighty Norman dukes, whose work so
phases of the character of some of the permanently influenced our England and
Norman, and even of the early Plantagenet its church. In spite of their love for

kings of England. and real belief in Christianity, in their

The real but somewhat fitful zeal for marriage relations, with rare exceptions,
the religion of Jesus of Rollo and his suc the Norman dukes persistently followed
cessors at Rouen, we know was always re pagan and pagan customs. Nor were

solutelycombated by a strong and capable, the Christian ecclesiastics, whose influence

though time went on gradually diminish
as and teaching in other respects generally
ing party in the great Danish settlement guided and moulded their lives and policy,
generally known as Normandy. For more able to persuade the Norman dukes to
than a century after the coming of

adopt the practice of Christians in this

Rollo the ancient city of Bayeux was For

important particular. state reasons,

the headquarters of this pagan party, who these powerful chieftains were usually in
were sternly opposed to all Christianising duced to go through the Christian form of
influences. It is singular what a powerful a marriage with some Prankish princess,

for the sake of the strength and prestige ofNormandy by no Christian bond or rite.
which such an alliance would naturally give The sad title which history gives to
them and their people but they chose ;
William the Conqueror, too truly tells
almost invariably as the mother of their the story of his father s unhappy alliance.

children some unknown woman, usually No doubt this open disregard of the
of Danish extraction, to whom they were sacredness of the marriage rite on the
united by some heathen tie usual among part of the successive Norman dukes
their Northern ancestors. For instance, contributed not a little to the bitter
duke Rollo married with Christian rites feeling of scorn and hatred with which
Gisella,daughter of the Prankish king these powerful and brilliant princes were
Charles the Simple but his real wife, ;
viewed by their Prankish neighbours.
More Danico," according to the ancient

"No of language or religion,

usages of the Popa, the North, was no sentiment of friendship or feeling could
mother of his heir and successor, Guillaume conceal from the Carlovingian eye the

longue Epee. So this same Guillaume stain of the black Danish blood. Living
longue Epee publicly married Liutgarda, or dead, the Dane (though he called him
the daughter of the proud, long-descended self Norman) stunk in their nostrils."

house of Vermandois, though the real wife, Writing of the death of the mighty Richard
the mother of his children, was the un Sans Peur, who passed away in his palace
known Espriota. Her son was the famous monastery of Fecamp in the year 996, the
duke Richard Sans Peur (The Fearless).
I. monk chronicler Richerius thus describes
Richard Sans Peur for state reasons allied the dead Norman duke :

Richard the Duke

himself, but only in name, with the of the Pirates died of the lesser

Emma, apoplexy
daughter of Hugh le Grand, duke of thus scornfully writing of a man whose
France but the mother of his successor to
; power was greater than that of any
the dukedom of Normandy Richard II. sovereign prince of his time in France,
Bon, the friend of the monks was whose splendid and magnificent court was
" "


Guenora, famed far and wide for her beauty the most aristocratic, to use the modern
and grace. Emma of England, the queen term, in Europe. He would have none,"

successively of Ethelredand Canute, the writes the Romance poet, but gentlemen

mother of Edward the Confessor, was the about him," using, as it would seem, for the
daughter of Richard Sans Peur and this first time the word so familiar to our ears.
same Guenora. It will be remembered Such were the people, and such their
also that William, the last and greatest of rulers, who, descending from the same
the six famous Norman dukes, the con original Scandinavian stock, were
now for
queror of England, the son and heir of the third and last time to affect from the
duke Robert the Magnificent, for a mother outside the destinies of England and her
had no princess of ancient lineage, but only church.
Arietta, the daughter of the Falaise * and chap,
Palgrave :
"Normandy England,"

tanner, who was joined to duke Robert iv., part ii.




Norman Youth and Training of King Edward His Coronation His Reign never Challenged The
Three Great Earldoms and their Rulers Peaceful Character of his Reign Influence of Godwin
and Harold Universal Regard and Reverence for the King His Laws His Character Personal
Appearance His Norman Preferences and Consequent Mistakes Robert the Archbishop
Bishops appointed by the King and Witan Archbishop Stigand Doubts of his Ecclesiastical
Status Bishops Lyfing and Leofric The Rule" of Chrodegang

Archbishop Aldred of York

Harold s Foundation and College at Waltham State of the Church of England at this Period.

period from A.D. 10421065, concerned, and in consequence consider

THE although a very memorable period

for England and her church, con
able prosperity was enjoyed at

great change was gradually passing over

home. A

tains but little history properly so called. the land, but it was a bloodless change,
It was an age of almost unbroken peace, unaccompanied with suffering. In the
as far as countries beyond the sea were picture of it the story of the church
1042 1066.]
fills up mostof the canvas and yet in; Englishmen by descent, he was so by
England, save in the person of the king nothing else. His mother, the once
himself, no great churchman came to the beautiful Emma, the "

Gem of Normandy,"
front. Before telling the story of the was the daughter of duke Richard the
church during this period of change it Fearless (Sans Peur), the great-grand
will be well, as heretofore, briefly to sketch daughter of the mighty Viking Rollo.

the principal events which happened be Edward himself had been brought up, not
tween 1042, the year of the accession of in English Winchester, Norman but in

king Edward, usually called the Confessor, Rouen, an exile from his child- days. The
and 1066, the year of his death and of Norman tongue was what he loved he ;

many other notable events. only knew Norman manners and customs ;

King Harthacanute, the Dane, the son everything English was strange to him ;

of Canute and Emma, had before his his friends and associates were Norman.
death formally adopted as his heir his half- It was in the Norman church that he had


brother Edward, the son of his mother learned the story of the religion to which
Emma and her first husband, the long- he was so passionately attached. To him
dead Ethelred the Unready. The new king
England was a strange and foreign country,
Edward belonged to the glorious house of and it was only in the last fourteen years
Alfred ;
he could trace his lineage in a direct of his reign, under the influence of a great
house back to the West Saxon Cerdic. The Englishman, that he really became an
Dane had come and gone, and once more English king.
a prince of the old Saxon line sat on the But Edward belonged to the old royal
throne of Alfred. But though Edward race of Cerdic, descendant of Woden. He
the Confessor was an Englishman of was the chosen representative of the famous

Saxon kings of the house of Alfred, to challenged. In the north, where any such
which England was with good reason danger might most probably be looked for,
attached, and as such he was welcomed Magnus, the son of the Christian king
in England by the people and while he
St. Olaf, was the most powerful chief, and

lived, such was the love borne to

that royal king already of Norway. During Hartha-
house, no other man was even dreamt of canute s life Magnus and Harthacanute had
as a possible king. In spite of the wise and agreed that whichever of them outlived
beneficent rule of king Canute, the thought the other should succeed to his dominions.
of another Danish king was hateful to the Harthacanute had died, and Magnus, by
was acknow
virtue of this old agreement,
nation. Throughout England detestation
of the Danes was deeply ingrained, and ledged king of Denmark ;
but he never
the misrule of Canute s two sons, who seems to have made any serious claim to
ruled successively as Harold Harefoot and the crown of England. Never during the

Harthacanute, served completely to efface twenty-three years of Edward the Con

the memory of the prosperous and gener was England really in any
fessor s reign,

from the north. There were more

allyhappy reign of Canute himself. danger
Prominent in the election of Edward as than once threatenings of invasion, but

king, appear the citizens of the now wealthy they died away.
and powerful London. The leaders of A rapid glance over the north, so dreaded
the English party, who brought about the by England ever since the first Viking
national choice of the son of Ethelred raids at the close of the eighth century,

the Unready and Emma, were Godwin, shows us two great figures who, after the

the earl of the West Saxons, and Lyfrig, death of king Magnus in 1047, played a pro

bishop of Worcester, Devon and Cornwall. minent part in the history of the eleventh

The close and intimate union of church century. One of these, Swein Estrithson,
and state inEngland was at this period was the son of earl Ulf and Canute s sister

completely cemented, and the power and Estrith, through whomsomewhat


influence of the church continued to grow shadowy claim on the English crown was __
during the long and generally quiet reign derived. He had acted as commander of
of Edward the Confessor. The adoption of Harthacanute s army in Denmark, and suc
Edward by Harthacanute, and the latter s ceeded Magnus as king of that country in
ardent desire to acknowledge him as his 1047. During a long reign of some thirty
successor, of course materially aided the years he deservedly acquired the reputation
peaceful succession of the son of the Saxon of a great and wise prince, but his claims
Ethelred. on England were never seriously pressed.
Edward was formally crowned king at The other, Harold Hardrada, half-brother
Winchester, on Easter Day of the year of St. Olaf, king of Norway, after the
1043, by Eadsige, archbishop of Canter terrible battle in which Olaf lost his life,
bury ;
Elfric of York and most of the became a wanderer, and obtained a great
English prelates assisting at the august cere reputation for his romantic deeds of arms
mony. Nor was his crown ever seriously in the south of Europe. We find him, on
10421066.] ENGLAND S ROYAL LINE. 43
death, sovereign of Norway, and WODEN, or ODIN,
famous suc descended
for years the policy of this
From . . CEKDIC (Founder of West Saxon Dynasty).
cessor of the was a King of Wessex.
pirate sea-kings descended
From ALFRED THE GREAT, King of England.
perpetual menace
England. But his
. .

designs on the English throne were not ETHELRED THE UNREADY, King of England.

carried into effect until after king Edward s

death, when, taking advantage of the dis King of England (part). King of England.
turbed state of the kingdom and the EDWARD THE ATHELING.

disputes arising respecting the succession,

he invaded England with a great fleet and ATHELING. a Nun. | King of Scotland.

army, and was defeated by king Harold, EDITH (Matilda) = HENRY I.,
King of England.
with the loss of his life, at the battle of I |

Stamford Bridge, in the year of Edward s


death (A.D. 1066). From HENRY II. (Plantagenet),

The only possible serious competitor for King of England,

the crown when the Witan chose Edward EDWARD, KING OF ENGLAND.

thus giving effect to the voice of England

in electing a king of the old West Saxon There is, besides, to be remembered that
line was an exile in Hungary. A quarter every descendant of William the Conqueror
of acentury before, the infant sons of and Matilda, his queen, was also by her a
Edmund Ironside, the elder brother of descendant of Alfred, whose daughter Elf-
Edward the Confessor, when their lives thryth married Baldwin II. of Flanders,
were threatened by Canute, had found a the ancestor of Matilda.
shelter at the distant court of king Stephen During the reign of Edward the
in Hungary. Their very existence was, Confessor England was divided, roughly
however, forgotten in England. Of these speaking, into three great governments
two exiled princes Edmund was, in fact, or earldoms namely, Wessex, to which
dead ;
the other, Edward, was still living, was added Kent
Anglia and East ;

and, far on in the Confessor s reign, was Mercta, including the Midlands, ex all

recalled to his native land with a view of tending generally from South Yorkshire
being adopted by the childless king. to Wessex, from East Anglia to the Welsh
We mention this exiled prince, whose borders ;
and Northumbria, including the
legitimate claims were never a source of entire North of England, from the
danger to the Confessor, because through Humber to the Scotch border. The
him the members of the present royal powerful nobles to whom these earldoms
house of England derive their claim to be. were entrusted were as follows :

the direct successors of the imperial house Earl Godwin (of uncertain lineage) was
of Wessex heirs of Cerdic, of Egbert, of first raised to high office by king Canute.
Alfred. This will appear from the follow He became in time earl of Wessex, and
ing summary of the earlier links in our at the accession of Edward the Confessor
sovereign s genealogy: was by far the most influential man in the
44 THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. [10421066.

realm. During his lifetime, his son Harold a great part in the latter years of Edward

(afterwards king) was earl of East Anglia. the Confessor, in the short reign of
After Godwin s death, in 1053, Harold Harold, and in the times of William the
became earl of Wessex, and virtually acted Conqueror. His eldest-born, Edwin, fol
as sub-king to Edward the Confessor. lowed his father, Alfgar, in Mercia, Alfgar

Gyrth, a brother of Harold, succeeded him dying in 1062. Morkar, Edwin s,


fhoto : noltyer.
(By permission, from the picture by Val Prinsep, R.A.)

as earl of East Anglia. In the year 1055 became Northumbria when Tostig,
earl of

another brother of Harold, Tostig, was the son of Godwin, was banished in the

appointed earl of Northumbria. year 1065. Aldgyth, sister of Edwin and

Earl Leofrt c, son of Leofwin, earl of Morcar, married first Griffyth, the Welsh
Mercia, had, when Edward the Confessor king, and subsequently Harold the earl,
became king, already succeeded his father king of England.
in the great Midland government. He Earl Siward filled the great office of
was the husband of the famous Lady earl of Northumbria. He was a warrior
Godiva of legendary story. Leofric died of the old Danish type. It is related of
in 1057, and his son Alfgar followed him him that when he felt death approaching,
as Mercian earl. Alfgar s children played he said "

it was a shame for him to die,

1042 1066.] SUBJUGATION OF WALES. 45

not on the field of battle, but of sickness even a formidable foe to England, hating
like a cow "

and calling for his armour, Dane and Saxon alike and in history ;

had himself all harnessed as if for battle, he will ever be as

conspicuous being
and so breathed his last. His
elder son had fallen in the war
with the famous Macbeth of
Scotland. His younger son,
Waltheof, was, when earl Siward
died, still a child. He became
earl of Northampton, and sub
sequently was the hero of one
of the saddest tragedies of the

Conqueror s

Edward the Confessor s

was, generally speaking, a period
of peace in the church as in
the state. The story of the
church, and how its peace was
occasionally broken, must re
ceive separate treatment. In
the state, no foreign wars have
to be recorded, no
foreign in
vasion harried the land. Within
the island there were some race
troubles, and for a time war was
carried on with Wales and Scot

land; but, except in some border

forays, England proper was
never seriously affected by these,
and out of both these home
wars she emerged the victor.
The Welsh troubles were
spread over many years. The (From a Psalter of the time of Edward the Confessor. ufA Century.)

year before Edward s accession,

prince Griffyth became king of Gwynedd, the last native prince under whom the
or North Wales. He was a chieftain Welsh the ancient British remnant
of great and of conspicuous
distinction played a really important part in the

ability, and from Gwynedd his dominion history of England. Griffyth had, how
gradually extended over the whole of ever, the misfortune of finding an adversary
Wales. He was a bitter and at times greatly his superior in the art
of war.
46 THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. [1042 1066.

Harold, earl Godwin s son, was an able year 1054, and after a long-drawn-out war,
strategist and a valiant soldier, and had was finally defeated and slain four years
behind him the almost boundless resources later,when Malcolm was solemnly crowned
of wealthy England during a period of an king of Scotland at Scone in 1058.
almost unbroken peace at home. read We The banishment and subsequent return
of two important campaigns of Harold in of earl Godwin and his sons in the year
Wales. The first was successful, but it 1052, which must presently be recounted
left still powerful, still able
king Griffyth in more detail, were attended with little
to the peace and prosperity of
threaten bloodshed, and only slightly affected the
the borderlands of England and Wales. prosperity of the country. Even the
The date of this first campaign was 1056. revolt of Northumbria against earl Tostig,
The second was by the complete
closed Harold s brother, although dangerous
subjugation of
Wales, and the gallant and threatening for a time, was put an
native king, after his final defeat, was end to without involving the country in a
murdered by his own subjects. The fall civil war. It was owing to earl Harold s

of Griffyth at the close of the second wisdom and moderation that this formid
Welsh war was in the year 1063. able rising was put down. It happened
The Scotch war was really a war between in this wise When Siward died in 1055,

the great Northumbrian, earl Siward, and his heir, Waltheof, was still a child his ;

the Scottish usurping king Macbeth, the eldest son had fallen in the war with
hero of Shakespeare s well-known tragedy. Macbeth in Scotland. Tostig, Harold s

Macbeth, under-king of Moray, had in

as brother, in consequence, was appointed to
sober truth obtained the Scottish crown the great government ; Tostig was king
at the price of a great crime the murder Edward personal friend.
s He proved
of the over-king of Scotland, Duncan. himself, however, a severe if not a merci
But the reign of Macbeth 1040-1058 less ruler, and
eventually the whole
was a time of unusual quiet and prosperity province rose
up against him. In a formal
for Scotland, and he and his well-known Northumbrian Gemot, or assembly of the
wife Gruach were specially famous for chief men, Tostig was deposed from his
their generous
bounty to churches in earldom, and outlawed. The same North
Scotland. Malcolm Canmore, the son and umbrian Gemot elected Morkar, the
heir of the murdered Duncan, was an
younger son of earl Alfgar of Mercia, to
infant when his father s life and be their earl. This was a high-handed,
were suddenly cut short. Being, as he indeed a rebellious act on the part of the I

was, a near kinsman of Earl Siward, it turbulent Northumbrians, and a civil war
was no doubt a desire to restore Malcolm seemed imminent. A strong force from
to his lost inheritance which the north, under the newly-elected earl
about the Scotch war. With the consent Morkar, marched into the midland coun
of his English sovereign, Siward invaded of
Northampton and Huntingdon,
Scotland with a powerful force. Macbeth
behaving as though in an enemy s country.
was defeated in a pitched battle in the King Edward, as the friend of Tostig,

wished for war to be carried into North- treasured by the English people for cen
umbria to avenge the insult and injury by men alike
turies with a changeless love,

done to his friend but the wiser counsels ;

of Saxon and Norman lineage was held ;

of Harold, Tostig s brother, prevailed, and sacred by each successive dynasty which
at a great national Witan held at Oxford has occupied his throne, alike by the kings
in 1055 the cause of the Northumbrians of the Conqueror s house, as by sovereigns
was considered, and the reasons which led of the Plantagenet and Tudor lines. It is

to the revolt were examined, and the only incomparatively recent times, since
result was the banishment of Tostig and mediaeval thoughts and aspirations have
the confirmation of earl Morkar in his given place to modern, that the reverence
room. forEdward the Confessor has become rather
These are the only wars in which an antiquarian than a national feeling.

England was involved in king Edward s But it was not always so, and the power
reign none of them seriously affected the
and influence which the saint-king, so
prosperity of the land. other events, Its closely identified with the church during
being so closely interwoven with ecclesi his lifetime, and still more after his death,

astic matters many of them closely con exercised for so long a period over the
nected with Normandy and its mighty English nation, is a strong evidence of
duke so loved of Edward will be better the hold which the Church of England the
told in our history of the church and its church of which Edward was so devoted
fortunes. a servant, and whose interests he had so
deeply at heart possessed over the hearts
What was the peculiar charm, the of the English. It is also a weighty testi
especial merit of that strange man whose mony to the close union between the
somewhat uneventful reign we are trying church and the state in the Saxon era,
to picture, but whose influence over the which with the year of Edward s

church in England was so great ? He was death, as well as in the Norman time,

no hero-king, no great lawgiver*, no writer, which commenced with the reign of

like the great Alfred whose works, written Edward s friend and kinsman, William the
in that toil-filled life of bis, raised and Conqueror, who followed him so soon on
instructed his people.He was not even a the throne of England.
no new It is not by any means an impossible
conqueror province or country

was added by him to England. No group task to discover at least some of the causes

of stately sons or fair daughters gathered at work, which led to this enduring
round the death-bed of the childless national reverence and love for the great

Edward, who might carry on the tradition churchman king. The Normans would
of his work, and keep fresh the reverence especially honour
him as the near kinsman
for his memory. without any And yet, of their own mighty duke, as one who
of these titles to honour, the memory of ever loved Norman customs, and who had
the saint-king, Edward the Confessor, was successfully introduced
them into England.

* claimed him, too though this was

On the "

Laws "

of the Confessor, see page 50. They


a much-disputed claim as the Saxon fidential posts. Bishop and abbot and

king who named Norman duke as his

the royal chaplain were again and again
successor as having done much to pre selected out of his Norman friends, often,

pare the way for the great Conquest.

To indeed, to the deep displeasure of his

Normans he would, among the great Saxon subjects.

Saxons of that age, ever stand out But these causes, though in after-

prominently as the friend of Normandy. days they might have 1been sufficiently
The Saxons, on the other hand, would love powerful to have procured for him the
his as being the last of the old curious honour of canonisation, to have
secured his formal recognition by a grateful
royal race of Cerdic the Woden-descended,
who bore rule in England as the last kingly church as a member of the illustrious

heir of Alfred and his loved house. In the company of the saints, would never of
sad days of oppression and wrong that themselves have sufficed to win him that

followed, the quiet beneficent rule

of the unique position in the hearts of the English
last Saxon king would be sadly remem people which for centuries was occupied by
bered. Thus, by conqueror and con Edward, the holy king. Later historians
quered, would the memory of Edward and painstaking writers, in relating the
the Confessor be alike honoured and events of his reign, and in estimating the
reverenced. character and work of the Confessor, have
the church, Norman or Saxon, the
By rarely taken into account the strange
good deeds of Edward would ever be charm and enormous personal influence
unforgotten. The Saxon would be mind of Edward, which long remained a tradition

ful of his princely liberality, of his boundless among the English people ;
while his

generosity, of his love for and devotion to

mediaeval biographers, thinking to do him
monk and prelate, of his fervid piety. No honour, have so enveloped his memory
king before him had been such a friend with a wrapping of miracles, visions, super
to the church, her institutions, her founda natural gifts, that it became difficult to

tions, her churches and abbeys while the ; distinguish the false from the true in his
It has thus become the fashion
lordly abbey of the West-minster the history.
work of many years consecrated while in modern times to belittle his work, to
f.he saint-king lay dying beneath the speak scornfully of his character, to de
shadow of its walls, remained as the scribe his life as one better fitted for

enduring memorial of his great love for an abbot of a Norman religious house,
religion, the proudest minster in
England, than for a crowned king of England. Had
one of the noblest churches north of the such been really the case, the Confessor,
Alps. The Norman ecclesiastics would be while winning his position as one of the
equally ready to reverence the monk-king, English saints, would never have gone
as many chose to style him, when they down to generation after generation as the
remembered how Edward loved their race, darling of the English peoples. No king
and even by preference chose Normans to of England, not even the great Alfred
fill the highest positions, the most con himself, has ever succeeded in finding the
1 042 1066.] THE "LAWS" OF EDWARD. 49

key to English hearts so successfully as some length to the curious fact of the
did Edward. people of England crying, in the reign of
This general and enduring devotion to William the Conqueror, king Stephen,
the memory of the saint-king, certainly Henry I.,and the empress Maud, for the
was not merely a romantic affection for "

laws of the good king Edward," and

for none other. This
favourite popular peti

tion, demanding the

laws of Edward the
Confessor, was even
re-echoed by the
Anglo Normans

themselves, as the
two nations of the
conquerors and con
quered began to be
fused into one people.
A very remarkable


Showing Early Norman Work of the time of
Edward the Confessor.

one who was popularly credited with instance of this national feeling occurred
miraculous powers of healing, and of seeing during one of the intervals when
into the hidden things of
futurity. Our most the empress Maud, Henry Beauclerc s
serious and scholarly historians* refer at daughter and heiress, was in power. The
men of the great and wealthy city of
Freeman :

Norman Conquest." Hallam :


Middle See also Bishop Stubbs "

London prayed her that she would observe
Ages." :

stitutional History of England.


the laws of King Edward," not the laws


of her father, Henry I. (Beauclerc), because friend of Edith (Eadgyth), Edward the
they were too heavy to be borne. This was Confessor queen, down to the song-

some seventy-five years after the saint-king man of Alianore (Eleanor) the queen of
had been laid to rest in his abbey of West Henry III., unite in describing the simple

minster. And this universal cry of the piety, the ceaseless devotion, the loathing

English people was listened to, we know, of all sin and evil, the lofty standard of
even by the haughty Norman kings for ; purity of the saint-king. To these features
the charter of Henry I. we find declaring of a singularly guileless character, was
that the king gives his subjects the laws of added, in Edward s case, the exquisite grace
Edward the Confessor, with the emenda and courtesy of the Norman character.
tionsmade by his father (the Conqueror), The Anglo-Saxon king had been trained
with consent of his barons. The charter in that chivalrous court of Rouen, where the
of king Stephen not only confirms this name and bearing of "

a gentleman had "

charter of Henry I. but adds, even in fuller been first introduced. So the poet of king
terms than Henry Beauclerc had used, an Henry III., about A.D. 1245, writes :

express concession of all laws and customs 895


Each one who sees king Edward

Edward the Is more courteous when he leaves him.

of Confessor. Henry II. (the
Each one receives there, each one learns
Plantagenet) repeats the confirmation of Moderation, sense and good manners.
his grandfather s charter. And
yet it is

His court was of courtesy

doubtful if any great code of laws was
The school, and of accomplishments,
ever compiled by the saint-king. It was Nor was there since the time of Arthur
rather the way in which he interpreted A king who had such honour." *
and administered the wise Anglo-Saxon In a generally rough and dissolute age,
laws of the house of Alfred, supplemented the standard of morality and purity aimed
by the great Canute, which left so enduring at in the court of Edward was
and happy a memory in the hearts of the a high one. The king s life is
people. The conduct of Edward the Con painted as painfully austere. He is com
fessor generally towards the freemen a crowned
poorer monly represented as monk,
of England, seems to have won for him a with tastes and only befitting a habits
vast and enduring popularity.
grave churchman, far removed from the
The Anglo-Saxons were an eminently ordinary tastes and pleasures of ordinary
devout race. We have had often to mortals he was, however, an ardent

remark this in the course of the

story of hunter, delighting in the pleasures of the
the English church, when
dwelling on chase,and sharing constantly in the manly
the lives of the more prominent men and and popular pursuits so loved by all sorts
women who were its
distinguished orna and conditions of men. He would spend
ments ;
and the saint-king who closed the hours in church, says a well-known writer
illustrious Anglo-Saxon
dynasty of Cerdic of our days, and then, as soon as he was

and Alfred, was a marked type of the Saxon would be off to the woods for
free, days
love of religion. All the biographers of *
From the poem on St. Edward, addressed to
Edward, from the contemporary writer the Queen Eleanor.
together, flying his hawks and cheering wavy, white hair the crown usually worn
on his hounds."
by the Saxon kings at all state banquets
That he was especially the friend of the and public occasions must have been at
people is undoubted ;
it is clear that he once a singular and imposing presence.
was zealous for their welfare, anxious ever The king in his peaceful reign rarely if
to remove the burden of excessive taxation, ever appeared as the warrior, the man-
watchful in all things for the lower and at-arms.
less prosperous of his subjects. His well- The church exercised in this age vast
known benevolence and kindness towards power and enormous influence. Edward the
the poor and suffering led these then, Confessor was ever its steady, consistent
as in all times, the great majority of the friend but he was, too, its acknowledged

people to look upon him as their natural master, and while paying all due respect
protector. and honour to the bishop of the Roman

As time went
on, the national feeling see, Edward acknowledged no superior
transfigured him, says the above-quoted in his Church of England. The marvellous

writer, almost into a Saxon Arthur. *


setting which surrounds the legend of


Much he resembles King Solomon, bishop Wulfstan refusing to surrender his

Of great fame, of great renown. crozier to the Norman king, as will be pre
French, Germans, Lombards, sently related, is
probably the addition of
Desire to see King Edward,
a later age but the story is based upon the
To hear his laws and his judgments, ;

His sense and courtesy." * fact of the holiest of the Saxon bishops

receiving originally his see of Worcester

His personal appearance seems to have from the king s favour alone. He was
somewhat separated this last Anglo-Saxon supreme in the church he loved so well,,
king from other men. His portraiture has and which he helped with so splendid a
been preserved to us. Edward seems to munificence and supported with so change
have possessed a curious and somewhat less a devotion.

unearthly beauty. He was almost an For the great love with which king
albino. His full, flushed, rose-red cheeks Edward the Confessor was loved by the
contrasted with the milky whiteness of his people of his own time, and which has
waving hair and beard. There was a kind survived him till it passed into a precious
of magical charm in his thin white hand national tradition, it is evident there was
and his long transparent fingers, which not solidground. He represented to the Anglo-
unnaturally led to the belief that there Saxons their ideal king intensely reli
resided in them a healing power of stroking gious on the one hand, and on the other,
away the diseases of his subjects. His not disdaining to share in the favourite
stately figure, with the large crown or and popular pursuits of his people. His
golden diadem ornamented with the innocent his artless piety, his

triple faith, sym

trefoil or fleur-de-lis, crowning his long, pathy with the people," says one who has
* well grasped the secret of Edward s strange
From the "

Life of St. Edward," addressed to

Queen Eleanor. charm,

were humble graces within the


reach of every man, woman, and child of "

Edward the noble, chaste and mild,

Guarded the realm law and people
every time." All felt that the king lived Until suddenly came
nearer God than perhaps any of his con Death the bitter,
temporaries, layman or ecclesiastic. Prob And seized the so dear one.
Angels carried
ably not a few believed that he possessed This noble steadfast soul
powers rarely granted to mere mortals ;
but From earth into heaven s light."

we leave further reference to this belief till

we come to recount his last hours. In summing up the character of king
The highest tribute that was paid to Edward the Confessor, it would be unfair
him is perhaps found in the words of the not to allude to the grave errors in some of
unknown scribe in the Worcester and the high appointments, especially ecclesias

Abingdon redactions of the famous English tical, which this devoted friend of the

Chronicle, probably written very soon after church was led to make. Even in this par

the king s death.


Far more precious," says ticular, however, wherein emphatically the

perhaps the most learned and trustworthy beloved king was ill-advised, considerable
of our modern historians, than the vulgar exaggeration seems to have coloured the

praises of Norman
legend-makers, far more accounts of some of our historians. Edward,

precious than even the wrought-up pane it must constantly be remembered, had
gyric of the courtly chaplain of his widow, been brought up in Normandy, and in the

is the song in Edward s honour handed court of Rouen had spent not only his
down in our national Chronicles from the youth, but a good many years of his early
hands of a gleeman of his own time and manhood. To him naturally the language,
of his own The English poet sang
people. habits, customs, and churchmanship of the
of Edwards early troubles how he had to Normans were peculiarly dear, and to pre
seek a foreign land when Canute overcame fer some of his Norman friends to places of
the race of Ethelred, and when Danes high dignity in the English church, where
wielded the dear realm of England for his power was evidently paramount, can
eight-and-twenty winters. He sang of not be regarded as extraordinary. It was,
Edward s personal virtues how he was of course, a grave error one calculated to

holy, clear, and mild ;

how the baleless excite national jealousy, and even to injure

king was ever blithe of mood. He sang of the Church of England, to which Edward
the glories of his reign how he guarded was devotedly attached. These appoint
his land and people, how renowned warriors ments do not seem to have been numerous ;

stood around his throne, how the son of but some of those men whom he so pre
Ethelred ruled over Angles and Saxons, ferred wrought him the greatest possible
how Welsh and Scots and Britons all injury. And
the king s actions in this
obeyed the mighty sway of the noble particular will ever be the chief blots on
Edward Bitter death snatched his blameless life and reign.
the noble king from earth. Angels bore The most prominent of the foreigners
his trustful soul to heaven."
* From the Saxon A.D. 1065
Chronicle, (Abing
* Freeman :

Norman Conquest," chap, xi., i. don and Worcester Redactions).


thus preferred was indubitably Robert, a England, has left behind him a very magnifi
Roman monk who had first been prior cent memorial of his energy in the stately
of Saint Ouen at Rouen, and afterwards minster of Jumieges, on the Seine banks^
abbot of the great house of Jumieges, on which still survives in ruins, and challenges


the Seine, not many miles to the north of the admiration of the antiquarian and the
the beautiful Norman capital. No doubt architect of our own days. Within two
this Robert had been Edward s intimate years of his coronation Edward appointed
friend, probably tutor and spiritual him to the bishopric of London, and on
adviser. He was evidently an ecclesiastic the death of Eadsige, the archbishop of
of considerable ability, and, apart from Canterbury, promoted him to the metropoli
the disastrous memories of his career in tan see. Robert is said to have possessed.
54 THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. [10421066.

enormous influence with Edward, and a 702. Although the decision was in the

saying was long current that if Robert case of Robert, in his favour, the papal
said a black crow was white, the king command was put aside, and Stigand,
would at once believe him. bishop of Winchester, was installed at

To Robert is ascribed the principal Canterbury. Robert retired to Jumieges,

share in those events which led to the and, dying there, was interred in the
temporary banishment of earl Godwin and stately minster he had erected. King
his son from England. Godwin returned Edward made no opposition to what was
to power after a short year s absence", and evidently the will of the people, ex
in the reaction which followed, Robert of pressed in the decision of the Witan, and
Jumieges fled the country. He never acquiesced in the deposition of Robert
returned to England. He had only held and Ulf. It is remarkable that the grave
the arch-see of Canterbury during por mistakes of the king in the matter of the
tions of the years 1051-1052, when the preferment of these Norman ecclesiastics
unanimous wish of the English nation in the first half of his reign, do not seem
recalled the house of Godwin to power. in any way to have affected his popularity
Alarmed at the evident bitterness of with the people of England. Probably
popular feeling which had been aroused his ready acquiescence with the expression

by his policy, the Chronicle tells us how of popular feeling quickly effaced the

archbishop Robert and another prelate memory of the error.

of Norman birth, Ulf of Dorchester, ob Another Norman, William, one of the
noxious to the people, fled for their lives, king s chaplains, was appointed by Edward
and how, mounted and sword in hand, bishop of London, but no popular clamour
they cut their way through the streets of seems to have been raised against him.
London, wounding and slaying as they He went for a while into banishment at

went, and so with difficulty escaped to the time of the return of ,Godwin, but was
the sea-coast, when, finding an old crazy soon recalled, remaining bishop of London
ship, they at once made their escape to for many years, honoured by Norman
the Continent. At a formal Gemot or and Saxon alike. He
died in 107 5, leaving

public assembly held in London the behind him a memory long cherished by
same year, among other decrees passed the citizens of London.
was one declaring Robert and Ulf out It may be well urged on behalf of
laws. Edward s action in thus appointing Nor
Robert appealed to Rome for reinstate mans to high preferment, that it was by
ment. During the whole of the Anglo- no means an unusual thing to appoint
Saxon period, there had only been one foreign ecclesiastics to high posts in the
instance of a former appeal to Rome for Anglo-Saxon church. King Canute gave
reinstatement in a forfeited see by a Duduco, a Lotharingian, the bishopric of

dispossessed prelate, in the well-known Somerset. Lotharingia signified roughly

instance of Wilfrid of York, the great the southern Netherlands, the border
Northumbrian bishop, in 678 and again in lands of Germany and France. On the

other hand, Canute appointed several Eng all served the king politically as chaplains
lishmen to Danish sees. Other Lothar- and secretaries. Stigand of Elmham, then
ingian prelates, viz. Gisa
Walter, and of Winchester and subsequently the arch
were respectively appointed to the sees bishop, had been closely connected with
of Wells and Hereford in the latter years Emma, the queen-mother.
of Edward s reign, when earl Harold The king
s position in the
was the all-powerful minister and this ;
of these bishops and abbots of the Anglo-
same Harold, whom no one would suspect Saxon church we have already touched
of un-English tendencies, sent to Liege for upon. It is a question of great moment ;

Adelhard as the head of the educational and, besides importance its

measuring in

department of his magnificent foundation the claims of the Roman see so soon to
of Waltham Abbey. This last foreign be advanced and pressed, it is also closely
ecclesiasticwas the great English earl s mixed up with the relations between the
chief counsellor in his famous Waltham church and the state in the times of the
work. Anglo-Saxon kings. In the Anglo-Saxon
All this shows us that the best men and church the English church and the
the greatest scholars that could be found English nation were one. It was by the
were often searched for, even across the king s writ that the bishopric was formally
seas, for these great posts. King Edward s bestowed ;
and what the king and his
conduct, therefore, in preferring men to Witan gave, the king and his Witan
high positions in the church from his assumed that they could take away. And
favourite Normandy, although, under the they acted upon this assumption for, as we ;

circumstances of his peculiar relations with have related, these two great state powers
Rouen, imprudent and calculated to excite dealt with the sees of the outlawed arch

jealousy among his English subjects, was bishop and bishop Robert and Ulf as they
by no means an unusual practice. In the would have dealt with counties under the
instance of Robert of Jumieges and Ulf government of outlawed earls.

he was unfortunate in his choice. Robert, It is noticeable that (i) The appoint
the archbishop of Canterbury, was evi ment to bishoprics and abbacies practically

dently a most unwise adviser and Ulf was,

and legally seems to have rested with the
from his utter lack of learning and from king and the Witan. But when the king
various other reasons, quite unfit for a chose, as he often did, to exercise his

bishopric. The majority of the prelates power, the appointment really rested with
were at this period chosen from among the him. Frequently the Witan did little
king s some cases from the queen s
or in more than register the king s edicts in
chaplains. Robert of Jumieges, the arch these matters. (2) Occasionally the monks
bishop, had been, of course, well-known or canons of an abbey or a cathedral
to Edward in Normandy ;
William of church made an election in a canonical
London, Leofric of Exeter, Hermann of form, and then petitioned the king and
Wiltshire, Ulf of Dorchester, Wulfwig of Witan to ratify their choice. That the
Dorchester (who had been chancellor), had king claimed and exercised the power to

refuse such an election, we know from the the next vacancy.* Thus the Anglo-Saxon
circumstances which attended the election king recognised a quasi-right on the part
a right, however, which
of ^Elric by the monks of Canterbury of the chapter ;

to the archbishopric vacant by the death he claimed the power to override when
of Eadsige. ^Elric was a monk of Canter he saw fit.

bury, an able man, of blameless life, and The instance of the choice of the saintly

well loved by his community : he was a Wulfstan to the bishopric of Worcester is

kinsman of earl Godwin. But the king a particularly interesting one. There the


refused the prayer of the canonical election, king expressly allowed the clergy and
and gave, as we have seen, the archbishop people to elect freely ;
this popular
ric tothe then bishop of London, Robert election was approved and confirmed by
of Jumieges. In the same year king the king and Witan in 1062 and in this! ;

Edward, against the wishes of the monkish election the legates of the Pope, who
chapter, gave the important abbey of happened to be in England at that time,-
Abingdon to an aged Norwegian bishop seem to have exercised some considerable
one Rudolf. Rudolf was a kinsman of influence. This memorable election
Edward the Confessor, and was weary of the famous Wulfstan to the bishopric of
his northern see. On this occasion the Worcester is referred to by .^Ired (or
king pacified the monks of Abingdon by *
Compare Stubbs : "Constitutional History,
promising them that a free election of
chaps, vi. and xix.; also Green and Freeman, above
their abbot should be allowed them on referred to.
1 042 io66.] TESTIMONY OF WULFSTAN. 57

Ethelred), abbot of Rivaulx, who wrote clear that the Anglo-Saxon kings claimed
in the first half of the twelfth century, in and absolute power in these
the course of his narrative of the famous episcopal and other great church appoint
refusal of Wulfstan to gjve up his bishop s ments.* Roger of Wendover, prior of
staff, at the command of William the a cell of St. Albans, who died A.D. 1237,

Conqueror and the archbishop Lanfranc. puts these words in Wulfstan s mouth,
Wulfstan laid the staff instead upon the speaking to the dead king Edward,

tomb of Edward the Confessor, and ^Elred pontificem fecisti"

puts these memorable words into his

mouth :

I will give back to thee (king It is singular that in the reign of Edward
Edward) the charge which thou didst give tire Confessor, one of the most devoted

to me. Thou knowest, most holy king, kingly friends the Church of England ever


how unwillingly I took this burden upon possessed, no very distinguished ecclesiastic
me, and how it was thou didst constrain came to the front no great soul possessed

me thereto. The choice of the monks with an intense conviction of the high
was not wanting, nor the consent of the sacerdotal privileges of his order, like

bishops and nobles but it was thy will ;

Wilfrid no mighty church organiser

which stood forth chief above all. Lo !

Theodore no scholar like Bede

there is now a new king, a new law, a Aldhelm ;

no pure and lofty-minded eccle
new primate, who puts forth new decrees. siastical statesman like Dunstan, whose

They charge thee with error who didst make grand dream to make the church and state
me a bishop" This singular assertion of * As most important instance of the
this is a
the supreme power of an Anglo-Saxon ecclesiastical of the Anglo-Saxon kings, it
is well to give the exact words of Ethelred or
sovereign, even in the case of a popular ^Elred, abbot of Rivaulx, in his account of the
election of a bishop, was made by a writer election of Wulfstan to the Worcester bishopric :

who lived after archbishop Lanfranc and "Licet non deesset fratrum electio, plebis petitio,
voluntas episcoporum, et gratia procerum, his
Anselm had to a great extent recognised
tame.n omnibus tua praeponderavit auctoritas, tua
the authority of Rome. It is thus perfectly magis urgebat voluntas."

one, was partially realised in his own career, then archbishop of Canterbury. Of the
and the effect of whose work was stamped saint-king he never was the intimate friend

for ever on the church of his native land ;

or trusted adviser ;
at best, Edward seems
no fervid missionary spirits like Columba, rather to have tolerated his presence than

Columban, or arose in king

Boniface, to have given him his confidence. During
Edward s
days. Besides the king himself, his long tenure of his great office, he never
the only really master-minds in that was able to command the real affection or

quiet, peaceful reign were the two great even the confidence of churchmen ;
Saxon earls, Godwin and his son Harold, as a scholar or a saint, nor even as a suc
afterwards the king. But among eccle cessful statesman, does he occupy a niche
persons, although several notawe
siastic in the many-hued annals of our church.
church leaders deserve notice, no one It is difficult for us now, when more

flourished to whom the title



can than eight centuries have passed since

with any justice be applied. Stigand closed his brilliant, stormy life,
In Canterbury, king Edward found thoroughly to understand the mixed

Eadsige reigning as archbishop. At his feelings with which this illustrious man
coronation the address of the metropolitan was regarded by his
was of so able and stirring a nature that That Edward should have disliked him,
the writers of the National Chronicle and perhaps mistrusted him (although
thought it worthy of special mention. But he acknowledged his high official position),
Eadsige soon sickened with a mortal isnatural enough. Edward was a devoted
disease which affected his mental powers, churchman, and it is clear that some grave
and we hear little more of him. The flaw existed in Stigand s right to be con
Norman Robert of Jumieges, neither as sidered primate. The dislike and distrust
bishop of London nor during his short was mutual, as we shall see when we
tenure of the primacy, gave any sign of come to relate Stigand s behaviour as he

superior intelligence, and his friendship stood at Edward s bedside, during the long
with the king was the most disastrous agony which preceded the death of the
episode of the reign. Confessor.
The Saxon
Stigand, succeeded who What is more perplexing
the bearing is

Robert in the chair of Augustine, was a of Harold as earl and king, towards Stigand,

complex character. In the course of a who was ever Harold s loyal friend and
long and stirring life, he filled a number of supporter. In the consecration of his abbey
important positions. We first hear of him of Waltham, the centre of his great educa

as priest of Assandun, the little minster of tional foundation, earlHarold passed over
erected by king Canute, in Stigand, the archbishop of Canterbury, and
1 020. He became the chaplain and adviser called upon Cynesige, the undistinguished
of queen Emma, the widow of Ethelred archbishop of York, to officiate at the
and Canute then the friend of Godwin
formal consecration of his great creation.
and Harold ; successively bishop of Elm- Again, at the most solemn moment of his
ham (East Anglia) and Winchester, and life, at his coronation in Westminster
abbey, it was Aldred of York, not Stigand do not seem to have acknowledged him.
of Canterbury, who placed the crown of His reign was brief, only lasting one year ;

England upon the brow of Saxon Harold. for he was driven from the papal chair,
William the Norman, following Harold s and had to give place to Gerard, bishop of
example a few months later, declined to Florence, known as Nicholas II. Bene
avail himself of Stigand s services, and dict X., who gave Stigand his pall, by the
Aldred again officiated at the Norman Catholic church is reckoned as an anti-
coronation in the same West-minster. Of pope and schismatic. Thus Stigand never
all the bishops who were consecrated in received the legal recognition of Rome.
the days of Edward the Confessor, Stigand We have dwelt upon this circumstance,
only officiated in the cases of Ethelric, as it marks a distinct step in the gradual

bishop of Selsey, and Sivvard of Rochester. acknowledgment of a serious, though per

All the other prelates sought consecration haps as yet an undefined claim on the
at other hands. An uneasy feeling as to part of the Roman bishop to interfere in
Stigand s ecclesiastical position as primate, the case of the primacy of England. The
was evidently general in England. The conduct of a man like Harold, intensely
anxious doubts that were current were English in heart, shows how deeply the
shared in by serious laymen, as well as claim of Rome to confirm the appointment

by responsible ecclesiastics. of an archbishop of Canterbury had sunk

Reasons for these widely-spread scruples into the hearts even of the most sturdy
may have existed, which have not drifted and patriotic Englishmen, and this at a
down the stream of ages to us, but the time when the respect and regard of

following details are, as far as we know, foreign peoples for Rome had been weak
all that was ever alleged against the ened by the spectacle of well-nigh a century
legality of his position as archbishop, (i) and a half of anarchy and confusion at
His predecessor, Robert of Jumieges, fled Rome, and of a long succession of weak
to Rome, loudly complaining of his cause and even of infamous Popes. Yet none
less deposition. was en
His protest can deny archbishop Stigand s integrity
dorsed by the Pope though no heed,
of purpose, or his unswerving patriotism,

apparently, was paid in England to or his quiet unobtrusive loyalty while the ;

Rome s remonstrance. (2) For six years melancholy and painful circumstances
Stigand continued archbishop without a hereafter to be related under which his
pall from Rome. Indeed, one of the long and brilliant career was closed, must
charges subsequently urged against him ever induce the biographer of Stigand to
was that he used the old pall be speak gently of the faults and errors of
stowed upon his predecessor, Robert of the last of the Anglo-Saxon archbishops

Jumieges. Eventually he received the of Canterbury.

desired insignia of his great office from It was in the fourth year of king Edward
Rome ; but, unfortunately for Stigand, the that bishop Lyfing died. Lyfing the

donor was Pope Benedict X. The election eloquent," as the Worcester chronicler
of this pope was irregular ;
the cardinals styles him, had long played a distinguished
6o THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. [10421066.

part in the church and state. Originally formed a chapter of secular canons upon
a monk of Winchester, he was appointed the strict rule of Chrodegang of Metz.
abbot of the western abbey of Tavistock, Chrodegang, archbishop of Metz, who
one of the many houses burned by the had lived some three centuries before the
Danes in the unhappy days of Ethelred reign of Edward the Confessor (742-7*66),
the Unready. He became a favourite of endeavoured to establish a modified form
Canute, and accompanied the great Dane of the Benedictine rule in cathedral
on his pilgrimage to Rome, and was the chapters. The canons were to live under
bearer of that king s famous letter to the the ruleof the bishop. They had a
English people. Canute made him bishop common refectory and a common dormi
of Crediton in Devon, and with that see tory their life was carefully mapped out
; ;

he held the bishopric of Cornwall and ;

certain times were appointed for manual

subsequently he added to these the im labour, others for study ;

certain services

portant Midland see of Worcester. During were to be daily attended. Pastoral duties,
the Danish reigns of Harold Harefoot and such as baptism and preaching, were en
Harthacanute he was the loyal and devoted joined upon them. They were to be
friend of earl Godwin, and we find him celibates, but they might different from
associated with the mighty earl in the monks enjoy individual property. They
national work of establishing Edward on did not wear the peculiar dress of the
the throne. He was a example of one
fair monastic order, and their dietary was on
of those statesmen-prelates who had a large a far more liberal scale than that pre
share in the government of the country. scribed by the Benedictine rule. The rule
But Lyfing was ever a statesman rather of Chrodegang was soon adopted by as
than an ecclesiastic or a scholar, and his many as eighty-six chapters. Charlemagne
consenting to hold three vast dioceses is a especially favoured this famous reform
sure indication of his ambitious character. movement, and many colleges of canons
His memory was, however, long cherished under the rule of Chrodegang were formed,
in the west country, not merely as an in addition to the cathedral bodies for
able and patriotic minister of state, but whom it had originally been devised.
as a generous friend. Louis Debonnaire, Charlemagne son and
le s

When Lyfing died in 1046, his western successor, presided over a great council at
dioceses were formally united into one, and Aix-la-Chapelle in 816. This council gave
Leofric, the king s chaplain, who acted as its formal sanction to the rule,"
the royal chancellor,became bishop of was generally adopted in most of the
Devon and Cornwall. He removed his French, German, and Italian cathedrals.
bishop s chair to the city which was ranked Not a little of the wealth of these cathedral
as the capital of the west Exeter, and in chapters was owing to the general favour!
the church of St. Peter, now raised to the with which this strict system was viewed.!

rank of a cathedral, Leofric was solemnly In England, however, itwas never regarded
enthroned by king Edward. Bishop Leo with favour, and all the earlier and later!
fricwas an ardent church reformer, and attempts to introduce it into cathedral life

generally proved failures. Bishop Leofric s of Tavistock. It was in the year 1046
efforts at Exeter to establish the rule of that he
was appointed to the bishopric of


in his cathedral, seem only Worcester. A favourite of the king s, he

to have been fairly successful during his was soon employed in political affairs, and
tenure of the see, which lasted until 1072. in the year 1049 we find him associated

Traces, but only traces, of this severe dis with bishop Hermann of Ramsbury, the
cipline were visible at Exeter in the next king s chaplain, as ambassador to Rome to
century. procure Edward s absolution from his vow

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The other of bishop Lyfing s sees, pilgrimage. ,./ The result of the Roman

Worcester, was filled by a more remark- mission is well known. The king obtained
11 able man than Leofric. For twenty-three absolution, on condition of his founding
I years the monk Aldred filled a prominent an abbey -church and religious house. The
land distinguished position in the Church condition was fulfilled in the re-foundation
of England as a statesman and ecclesiastic. and rebuilding the stately abbey of St.

iHis early career closely resembled that of Peters, Westminster,

the most enduring
his predecessor, Lyfing. He, too, had and the most magnificent of Edward the
been a monk of Winchester a famous Confessor s works.

training school in those days of Bene- we hear of bishop Aldred again

In 1054
iictine monks who were destined to fill as Edward s ambassador this time to
office. From Winchester, too, like the court of the emperor Henry III., at

.yfing, he was called to the post of abbot Cologne. The object of this embassage

62 THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. [1042 1066.

was to induce the emperor to send to a church reformer, but as a church builder.

England Edward the Atheling, the exile, York and Southwell both received substan
the son of Edmund Ironside, whom at tial proofs of his vigour and liberality, but

this time the childless Edward intended to to Beverley he seems to have devoted

make his heir. Edward the Atheling had his principal care. read of his great We
married Agatha, a near connection prob building work in the noble minster, and
ably the niece of the German emperor. of his efforts in decorating the roof of
The exiled prince Edward, as the result his church, which he adorned with glow
of Aldred s mission, came to England with ing colours till

it looked like another

his family. Edward died soon after his heaven." The splendid pulpit of Beverley,
arrival, but left a son, Edgar, who as Edgar the work of Aldred, obtained especial

Atheling subsequently played no incon notoriety ;

it was marvellously constructed, f

siderable part in the reign of William the and rich in costly metals. He also liber

Conqueror. In the year 1058 Aldred ally endowed the famous and beautiful
again crossed the seas, this time as a church, to which he evidently had a
pilgrim to Jerusalem. In the same year special attachment.
he officiated at the dedication of the abbey After Edward the Confessor s death,.*
church of Gloucester, which he rebuilt. Aldred officiated at the coronation cere- 1
It was in A.D. 1060 that Aldred, now one mony of Harold in the new abbey of
of the most famous of the English states Westminster. He was king Harold s
men-prelates, was raised to the arch-see of trusted friend, and after the crushing
York, retaining, however, his old bishop defeat of Harold Hardrada at Stamford
ric of Worcester. This practice among Bridge in 1066, king Harold left the vast*,
the greater prelates of holding two or spoils of the Northmen piratical invaders inP
more important sees at th same time, was the archbishop s care, while he hurried
a common abuse at this period. Again to the south to meet the Norman duke

this unwearied traveller crossed the seas William and his mighty host. The astute. I

to seek the pall at the hands of the Pope. and statesmanlike prelate contrived to

The circumstances of his visit to Rome keep on terms with Harold s conqueror,
are somewhat confused. At first the pall and was asked by duke William to crown
was refused, the fact of his holding two him in the room of the dead Harold. For |

important bishoprics being the alleged the second time in the same year, he per-,
reason of the refusal. The pall was, formed the solemn coronation rite in the
however, eventually granted, it is said Confessors
abbey of Westminster this

through the influence of earl Tostig, time for the Norman William.
Harold s brother, who was also at Rome. During the three terrible years which
On Aldred s return he resigned the see followed, Aldred continued archbishop of
of Worcester. The next six years were York, and, as far as he could, played the
memorable in his ecclesiastical career. part of mediator between the Conqueror
The archbishop devoted himself to his and the hapless conquered English. In

diocese, and was distinguished not only as the year 1069, worn out with sorrow and
dismay at the treatment of the English, a to a Benedictine monasticism. To men of

spectator of the ruthless work of William, this school the via media of Chrodegang s

powerless to avert the ruin and desolation rule seemed best fitted to train good pastors
which he saw coming over his most sorely and teachers while earl Harold, power

harried diocese, Aldred died. He had ful throughout the last thirteen
years of
prayed, men said, to be taken from the Edward s life, preferred as the model form
evil to come ;
and the eventual burning for training, as well as for pastoral work,
of York, with itsstoried minster and its an even less monkish, less severely ascetic

priceless treasures, Aldred was happily not rule than that of Chrodegang s. What
spared to see. Harold wished to establish in England, will
During the reign of Edward, although be best seen in a description of his own
in the church the influence of the Bene great creation at Waltham.
dictine order was very great, and the
powerful friendship of the saint-king The story of the foundation of Waltham,
much conduced to the spread of its at once minster and college, is an interest
power, his regard was especially shown in ing one. Tofig the Proud was a great
perpetual lavish gifts to Benedictine Danish thane who held the office of
monastic houses, and more particularly standard-bearer to king Harthacanute (it

in the case of the mighty house he was, as we have

related, at his marriage
was building for the Benedictine order feast that Harthacanute died, while he
under the shadow of his lordly West at his drink stood Tofig the Dane held

minster. The flourishing condition of broad lands in Somerset and Essex. In

great Benedictine houses like Tavistock, one of his Somersetshire lordships, on the
Winchester, Peterborough, Evesham, and top of the peaked hill afterwards called,

others, show, too, that Benedictine mo- from form, Montacute, and which gave

nasticism was a real power in the land the title to the proud Norman house of
in the days of king Edward. Still there Montague (de monte acuto) was found a
were other agencies at work not friendly miraculous crucifix or rood. Tofig built
to monasticism. Statesmen-prelates, like a church on his Essex estate as a sanc

tuary for this precious relic, and created

Lyfing, whose rule extended over three
broad dioceses in the west, and Stigand foundation there for two mass-priests.
the archbishop, and Aldred of Worcester Round the little church of Tofig, attracted
and York, even though some of them had by the sanctity of the wonder-working
been trained as monks, were not likely to crucifix, which rapidly became
an object
have been ardent admirers of an ascetic of popular and pilgrimage veneration, grew
monasticism. like Leofric of the little township of Waltham. This
Exeter, who considered that the purity was in the days of Canute. Eventually
of the church would be best guarded by the son of Tofig fell into disgrace, his lands
the establishment of chapters of canons were confiscated, and Edward the Confessor
formed after the rule of Chrodegang, above gave the lordship of Waltham to Harold,
described, were probably no warm friends then the earl of East Anglia, with whom
64 THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. [10421066.

it became a favourite residence. Harold foundation was richly endowed with lands.
rebuilt the small church of Tofig on a This "foundation of a great secular college,

larger and more splendid scale, and en in days when all the world seemed mad

riched it with many gifts and precious after monks, when king Edward and earl

relics most precious possession still

its Leofric (of Mercia) vied with each other

being the miraculous rood of Montacute. in lavish gifts to religious houses at home
The great ecclesiastical foundation of and abroad, was in itself an act which
Harold was not a monastic abbey ;
it was displayed no small vigour and indepen
rather a vast edu dence of mind.
cational establish The details, too,
ment, with the of the foundation

abbey as its were such as

centre ;
he placed showed that the
in it a dean and creation of Wal
twelve secular tham was not the
canons, each act of a moment
priest living on of superstitious
his own prebend, dread or of reck
and some of these, less bounty, but
it has been sug the deliberate

gested, were even deed of a man

married men ;
a who felt the re
number of inferior sponsibilities of
officers supple lofty rank and
mented the house. boundless wealth,
The dominant and who earnestly
idea,however, of sought the welfare
Harold s work at of his church and
Waltham was not (Guildhall Museum.} nation in all

prayer and wor



even pastoral work and preaching,

ship, or The church was finished and solemnly
though these were by no means to be consecrated in the year 1060. The chief
neglected in the lordly abbey of the Holy part of the ceremony was performed by
Rood, but education. The chancellor or Cynesige, archbishop of York, in presence
chief teacher held a most important of king Edward, the queen Edith, and of

position in Harold s
fraternity, and to fill most of the chief ecclesiastical and civil

Harold brought from over the

this office,
magnates of the land. Waltham, the abbey
seas an eminent scholar and teacher named of the Holy Rood, and the college attached

Adelhard, a native of Liege (Liittich) in to it, has been peculiarly identified with its

Lotharingia, who superintended the eminent founder. To Waltham, we read,

teaching department of the house. The * Freeman: "Norman Conquest."
10421066.] WALTHAM ABBEY.
Harold loved to retire and pray in the was the guerdon of the last of the Anglo-
great crises of his life. It was beneath Saxon kings of England.
the shadow of its massive pillars that his But the work of Harold at Waltham
mutilated remains were laid after the field was, after all, of short duration. The
of Hastings. At the east end of the educational establishment was put an end
choir a stone was long shown, bearing to after an existence of little more than a
the touching words,

Harold infelix." The hundred years, by the Plantagenet king


famous rood, in honour of which the noble Henry II., who expelled the dean and

abbey was originally built, was the especial secular canons, and put an abbot and

object of Harold s devotion. It became, Austin canons in their place. In our days
not unnaturally in that religious age, the a scarred and mutilated fragment of

badge and rallying-point of the fighting- Harold s splendid abbey alone remains, but
men of England. was the battle-cry in
It it is nevertheless a fragment of no small
the glorious victory of Stamford Bridge grandeur, and of matchless interest.
when the Vikings, so long the curse of the
island, met their final and crushing over
Onlooking back over the reign of
throw. It was the war-cry on the bloody Edward the Confessor (1042 to 1066), the
of the
field of Hastings, when a glorious death thoughtful student of the history
66 THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. [1042 1066

church during that last period of Anglo- who much if not most of what
feels that

Saxon rule will see that the church, all is great and strong and enduring in the
through the reign of Edward, was far from character of the English people, comes

being mainly composed of sluggish, in from the Anglo-Saxon rather than from
active members, though such has been the Norman ancestors, must necessarily
the conclusion drawn by many writers on acknowledge that the church in the days

this period. of the Confessor was far from being an ideal

Yet this idea was, it must be conceded, by church. In all times we see how, after the
no means baseless. As
already remarked, time of a great revival in its spiritual life and
it is undeniable that the reign of the in its activities educational, missionary,
Confessor, like the reign of his immediate church building, and the like gradually
predecessors, produced no really eminent the spiritual flames which blazed for a time
churchman. A
fair number of men of the so brightly always died down, and the fire

second rank flourished, such as Aldred, needed to be renewed again. As it was in

Stigand, William of London, Wulfstan, those far-back days, so has it been in our
Leofric, Gisa, and others, but none of day and time. We saw it when the great
these were men of conspicuous ability and ;
Alfred looked over his reconquered land
the most famous of them Aldred, Stigand, and its feeble church the church of Bede,
and Wulfstan are remembered rather for Alcuin and Aldhelm, and mourned over
what they suffered at the hands of the the grievous lack of even the most rudi
Norman conquerors, than for what they did mentary learning among the ecclesiastics
or wrote or taught in the quiet, peaceful of his loved England.We saw it again
days of the Confessor. This dearth of after another lapse of time, when the
prominent men would, when the history fervour of the new by the
life inspired
of the time came to be written, to a certain burning words and stirring example of
extent influence and depress the estimate Alfred and his ministers had at length
of writers describing the period in question. died away, when the great Dunstan and
It is also to be expected that Norman his disciples again inspired the Anglo-
writers and chroniclers who lived after Saxon church with vigour and spiritual
the Conquest, would write in depreciatory power and it seems to have been the case

terms of the church as it existed under that in the days of Edward the Confessor
the old state of things in England, a Theodore or an Hadrian, an Aldhelm or
before their people came, and changed the a Dunstan, was sorely needed to rekindle
whole framework of government in church the zeal and the energy of the church j

and and uprooted the entire Anglo-

state, in our island. That carelessness and want
Saxon society, civil and ecclesiastical. No of fervour, and in some cases positive sloth j

Norman writer could be expected to de and selfishness existed among ecclesiastics, j

scribe fairly that old English life which the is evident from the words of the writer of
Normans had so ruthlessly destroyed. the contemporary life of Edward, composed
Even an historian who has the deepest for hisqueen Edith in the first year of her

sympathy with the Anglo-Saxon people, sad widowhood. The author of that

was evidently an Anglo-Saxon, and yet he and his school woke them up into new
speaks in terms of grave severity of the life and a more active energy. In
wickedness of his country, of the care England, church life, although perhaps
lessness of the clergy, and the consequent lacking in some of the nobler character
probability of God s vengeance. The king s istics of Christianity, could by no means
own dying words, as given in the next be counted as sunk in torpor, or as alto

chapter, are also of peculiar weight. gether sluggish and selfish. This would
In equally striking language, in the be impossible in England with a king like
"Estoire de Seint ^Edward le Roi,"
written Edward the Confessor, pious and devoted
in Latin and translated into Norman- and even recklessly
generous in good
French queen Alianore (Eleanor) about
for works, whose splendid example as a
1245 a writing based on much earlier churchman and a pure and devoted
materials the author speaks of the want Christian lived long after he had passed
of virtue and of the increase of sin in away ;
with a
queen like Edith, the
England, as the cause of the mighty ven saintly and devoted daughter of Godwin ;

geance of God, exemplified in the Norman with great nobles like Harold, who could
Conquest : devise and at his own cost establish the

Bishops, prelates and priests noble educational foundation of Waltham r

No longer seek to be good pastors ;
and erect the stately minster of the
seek not to feed the sheepfold
They ;

But to sell them is each one s business,* Rood as the centre of his great Waltham
To rescue them from the wolf none cares, work. Nor did Harold, the mighty earl
(They care) only for the milk and the wool."
of Wessex and East Anglia, stand alone
The writer is
equally severe upon the among the great men of the land in these

leading laymen, forhe goes on to say : true works of piety and devotion. The
ruler under king Edward of the broad

Princes, counts and barons

Go seeking only vain glory, Midlands, Earl Leofric, and his renowned
Nor do they live but to swallow money ;
countess, the lady Godiva of the legends
The poor they strip and ill-treat."

Leofric, the grandfather of the brothers

Granting, however, that the Anglo- earls Edwin and Morkar, so famous in the
Saxon church between 1042 and 1066 records of king Harold, and later of Nor
sorely needed reformation, and the pre man William, were celebrated throughout
sence of a new and nobler spirit amongst the length and breadth of England for
them, it was still by no means a dead or their boundless liberality to ecclesiastical
even a dying church and, indeed, it seems ; foundations, and their ceaseless care for
to have compared very favourably with the church. We read how, thanks to
the churches of Normandy before Lanfranc their care and generosity, Worcester,.
* Allusion is here made to the sin of " Leominster, Evesham, Chester, Wenlock,
In various degrees it was one of the curses of that Stow-in-Lindesey where traces of their
age, though apparently this sin was less prevalent work still remains and Coventry, were
in England than on the Continent, but there is no
doubt but that its practice seriously marred al
adorned and enriched with churches and
church work in England. religious houses, by restorations and new
68 THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. [10421066.

buildings dedicated to religious uses. It less austere and burdensome than the stern
is recorded of these zealous and earnest practice of the Benedictine order.
servants of God that they were by no Aldred was a bishop also famed for his

means content with merely lavish and boundless liberality. The York historian

generous grants of land and endowments, loves to dwell on these features of an ever
but that they took a special interest in the indefatigable toiler for the church. He
building and ornamentation of the many was, too, a great builder : the minsters of
churches and religious houses they watched Southwell, York, and Beverley famous
over or founded anew, in the broad lands church-centres in his archdiocese were
of their great Mercian government. all built or enriched by his costly works.

Nor was it only among the ranks of the He loved also to beautify his build
more prominent laymen that we find con ings with all manner of artistic devices,
spicuous instances of a lifelong zeal in with painting and sculpture, and
the service of the church. Many of the curious and elaborate metal work.

prelates of the reign of Edward, even if not Honoured and loved by the saintly Anglo-
men specially distinguished for their pro Saxon king, when Edward died he filled
found scholarship, or for brilliant powers of the same place as friend and adviser to
organisation, or for their winning eloquence, king Harold ;
and after Harold s fate,
were nevertheless earnest and devoted William the Conqueror
strange to say, king
servants of God. Such a man was Aldred, seems to have loved and reverenced him.
archbishop of York, somewhile bishop of He is reckoned among the very few of the
Worcester. We
find him playing the part
Anglo-Saxon race admitted to the friend
of a statesman and diplomatist, often en ship of the great Norman. Aldred even
trusted with difficult and important foreign dared to oppose king William in his cruel
missions but none the less a busy and
; and high-handed conduct and men say ;

anxious chief pastor of the vast dioceses how the end the archbishop died of
entrusted to his charge. Archbishop a broken heart, shocked and grieved at
Aldred was well acquainted with the the misery among his flock which resulted
and errors of the church of his day,
faults from the great Conquest.
and thoroughly conscious of what his Leofric and Gisa, respectively bishops
work and mission among the people ought of the sees of Exeter and of Wells, were
to be ;
he was a most zealous reformer also distinguished for their work as
of the abuses which had crept into the reformers. Both these with no
Anglo-Saxon church. In the chapters of small pains, remodelled the chapters of
York and Southwell, where laxity of life Exeter and of
Wells, introducing the
and marred their usefulness, he
discipline graver discipline of the rule of Chrodegang
introduced a new rule of life probably into their dioceses.
that known as the rule of Chrodegang Wulfstan, who was charged by his
which we have already described as a rule detractors as being devoid of scholarship,
far more severe than that practised by the
enjoyed an enormous popularity, and was
secular canons of a cathedral church, revered as a saint by all sorts and conditions


O .,

Q ^
^ v
<: I

X ^x

w I

of men, and was literally compelled to Evesham and Bury St. Edmunds ;

accept the episcopate by the unanimous queen Edith s nunnery and church of
call of clergy and laity. So great was his Wilton, Harold s famous foundation and
reputation for sanctity, that the Norman minster of Waltham, and above king all

conquerors found themselves obliged to Edward s monastery and

recognise his holy influence among the stately abbey of Westminster, were en
people. William, the Norman king, and during memorials of splendid church work
Lanfranc, the Norman archbishop, in the undertaken and carried out in the closing
day of their power, permitted this sturdy years of the Anglo-Saxon monarchy. All
Anglo-Saxon patriot still to exercise his this shows us that the Anglo-Saxon church,

great functions as bishop of Worcester even at the moment when the great change
in Norman England. came over it, was indeed no dying or even
In the scanty records of that time we fading church, but that with all its faults

catch sight of not a few great religious and shortcomings, which we have made no
houses filled with earnest monks, playing attempt to gloss over or even to minimise,
an influential part in the life of Edward it was yet a church full of vitality and
the Confessor s
people. Such were Peter power, and capable of exercising a great
borough and Thorney, Crowland and Ely, and blessed influence among the people
the Fen abbeys such were the renowned
; of the land


(The Matrix is of the \\th Century, British Museum.)
Historical Importance of the Abbey Its Origin in Edward s Vow Traditions of the Old Church of St
Peter s Building of the New Abbey and Palace Description of the Abbey Destruction and
Restoration by Henry III. Death of Edward the Confessor His Death-bed
Prophecy Its
Strange Fulfilment Commits the Kingdom to Harold His Hurried Funeral, as Depicted in the
Bayeux Tapestry Growth of Edward s Fame Canonisation Magnificent Shrine Built by
Henry III. The Centre of the Chapel of the Kings Subsequent History of the Shrine.

a little to the north of Lon in those of the historian it possesses even

WHILE don the stately minster and a far higher value.

college of the Holy Rood was The abbey of the Confessor, which we
being built by Norman architects on earl are about to describe with some detail, was
Harold s East Saxon lordship of Waltham, unquestionably a great work. In size and
a yet vaster and far more enduring work magnificence it far transcended any build
was slowly approaching completion only ing which existed in that day in England.
some two or three miles to the west Nay, more it took high rank among the
of the great city, on the banks of the grandest and most lordly piles that had
Thames. There, too, Norman architects hitherto been built in any of the countries
and builders were employed under the north of the Alps. Its founder, too, was
personal supervision of king Edward him no ordinary man. In his lifetime, or at

self, who watched with anxious care the most within a few years after his death,
progress of the huge pile known under the Edward was already deemed to be a worker
well-known title of the West-Minster. of miracles. For his dreams, visions, and
The position which the great abbey, prophecies he was renowned to his last
erected by Edward the Confessor with so moment." Around his great church, as

much pains and cost, has ever since his was natural to expect, grew rapidly many
it is not difficult
days occupied in the story of England the ;
a legendary story, but

singular and intimate connection between to separate what was no doubt true from
this mighty church and the state a con these strange traditions. The true story
nection which has endured for centuries, of the foundation of Westminster is as

and of which the abbey and its depend follows.

encies are so symbolical gives to West During the days of his long

minster an importance far beyond its mere Norman things looked very dark

beauty and matchless magnificence. In and unpromising for the young prince,
the eyes of the architect and the archaeo and there is no reason to doubt the truth
logist it ranks first among the many great of the account of the vow given at
and renowned churches of the land, but Prof. Freeman.
72 THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. [1051 1066.

some length in the Estoire de Saint "

Edward s thanes, however, felt that the

^Edward le Roi." There, amongst other peace and prosperity then enjoyed by
untoward circumstances, the sad death England depended largely upon the per
of his brother Alfred is alluded to as de sonal presence and influence among them

the exiled and at this of their saintly but childless king, and
pressing prince,
urgently dissuaded him from the
juncture Edward vowed a solemn vow that

if St. Peter would protect him, he would So strongly was this felt, that the matter of
the royal pilgrimage was laid before the
go on a pilgrimage to Rome. After he
became king the memory of this vow Witan. The king was induced eventually
to send a special to the Pope to
weighed heavily upon him, and the poem embassy
represents him saying to his thanes obtain a dispensation from his vow. Two
bishops were charged with this

When I was sojourning in Normandy. mission Aldred, whom we
of as bishop of Worcester, and subsequently
have heard

News came to me often
Which made me very sorrowful.

Besides God and his Mother

as archbishop of York

the Lotharingian bishop

afterwards of Salisbury.
and Herman,

date of
And my Lord St. Peter, I had no comfort.
. . Then I went one day
very sad this mission to Rome was A.D. 1050. It
Into a church and prayed, vow
was successful, and Edward s of pil
And I made a vow
To go to Rome and pray."
grimage was cancelled by Pope Leo IX.
on the condition that the king wouk
Such pilgrimages, as we have already found or restore a monastery of St. Peter.

seen, were very usual among the Anglo- Now, some two or three miles from the
Saxons of high degree. Not a few of their western gate of the city of London, whicl

kings, deeming such an act meritorious, in Edward s time had already acquired

had betaken themselves to the sacred sites pre-eminence in wealth and importanc
of Rome, and prayed and offered gifts to among the English cities, in what w<

the various traditional sanctuaries of the then known as Thorney Island (the
historic city. Canute the Dane, also, not Thames flowing round it), opposite tc
long before had made a memorable pil what is now known as Lambeth Palac
grimage Romewards ;
and a little later we a small and undistinguished religious
read of earl Harold, of Tostig, his brother, house had grown up round a little churcl
and of others as pilgrims to the same great dedicated to St. Peter. The origin of tl

centre of Christianity. The journey in church we have in our first volume carri<

those days was a tedious affair, and was back to the earliest days of Englisl
not without danger. These pilgrimages to Christianity. Here Sseberht, the firs

Rome, and even to the Holy Land, and Christian king of the East Saxons, hz
the extraordinary merit which was attached built for Mellitus, the East Saxon mission
to them, were among the characteristic ary bishop, one of the original companior
of, and
features of religious fervour among the eventually a successor to, St
Anglo-Saxons. Augustine, a small church or oratory,
1051 io66.] WESTMINSTER ABBEY. 73

balance (says one of the chroniclers) the honour of St. Peter. The writer tells us

larger minster of St. Paul within the city the place where the West-Minster after
walls. wards stood was in the immediate vicinity


The contemporary life of king Edward, of the famous and wealthy city (London),
I written for his widowed queen Edith soon in the midst of grassy meadows, and on
I after the
king s death, gives us some simple the banks of a flowing river (the Thames),
id probable reasons for the choice of which brought the merchandise and wares
Cdward falling upon this comparatively of all the world to the city a curious and
iknown spot for his restoration of a early testimony to the matchless situation
lonastery and church originally raised in of London. He gives as another reason
74 THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. [1051 1066.

for the choice, the king s special love and foundation, in the days of Mellitus, the
devotion to the chief of the apostles but ;
friend and companion of Augustine.*
he does not tell us the story already Besides the contemporary life of the saint-
narrated in its place, how St. Peter was king written for the widowed queen Edith,
connected with .
Thorney Island. This we possess several lives of Edward of a
most valuable piece of current literature somewhat later date. Of them the princi
was written, as we have said, for queen pal are (i) the biography of Osbern ol

Edith, and nearly three times as much Clare, prior of Westminster, composed
space is devoted in it to Edith s restoration about A.D. 1158 ; (2) the yet better-known

of the nunnery of Wilton, a compara lifewritten by ^Elred or Ethelred, com

tively unknown religious house, as is given posed a few years later, circa A.D. 1163
to the king s vast work in connection with ^Elred was prior of Rivaulx and (3) the ;

Westminster. lengthy poem in Latin with a Norman-

But there were other reasons which led French translation containing 4685 lines,

to the choice of Thorney Island for the addressed to queen Alianore (Eleanor),
foundation of Westminster, the greatest of consort of Henry III., circa A.D. 1245,
our English abbeys, round which so much In these lives of the saint-king much that
of our English history, civil and ecclesi is marvellous and improbable is interwoven

astical, has clustered during the past eight with the history ;
but these wonders also

centuries. In spite of the general notion doubtless represent not a little of the
of the undistinguished nature of the legendary lore which king PIdward found
church and religious house of St. Peter associated with the ancient, but probably
before king Edward began to build, yet decayed holy house of St. Peter s ol

St. Peter s of Thorney Island must have Thorney, and which no doubt weighed
been a place of some importance ;
for the with him when he selected the spot for
English Chronicle relateshow the body of his famous foundation.
king Harold Harefoot, who died at Oxford,
was brought from Oxford and buried there. The rebuilding of the great abbey ol
This royal corpse was subsequently dug up Westminster went on during the last
and thrown ignominiously into the Thames fourteen or fifteen years of the Confessor s

by his infamous brother Harthacanute. reign. The cost, which must have been
But this does not affect the fact that St. enormous, was borne entirely by the
Peter s of Thorney Island had been judged Crown. In the foundation and endow
a worthy sepulchre for a king of England. ment of the monastery which grew up
Again, the death of one of its abbots, under the shadow of the abbey, much
Wulfnoth, had been judged worthy of a help was given to the king by pious
mention in the English Chronicle.
special Englishmen, but the cost of the building
Round the spot, in fact, there is no doubt of the famous abbey itself seems to have

hung some tradition dim and faint, per been defrayed entirely out of Edward s
haps, and half forgotten of some mar own resources. The monastic foundation
vellous event in connection with its first * This related in vol.
legend is i., p. 101.
1051 io66.] WESTMINSTER ABBEY. 75

of St. Peter, which was erected on a large adjoining Holyrood Palace and later in;

scale, contained great domitories, refectory, Spain in that vast pile of royal and monastic
cloisters, separate dwellings for the abbot buildings known as the Escurial, at once
and chief officers, barns, treasury, in palace, monastery, and tomb.
firmary, chapter-house,and other buildings, The size of the new abbey of West
the usual adjuncts of an important Bene minster was remarkable ;
dictine house. occupied almost the whole area of the
Adjoining the abbey was also erected present building. Nothing resembling it
a royal palace, evidently of considerable had ever been erected before in England.
dimensions. This idea, of placing palace It set the example of the vast scale upon
and monastery and abbey in close contiguity, which in the next generation the churches
was no doubt derived from the immediate and abbeys which arose in such numbers
ancestors of Edward s Norman mother, in our Island were built. All the older

Emma, whose favourite abode was rather and more renowned English churches,
Fecamp than Rouen. At Fecamp, too, erected by Dunstan and the kings of the
a huge minster threw its broad shadow over house of Alfred, as well as the minsters
a famous monastery and a royal palace. of a yet older period, were small and

Many a time, during his long exile in mean in comparison with this new marvel
Normandy, must Edward have visited of ecclesiastical architecture, which arose at

Fecamp, and to reproduce Fecamp on a the bidding of the Anglo-Saxon Edward

grander or more lordly scale was evidently on the banks of the broad silvery Thames,
enough in his mind when he planned just outside wealthy and prosperous
the elaborate and stately building hard London.
by his new abbey of Westminster the It was a cruciform church the first of
restored abbey of St. Peter of Thorney. that peculiar shape, it is said, seen in
As several of the Norman dukes, his England and it became the model from
ancestors, arranged that their last sleeping- which all churches were now designed an :

places should be in Fecamp abbey, so expression, it has been well said, of the
Edward planned his tomb in Westminster, increasing which the idea of the
and almost his last words directed that he Crucifixion had laid on the imagination of
should rest there. The wish to unite in Europe in the tenth century. It was built
one group of buildings the church, the upon strong foundations of large square
ideal home of prayer, and the ideal tomb ;
blocks of grey stone. At the east end, which
the monastery, which displayed the ideal was comparatively short, was an apse con
life of men on earth and the king s palace, Over the choir
; taining the high altar.
the seat of government, was by no means rose a central tower, crowned with a cupola-
peculiar to the saint-king or his Norman of wood and lead. The transepts stood out
fathers. We find it
reproduced often not ;
north and south. The stones were richly
where Dunfermline palace
ably in Scotland, sculptured, and the windows, not of any
and Dunfermline abbey grew up alongside great size, were filled with stained glass. To
each other and in the abbey of Holyrood,
the west stretched the long nave, with its

two ranges of vast arches resting seemingly May hold their secret chapter ;

on huge columnar piers like those which Refectory and dormitory

And the offices in the tower."
still remain with us in the abbeys of
Gloucester and of Tewkesbury. Two Of all this huge and splendid first

smaller towers for the reception of the structure but little now remains ;
it has
bells apparently crowned the west end. almost entirely vanished, having given
Something of this kind we still see at place to another and yet more splendid
Gloucester these smaller minster. Possibly one vast dark arch

Tewkesbury : at

towers, they ever existed, have, long

if in the southern transept, certainly the

disappeared. The roof was covered with sub-structures of the dormitory with their
lead. huge pillars, the massive low-browed
The following description of the West passage, leading from, the great cloister
minster abbey of Edward the Confessor, to Little Yard, and some portions
Dean s

penned by the author of the


Estoire de of the refectory and of the infirmary

Saint ^Edward," dedicated to Alianore, chapel, remain as specimens of the work
queen of Henry III., is no doubt strictly which astonished the last age of the Anglo-
accurate. The writer was evidently one Saxon and the age of the Norman first
who knew and loved the abbey well, and monarchy."
be well in this place
It will

had seen it and studied its details before it to describe briefly how the great work of
was destroyed to make room for Henry the Edward the Confessor came to disappear.
Third s new and even statelier church. He The destruction of the glorious abbey
was not improbably a monk of the West of the saint-king, and the consequent loss
minster monastery. of all its undying memories of Edward,
of Harold, and the Conqueror, happened
Now he (Edward) laid the foundations of the in this wise. King Henry III., on the
death of his father, John Lackland, in 1216,
With large square blocks of grey stone.
Its foundations are deep ;
had been crowned somewhat hurriedly in
The front towards the east he makes round, the Norman abbey of Gloucester crowned,
The stones are very strong and hard.
the story of the reign tells us, with a chaplet
In the centre rises a tower,
And two at the western front. or garland in lieu of the crown, probably
And fine and large bells he hangs there, because the crown had been lately lost
The pillars and entablature
Are and within
rich without ;
by his father John, in the waters of the
At the bases and capitals Wash. Four years later it was thought
The work rises grand and royal ;
well to repeat the solemn ceremony in
Sculptured are the stones
And storied the windows the national sanctuary of St. Peter s

All are made with skill abbey of Westminster. The day before
Of a good and loyal workmanship
his second coronation, the young king
And when he finished the work,
With lead the church completely he laid the foundation of a Lady Chapel at
He makes there a cloister, a chapter-house in the east end of the Confessor s pile. This
Towards the and round, *
east, vaulted Dean Stanley :

Memorials of Westminster
Where his ordained ministers
1245- ]

new and strange development of Christian his second son was called Edmund, after

ity ;
this homage to, and which, alas ! soon the other royal Anglo-Saxon saint. In

passed into the adoration of the Virgin memory of the Confessor he finally deter
Mother of our Lord, was a characteristic mined new and splendid church,
to erect a
feature of the teaching of the early years on the the abbey which contained
site of

of the thirteenth century. As years passed the sacred remains of the object of his

on, king Henry watched the progress of veneration. The new minster should


his new work the Lady Chapel. The possess as its hallowed centre Edward
palace of Westminster was his favourite the Confessor s shrine.
residence. He loved to think he was the It was in the year 1245, not quite two
direct descendant of the great Alfred, and centuries after the consecration of the
his ancestor Edward the Confessor was the first mighty abbey, that the strange work
favourite object of his imitation. He was of demolition began, Edward s own original
the first of the Norman-descended kings abbey being literally torn down, as a
who called his sons by the ancient Anglo- building of no worth at all. The central
Saxon names. His firstborn he named tower, the transepts, the cloisters, the
Edward, after the adored Confessor, while chapter-house, all disappeared ;
and in

place of the great Norman church, many church, the crowning work of the saint-
of the features of which we can reproduce king s life. King Edward s strength was fast
when we look on the nave of Gloucester failing strange dreams and awful por

and its partly veiled choir, arose the present tents, say the stories which grew up after
Westminster Abbey, "

the most lovely and his death, had warned him that the end

lovable thing in But it

Christendom." was near. Weak and ailing though he
was a new minster altogether, of which was, he made a last effort to preside over

St. Edward the Confessor became really the the solemn assembly of the nation, and on

patron saint : St. Peter himself was almost Christmas Day, and the following 26th and

forgotten, and since that day of demolition 2yth of December, the king was seen
and of reconstructions few have cared to among his thanes and prelates, in his royal
remember in connection with the abbey magnificence, and wearing his golden
the name of the chief of the Apostles, crown. The ceremony of consecration
in whose honour it was built. The reign was fixed for the day following, December
of Henry III. dragged out its long, slow 28th, but when the morning of the
length, but although much was done, and- consecration dawned, the king was unable
before the king s death a glorious pile to rise from his bed. The excitement and
again occupied the site of the old abbey, exertion of the three previous days had
the long reign closed before Westminster exhausted his little remaining strength,
Abbey was completed. Indeed, it has never and the solemn rites were performed only in
been completed. What we see now at the the presence of the queen, the lady Edith,
west end of the mighty church, the last five who represented in the abbey the dying
bays of the long nave, was the work of Edward. When the rite was over, the
Henry s son, king Edward I.
king, lying in the adjacent palace, heard
the account of the august ceremony in
But in this story of the building and silence ;
and then, so says one of his
rebuilding of the glorious abbey so loved chroniclers, laid his wearied head on the
of Englishmen, we have run on long years consummatum
pillow, as to say, "

if esf"

beyond the period we are engaged with, (it is finished).

and must return again to the days of The sickness in intensity
grew during
Edward the Confessor. There is a strange the next five days speech failed him, and

pathos in the scene which presented itself the anxious bystanders thought the end
in the palace of king
Edward, when the was close at hand. It was a moment of
great minster which had engaged his intense anxiety for England. London was
thoughts and hopes for so long, was at thronged just then by all the leading men
lastready to be consecrated. It was the and their followers, who had come up
Christmas feast of the year 1065, when all to attend the Witan, and at their king s
the work of the West-Minster was
ready request to witness the hallowing of the
for dedication. The Witanof England great abbey. They had met, and had held
was summoned to London, to be present
together brief counsel, and had witnessed
at the solemn
hallowing of the mighty the solemn rites which dedicated the abbey

to God ;
but alas ! their master had him man he sat up in his bed, the support

selfbeen absent from the ceremony, and ing arms of his faithful friend Robert the
they now waited hour after hour for Staller around him. The moment was
the news of his death.
awful Every indeed a solemn one. Words were about
moment was precious, for England was to be uttered
by a dying king deeply loved
threatened with two formidable invasions and venerated by his subjects, who was
by Harold Hardrada, the last Viking regarded by those about him, and by
chief,from the north, and by William, the people at large, as one who lived
duke of the Normans, the most brilliant nearer God and the unseen world than
and the ablest chief in Christendom, from did ordinary mortals. Hastily a few more
the south. of the chosen friends and counsellors from
Within the palace, in the royal bed the ante-chamber were summoned to the

chamber, we read of three great men watch royal bed-chamber. Their names, unfor
ing by the bedside of the dying Edward, tunately, have not been preserved it ;

and with them the queen Edith. They would have been of strange interest to
were Harold, earl of Wessex, Edith s know which of the Anglo-Saxon thanes
brother ; Robert, a Norman who filled the and prelates were bidden to that solemn
high office of Staller, or master of the horse ;
communication about to be made. These
and Stigand, the archbishop of Canterbury. gathered round the bed, and with the
Of a sudden the king, who had been lying renewed strength which had been given
fortwo days speechless, was heard to pray. him, in a voice audible to the group of
The little group of watchers caught the bystanders, king Edward told his dream.
purport of the prayer it was that strength Many said the Confessor,

; years ago,"
might come to him to enable him to repeat when I was a boy in Normandy, I knew
an awful vision, which in his long slumber two monks most holy men they were,

he had seen. If the vision were from


very dear friends to me. long time has A

heaven," murmured the king, "grant me passed since these two dear friends have

strength to utter it if the dream were passed from In

all earthly cares. my late
but the phantom of a sick man s brain, let deep slumber, I have seen them once more.
me be mute." God sent them again to me, to speak to
Strength seemed to come to the dying me in His most holy name. Know, said

they to me, that they who hold the

* This vivid and
startling story of the last highest place in thy realm of England, the
moments of Edward does not stand, it must be
earls, the bishops, and the abbots, the men
remembered, on the same level with the other
legendary stories in connection with the Confessor
in holy orders of every rank, are not
which have obtained so wide a currency ; we shall what they seem to be in the eyes of men.
come speak of them presently.
to The authority
for the death-bed scene rests
In the eyes of God they are but ministers
on the almost con
temporary prose life written for queen Edith very of the Evil One. Therefore hath God
soon after the event took place, and the details and
put a curse upon the land, hath
came to him, the writer unobtrusively tells us, from
tye-witnesses of the scene in the palace of West given thy land over into the hand of the
minsterprobably from Edith the queen herself. enemy. Within a year and a day from

thy departure, shall fiends wander through

its trunk ;
when be carried away
it shall

the whole country and shall waste it from for the space of three furlongs from its

one end to the other with fire and sword and root when of itself, without human aid,

Then them as follows: shall join itself again to its trunk, and
robbery. I spoke to it

1 would wish to tell of these things, which shall blossom and bear fruit once more.

by God s permission will befall my people Then, and not till then, shall a cessation
repentance will follow, and of these great woes come to pass/ "



God have mercy on them. He had

will The king said no more Harold, Robert,;

compassion on the men of Nineveh, when and the queen, with the others who had
they repented after hearing the divine been summoned to his bedside, stood awe
message which spoke of coming judgment. struck and mute. Only the archbishop
No, they said, never repent
they will ; Stigand remained undismayed at the
neither shall God s pity fall upon them. dread prophecy, and at the wholesale
Then, said I, what shall be the time or denunciation of the chief men, the earls,
the manner in which we may look for and prelates, and clergy. He bent over
an end to this threatened punishment? and whispered to Harold not to heed, for

They replied, In that day when a green * Prof. Freeman s free

rendering has been
tree shall be cut away from the midst of
generally followed in the above.

the words were only the utterances of did in the early years which followed the
an old man worn with age and weakened slaughter of Hastings, when the miseries
by sickness (submurmurat m
aiiran Ducts which ensued upon the Norman Conquest

,-, it
r ,
-1 "


JL -^ *"{

TM- PITIT n?w ili*xrnr Lw i^tcritj

MCC tntcitnccm .




(From an English MS. of the iith century?)

scnio confectum et morbo, quid diceret were crushing England adds a few words
nescire). But the writer who so graphic- descriptive of queen Edith s feelings, and
describes the scenes, the details the thoughts of some
ally of among the bystanders
which, it has been suggested, were supplied who had listened to the terrible denuncia-
hirn by queen Edith from the sceptical
herself writing as he tion. They, different

worldly-minded Stigand, were only too

selfish thought was to secure for his soul

well aware of the sins of England, and at the moment of its departure the prayers
Let my death be at once

the carelessness of some among the chief of the faithful.

published everywhere," he said, that all


Theprophecy of the dying king was
" "

the faithful may at once call on the mercy

undeniably a remarkable one, and was of Almighty God for me, a sinner." Of
most strangely and accurately fulfilled. It his queen Edith, who stood weeping at
must not be forgotten that the biographer the foot of the bed, he spoke with the
of Edward, who tells the story, wrote in utmost tenderness and love. God," he

the early days of the Conqueror. Writing told them, would reward her for her

good deeds in this world and in the next."


as he did a very few years after "Hastings

and the Conquest, he can well be imagined Harold and Stigand, the archbishop, are
as representing the saint-king to have represented by the writer as asking Edward
uttered prophetic words respecting that to name his successor on the throne.* In
fatal Conquest, and the subsequent woes reply to their question the king stretched
which came upon the Anglo-Saxon people. out his hand towards Harold with the
But he could not himself thus have fore words "To Harold, my brother,
told events which did not take place for I commit my Before receiving

more than sixty years after this Life of the last communion at the hands of
Edward was composed. For the fulfilment Stigand, he murmured in accents all could

of the curious prophetic utterance is


Fear not ;
I shall not die, but by

usuallyexplained as follows The tree : the grace of God I shall quickly rise
removed from the root for the space of again well and strong." (Ne timeas, non
three furlongs signifies the crown trans mortar modo, sect bene convalescam, pro-
ferred from the regular line of Cerdic pitiante Deo). And when shortly afterwards
and Alfred during the three reigns of the saint-king had breathed his last, men
Harold, the Conqueror, and Rufus. The saw as it were stamped on the face of the
tree returned to the root when Henry dead man the glory of a soul which had
Beauclerc married Edith (Matilda), the passed at once into the presence of God,
grand-daughter of Edgar Atheling, the and was satisfied.

descendant of Edmund Ironside ;


blossomed at the birth of Henry s daughter, Edward the Confessor died on the eve
the empress Maud ;
and bore fruit when of the Epiphany, January 5th, 1066. That
Henry II. (Plantagenet) was born in 1133. same night the body was prepared for
The king still lived, and during the little burial on the morrow, in his newly con

span of life yet left to him on that Thurs secrated abbey of St. Peter s. It seems
day, the 5th of January, 1066, his speech
continued clear, and his intellectual powers * This is a
point which bears upon the trust-

active. Death had no terrors for him. %vorthiness of the author of the "

Life," for when

he wrote Harold was dead, and Harold s bitterest
He gave some directions as to his burial
foe and slayer, king William the Conqueror, was
in his abbey of Westminster, and his
only all-powerful in England.
though the haste was unseemly.
at first as stretched-out fingers more transparent
But the danger to the country was urgent: than ever.
there was not one moment to lose. The Wehave a contemporary representation
morrow the Epiphany must see the of some of these scenes in the Bayeux
burial of Edward and the coronation of tapestry. This wonderful tapestry, which
Harold Tostig and Harold Hardrada
for so many travellers in Normandy have
were threatening England on the north, seen and admired in the public library at
and the mighty duke of Normandy on Bayeux, where it is stretched out round
the south. Never did the land so urgently the room under glass, is generally accepted
need a strong wearer of the crown. Gloomy now by the more scholarly critics as a
indeed was the cloud which hung over piece of contemporary work, and is used
the doomed island, on that eve of the by writers on the period of Edward
Epiphany in 1066, when king Edward the Confessor and William the Conqueror

expired. With haste, but with all

all as one of the highest authorities. The
reverence, the body of the royal saint favourite tradition is repeated by Sir
was prepared for his tomb arrayed in ;
Francis Palgrave.* The tapestry which

his kingly robes, the crown upon his bears record of her husband s (William the

head, a golden crucifix suspended by a Conqueror s) achievements, is a unique

chain of gold about his neck, the pilgrim s memorial both of- his prowess and her


(From the Bayeux Tapestry.)

on his hand, the king lay ready for (Matilda s) industry ;
and the needles plied
lis last home. Edward looked, says his by herself and her damsels have assisted

Chronicler, in death as he had looked in as much as the historian s pen in com

ife he seemed even to smile, his long
memorating his victories."

vhite beard seemed whiter, and the thin, *"

Normandy and England."

It was, no doubt, worked in England. the period when the scenes it depicts were
The word embroidered on one of its being acted, and that the designer of the
divisions, Hasting-ccastra, is decisive, as tapestry had been an eye-witness of some
the peculiar form is nowhere of the scenes himself, and had received his



to be found out of England, and in Eng information of others from persons who
land we know that a famous school for had taken part in them. Every anti
these beautiful embroideries had long quarian detail relating to the costumes,
existed. It seems, from various local the armour of the fighting men, and of

peculiarities, that it is now, as then, in the horses, is correct. The soldiers of

itsown home,aycux; having been worked both armies are men-at-arms of the eleventh
for bishop Odo of Bayeux, the Conqueror s century, and nothing else. Every man,
half-brother, who out of the spoils of too, is
represented bearded, moustached,
England received the earldom of Kent. or close-shaven, according to his age and
It was probably a gift from the great nation. The very standard of Harold
warrior-bishop as an ornament to his own the famous Wessex dragon is depicted.
newly-built cathedral of Bayeux. There The utter absence of horses in the English
is no reason to doubt the
accuracy of the army, except as a means for reaching or
ancient tradition which assigns the
tapestry leaving the field, is evidently the thought
to queen Matilda.
Indeed, so vast and of an artist of the day.
important a work could only be carried It is therefore of great interest to find
out in such a school of needlework as that the four eminent personages described
no doubt existed in the contem-
under her care memoir
and superin of Edward the I
Confessor, writ
It has been ten for the
suggested that widowed queen, i
the tapestry is
are depicted in I
unfinished,and the tapestry in I
was designed to
the picture of 1
go on to the the king s death I
coronation of
viz. Harold, 1
William the
Stigand, Robert 3
Conqueror, and the Staller, and I
that its imper
queen Edith. I
fect state is
In that which I
represents the I
tilda s death in (From the Bayeux Tapestrv.)
large and ela- j
1083. There
borately orna-
is, however, no doubt but that this great mented hcuhts or coffin
piece of beautiful embroidery belongs to the Confessor in the bunaf scene, a"nd
the rough but no doubt accurate sketch Confessor. Disaster upon disaster ruin,
of the original abbey of St. Peter s, confiscation, calamity, exile followed in


(Front the Bayerix Tapestry.)

Westminster, we possess, doubtless, the the wake of the Norman Conquest, but
exact representation of the royal coffin in spite of all, the reputation of the dead
of the saint-king, and the abbey he Edward the last of the Anglo-Saxon
built and which he loved so well, just monarchs became more and more pre
as they appeared to the artist who designed cious among the conquered people. The
the tapestry. The historical and anti tradition of his extraordinary sanctity was
quarian value of such pictures cannot be prized also among the Norman
estimated too highly. The whole story, as well as the Anglo-Saxon race.
accurate though it be, is evidently told The reputed miracles at his tomb belong
by a Norman artist, and that Norman to the very first years of William s reign.
artist evidently closely connected with Quickly the legendary stories belonging
Bayeux and its semi-royal bishop Odo.* to his on earth began to be told. So

popular were these stories, that they soon

With wonderful rapidity, considering passed into the literature of the time.
the tremendous change which passed over The earliest collected edition of these
England within a few months of the king s legends of the Confessor that we possess
passing away, and which, it might have was made by Osbern, prior of Westminster.
been expected, would have thrown a veil These were somewhat developed by yElred
of forgetfulness over the memory of Anglo- (or Ethelred), a monk and afterwards abbot
Saxon Edward, grew the fame of the of Rivaulx. yElred was born at Hexham
* in 1109, forty-three years after king
Compare Freeman :

Norman Conquest," vol.

iii., Appendix, notes A and B on the Bayeux Tapestry. Edward s death, and spent his youth with

the in his was so

Henry, son of king David of Scotland. saint-king thoughts
Both these works were put out in the first constantly in the habit of dwelling upon
in the midst
half of the twelfth century, in less than religious matters, that even
a century after the saint-king s death. of a royal banquet he would forget the
^Elred s "Life of the Confessor" must present and dwell upon the themes
have been a very popular work, for there had so special an attraction for him. The
are numerous manuscripts of it existing latter part of the story belongs to the

in various libraries. Two, perhaps, of its realm of fiction. It tells how a special
best-known stories are remarkable for embassy was sent to Asia to verify the
their singularity and the circumstantial the royal vision. This was most
facts of

nature of their details, and were probably probably a subsequent addition to the
based originally on some events which original narrative.
actually took place. They deserve to The second of these legendary stories
be related, firstly, because they throw is an illustration of Edward s sympathy
light upon the character of Edward, with the poor of the people, and has for
and, secondly, on account of the popular its scene the church of St. John atClavering,

testimony they bear to the way in which where, on the occasion of the dedication
the king was remembered by the people of
ceremony, the king wishing to relieve a
England. They evidently thought of Ed beggar-man who asked an alms, and having
ward as one who, while in entire
sympathy no gold or silver available, gives the
with the common folk, was yet in closer suppliant a costly ring he was wearing.
communion with the spirit world than how subsequently
The story goes on to say
ordinary men. the ring was brought back to Edward by
The first of these belongs to some period an English pilgrim from the Holy Land,
in the last years of his The king with a message from St. John, who in the
was present at a state Easter
banquet at form of a beggar had asked the alms at
Winchester. The great thanes and pre
Clavering and to whom Edward had given
lates were sitting round the festal board. the ring. The purport of the message
Regardless of his guests, buried in his own from the saint in glory to king Edward
thoughts, Edward was noticed to smile. was, that as a reward for his generous,
Later in the day, in his private chaste life, he should within six months
earl Harold and two ecclesiastics admitted be with him in Paradise. As time went
to his confidence, ventured to ask their on the stories of the supernatural connected
lord the reason why he smiled to himself with this Anglo-Saxon monarch multiplied.
at the banquet. He told them he had In the long poem dedicated to queen
seen, as though in a vision, the seven Alianore about 1245, they form the most
sleepers of Ephesus, and, as he was look important part of the narrative.
ing, they turned in their slumber from the The first
monument erected was probably
right hand to the left. So far, the story was very plain, for the months which followed
probably a true memory of something that the death were indeed troublous ones. We
had actually happened. It shows us how read of the Conqueror, after the battle of
Hastings and the occupation of London, coveted honour could not be obtained
presenting two palls to be hung over the from Rome, where famous members of the
grave of his sainted kinsman. William, Anglo-Saxon church were not regarded
however, soon erected a more stately with peculiar favour. In the year 1161,
monument, which he decorated with however, the claims of Edward the Con
precious metals. Very soon reports of fessor to be recognised as a glorified saint

miracles worked at Edward s tomb were by western Christendom were at length

noised abroad. Blind men were said there acknowledged by Pope Alexander III. The
to receive their sight, the sick were healed, English advocates, both in church and
the sorrowing received comfort. state, of the merits of the holy Anglo-

Six-and-thirty years after the first inter Saxon sovereign, were too powerful this
ment the rest of the holy dead was dis time to be ignored. The archbishop-elect
turbed : men wished to look once more of Canterbury was Thomas a Becket, whose
upon the face of thewonder-working praise as a zealous and mighty ecclesiastic

saint. The coffin was exposed and opened was already in all the churches ;
and the
in the presence of abbot Crispin of West king of England was Henry II., the most

minster, and the bishop of

of Gundulf, powerful sovereign of his time, whose vast
Rochester. The story of the opening of dominions stretched from Scotland to the
the coffin relates how a sweet savour filled Pyrenees.
the great minster church, and how as the In the year 1 163 another and yet grander
garments of the grave were unwrapped, shrine for St. Edward was prepared by
the body lay as in sleep, the skin was Henry II., the Plantagenet king.Henry II.
still white and rosy as in life, the limbs and the archbishop assisted in lifting the

were still flexible. Bishop Gundulf tried wonder-working body into its new and
in vain to pluck a hair from the dead stately resting-place. The royal robes

king s snowy beard, to keep as a precious which lay around the corpse were removed,
relic. After gazing a while, the bishop and became precious vestments for the
and abbot once more reverently covered holiest of the sanctuary.
rites The
the body, and the tomb was closed. This anniversary of that solemn translation is

was in the year 1102. still

preserved in the calendar of the
Time passed on thirty-eight years
; Church of England.
elapsed the fame of the Confessor grew.
Yet further honours, however, awaited
Osbern, prior of Westminster, the well- the memory of Edward the Confessor.
known writer of Edward s life, and the The rebuilding of Westminster abbey by
chronicler of the many legendary stories Henry III. has already been described. In
which had grown up round his memory, the centre of that matchless pile the king
endeavoured to procure from Pope Inno resolved that a shrine of hitherto un
cent II., in A.D. 1140, the decree which dreamed-of magnificence should be hence
should formally canonise the saintly English forth the receptacle of the remains of the

king, and thus enrol him in the golden founder of the great church. No pains
book of western Catholicism. But the or cost were spared to render the new

sanctuary a fitting resting-place for the new and splendid home. The most illus
whose honour
saint in trious men in church and state among
great Anglo-Saxon
the new abbey of Westminster was built them two kings and two kings sons
and adorned. The most skilful craftsmen helped to lift the coffin of Edward into
were brought from Italy, and the most the stately shrine which was reared in the

precious materials were used for the gor centre of the royal English abbey. Suc
geous shrine though the materials used
; ceeding kings notably Edward I. and
Edward II. still further enriched with
costly gifts this marvellous shrine of the
But the highest honour was yet to
come. To
be laid near the holy body
was deemed the highest privilege by
successive sovereigns of the house of

England. To this feeling is

owing that
unique group of kings and queens, who to
this day keep watch and ward around the

sepulchre of the last Anglo-Saxon sovereign

of Cerdic s house. Close to him lie the
remains of Edith his queen, king Harold s
sister, and a yet more famous Edith, usually
known as Matilda, queen of Henry Beauclerc,
the lineal descendant ofAlfred. In the circle
of royal tombs around the shrine sleep
Henry III., Edward I., and Edward III.,
Richard II. and Henry V. the queens ;

Eleanor, Philippa, and Katherine, Anne,

the wife of Richard II., and Anne, the
queen of Richard III. and yet another ;

queen of the same name, Anne of Cleves ;

were costly and exceeding precious, we and besides these a number of royal and
read that the workmanship exceeded even distinguished personages more or less

the materials used. The basement of the famous in English history. Never had
shrine was of marble and mosaic work, the an earthly sovereign such a court as the
superstructure was of wood overlaid by dead Confessor has gathered round him
cunning goldsmith s work. The images in his stately abbey.

which filled the niches of this marvellous When in the royal abbey of West

piece of work were encrusted with gems, minster a stranger for the first time enters
many of them exceedingly precious. It what is termed the "

Chapel of the Kings,"

was finished in the year 1209, and once he is time awe-stricken at standing
for a

more the sacred body was translated to its in the presence-chamber of the
dead for around him, beneath those memorials of her own greatest sons and
derous monuments, sleep the kings and The feeling of sorrow and
queens of England whose names have regret deepens, at the sight of the pathetic
been with him since his child-days as wreck of the shrine raised high above the
household words." There lies Edward

tombs of the sovereigns of England the ;

the First, perhaps the greatest of English shrine which was the centre of all this
monarchs, and by his side the creator of faded regal splendour, which still
the glorious abbey, Henry III. There reposes the coffin of the holy king by
sleeps the conqueror of Cressy, and at a whom the mighty abbey was built, the


little distance from him the conqueror once adored saint of the English people,
of Agincourt :
by the side of one of the Edward the Confessor.
warrior-kings is the hapless murdered The story of the ruined shrine is as
Richard II. In the charmed circle, hard follows. From the year 1269, when
by the kings, rest eight of the English Henry III. replaced the body in the
queens, each in her day and time the new completed shrine, for some 269-270
centre of the most brilliant court of years the remains of the saint-king were
Christendom. As the eye wanders over untouched. Succeeding kings, however,
this storied chapel of the great dead, with kept on beautifying and enriching with
the scarred and broken tombs, huge and costly gifts the stately and superb tomb r

grey in the dim light, the sad thought the object of so much veneration. But in
comes up unbidden, how poorly, after all, the storm which accompanied the dissolu
has our England cared for these stately tion and plundering of the monasteries.

the rich environment of Edward s sanc choir of the abbey, having heard of the
fracture in the lid of the coffin, went and
tuary naturally excited the cupidity of king
secretly put his hand through the aper
Henry VIII. and his ministers. Every
of value was plundered the ture, and, turning the bones which he
thing ;

outer of the work of felt there, drew out a crucifix, richly

part Henry III.,

which held the coffin of the saint, was adorned and enamelled, and a gold chain
torn down the coffin itself of very ancient workmanship. This he
ruthlessly ;

was re-interred another part of the

in presented to king James II. The precious

abbey; the lower part of the shrine, of relicwas apparently stolen from the king
marble and mosaic, sadly mutilated and in his hurried flight from England. The
defaced, was allowed to remain. This act same Charles Taylor relates how at the
of sacrilege seems to have been carried time when he took the cross and chain out
out in the year 1538. Queen Mary drew the head of the king
of the coffin, he

determined to restore the body of to the hole and viewed it. It was, he

Edward to its old place. The ruined said, very sound and firm, with something
shrine was repaired, so far as the taste of in the nature of a gold coronet sur
the age would allow, and in the words of rounding the temples there was also

Feckenham, Mary newly-appointed abbot

s in the coffin white linen and gold-
of Westminster, "the body of the most flowered silk, but the least stress put
holy king Edward
though the heretics thereto showed that it was
had power on that wherein the body was perished. Patrick, prebendary of West
enclosed, yet on that sacred body they had minster, in his autobiography (quoted by
no power was found and restored to its dean Stanley) apparently refers to the
ancient sepulture" on March 2oth, 1557. same when he
fracture in the coffin-lid,
The marks of this hasty restoration are still writes how some workmen employed in
visible in the broken mosaic and displaced the abbey "

chanced to have a look at the

cornice of the base. All the upper part tomb of Edward the Confessor, that they
had been broken when the gold and gems could see the shroud in which his body
were plundered and the coffin removed. A was wrapped, which was mixed coloured
new wooden canopy was placed over it ; silk, very frail."
Taylor also relates

canopy has never been finished. his Majesty (James II.) was pleased, soon
Probably Feckenham intended it to be after the discovery (above related), to send
overlaid with gold, and enriched with to the abbey and order the old coffin to be
gems ;
but Mary s death stopped the work, enclosed in a new one, of an extraordinary
and just as Feckenham left it, it remains strength, each plank being two inches thick
to this day. and clamped together with large iron

Shortly after the coronation of James II. wedges."

in 1685, a rafter through the open ordered
fell It is apparently this outer coffin,
woodwork, and broke the coffin. One to be made by James, that is now visible
Charles Taylor, who belonged to the in the shrine.

Vague Character of the Papal Supremacy in Anglo-Saxon Times Terrible Corruption of the Papacy
Deposition of Benedict IX. by the Sutri Council Election of Leo IX. Influence of Hildebrand
on the new Pope Purification of the Papacy Accession of Hildebrand as Gregory VII. His
Idea of a Ruling Papacy His seeming Failure, but real Success His Warfare with Simony in
the Church Suppression of Marriage among the Clergy Cruelty of the Edict Its Political

the Anglo-Saxon period, as now and again presents of money were

we have seen, the influence of the Roman
sent to the see ;
but these gifts
pontiff on the internal affairs were rather destined for the assistance of
of the Church of England had been very English pilgrims to the apostolic city, than
slight. ^ Bishop Wilfrid of York in 678 and intended for the Pope in person. Indeed,
again in 704 formally appealed to Rome, in the connection between England and Italy
order to bring about his reinstatement in was mainly kept up by the constant flow
a diocese from which he had been expelled. of pilgrims, often of the highest rank, from
But in the case of the first appeal the decision our island to the sacred shrines of Rome.
of the Roman bishop was contemptuously This popular habit of pilgrimage was ever
ignored and in the second the partial re
a marked feature, in all times, of the
instatement of Wilfrid was due rather to Anglo-Saxon race.
the policy and kindly feeling of archbishop But anything like an acknowledgment
Theodore, than to any formal recognition of the right of the Pope to interfere in
of the right of Rome to interfere in the the affairs of the church, was absolutely
government of the church in England. unknown in Anglo-Saxon England. The
We certainly hear of no more of such rare apparent exceptions themselves bring

appeals. this out with conspicuous clearness.

A vague recognition of the dignity Only twice have we any mention of
of Rome as the


see no doubt legates, with an official mandate from

existed, principally manifested by the Rome, appearing on English shores. The
first and really solitary formal appearance
customary reception on the part of the
Anglo-Saxon archbishops of a pall from of Roman legates among the English,
the hands of the Roman prelate. This was king Offa of Mercia,
in the days of

recognition of a vague supremacy seems when the high-handed Mercian king ad

to have been rarely, if ever, refused. mitted these foreign delegates to the
There was also on the part of the council of Cealchythe in 786-787, and
Anglo - Saxon monarchs, a deferential accepted this legatine interference to
friendship with the bishop of Rome, and enable him to found the archbishopric of

Lichfield in his own kingdom of Mercia, centuries by kings and prelates and re
and thus to maim and partly
to destroy ligious houses in England. Meantime a
the power and influence of Jaenbert, arch brief sketch of Rome and its bishops will

bishop of Canterbury an arrangement help us to understand something of the

The position of Rome as regards England,
which only lasted a very few years.
second appearance of legates was at the the period which followed the death of

election of Wulfstan to the see of Wor Edward the Confessor, A.D. 1066. What
cester in 1062, when Edward the Confessor had been happening in Rome during the


was king. But their presence on this tenth century and the first half of the
occasion was accidental, and their influence eleventh, gives us a clue to understanding
and authority were scarcely acknowledged. why she made no advance in her ever
The time, however, was at hand when the growing claims for universal obedience,
interference of Rome with the Church of in distant countries like England, during
England became an important factor in that long period, and tells us the reason
its story; and with the Norman Conquest, of the strange silence of her pontiffs.
and under the Norman kings, there will
be much to state concerning the claims of The expiration of the dynasty of
Rome to interfere in ecclesiastical matters Charlemagne and the breaking up of

claims which were acknowledged for his empire, may be roughly dated from the

year 888, when king Alfred was reigning self-appointed. A well-filled purse pur
in England. A period of anarchy, both chased one papal abdication ;
the promise
in the empire and in the papacy, then set of a fair bride another. One of these holy
in. The
following striking words sum up fathers pillaged the
treasury, fled with the
the degradation of the popes during the returned to
spoil, Rome, ejected his sub
century and a half which followed the stitute, and mutilated him in a manner too


extinction of the Carlovingian dynasty. revolting for description. In one page of

The writer is
speaking of the popes who, this dismal history we read of the dis
during the age which then darkened upon interred corpse of a former pope brought
Rome and Italy, ascended the apostolic before his successor to receive a retrospec
throne. "

Two were murdered ;

five were tive sentence of deposition and in the

driven into exile ;

four were deposed ;
and next we find the judge himself under
three resigned their hazardous dignity. going the same posthumous condemna
Some of these vicars of Christ were raised tion, though without the same filthy
to that awful pre-eminence by arms, and ceremonial. Of these heirs of St. Peter,
some by money. Two received it from one entered on his infallibility before his
the hands of princely courtesans. One was eighteenth year, and one before he had
94 THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. [999 1046.

seen his twelfth summer. One again took popes of the tenth century lived rather
to himself a coadjutor, that he might like monsters or like wild beasts than like
command in person such legions as Rome bishops."

then sent into the field. Another, Judas- And in this long and shadowy line of
like, agreed for certain pieces of silver to Roman pontiffs, of whom one after the
recognise the patriarch of Constantinople other unnoticed into his dignity


as universal bishop. All sacred things and departs from it unregarded, or rather
had become venal. Crime and debauchery is suddenly thrust into the throne
by some
held revel at the Vatican ;
while the act of violence, and as suddenly dispossessed
afflicted church, wedded at once to three by means as violent," only a very rare
husbands (such was the language of the instance of a good and great man here and
times, there being three popes, each claim there occurs. Such was Gregory V., who
ing the title, reigning at the same time in during his short pontificate of three years,
Rome), witnessed the celebration of as 996-999, was reputed to be a man of
many rival masses in the metropolis of "

holiness, wisdom, and virtue," but who

Christendom." was cut the flower of his age, it
off in

In the language of another writer on is believed

by poison or his successor, ;

this melancholy century and a half,


At Gerbert, Silvester II., 999-1003, the most

Rome the centre of Christendom,

itself, eminent prelate of his age, u in learning
the vilest vices of the times of Tiberius or peerless, in piety unimpeachable," who

Caligula fiercely reappeared. It is almost died all too soon, also probably poisoned.
incredible, the extent to which a frightful From this terrible, almost incredible
corruption there prevailed. The annalists degradation, which lasted, it must be
of the Roman church stand remembered, a century and a
aghast before half, from
The Pornocracy or reign of harlots,
fie times of Edward
it. the days of Alfred to
is the terrible name by which a portion the Confessor, at last Rome emerged, and
of it is described most accurately. Dean a very different class of men in succession
Milman s explanation of that terrible "began occupy the papal chair. Bene

development is
temperate and brief This dict IX., who closed the
seemingly endless
anarchy of Italy led to the degradation of succession of wicked popes distinguished
the papacy the the of for their weakness and
degradation incapacity, and

papacy increased the anarchy of Italy. . .

many of them for their infamy, was cited
Europe was resolutely ignorant what to appear before a solemn council of the
strange accidents, caprices, crimes, in church, summoned by
the emperor Henry
trigues, even assassinations, determined the III. end to the awful scandal.
to put an
rise and fall of the supreme pontiff. No The council met at Sutri in 1046, thirty
Protestant colour miles north of
prepossessions this Rome, and was attended by
picture. Even the
learned and scrupulous many prelates. Benedict and two anti-
Mabillon had to confess that most of the
popes were forced to retire. The infamy
* Sir of Benedict IX. was even
James Stephen-. "Essays in Ecclesiastical conspicuous in
Biography. Hildebrand." * Dr. Storrs
Lectures: "Bernard o/Clairvatix."

the record of infamous bishops of Rome. Gradually the state of anarchy into which
Raised to the lofty but shamefully prosti Europe was plunged after the break-up of
tuted dignity at the age of twelve years, Charlemagne s empire, gave place to a
twice expelled from Rome by the outraged quieter and more settled state of things.
citizens, and driven into exile before the In the south, the Saracenic invaders
fierceloathing and hate of clergy and laity, ceased to terrorise the Mediterranean sea
he at last sold the papacy, and then re board of Spain, France, and Italy. In the
appeared again on the papal throne. It north, the yet more Vikings had
was to judge and condemn this Benedict spent their strength, and gradually sub
IX. that the Sutri council was summoned mitted to the influence of a civilisation
by the emperor Henry III. Later Italian they had so long harassed, and even
legends describe the shade of the pope threatened to destroy. In Germany and
as afterwards appearing in the form of a in the centre of Europe, the
empire was
bear with the ears of an ass, and as grimly partially re-established, and from the close

replying, when asked why he showed of the tenth century was ruled by em
himself in this horrible form, Because I "

perors of ability and power. In the centre

lived without law or reason, God and of France, the rise of the house of Capet

Peter, whose see I contaminated by my promised more settled and peaceful times ;

vices, decree that I shall bear this image while Normandy and the adjacent terri
of a brute, not of a man." tories on the west and east, under its

Two strangers, Suidger, bishop of Bam- mighty dukes, was growing rapidly into a
berg, and Poppo, bishop of Brixen, under rich and prosperous dominion. The story
the names of Clement II. and Damasus II., of Anglo-Saxon England has been already
filled the papal chair in succession, after related. In many respects, under the
the council of Sutri. They were men of strong kings of the house of Alfred, and
austere life, blameless and holy, but they later under Canute and Edward the Con
both rapidly succumbed to fever induced fessor,England had enjoyed a comparative
by the climate of Rome. Their successor freedom from the universal anarchy and
was the famous Bruno, bishop of Toul, confusion which more or less prevailed on
who, under the title of Leo IX., inau the continent.
gurated a new state of things at Rome. The great religious revival on the con
He was elected to the papacy in the year tinent of Europe began in the monastic

1048, when Edward the Confessor was orders, as before related, in a small re

reigning in England. ligious community founded as early as

This is not the place to discuss at length 912 by Berno, abbot of Beaune, at Cluny
the various causes which seem to have led near Macon in Burgundy, in which a
to the gradual "

Renaissance "

in religion specially austere form of the rule of St.

manifest before the middle of the eleventh Benedict was practised. By the end of
century, one of its most striking effects the twelfth century the congregation of
being, of course, this great change in Cluny, which had started into existence in
the character of the Popes of Rome. 912 with twelve poor monks, at a period

when the wildest misrule prevailed and met the monk Hildebrand, at that time

religious influence seemed dying, had de prior of the famous house. This extra

veloped into a mighty confraternity with ordinary man, of whom we must speak
no less than two thousand houses, spread presently with more detail, powerfully
over England and France, Germany, Italy, influenced the Pope-elect. Acting under
and Spain, all closely united to the mother the advice of Hildebrand, Bruno laid aside

monastery in Burgundy. And these were the insignia of the bishop of Rome, and

by no means alone. In the middle of in thehumble garb of a pilgrim, with bare

the eleventh century monasteries may be feetand lowly aspect, entered the Eternal
said again to have become an enormous City and submitted to a re-election on
power in Europe, and from these re the part of the Roman clergy and people.
formed and re-invigorated religious houses From this time forward Hildebrand was
emanated the spirit which inspired the the adviser and minister of Pope Leo IX.
long-degraded papacy with sanctity and and of his successors, till the time came
power, and supplied the men who were when, by universal acclaim, he took his
the instruments of its reformation. own seat on the chair of the chief pontiff,
When Bruno, bishop of Toul, was elected under the world-renowned name of Pope
to the papacy in 1048, he at once inaugu Gregory VII.
rated a new and nobler rule at Rome. The new Pope, Leo IX.,
influence of the
The circumstances under which he took was at once not only in Rome, but all

his seat in the papal chair are remarkable, through western Christendom. For the
and deserve to be related as showing the first time for about a
century and a half,
new spirit which was now to inspire the power of Rome again became a reality.
Romish church government. At the Leo IX. was at once a saint and a wise
nomination of the emperor Henry III., and ruler. He devoted himself with an un
in a German synod, Bruno had been elected.
tiring industry to reform the many abuses
Closely alliedby family ties to the imperial which disgraced and weakened the church.
dynasty, the bishop of Toul was famous far Nor were his ceaseless and successful en
and wide for his holiness of life, his gentle deavours by any means confined to Rome,
ness, and his boundless
charity. He was or even to Italy. Leo IX. "

came forth
no mean scholar, and was especially re to Europe not only with the
power and
nowned as a preacher. On his way from dignity, but with the austere holiness, the
Toul, whose graceful little cathedral travel indefatigable religious activity, the majestic
lers from Paris to Strasburg have often virtue which became the head of Christen
noticed without connecting it with the dom. Wherever he went (and
. . . his
famous prelate Leo IX., the first of the travelsextended over large portions of
great mediaeval popes, Bruno stopped for northern and central Europe), he visited
rest and refreshment at Cluny,
spiritual the most severe of the
clergy or of the
already celebrated as the centre of the monastic orders. Men
already sainted by
fast-growing religious fervour which was popular devotion, at such centres at Clugni
influencing the western world. There he and Vallombrosa, ... all recognised

a kindred spirit, and hailed the genuine Leo IX. His immediate successors carried

He held a council at Pavia. on faithfully his aims and his work.

He crossed the Alps to Germany, and Victor II., who followed him, was an
held an important council for church equally zealous reformer. Stephen IX.
reform at Rheims in France, and then and Nicholas II., the next occupants of the
presided over a German council of yet Roman see still under the guidance of
greater magnitude at Mainz. With the that Hildebrand of whom we have already


renovation of the papacy, a new spirit spoken carried on the great task begun
had indeed come over and was inspiring by Leo IX. Alexander II., whom we shall
the western church. hear of as the faithful ally and steady sup
We are not in this history concerned porter of William the Conqueror, was the
with the lives and troubles, with the last of the famous group of papal disciples
various episodes of success and failure, of Hildebrand ; who, when Alexander II.
of the occupants of the so-called chair of died, at last assumed himself the position
St. Peter. It must suffice us simply to of Pope, under the title of Gregory VII.,
chronicle thefact, of the great revival and in 1073. He raised the great office to
enlargement of the papal tradition under and authority hitherto
a pinnacle of glory
* Milman Latin book

i. undreamed of even by the most ambitious

Christianity." vi., chap.

and far-seeing of the long line of occupants of Europe might bow down in shame and
of the Roman see. sorrow at the inscrutable decrees of Heaven
in allowing its vicegerent thus to depart

The idea that something of a supreme from his original brightness, yet they
authority over all other churches some would veil their faces in awe, and wait in
thing of a superior sanctity beyond all trembling patience the solution of that
other sees belonged to the see of Rome, Indeed, that profound scholar

must have been for a long period deeply and copious writer, Cardinal Baronius,
founds a striking argument for the Divine

authority of the Papal church, on the fact

that it continued and still extended, in

spite of such monstrous iniquities, abhorred

of all
men, for generations were en
throned at the head of it, staining it, he
admits, with ineffaceable defilements.
But while the fact is conceded that all

this real, though possibly somewhat un

defined general reverence and attachment
to the see of Rome and its pontiffs had
existed for ages, it remains true that the
present position of the papacy (whose real
splendour and power and awful grandeur
only began at this juncture, in the middle
of the eleventh century) owes a vast debt
(From an Old Print.) to one man of supereminent genius, whose
magnificent conception of the work and
ingrained in the mind of Christendom, office of the holders of the so-called see
and could alone account for the fact of of St. Peter raised the bishops of Rome to
the survival of such veneration for Rome that lofty position in the church and the
and its bishops during the
century and world to which they attained in his ponti
a half of awful degradation and misrule
ficate, and which even after eight centuries

through which it had passed. Immemorial and a half, with certain modifications, they
tradition, carefully by succes
enlarged still
occupy in Roman Catholic countries.
sive generations of Roman bishops and In the earlier part of the eleventh cen
their ministers, connected this
great see tury, Hildebrand, the son of a Tuscan
directly with St. Peter
and his companions; carpenter, was brought in a monastic
and no temporary hiding of its Rome
power and house in Mary on the Aventine.
surpassing influence, any permanent In the year 1048 we find him occupying
effect on the estimation in which the the important position of prior of the
mother see of western Christendom was
great and rising monastery of Cluny in
generally held.

However the churches * Dean Milman.

10481085.} HILDEBRAND (GREGORY VII.). 99

Burgundy. Already thoughtful churchmen care of interests and the dispensation of

saw in the young Cluniac monk the pro blessings and curses, which, by comparison,
mise of future greatness, for he was reputed reduced to inappreciable vanities all the
to have made himself master of all the good and evil of this transitory world . .

knowledge of the times. Over Bruno of . . Before his prophetic eye arose a vast

Toul, known as Pope Leo IX., the restorer theocratic state in which political and re

of papal sanctity and influence, Hildebrand ligious society were to be harmonised, or

obtained, as we have already seen, an rather to be absorbed into each other. At
enormous influence. He accompanied Leo the head of this all-embracing polity the
to Rome, and became his chief minister bishop of Rome was to exert his legitimate

and confidential adviser ;

a position he authority over the kings and rulers of

maintained with ever - increasing power the earth."

The vastest empires of the
and renown under Leo s successors in the earth might, as had been seen in past ages,

papacy, directing their policy and guiding entirely pass away but the church was as ;

their action, until, at the death of Alex permanent as it was all-embracing. And
ander II. in the year 1073, when William of the church the bishop or Pope of Rome
the Conqueror was firmly established on was the chief minister ;
to the fulfilment of

the English throne, he was called by uni this awful and incomparable office he had
versal acclamation to seat himself in the been called.

papal chair. Any detailed history of his

eventful career does not belong to our pre
sent work ;
but so great was the influence
which he and his successors exercised upon
the Church of England after the Norman
Conquest, that it is necessary to form some
conception of the nature of the spiritual
domination which Hildebrand claimed to
possess, and eventually succeeded to a

large extent in exercising, over all the

western churches, among which England
was reckoned.
The mind of this greatest of the Popes,
the real founder of the rule which they
exercised in the Middle Ages, is, well
summarised in the following words "He
{From an Old Print.)

[Hildebrand] had, as Pope Gregory VII.,

become the supreme of Christ on
vicar The promulgated by Hilde

earth, the mortal head of an immortal brand at the council of Rome in 1076 as

dynasty, the depositary of a power de

legated yet divine, the viceroy to whom * Sir
James Stephen :

Essays in Ecclesiastical

had been entrusted by God Himself the


History : Hildebrand.
100 THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. [1073-1085.

presenting fundamental maxims of the (1073-1085), definitely set forth before

church, express and illustrate his whole the church and the world. He claimed

theory. Some of the more important of for papacy the greatest conceivable
these are as follows :
authority on earth and this was the ;


The Roman Church is founded by authority claimed, and often exercised,

God alone. as we shall see, in the Church of

"The Roman pontiff is

justly called England after the Norman Conquest.
universal. All priests, all monks, were to be his

His legate takes precedence of all obedient servants, while special legates

bishops in a council, though he be of nominated by him were to act as his

inferior rank, and he has power to pro ministers in the court and in every council.

nounce against them the sentence of This extraordinary man, who succeeded
to a great extent in establishing this

The Pope may depose those absent tremendous and enduring power in western
from such a council. Christendom, has been variously judged.

All princes shall kiss the feet of the His burning earnestness to reform and
Pope. change much in the church of his day and

It is lawful for him to depose kings time that he felt to be wrong and base,
and emperors. awoke an intensity of hatred on the part
"No council may be called a General of many whose lives he attacked, rarely
Council without the Pope s order. aroused even in this world, ever jealous

No capitulary, no book can be esteemed and prompt to act when its interests are
canonical without his authority. threatened. He was accused of arrogance
His sentence can be revoked by no one,

and of unbridled ambition, and even of

and he alone can revoke the sentences of want of truth and reality. The strangest
all others. of the many bitter things that have been
can be judged by none. said of Hildebrand, were uttered by his

one may dare to pronounce con dear friend Peter Damiani, the austere
demnation on one who appeals to the ascetic, at once affectionate and ironical,

apostolic see. when he called him St. Satan." On the


The Roman Church has never erred, other hand, to writers of the school of
nor for ever more will it err, the Scripture Montalembert, the ardent Romanist, the
remaining, however. character of the great Pope is simply

Without convening a synod, he (the sublime. This school dwells on the noble
bishop of Rome) may depose or reconcile ness and purity of his soul, and eloquently
bishops. describes the utterances of Hildebrand as

No one is to be esteemed a Catholic "

and blessed words, truly
who does not wholly accord with the worthy the pen of a Pope and the heart
Roman Church." of a saint, and which fill up the measure
Such was the outline of the scheme of that ineffable joy which rushes over
which Hildebrand, as Pope Gregory VII. Catholic soul at the of a
every sight
102 THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. [10731085.

courage so heroic, crowned by charity so view, not as a permanent, eternal, im

invincible." mutable law of Christianity, but as one
Without endorsing the rapturous en of the temporary phases through which
comiums of Montalembert, or the fervid Christianity was to pass the hierarchical,
laudations of the Romanist, who sees in the papal power of the Middle Ages has

the maintenance of the Papacy, with its been of immense benefit to mankind, "

tremendous claims, the only hope of the itsconservative fidelity as guardian of the
salvation of mankind, and who gratefully most valuable relics of antiquity, of her
acknowledges Hildebrand as the foremost arts, her laws, her language ; by its asser

champion of his creed, the fair-minded tion of the superiority of moral and re
historian must recognise in this great man ligious motives over the brute force of
intense earnestness, splendid devotion, man by the safe guardianship of the

and matchless self-sacrifice. He renounced great primitive and fundamental truths of

pleasure, ease, safety, and made his whole religion, which -were ever lurking under
lifean offering to elevate and to sanctify exuberant mythology and ceremonial ;

the church he loved and served. The above all, by wonderful and stirring ex
words of the great English historian of amples of mortification and self-sacrifice
the Latin church, with their conspicuous and self-discipline, by splendid ...
fairness and moderation, joined with a charities, munificent public works, cultiva
chivalrous appreciation of the mighty work tion of letters, the strong trust infused
really accomplished by the lofty conception into the mind of man, that there was some
of Hildebrand, admirably express the feel being, even on earth, whose special duty
ing which at present inspires the more it was to defend the
defenceless, to suc
generous sons of the Church of England cour the succourless. . . . All these
towards the Papacy and its wondrous story things, with all the poetry of the Middle
a story which by no means only belongs Ages in its various forms of legend, of
to the past. verse, of building, of music, of art, may
The writer sums up his estimate of the justify or rather command mankind to look

papal power as created by Hildebrand back upon these fallen idols with rever
(Gregory VII.) by conceding this idea to ence, with admiration, and with gratitude.
have been magnificent; but he asks u how The hierarchy of the Middle Ages counter
itwas reconcilable with the genuine sub balances its vast ambition, rapacity, cruelty,

limity of Christianity, that an order of men, by the most essential benefits to human
that one single man, should thrust him civilisation. The Papacy itself is not
self between man and God should array merely an awful but a wonderful institu

himself, in fact, in secondary divinity ? tion. Gregory VII. (Hildebrand) himself

He paints the awful incongruity between is not contemplated merely with awe, but
the churchman and the Christian; between in some respects, and with great drawbacks,
the alleged representative of the Prince as a benefactor to mankind." *
of Peace and the Prince of Peace Himself ;
It has been well said that "

effort is

and then he goes on to say,


Yet in a lower * Milman :


Latin Christianity."
10731085.] HILDEBRAND S WORK. 103

more valuable than achievement," and can see, shows no sign of cessation, but little

that u the real value of a man s work is mark of decay. The spiritual kingdom,
not to be tested by the immediate visible the foundations of which he laid more
results and further, that it is not what


than eight centuries ago, has been, all

a man does that exalts him, but what a through the changes of that long and
man would do." This was conspicuously eventful period, a most important factor in
the case with Hildebrand ;
for after a all
history, civil as well as ecclesiastical.
life spent in ceaseless toil and en For good or for evil, this mighty influence
deavour, after being elevated to the loftiest still broods over all lands, and has to be

dignity in Christendom, after seeing the reckoned with even by peoples who utterly
reforms which he judged absolutely neces decline thecommunion of Rome. Hilde
sary for the maintenance of the life of the brand the Restorer we should say more
church largely carried out, truly the Creator of the

after witnessing Papacy is cele

the strange spectacle of the emperor, the brated as the reformer of the impure and

greatest potentate in the western world, as profane abuses of the age he is more ;

a suppliant clad in a thin penitential gar justly entitled to the praise of having left

ment, with bare feet, waiting during three the impress of his own gigantic character
cold winter days at his gates for a word of on the history of all the ages which have

pardon and reconciliation from his lips succeeded him."

we see the strange spectacle of this Pope, Of theimpure and profane abuses
" "

an old man worn out with never-ending above referred to, which dishonoured the
toil and care, dying an exile from Rome, church and most gravely marred her use
a fugitive from his enemies, seemingly a fulness, and against which Hildebrand and
broken and defeated man, and murmuring the men of his school warred an implacable
with his last breath to a group of devoted warfare a warfare attended by consider
friends standing round his death-bed,

I able success, the first and principal and

have loved righteousness and hated ini most dangerous abuse was the fatal and

widely-extended sin, termed


quity, therefore I die in exile." simony."

The failure was, however, only a seeming This age has little conception of its preva
failure. The man, weak and sickly, of lence and of consequences to
its frightful

slight frame and small stature, it is true the church in the eleventh century the
died an exile and a fugitive, watched over age of Hildebrand. The evil had grown
by strangers and a few devoted friends ; up during that long period, lasting more
justifying to the last the righteousness of than a century and a half, during which
his works and days, but lamenting bitterly anarchy and confusion had existed in all
with his breath the sad guerdon of
last the countries of Europe. Episcopal sees
desertion and exile which the world had were bought and sold. They were often
bestowed upon him as a return for all his conferred on the children of princes

life-long labours and sacrifice. But as for and powerful men at a tender age, when
thework to which he gave his life, it has they were utterly unfit to perform even
endured it endures still, and, as far
as we * Sir
James Stephen s Essays :


the humblest duties of the priesthood. of such crying iniquities. Peter Damiani,
Too often the prelate who had purchased the austere friend of Hildebrand, does not
at a great price his see from the sovereign, scruple to call such simonical prelates
endeavoured to recoup himself for the "heretical brigands,"
and tells us it was
outlay by selling in his turn the inferior even easier to convert a Jew than to bring
prebends or cures. Councils of the church such sinners to repentance. But after the
and popes of Rome had perpetually de middle of the eleventh century a very
nounced this terrible abuse but pope and ;
different state of things was introduced
council for a long time had been too into the church, under the new rule and
weak, perhaps too tainted themselves, to example of the better popes, and the stern
enforce the anathemas they judged it ex and self-denying teaching of the reformed
pedient to launch against the sharers in religious houses in every country of Europe.
this shameful traffic. Thus the evil grew That the wave of this degrading and
instead of diminishing. When the Popes almost inconceivable sin of simony, which
under the influence of Hildebrand, and later, in its worst and most exaggerated form
Hildebrand himself, aided by the ever- corrupted the church on the Continent
increasing power of the reformed monastic in the tenth and first half of the eleventh

orders, with hands strengthened by their centuries, also passed over the Church
own austere lives and holy example, took of England, is Indeed,
the matter in hand in good earnest, they it is
scarcely thinkable that so general a
found the whole church literally honey degradation could have existed in the
combed by this strange and fatal practice. continental churches, without more or less
The highest bishops confessed their guilt. affecting England. There is no doubt
In the dark days of the tenth century, the but that in the short reigns of Harold and
very bishopric of Rome had been notori Harthacanute, the evil sons of the religious
ously bought and sold. Canute, simony to some extent
existed ;
To give one striking instance. The for we read of Stigand, afterwards arch
bishop of Florence, in the year 1060, was bishop, at that time the priest of Canute s
accused of having notoriously bought his church of Assandun, being appointed to a
important bishopric for a great sum bishopric in the reign of Harold Harefoot,
through the intervention of his father. but deposed, seemingly before consecration,
The father, when questioned as to the because another competitor for the see
transaction, replied,

There is not so was prepared with a larger sum. In the

much as a mill to be had from the days of his brother Harthacanute, when
king without paying money so for the ; that king was keeping the midwinter festival
bishopric of Florence I had to pay 3,000 at Gloucester, of
Edmund, bishop Durham,
livres" an enormous sum in those days. died at the court. Harthacanute sold the
This almost universal simony was now see of Durham to a priest of the name
generally acknowledged to be a crime ;
of Edred. One of the chroniclers relates
but it was no light task which Hilde how this Edred at the time appointed for
brand set himself, to purge the church his installation fell ill and died.

Even in the days of Edward the Confessor

against which Hildebrand warred was

the practice so justly abhorred in all times of a very different complexion. One of
by true servants of the church of pur the distinguishing characteristics of Latin
chasing preferment was not unknown but ; Christianity ever since the closing years of
no shadow of suspicion of countenancing the fourth century, when Jerome largely
thisshameful procedure rests upon king guided the counsels of Rome, was an en
Edward or his chief minister, earl Harold. forced celibacy the men
among set apart


(Rebuilt by Gregory VII. in the Eleventh Century.)

They appear to have been absolutely op for the service of the altar. Based originally
posed to
simony any form. The way
in upon St.words, which dwell upon
Paul s

however, in which these acts are noticed the greater usefulness, the more entire
by chroniclers, clearly shows that simony, devotion of men so set apart to Christian
while it was not unknown to a certain society, they were entirely unfettered by

extent among the less noble and con the cares and duties and grave responsibili
scientious clergy and
laity England, in ties ofdomestic and family life, celibacy by
never existed in the Anglo-Saxon church degrees assumed the position of a virtue,
to the fearful extent to which it prevailed and seemed to justify those who practised
in Italy and on the continent of Europe. it assuming a dignity and authority

The other great "

abuse "

or "

prevalent superior to the rest of mankind. In

io6 THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. [10731085.

the Latin church, in Rome, and in the But mere reformation of the moral tone
of the clergy was not what Hildebrand
foreign churches in communion with Rome,
the policy of the men who guided the aimed at. He waged war with equal
church was in every possible way to dis bitterness and determination against the

courage and even to forbid marriage among lawfully married priests, as with the multi
the clergy. This policy had gone on for tude of their brethren in holy orders who
several centuries. It had been stoutly lived inopen concubinage. To Hildebrand
opposed by the majority of the clergy in itappeared as absolutely necessary for the
all lands and, indeed, everywhere the
work of that church of the future of which
married clergy formed the majority. We he dreamed, that her officers should be
have seen how bitterly the attempt to trained to renounce the world and its
force celibacy on the priests of England affections and ties even legitimate and
had been resented in the days of Dunstan. holy ties and, possessing neither home or
It became certainly a law of the church, but country, to devote themselves wholly to
a law which was defied, infringed, eluded the service of the church, and the pro
in every conceivable way, and which had motion of her interests and power. Nor
never obtained anything approaching to was this in Hildebrand s case the policy

general observance in any of the countries of a mere selfish and ambitious priest. It

belonging to Latin Christianity. The was alone through the existence and work
existence of the law against the marriage of the church of which he dreamed, as
of the clergy, and the prejudice which he believed, that the earthly weal and
centuries of teaching on this subject had the eternal salvation of mankind could
naturally created, led to a vast number of be secured.
connections on the part of the priests.
illicit With this in his mind, only a few weeks
Marriage for them was condemned by the after he had become Pope Gregory VII.,
church. It would probably, if entered upon, Hildebrand summoned a council to meet
be a bar to their advancement in their at the Lateran, and promulgated a law,
own order, if not a hindrance to their not merely simply forbidding the marriage
usefulness; hence the alarming preva of priests, but commanding every priest to
lence of unblessed unions among the put away his wife bidding the faithful

secular clergy. The anarchy and confusion laity besides, to shun all sacred offices at
in the church and among the nations which any married priest dared to cele
during the past hundred and fifty years had brate. And the enormous influence which
tended vastly to increase this state of the commanding genius of Hildebrand
doubtful morality among the vowed ser had won throughout western Christendom
vants of God. And it is certain that when actually succeeded in carrying into effect
Hildebrand lived and worked, the moral which was promulgated
this stern decree,
condition of many of the clergy in the far and wide. Innumerable pure and happy

churches of the west was deplorable, and priestly homes were broken up for moral ;

indeed sorely required a stern and upright and immoral clergy were equally denounced
reformer. by the large majority of church rulers,

fascinated or persuaded against their will Bee Bee, the home afterwards of Lanfranc
by the great Pope. The task was not and Anselm first betook himself to the
accomplished without difficulty. Arch monastic life, in the year 1037, an un

bishops were even stoned in their pulpits married priest or bishop was hardly to be
when they read the decree of Rome. found in Normandy. Eloquence against
Abbots were dragged from their assemblies carrying out the cruel decree of Hildebrand
and scarcely rescued alive. A hatred un "

was never more pathetic, more just, or

precedented was roused against the great more unavailing. Prelate after prelate
author of the stern and unbending law ;
silenced these remonstrances by austere
and no doubt the eventual fall and death rebukes. Legate after legate arrived with
of Hildebrand in a lonely exile, was the papal menaces to the remonstrants. . . .

earthly guerdon he received for enforcing It was a struggle not to be

this tremendous sacrifice from the church Broken hearts pined, and died away in
whose devoted minister he was. silence. Expostulation subsided into mur
But, though Hildebrand was allowed to murs, and murmurs were drowned in the
die in exile disregarded and unhonoured, general shout of victory. Eight hundred
his work was done successfully done. years have since passed away. Amidst the

Never was legislative foresight so verified wreck of laws, opinions, and institutions,
by the result." What former councils of this decree of Hildebrand this day s at
world-wide notoriety, what mighty states rules the Latin church in every land where
men-archbishops, what scholars and teachers sacrifices are still offered on her altars.
whom the Christian world has never ceased Among us but not of us, valuing their
to honour and to applaud had attempted, rights as citizens chiefly as instrumental
but attempted in vain, Hildebrand suc to their powers as churchmen, . . . the
ceeded in accomplishing at once, effec sacerdotal yet flourishes in every

tually, and for ever. There was a terrible Christian the imperishable and
struggle, as may well be conceived, against gloomy monument both of that far-sighted
carrying out the decree of Rome how ; genius which thus devised the means of
terrible can be conceived when the number papal despotism, and of that short-sighted
of married clergy at this time is taken into wisdom which proposed to itself that des
account. To give one instance when :
potism as a legitimate and laudable end."

* Sir
Herlwin, the founder of the monastery of

James Stephens :


Brief Reign of Harold Brilliant Victory over the Danes Duke William of Normandy Relations of
Harold and William The Invasion a "

Holy Lanfranc His Early

War "Norman Conquest
Life Influence regarding the Doctrine of Transubstantiation Becomes Primate of England
His Stainless Character and Popularity Changes the Character of the Church of England-
Ecclesiastical Courts Greater Subjection to Rome Celibacy Enforced Changes in Bishoprics
Outburst of Church-building Probably Churches of Expiation Norman Architecture-
Establishment of Uniform Ritual The Domesday Book Death of William Death of Lanfranc.

the son of Godwin, the earl ranks, when brought face to face with the

of Wessex, the faithful adviser and second were simply too few in number.
brother-in-law of Edward the Con

was the fate of in this memor
fessor, was chosen king by the unanimous able year to be exposed to two invasions
voice of the Witan of England, and was at the same moment and against two in

solemnly crowned the in new abbey of vasions," writes the great panegyrist of the
Westminster on the very day (January last Saxon king, "the heart and arm of

6th, 1066) which had witnessed the inter Harold himself could not prevail."
ment of Edward in thesame new abbey. skill nor bravery was lacking to Harold and
His reign lasted only nine months, and it hisarmy at Hastings. It was simply that
witnessed two formidable invasions, the fate the foes were too numerous. After that
of each being decided by a long-contested and long day s fighting scarcely any real warrior
bloody battle. The story of England we of the English army survived They had !

may wel I say the story of the world has been fought to the last and to the bitter end.
coloured by the events of that short sad reign.
As a king, a statesman, and a military During the early months of his reign
commander, Harold must always be classed king Harold was busy preparing for the
in the first rank. He
appears in the testi dreaded invasions. He knew that he had
mony of contemporary English records deadly foes in the north ;
he knew, too,
as an almost perfect monarch that duke William was busy preparing in
patriot ; wise,
far-seeing,devoted to his country s good, a the south to seize the coveted English
strong defender of law and order, a firm crown. But in the midst of his war pre
friend to the church. His melancholy fate parations, he by no means neglected the
was simply owing to the fact, that the interests of the Church of England. His
almost simultaneous double invasion famous educational foundation of Waltham
such mighty foes, was more than Harold s he further endowed and carefully watched
forces were able to cope with. The over. One of his favourite advisers was
and decisive victory
brilliant in the north Ethelwig, the wise abbot of the important
had cost him dearly, and thinned
his monastery of Evesham, at the foot of the

x>tswold hills ;
but his dearest friend and disloyalty. It will be remembered that in
;ounsellor was the saintly bishop Wulfstan the late reign Tostig, Harold s
brother, a
}f Worcester. favourite and friend of Edward the Con
Wulfstan had been his intimate asso- fessor, had ruled over Northumbria; but


ciate for years, and in company with had contrived to win the hate instead of
him, during the few short months of the love of the people of the broad northern
comparative peace, he journeyed into earldom, and in consequence had been de
the north, and with great skill pacified posed from his government in the later
the turbulent inhabitants of Northumber years of king Edward s life. It would seem
land, who showed signs of disaffection and probable that some feeling against Tostig s

brother largely influenced the Northum to fly by the northern earls Edwin and
brian people. The biographer of Wulfstan Morkar.
and sudden But this raid was only the precursor
especially attributes the quiet
revulsion of feeling in Harold s favour, the of a far more formidable invasion. Tostig
result of his presence among them, to the had already persuaded Harold Hardrada,
reverence which was universally felt for the king of Norway, to invade England.
Harold Hardrada s early and romantic
the king s companion and adviser, the
career has been already briefly sketched.
holy Wulfstan.
Harold came to London from the north, His fame as a warrior and a Viking chief,
to keep at Westminster his first and, alas ! and and prudent king, ex
later as a wise

only Easter feast as king of England. Just

tended far beyond his own Norway. His
after that great church festival there ap invasion of England, which Harold had
what men looked to repel in that sad and short reign of
peared in the skies
upon as a terrible portent, a singularly nine months, was no mere Viking raid of
brilliant comet. The chroniclers relate it was intended to be a formal
plunder ;

how for thirty nights (others say only for subjugation of England, of which the re
seven),from sunset to dawn, this bright star nowned Viking chief entertained no doubt
blazed like a sun in the darkened heavens, he would soon be master. His mighty
with a vast train of light streaming behind fleet numbered as
many as three, or even,

it. In the England of Harold, men s minds according to five hundred

many accounts,
were already strangely excited by events vessels indeed,
some of the recitals of

just past, and by the calamities said to have Hardrada s expedition tell us that his ships
been foreseen in the near future. The numbered a thousand vessels of war. His
end of the ancient race of Cerdic in the wife and his son Olaf accompanied him,

person of the sainted Edward the election

with other members of his family. In fact,
of a great hero of another race the threat
so certain was the northern hero of success,
ened invasion of the dreaded Scandinavian that his expedition bore the character of
hero from the north, and of the mighty a domestic emigration, as it has been well
duke of the Normans from the south ; termed, and very careful arrangements had
these things led men to look on the sudden been made for the government of Norway
appearance of the great star as a dread by an under-king, one of his sons, while
portent of evil. he reigned in England as Canute had done
The troublous times predicted by the before him. Vast treasures, which he had
dead king were indeed at hand. Very soon gathered in the course of his long wander
after the Easter feast and Gemot held at
ing life of war, formed part of the precious
Westminster, Tostig, the late earl of North cargo of this great Viking fleet. One of
umberland, and a hostile fleet had appeared these treasures, which from its enormous
in the Channel, and was ravaging the value became historical, was a solid ingot
southern shores. With little trouble Tostig of pure gold, so large that twelve strong
was driven away, and sailed for the north. men could scarce carry it. This mighty
There, too, he was met and soon compelled golden ingot appears again as part of the
boundless wealth of William the Conqueror, of his men before the decisive battle, will

acquired after the Conquest. ever stamp Harold of England as a great

Rapid was the progress of the northern strategistand general. The Norwegian
invaders, swollen by reinforcements of saga which tells the story of the awful
ships and fighting men from all parts battle between the two Harolds, describes

of the north-west of Europe. The fleet the dread surprise of the Vikings at the
of Hardrada entered the Tyne, where one appearance of the Saxon army. At first,
army landed and marched south, meeting the cloud of dust which heralded their
with but little resistance, while the fleet approach was mistaken for a friendly force,

sailed to the Humber. Harold Hardrada possibly a division of the Northumbrian

penetrated with his host to York, which men-at-arms belonging to the cowed and
at once submitted to him, and then, after defeated Northumbrian earls. But soon

receiving the submission of the northern the vast numbers and threatening appear

capital, the Viking pitched his camp at ance of the oncoming Saxons, told the
Stamford Bridge, some eight miles north Vikings that that great array of shields
east of the city, never dreaming of the and armour, glistening like the ice of their

stern resistance he was so soon to meet own northern country, belonged to foe-
with, so strangely had he miscalculated men ready to fight to the death for their
the resources and undervalued the military native land.*
skill and daring of the Saxon king. We have, unfortunately, no authentic
Harold was then suffering from severe record of the battle that followed. It seems,

sickness, but he never gave himself an however, that Hardrada was certainly more
instant repose from the moment he heard
s or less taken by surprise. The Northmen
of the approach of the Viking fleet. Far had never dreamed of that splendid march
from being unprepared, his ceaseless energy of Harold and his army. The fight of Stam

had been from the very day of his corona ford Bridge was fought on September 25th
tion at Westminster preparing to resist one of that eventful, fatal year, and ended with
or other of those dangerous foes whom he the utter rout of the invading host of
knew he would soon have to meet in deadly Hardrada. On that stricken field fell the

combat. With extraordinary rapidity he famous Viking, -with nearly all of his most
marched from London to York. As he trusted chieftains and among the dead

moved northward great bodies of armed was Tostig, somewhile earl of North-
men joined him. The whole strength of umbria, to whose intrigues the invasion by
southern and central England were with Hardrada of Norway was mainly due. The
him when he reached the northern capital, famous raven banner of Norway, called the
and before Hardrada had any idea that an and the vast treasures of

army was at hand, he was confronted with the Vikings, fell into the hands of the
the host of Harold. English king, and the poor remnant of the
His rapid march, that extraordinary and mighty northern host, with the body of

rapid mustering of the armed forces of the *

Compare Freeman : "Norman Conquest,"
south and midlands, the skilful disposition ch. xiv., i, 2, 3.

their king, were suffered to retreat to their behind him so truly an abiding possession
when they at once sadly sailed for for all time, as duke William, generally

Norway, which they had left only a few known as the Conqueror and the policy ;

weeks before with such high and con of the Norman duke and his chief adviser

fidenthope of an easy conquest. may be said to have had more permanent

But the terrible victory was dearly bought. upon the Church of England, than
The flower of the English troops had been even upon the civil affairs of our country.
brought together by Harold of England The work was of exceeding im
of Alfred

to meet the northern invaders, and it was portance ;

raised England to a
Henry II.

but a thin remnant of that splendid army position of undreamed-of power; Edward I.
which, after the decisive battle, re-entered was perhaps the greatest and most far-
the neighbouring York in triumph. Far, seeing of the illustrious princes who have
indeed, was the English host from coming satupon this island throne ;
the work of
scatheless writes the historian from that Henry VIII. has had a measureless influence
awful struggle. Many of the faithful upon the fortunes of the English people and

house-carls, the flower of Harold of Eng of our church. Apart from any of these
land army, lay dead on the stricken field
s great ones, however, it is possible still to
of Stamford Bridge. Many a noble thane think of England growing into its present
had given his life for his country; for, in unique position in the world. But William
truth, the vanquished invaders had sold the Conqueror s personality positively can
their lives dearly. But the victory was a not be so withdrawn without him, the rise

victory as decisive as any to be found in of the Anglo-Norman empire is an unthink

the whole history of English warfare." able thought. Other great men rank, and
There was a great banquet held at York will ever hold their proud position, among
to celebrate it, and the story tells us how, the makers of England. But duke William
while the king in all his pomp was seated the Conqueror alone can be styled the
at it, a messenger hot with haste arrived maker of England. On the continent of
to tell him how William, duke of the Europe, again, have many other men
Normans, had just landed with a vast array arisen, who in their day and time have
on the shores of Sussex, and was ravaging exercised an enormous influence in the
the land far and near. world ;
but the life-work of none of these,
not even that of the great Charlemagne,
The leading events of the previous life of has had anything like the enduring in
this William, duke of the Normans, were fluence of the life-work of the Norman
briefly set forth in
Chapter XXII., from Conqueror. The England so largely his
his accession in 1035 to the throne of work and creation still the
his father, duke Robert the most influential of the world -
Magnificent, powers.
until the year of the accession of Harold Only one influence can be compared to
in 1066. No mere man in the whole it: that of Hildebrand, William s contem
Christian era has so powerfully influenced
porary and ally, who as Gregory VII. was
the world s destinies, has left his life-work the maker of that vast spiritual domination

we the Papacy, which endures, too,

call faithful friend, and an affectionate
though shorn of much of its old power, brother."

to this day. One of the bravest soldiers of the time,

William the Conqueror s character was he excelled in all martial exercises. In

a complex one good strangely alternates
the decisive battle of Hastings his personal
with evil. One feature of it has been prowess was long the subject of the lilts of
always dwelt upon by the king s more trouveur and troubadour. A great strate
serious biographers : his fixed purpose, his gist and a consummate leader of men, his

unbending will. In his marvellous life- war-filled life is illustrated by a succession

story we see, that whatever the will of of remarkable and notable victories. As a
William decreed, he found means to bring statesman he was unequalled in Europe.
it about. "

Utterly unscrupulous, though Nor was he less notorious for his skill in
far from unprincipled, taking no pleasure administration than for his generalship in
in wrong or oppression for its own sake, the field. In his own great Norman prin
always keeping back his hands from needless cipality he found a state torn with internal

bloodshed, he yet never shrank from force or dissensions and rent with anarchy : under
fraud, from wrong or bloodshed or oppres his firm, strong rule Normandy and its

sion when they seemed to him the straightest

broad dependencies became a loyal and
paths to carry out his purpose. His crimes peaceful land, a model to all the kingdoms
admit of no denial, but with one single and states of the Continent. "Had he
exception they never were mere wanton never stretched out his hand to grasp the
crimes. His personal virtues were
. . . diadem which was another s, his fame
throughout many and great.
life hear We would not have filled the world as it now
much of his piety, and we see reason to does, but he would have gone down to his
believe that his piety was something more grave as one of the best as well as one of
than the mere conventional piety of lavish the greatest rulers of his time." t
gifts to monasteries. Punctual in every And in conquered England, in spite of
exercise of devotion,paying respect and the untold misery which the great Con
honour of every kind to religion and its quest brought on unnumbered homes and
ministers, William showed in two ways hearths; in spite of the awful crime which
most unusual among the princes of that made a desert and a waste of a vast part
age, that his zeal for holy things was of Northumbria when once the Conquest

neither hypocrisy nor fanaticism nor super was over and done, England was the most
stition ;
he appeared as a real united and the most powerful and re
ecclesiastical reformer, and he allowed the spected realm in western Christendom ;

precepts of his religion to have a distinct while within its own borders life and pro
influence on his private life. He was one perty were safer than they had ever been
of the few princes of that age whose hands under the strongest of the Anglo-Saxon
were wholly clean from the guilt of simony The national Chronicler, one who
in a profligate age he was a model of loved not the Norman rule, but who is
conjugal fidelity. He was a good and * Professor
Freeman. t Ibid.
scrupulously just and fair, after dilating nought of them. . . . Alas ! that any

upon the disastrous, rueful years of the man should so exalt himself and carry him
stern conquest, after bitterly condemning self in his pride over all May Almighty

the hard avarice of William and his chiefs, God show mercy to his soul and grant him
loving as they did to amass gold and silver, the forgiveness of his sins."

not caring how sinfully it was gotten, so

that it came into their hands, thus speaks We left king Harold, it will be remem
of the Conqueror King William was a bered, in the last days of the September of

very wise and a great man, more honoured that fatal autumn of the year 1066, sitting
and powerful than any of his predecessors. amidst his thanes at the York banquet,
He was mild to those good men who loved held to celebrate the crushing defeat

(From the Bayeux Tapestry.)

God, but severe beyond measure to those which the English king had inflicted on
who withstood his will. . . . The good king Harold Hardrada, the last of the long
order which he established in the land is line of Viking warriors who had harassed
not to be forgotten it was such that any
; England. As he feasted there came, all
man who was himself aught might travel dusty and worn with hard and rapid travel,
over the kingdom with a bosom full of gold a messenger who brought him the dread

unmolested, and no man durst kill another, though not unlooked-for news that William
however great the injury he might have the duke of the Normans had landed with
received from him but he was of great
a vast army in the south of the island, and
sternness, and he took from his subjects with all solemnity and earnestness had
many marks of gold and many hundred asserted his claim to the crown of England.
pounds of silver, and this either with or The claim, after all though William con
without right, and with little need . . . trived to make it good was based on
The rich complained and the poor mur somewhat unreal foundations. As far back
mured, but he was so strong that he recked Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (Peterborough), A.D. 1087.

as the year 1051, on the occasion of a visit minister, famous alike as a great English
of duke William to Edward the Confessor, thane, as a successful general, as a wise

some kind of a promise was made by the and competent statesman. Long before

childless king to his Norman the king s fatal illness, earl Harold was the
kinsman that he would adopt him as his most powerful and the wealthiest, as well


(From the Bayeiix Tapestry.)

successor. It would seem, too that then, as the most popular Englishman. There
during that visit, William had done homage is no doubt that duke William feared him
to Edward, probably owing to this promise. as hismost formidable rival for the English
Whatever may have been the promise, crown. In the latter years of the Confessor s
there is no doubt but that at a later period reign, when all men s eyes were fixed on
of his reign the promise was cancelled; for Harold as the probable successor to the
king Edward changed his mind completely childless Edward, Harold visited Normandy.

concerning the succession, as he subse During that visit there is no doubt that
quently sent to Hungary for his nephew Harold did something, entered into some
Edward, with the view of adopting the exile
compact with William, which enabled
as his heir. Edward the exile, soon after William to charge him with perjury and
his arrival in England, we know, died, and breach of the duty of a vassal. It is incon

his son, known afterwards as Edgar Athel- the

ceivable," writes learned panegyrist of
ing, was little more than a child when the Harold, and unlike the formal scrupulous

Confessor died. But William of Normandy ness of William s character, to fancy that
never forgot the promise and the homage, on the death of king Edward the Con
and seems ever to have cherished the idea fessor he made his formal appeal to
that he was the Confessor s acknowledged Christendom without any ground at all "

equally inconceivable that such a generally
During the king Edward s
latter years of received story should have grown up so

earl Harold, the son of near the alleged time without some kernel
life, Godwin, the
king s brother-in-law, rose in of truth in This generally received
gradually it."

power and in public estimation. He be story was that Harold, on his way to the
came king Edward s trusted friend and * Professor Freeman.

court of Rouen, probably on some friendly which veiled the chest was withdrawn, and
mission from Edward to William, was there from abbey and from church, it was.

thrown by a storm on the coast of Pon- seen, had been collected all the relics of
thieu. Guy, the count of the province, human nothingness in
superstition, which
seized and imprisoned the English earl, adored the mementoes of saints divine ;
who was liberated through the friendly there lay, pell-mell and huddled, skeleton)
mediation of duke William, who brought and mummy, the dry, dark skin, the white-
him to Rouen, but rather as a ransomed gleaming bones of the dead, mockingly cased
in gold and decked with rubies, their grim
captive than as an English thane charged
with an embassage. Before releasing him fingers protruded through the hideous,
the Norman duke compelled him to take chaos, and pointed towards the living man
an oath of allegiance, promising him in thus ensnared ;
there the skulls grinned
return for his oath of homage the hand of under the holy At that sight,,


his young daughter and other privileges in say the Norman chronicles, the earl Harold
the future. The popular story goes on to shuddered and trembled, for in that chest v
say that Harold s oath was pledged under as he swore his oath, on which he had laid
circumstances of extraordinary solemnity. his hand, lay all the relics which religion
Before it was taken so runs the story deemed the holiest in the land.
duke William sent out messengers, un Such is the story, and there is little
known to Harold, to all the famous abbeys doubt but that some such oath was taken ;

and churches in Normandy, and holy and when the time came and king Edward
and awful was the spoil with which these slept with his fathers, though the great
messengers returned. The spoil in question Witan of England elected Harold king
consisted of mouldering relics of the saints Edward, duke
in succession to the childless
which formed the sacred treasure of the William claimed the splendid heritage of


(From the Bayeux Tapestry.)

great religious houses of Normandy. These Canute, basing upon the

his claim
were gathered together and placed in a promise of him years,
Edward made to

and oath of Harold

great chest; upon this chest Harold laid his before, upon the awful
hand when he swore his oath. When the taken subsequently in Normandy.
English earl removed his hand, the cloth Lytton Bulwer : "Harold."

By William s side stood the wisest and all writers are now agreed. The victory of
most astute statesman in Europe the Stamford Bridge over the formidable host
saintly scholar Lanfranc. The claim of of the Viking Harold Hardrada, and the
Norman William to the English crown disposition of the Anglo-Saxon
army at
took a religious shape. William, under Hastings, bear ample testimony to his
Lanfranc s direction, appealed to the powers as a strategist and a general. But
princes and leading men in every Christian his best men-at-arms lay dead on the

land but, above all, he appealed to the

; bloody field near York, where he van
head of Christendom the bishop of Rome. quished with no small difficulty and with
And be it
remembered, that when duke
William made his strange appeal the
bishops of Rome, as we have related, had
risen from their long period of degradation
and impotence, and were regarded with
extraordinary veneration and respect. The
reigning Pope of Rome was Alexander II.,
Rome was wielded
but the real influence at
by the wise Hildebrand, afterwards known
as Gregory VII. This mighty ecclesiastical
statesman saw at once what a powerful
engine might this appeal to Rome prove
in after days, when Rome should claim to

be the arbiter of nations.

The appeal of William and Lanfranc
was strangely successful. Not a few among tnmagna pniltaftn? ailtxo t $& faf Cj>

the Continental ab ommfo ttr .lerlnnamf f rfm

powers were convinced apnif. >

<r tianmtatrf Ac a& alwtfcj

of the justice of the Norman claim to "


England and in the army which William

led against Harold were
foreign nations. (From the Original MS. of Matthew Paris
But, above all, duke in Manchester Cathedral.)

William brought with him as an outward

sign of the favour and approbation of the tremendous the Northmen s invading
acknowledged head of Christendom, a host. The Anglo-Saxon forces at Hastings
consecrated banner from Rome. The war were in consequence sadly inferior to the
became a holy war. William was the mighty army of the Normans. This is
champion of right and justice, and Harold clear from the sequel to the
story of the
a rebel against
Holy Church. These were battle ;
for we learn from the many accounts
terrible odds in favour of the invader, and of that the picked men of Harold s
largely contributed to the successful issue in spite of their
splendid gallantry, and their
of the Norman invasion. leader s military skill, were slain to a man
That Harold was a consummate on that bloody field, and that south-eastern

England was left absolutely defenceless ;

fell into the invader s hands. The merci
while on the other hand the Norman army, less harrying of the north, which held out
whose numbers evidently far exceeded the the longest, closed the story of the Conquest,
forces of Harold, after the losses of the and early in the year 1070 William, duke
battle, which must have been very severe, of the Normans, was king over the whole
was able at once, with the aid of some land. He at once began to carry out
reinforcements from Normandy, to proceed the settlement of the England he had
with the conquest of England. won by his arms, and set himself now in
The conquest took, roughly, some three good earnest to do what he and his chief

years and a half afterthe battle of Hastings adviser and minister, Lanfranc, felt was
before it was completed. The battle was their duty towards the noble realm, won
fought in the autumn of the year 1066, at the cost of so much crime and sorrow.
and the last fearful act of the Norman At first the forfeited demesnes and
Conqueror, the harrying of the northern jurisdictions of the family of Harold, by
shires, an act which left its mark upon these far the wealthiest of the noble houses

hapless lands for long years, was carried out of England, were sufficient for the de
in the last days of 1069. The accounts of mands of his faithful soldiers and allies;
that last awful ravaging are well preserved in but as the Conquest proceeded, gradually
the passionless pages of the great "Domes a very large portion of the estates of the

day where seventeen years later

Survey," native thanes and landowners suffered
as we turn over the pages of the York "

forfeiture, and Normans were substituted

shire Survey

we come again and again for the original landowners. England was,
to the grim entry, "Waste," "waste" in comparison with most countries on the
the only description possible of many a continent of Europe, enormously rich.
once flourishing farm or village, after the Cities and wealthy men made bountiful
destroyer had done his work. The history of offerings to the new king. Churches and
these three years and a half of almost con monasteries, willingly and unwillingly,
stantwar is noteworthy, because it always were equally liberal. The widespread
marked the slow but sure progress of the commerce of England had brought, in

Conqueror. Many a gallant stand was the comparatively peaceful times of the
made against the invader, many a deter Confessor and his immediate predecessors,
mined resistance to his arms. But it was untold wealth to the island. Words, we
all useless. The Normans and their foreign are told, would fail to describe the wealth
allies were led with consummate skill, as which flowed into the coffers of the
well as inspired with splendid bravery. Conqueror, who became the richest as
The English were brave too, but had no well as the greatest of earthly kings.
leader worth the name, and they were Liberally did William pour
out upon
never united ;
one part of England did the churches of those foreign lands which

nothing to help the other. The Anglo- had helped him in the great conquest,
Saxon race was ruined by lack of concert. the treasures of conquered England.
One division of the realm after the other The smallest monastery in those favoured
120 THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. [1060 1070.

districts became the recipient of his bounty. jurisdictions ;

the national assemblies and
We read of unnumbered gifts to foreign Anglo-Saxon Gemots dealt freely with
crosses studded with ecclesiastical, as with temporal matters.
churches, of golden
gems, of chalices of gold, of gorgeous Bishop and earl, abbot and thane, sat

embroidery, for which the religious houses together in the local gemots, and, what was
of England were famous. The women of singularly hateful to Norman churchmen,
England were especially renowned for trained in the sterner and more ascetic
their extraordinary skill in this beautiful school which had lately arisen under the
art. These precious things were scattered shadow of the revived and reinvigorated
broadcast through the churches of France, Papacy, a strange laxity of discipline pre
Burgundy, and even of distant Aquitaine vailed inEngland on the great question of
and Auvergne. Very wealthy was the the marriage of the clergy. Bishops even,
Church of England in the days when priests, members of capitular bodies, were
the Confessor died. Men on the Continent in the Anglo-Saxon church of the Con

gazed with wonder on these rich spoils fessor s days often married. All this the
of the Norman conqueror, these cunning Norman felt must be changed. The
works of the sculptor and of the goldsmith general result of the reforms of William
and the woman embroiderer a striking and Lanfranc was to make the Church of
testimony not only to the wealth, but to England more like the other churches
the early development of the ornamental of the west, in doctrine as in practipe ;

arts in England under the Anglo-Saxon and enormously, as we shall see, to in

kings, largely, if not wholly, cultivated crease the power of the Roman bishop.
under the protecting shadow of the Anglo-
Saxon church. Perhaps William s wisest act, and the one
was the government and constitution
It which had the greatest influence on his
of this church, that William and his
reign and administration, was his selection
minister Lanfranc devoted themselves with of the monk Lanfranc as his chief minister
peculiar earnestness to reorganise and re and counsellor. No one in that age of
model. Strong and powerful as was the change has left his mark upon the Church
Anglo-Saxon church in the Confessor s of England like this great statesman-,
days, had sadly fallen away from the
scholar, whom
the Conqueror s unerring
discipline and reforms instituted by Dunstan eye chose as his adviser, and whom he
and his school. The Anglo-Saxon church subsequently placed to rule over the
was an intensely national church in
English church.
and intimately bound up with the
spirit, The century and a half of anarchy, of
Anglo-Saxon state, and hence peculiarly shameless traffic in benefices, from the
hostile to the Norman policy of William
highest grade to the lowest, of general
and Lanfranc. Papal authority was weaker and even of
carelessness, profligacy, in the
in England than elsewhere. In England Christian church of western
Europe, has
was no strong line of demarcation drawn been already touched upon. The first half
between spiritual and temporal things and of the eleventh century
witnessed, it will

be remembered, a general awakening, Italy. Maurilius, archbishop of Rouen,

closely connected with the foundation of had an. interesting record. Originally a
many new monasteries and the reforma- native of Italy, he had successively been
tion of the old religious communities, the teacher of Halberstadt, a famous Saxon
In Normandythe same period the middle (German) cathedral abbot of St. at
; Mary
of the eleventh century was especially Florence then a ;
monk of the highest


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Witnessed by Lanfrnnc, Archbishop nf Canterbury ; Thomas, Archbishop of York ; Remigius, Bishofi of Lincoln;
Walcelin, Bishop of Winchester ; Maurice, Bishop of London ; Osmund, Bishop of Salisbury ; Robert, Bishop of
Hereford; Baldwin, Abbot of St. Edmunds ; Henry, brother oj the king- (afterwards Henry /.), etc. A.D. 1088.
(British Museum.)

fruitful in the foundation of monasteries repute for learning and sanctity at the
and a revival of and vigour in the life Norman monastery of Fecamp. He was
church. Avranches, Bee, and other one of the foremost instruments in the
centres had become the resort of learned regeneration of the Norman church, and
and devout men, and were attracting under him the great cathedral of Rouen
their crowds of pupils some of them was completed.
from distant countries, especially from By far the most famous and able, how-
122 THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. [1039 1060.

ever, of the men of the new Norman And, thirdly, Lanfranc comes before us
church school was a scholar of the Italian as the great reorganiser and remodeller of

city of Pavia, England whom in later days the Norman Church of England. We have
knew and honoured under the name of commented on the singular dearth of emi
Lanfranc the archbishop. Lanfranc s name nent men of the first rank in the English

will ever rank among the foremost of the Church during the reign of Canute and
illustrious men connected with the Church his sons, and of Edward the Confessor. In
of England. He comes before us in three Lanfranc we have one of those true great
distinct characters. ones, who, like Theodore and Wilfrid,
Firstly, he was the minister of that king Alfred and Dunstan, through their
portion of the reign of duke William of own individuality infused a nobler spirit
Normandy which was principally occupied into the church of which they were
with making preparations for the invasion members, and gave it new life and power
of England. He was the duke s chief ad and long enduring influence.
viser at that time. It was Lanfranc, strange His story is of singular interest. He was
to say, who before all others encouraged his born in the first year of the eleventh
master to make the daring attempt, and who century, his father being an eminent Lom
carefully formulated the Norman claim to bard lawyer, of the northern Italian city of
the English crown. It was Lanfranc whose Pavia, and his years of early manhood were
rare skill in diplomacy and statecraft con spent in following with distinction the
verted what really was a reckless, daring same calling. Rarely gifted, with tireless

invasion of a peaceful country an invasion perseverance, eloquence, and a strangely

in no respects more justifiable than that of winning personality, a singularly prosper
the Scandinavian Harold Hardrada, which ous,though perhaps an uneventful career
ended so disastrously near the walls of seemed to lie before the young scholar
York into a religious war, carried on lawyer. In the year 1039, however, when
under the direct sanction of the highest about thirty-five years old, he left Pavia and
authority in Christendom, under the sacred took up his abode in Norman Avranches.
shadow of the gonfanon of the saintly Various reasons have been alleged for this
Pope of Rome. migration from the country of his birth ;

Secondly, Lanfranc comes before us as possibly his prospects were marred owing
the foremost champion of that strange to some change in the political circum
doctrine of transiibstantiation, which all stances of his native city, and he deter

through the Middle Ages exercised so mined to seek his fortune in that Norman
mighty an influence over the fortunes of realm, then becoming famous in Europe.
the church of that doctrine which is still
; After his migration into Normandy, very
exercising its strange and marvellous fas rapidlygrew the reputation of the brilliant
cination over a great section of the Catholic and eloquent scholar. He was acknow
church, the concluding chapter of its ledged to be one of the profoundest Greek
eventful story still
belonging to the history scholars north of the Alps, and his school
of the future. at Avranches by the sea was soon thronged

with pupils. But the mere fame of a Anselm, two of our greatest English arch
teacher and scholar soon palled upon Lan- bishops, who take rank among the greatest
franc. He longed after nobler aims, and of the sons of our proud Church of England.
for a more spiritual and higher life than These are the sad remains of Bec-Hellouin,
the position of a mere teacher, however a monastery which for some seven hundred

sought after, enabled him to lead. So of a years was reckoned as one of the richest
sudden we find him forsaking Avranches and most illustrious of the religious houses
and the famous school which he had founded of Europe. Modern France has ruthlessly
there, and determining to join the ranks destroyed the mighty church round which
of one of those many monastic commu the monastery was built a church one ;

nities at that time rising into repute in of the noblest in France. The great re
Normandy. He chose for his novitiate a ligious house has become a vast depot for
house comparatively undistinguished in the cavalry horses but its undying memories

great world, but which, among earnest no people, no government, however care
and devout men, was known for the simple less of its great traditions, will ever be
austerity of its inmates. able to
wipe out. Herlwin (Hellouin),
Some thirty miles from Rouen, a little the founder of the once famous house of
to the east of the ruins of the old donjon prayer and study, was a Norman noble,
of Brionne, so rich in memories of the world-weary, who, in the days of duke
Normandy of the dukes and their turbulent William the Conqueror, built the first

vassals, rises a long wood -covered the banks of the

hill. little
monastery by
The traveller from Rouen to Caen passes flowing Bee. In its early days it was but
it often without observation, but the scholar a small, unknown society of religious men,
who would visit the scene of the most very poor, and very austere and simple
richly storied shrine in the north of France in its life. Thither came the famous
will do well to rest awhile at the little Pavian scholar Lanfranc, seeking some
Brionne town. After wandering for about thing higher than the applause of his
an hour through the wood of Brionne he many scholars in his Avranches school.
will come suddenly upon a quiet secluded

Manual labour was the principal em

valley, in the midst of which runs a clear ployment of the holy house of Bee. Hard
winding brook or bee. A lofty graceful and fast Herlwin its abbot worked, aiding
tower at once will catch his eye ;
then he with his own hands the building of his
will noticethe ruins of a long wall, which rapidly growing house, except
when chant
has evidently once enclosed a vast group ing in the choir, or partaking of the one
of buildings the remains of these build
coarse meal he grudged himself.
ings, now sadly disfigured, and curiously You would always find Abbot Herlwin dig
and sadly adapted into modern covered ging and delving, or his hand grasping
as Lanfranc
sheds and stables, to the eye resembling a spade, or with hod on shoulder,
vast farm, occupy the centre of the little found him, all begrimed with mortar, en
Bee or Brook. This Bec- at vaulting an oven." Lanfranc so
valley of the is gaged
Hellouin, once the home of Lanfranc and runs the story humbly made his obeisance
I2 4 THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. [10391060.

Herlwin asked him what he lable of docere, thus. Lanfranc obeyed at

to the abbot.
wanted. Lanfranc replied that he sought once. Very soon, however, it was noised
the cowl.

Herlwin, trowel in hand, desired abroad that Lanfranc of Pavia, the famous

a monk to bring the volume containing teacher of Avranches, had become a monk

the rigid rules of the society, and the at Bee. Then flocked to that hitherto un
to the com known and humble house of God, numbers
stranger was duly admitted
* of students from all parts eager to learn from


Strange stories are told about the great the greatest scholar in France. Lanfranc
scholar s life at first at Bee. It was a poor was eventually induced to become prior of
unlearned community., and they guessed the house, under Herlwin, the abbot and
not that a mighty man of letters had taken founder. Bee became soon the resort of

refuge from the world and the flesh within clerks and men of noble birth, of even
their holy walls. One day, when reading sons of princes. The poor abbey was
in his turn to his brother monks in the quickly enriched with gifts, thanks to the

refectory, the prior corrected his reading, presence of the renowned brother who had
and bade the late teacher of the famous in all
humility joined their community.
Avranches school shorten the second syl- His fame reached the ears of duke
Normandy and William, who, struck with his great learning,

Palgrave :

and perhaps still more with his evident ban of the church for several years. The
capacity, made him his trusted friend and two stately abbeys of Caen, which William
counsellor. The friendship between the and Matilda built, are still in existence, and
duke and the monk was, however, soon serve as an enduring memorial of Lan-
interrupted. William had married Matildaj franc s influence at Rome. More than
the daughter of count Baldwin of Flanders. 800 years have passed, but these famous
There is no doubt that
was a love this churches of expiation have outlived all the
marriage, upon which William had set his changes of these many years, and in their
heart but there was a bar which could
severe and perfect beauty tell us of the
not be got over.
What that bar was
is uncertain ;
probably some rela
tionship existed be
tween William and
Matilda, distant cer
tainly, but still suffi

cient to afford ca
nonical objection to
the marriage. Mal-
ger, the arch-
bishop of Rouen,
who was subse
quently deposed,
is believed, though
not quite certain,
excommunicated ABBAYE AUX DAMES, CAEN.
William in conse {This was Matilda s Church of Expiation.]

quence ;
even Lan-
franc the scholar gravely censured the duke, skill^nd taste of the Norman architects
and for a season there was enmity between of William s day.
the friends. Lanfranc, however, consented Lanfranc, who became the first abbot of
to plead the duke s cause at Rome, and pro St. Stephen of Caen, William s abbey, rose

mised to win Pope Nicholas II. s forgive higher than ever in the counsels of the
ness of William and Matilda s sin against great duke, and in the momentous period
church ordinances. The embassy was suc which immediately preceded the conquest
cessful, and the chief pontiff s blessing on of England, was the minister and adviser
the uncanonical marriage was eventually who guided and directed the whole Nor
obtained, upon the condition of the duke man policy. As we have said, it was Lan-
and duchess each founding a monastery of franc s skill and wise statecraft which gave
expiation they were, however, under the
: to the invasion of England the character

of a holy war, waged under the direct ap of the tenth century in the churches of the

probation and blessing of the chief pontiff continent of Europe. In England, however,
of western Christendom at Rome. We shall as we have seen from the autnoritative

meet with the scholar and statesman-monk works of Elfric, it was not received by the
next, as the first Norman archbishop of Anglo-Saxon church. What was, however,
Canterbury. ^floating doctrine, largely accepted, though
not as yet authoritatively acknowledged,
It is, however, the position which Lan- became crystallised in the middle of the
franc, before he came to England as eleventh century, very largely through the

archbishop, took up with reference to a influence of the learned and powerful

church doctrine involving questions of the Lanfranc, the favourite minister of duke
highest importance, which especially in William of Normandy.
terests us in our story of the Church of The year 1000 witnessed the birth of
England. He became the leading advocate Berengar. This celebrated man we hear
and teacher of the new view which church of as a teacher at Tours in 1035, a d m
men were taking of the holy Eucharist, the year 1045 he had already acquired
and which had, when it was generally some considerable notoriety as an op
accepted as a- Catholic doctrine, so momen ponent of the new Eucharistic doctrine
tous an influence upon the church and her which was rapidly gaining ground in the
power over the souls of men. And his teaching of the church. His celebrated
subsequent elevation to the primacy letter Lanfranc, then master of the
of the English church, gave him the school of Bee, seems to have brought

amplest opportunities of stamping his the question to a crisis, and from this
views respecting the sacrament of the time Lanfranc stands out as the prominent
Eucharist permanently upon the teaching defender of the new view. I have been

of the great Anglo-Norman church over runs

the letter of Berengar

told so
which he was called to preside. of Tours Brother Lanfranc, that you

We have already treated of the genesis have actually pronounced as heretical the
of this doctrine, which still is so strangely opinions of John Scotus (Erigena), in

influencing the opinions and claims of so which he differs from Paschasius Radbert.
many of the ministers of the Catholic church. Now, if this be the case, you have pro
As early as 826, Paschasius Radbertus of the nounced a judgment rash and unworthy
monastery of Corbey, had boldly formulated of the powers of mind with which God
the doctrine, afterwards so widely received has endowed you. You have not as yet
under the well-known name of Transub- "

grounded yourself in Holy Scripture, or

stantiation ;

and Radbertus new views conferred much with

who have those
had been earnestly opposed by such eminent been more diligent in Scriptural studies
men as Rabanus Maurus, archbishop of than yourself. If you reckon John (Eri
Mainz, Johannes Scotus Erigena, Ratramn, gena) a heretic, whose opinions on the
and others. The doctrine, notwithstanding, Eucharist I (Berengar) maintain, you
gradually gained an ascendency in the course must be supposed to count as heretics

Ambrose, Jerome, Augustine, not to upon the doctrine, to remember that

mention others." Hildebrand, in spite of the almost uni
This public challenge threw the gauntlet church of his day in
versal feeling of the
down. Lanfranc took it up, and a series the matter, never could be brought to
of church synods and councils discussed brand Berengar as a heretic. Indeed,
the question, now made a vital point of the reproach has been thrown at the

orthodoxy. At Rome in the year 1050, head of this foremost son of the Church
and again at Vercelli, at Brionne in of Rome the chief maker of her awful

Normandy, near Bee, in 1051, at Tours and far-reaching power that he himself
in 1054, again at Rome in 1059, and later doubted the real bodily presence of the
at Poitiers in 1075, at Rome in 1078-9, body and blood of the Redeemer in the
were the views of Berengar condemned sacrament,

infidelis est"

with more or less severity, and the Lanfranc of Bee, of St. Stephen s, of
doctrine of transubstantiation, of which Caen, of Canterbury, triumphed; and the
Lanfranc was the ardent advocate, affirmed. doctrine of transubstantiation, first forged
Lanfranc s celebrated treatise on The "

in the workshops of the abbey of Corbey

Body and Blood Lord was written
of the

by an unknown brother, known in history

and put out between 1063 and 1070. In as Paschasius Radbert the doctrine which
it he reproves Berengar for spreading his teaches men "

that the priest has the

errors, and boldly asserts his own recep making God
1 1

power of passed into the

tion of the doctrine as formulated by doctrinal treasure-house of the Catholic
Paschasius Radbertus. It is maintained church of the West ;
and with it a new
that it was this treatise which for the first and mighty source of sacerdotal authority,
time established transubstantiation and all sacerdotal wealth, sacerdotal dominion.
its consequences in the church. It was not long before it reached our
must, however, not be assumed that
It shores. The ink of the first draft of

Berengar s views were by any means Lanfranc s famous treatise on "

The Body
universally rejected. He seems on more and Blood of the Lord "

was scarcely dry,

than one occasion to have temporised, when Lanfranc s master crossed the narrow
but it is clear that he held fast to his silver streak which parted his Normandy
opposition to Lanfranc to the last, dying from Harold s England, with that great
in the year 1088. His memory was long host sheltered by the sacred gonfanon of
reverenced in the Tours, and
district of the Pope of Rome. Where William went,
down to late times there was a yearly Lanfranc was sure to follow. In the year

solemnity at his tomb. Moreover, on this 1070, less than four years after the fight

great question the opinions of Hildebrand at Hastings, Stigand, the Anglo-Saxon

(Gregory VII.) are doubtful. Holding, as archbishop, was

deposed, as formally
he did, the greatest position of power and might have been expected, by the action
influence in the church all through this of a council, with the sanction of the

period, it is of the deepest interest to Norman king of England and the Pope
in all the later burning discussions * Dean Milman "

us, :

of Rome, and Lanfranc was placed in the legates sat with the English king to guide
vacant chair of the primacy of England. and assist this work.
With the great Norman archbishop the He began with the bishoprics. The
doctrine of transubstantiation, of course, primate throne of York was just vacant.

became part of the formal teaching of Aldred, the Saxon archbishop, was dead.
the Church of England. But when, in In his room William appointed Thomas,
the sixteenth century, another teaching a canon of his brother Odo s see of
on the Eucharistic Presence took its Bayeux, a man of high and stainless

place, this was no new thing to Eng character. From this time onward, all

land. The teaching of the reformers in through William s reign, as English


this matter was, as we have shown, simply bishops died, or were from various reasons
a return to the old paths in which the deposed, Normans-
strangers generally
fathers of the
Anglo-Saxon church had took their place. At the time of the king s

walked, and which Elfric in the last years death, in 1087, only one of the English
of the tenth century had so
clearly and bishops remained, the saintly Wulfstan,
unmistakably marked out. of Worcester.
In the same year, 1070 some say at
It was Lent of the year 1070
in the a council held at Windsor archbishop
when the Conquest was virtually com Stigand was formally deposed, the three
pleted that William in a solemn assembly Roman legates acquiescing. Charges of
at Winchester commenced the work of accusation the old Anglo-Saxon
remodelling the government and discipline arch-prelate were easily framed. Sti-
of the English church. For the first time gand s ecclesiastical position, as we have
in the history of England, three Papal seen, even when Edward and Harold

reigned, was ever a doubtful matter. No to pursue those studies he loved so well,
acknowledged Pope had ever granted him and to which he had consecrated the best
the cherished insignia of the pall. But years of his life, to occupying the uneasy
his real crime in William s eyes was that throne of an archbishop, with all its

he was too deeply attached to

Anglo-Saxon usages ever to
submit to the new state of

things. His throne, too, was

sorely wanted for Lanfranc.
It was a sorrowful ending for

the old man, who for so many

years had filled the chief

place in his beloved church.

Condemned to perpetual cap

tivity in the strong castle of

Winchester he was, some think,
done to death by hard and
cruel usage.* Stigand was re
proached with parsimony, with
refusing to betray the secret
of vast treasures he still pos
sessed. When literally starved
to death, men say that on
his shrunken person was
found the key of a cellar
where his hoard was deposited
a secret which he had in life

refused to betray. His place

was filled by Lanfranc, who
was now arbiter of the fortunes
of the Church of England.
Lanfranc was a great scholar
and theologian, a wise and Photo : Neitrdin.

astute a devoted THE NAVE, ST. STEPHEN S, CAEN.

friend and admirer of William
of Normandy. But he evidently preferred accompanying cares and ceaseless troubles.
to play the part of minister, of the trusted Already had he refused to be archbishop
adviser of his sovereign, with some leisure of Rouen, and at first he steadily declined
the vacant chair at Canterbury. But
* Some writers, however, describe his imprison
ment as wanting these harsher features embodied
William was determined that his friend

in our text. and chief adviser should take in hand


the work of remodelling the powerful the early days of the Conquest. No truer

church of conquered England. At this friend to the vanquished Anglo-Saxon race

time Lanfranc was abbot of the ne\ abbey lived in those stormy days, than the wise
of St. Stephen at Caen, and it was indeed and generous scholar-statesman Lanfranc.
with great reluctance that he left that His entire devotion to the country he had

quiet home, where he was loved and reluctantly adopted as his own, in spite of
honoured, for Canterbury, where his life the momentous changes in the church of
must in future be spent in the midst of a which he was the chief pastor, and for
sullen people, and surrounded by stranger which changes he was mainly responsible,
ecclesiastics, who would view all his acts was amply recognised even in his own
with suspicion, if not with dislike. It lifetime. The memory of Lanfranc s career
needed all the strong pressure of his as archbishop one of the brightest of

master, king William, all the influence the many noble and true traditions of the
of queen Matilda, the expressed wishes, Church of England.
if not the actual command, of Pope One of his first cares was the rebuilding
Alexander II., to induce the scholar- of his own
metropolitan church. Only
statesman to accept the hard and difficult seven years were spent in the work. Lan

charge vacated by Stigand. franc took as his model his own loved
It was a gloomy beginning, too, for church of St. Stephen of Caen. The
Lanfranc in Canterbury for the cathedral
; church, when finished, was in all respects
had been lately destroyed by fire, and his a minster of the Norman type. The
consecration was performed in a rough building thus raised was carefully enriched
and temporary church. Only nine of his with every ornament known in that age,
suffragans were present. Before him, in and the skill of the goldsmith and the
deed, lay a difficult and thankless task. painter were lavishly bestowed on this, the
But the choice of William, and his per firstgreat Norman church built after the
sistency in forcing Lanfranc to accept this Conquest. But little, however, of Lan
nomination, was justified. For nineteen franc s work remains in the present superb
years the Italian monk-scholar filled what and stately cathedral of Canterbury, which
was perhaps the most difficult and arduous was almost entirely reconstructed on a far
post in the church of the west. During grander and more imposing scale in the
his English career he remodelled the days of his great successor, Anselm. In
church of the conquered island, and yet his own city he largely increased the
contrived to win an almost universal love numbers of the monks at Christ Church,
and admiration among the conquered and gradually introduced a severer dis
people. He became in England a true cipline in the community. He built

Englishman, and that without forfeiting hospitals for the sick and the poor, rebuilt
the friendship and confidence of William. the archiepiscopal palace, and carefully set
As his trusted adviser, in a hundred ways in order the temporal affairs of the see.
he was enabled to soften, if not to change, But the work of Lanfranc extended over
the harsh measures too often adopted in a far wider area. He was something more
than a wise and prudent bishop. Under measure of the reign of William the
him the whole government and policy of Conqueror, and the one that had
the Church of England underwent a great most far-reaching influence, was the sepa
and momentous change. The old English ration of the church jurisdiction from

church, under the Anglo-Saxon kings, the secular business of the courts- of law.
was most distinctly national. The reforms The bishop and the archdeacon no longer
of Lanfranc weakened the insular inde held ecclesiastical pleas in the hundred

pendence of England, and made her court, but held courts of their own. Causes
church less national, but more like the connected with spiritual matters were hence
continental churches of the west in forth triedby canonical, not by customary
Gaul and Italy, and enormously con law ;
no spiritual question came before lay
tributed towards the growth of Papal men, as judges. The bishop no longer, as
claims. Losing much of its insular in the days of the Anglo-Saxon monarchs,
and character, the Anglo- sat with the aldermen in the assembly of
Norman Church was started on a new the shire as joint president. He presided
career. The moment was singularly pro in his own court, where ecclesiastical causes

pitious for bringing about this

change. were alone tried. When he sat in the

Independently of all special circumstances popular assemblies it was as a baron rather

attendant upon the great Conquest, and than as a bishop. The
archbishop hence
the consequent change of government, the forth held his synod distinct from the great

Church of England at the time of the Gemot, or assembly of the realm. The
coming of the Normans was no doubt effect was to separate in a great
of this

wanting in vigour and energy. The re degree the life of the church from the
vival of life and energy under Dunstan and national life. It created new aspirations,

his school had worn itself out. The time new thoughts on the part of ecclesiastics ;

was come for a new and vigorous revival ; making them members rather of a great
but Lanfranc did more than merely raise foreign empire, whose chief and ruler re
the standard of the Church of England sided in Rome, than members of a national

intellectually and morally he changed its :

church, whose interests were closely bound
entire position as regards the state, and up with those of their own country.
altered completely its ancient relations with (2) The Church of England under
the Roman see. The Church of England Lanfranc, was brought into much closer

for more than four centuries and a half dependence on the see of Rome. In

virtually ceased to be a national church, Anglo-Saxon times the only acknowledg

and, on her ecclesiastical side, became a ment of dependence on the part of the
English church was the of a
province of a foreign empire. payment
The principal changes introduced by the tribute ot a penny on every hearth, a tax
Normans were as follows *
: which was collected and sent to Rome
(i) The most important ecclesiastical from the beginning of the tenth century,
* and
under the general name of Peter s pence.
Compare Stubbs "Const. Hist.," ch. ix.,
Freeman s "Norman Conquest," ch. xix. The origin and purpose of this singular
$32 THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. [1070 1089.

payment is somewhat doubtful. It seems at the hands of the Roman bishop. The
have originated with Offa, king interference of legates from Rome, which,
really to
of Mercia, who instituted the payment after the Norman conquest, perpetually
exercised so great and baleful an influence
on the government and policy of the
English church, was virtually unknown in
Anglo-Saxon days. There was no Roman
legation before the days of Offa, in 787, and
there are only scanty vestiges of such inter
ference for the next three centuries. Few
traces indeed of Roman influence can be
noted in Anglo-Saxon history and where- ;

ever interference on the part of Rome was

attempted it was resisted. Dunstan, for

instance, even refused to obey a papal

But directly after the coming of the
Normans all this was changed. Legates
from Rome, possessing a great though per
haps at first an undefined authority, now
make their appearance in England. Three
of these foreign officials were present at the
council held after the completion of the

THE RAISING OF LAZARUS. Conquest, in A.D. 1070, when archbishop

(Front an Old Relief in Chichester Cathedral, late nth or Stigand was deposed, and other grave
early iztJt Century.)
ecclesiastical changes were made and gave ;

when, with the assistance of the Roman to the proceedings of this important as

bishop, he founded the arch-see of Lich- sembly, the weight of the approval and
field which, however, soon ceased to exist sanction of the Roman see.
as a rival to the arch-see of
Canterbury. (3) "A sterner and more ascetic way of

Probably payment was in some way,

livingwas gradually introduced into the
too, connected with the maintenance of Church of England by Lanfranc and his
the English school in Rome, and the Norman The
suffragans. long-disputed
frequent presence of English pilgrims to question of the marriage of the clergy was
the hallowed sanctuaries of the Eternal
again prominently brought to the front by
City. the Normanarchbishop. The reforms of
The only other acknowledgment on the Dunstan and the men of his school had in
part of the Anglo-Saxon church of the England largely fallen into abeyance, and
supremacy of Rome, was the reception of marriage among the clergy in the later
the sacred emblem of the pall by the days of the Anglo-Saxon rule was very
English archbishops after their appointment, customary. It will be remembered, in our
Photo ; Charles H. Barden, Chi chester.



sketch of the reforms attempted and largely London were already in the hands of
carried out in foreign churches in this the foreigners. After the year 1070 only two
eleventh century, how rigidly this question sees retained native bishops henceforth ;

of celibacy was pressed and enforced. the bishops and most of the abbots were
Lanfranc was intensely convinced of the Norman. The Conqueror s bishops were,
advantage and even of the solemn duty of however, generally good and able men,
this rigorous abstinence on the part of though un-English in character and the ;

ecclesiastics of all degrees ;

but was too wise, various changes were brought about in
perhaps too kindly natured, to press his the church without harshness or oppres
views here with all severity. He passion sion. Lanfranc s wise and holy influence
ately desired it as a rule of ecclesiastical over his suffragans cannot be over
life, but he set to work cautiously. He estimated.

began with the canons of cathedral and Nine years after the Conquest began a
qther capitular churches. To the capitular long series of changes in the sites of epis
clergy under the Norman rule marriage copal sees, which were gradually completed
was absolutely forbidden, without reserve
or exemption even those already married