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TEACHER: Ranulfo C. Mayol Jr.

DATE: September 4
SUBJECT: Science 4 PAGE NO.
ACTIVITY TITLE: LIVER

LEARNING TARGETS: Describe the parts and functions of the liver


DURATION 1 session

CONCEPT NOTES
Locate your liver

Upper right quadrant deep to inferior ribs


Dome of liver abuts against inferior diaphragm surface
Left/right lobes
Gall bladder is thin muscular sac on inferior surface where
bile collects (1 above)
What does the liver do?
Temporary nutrient storage (glucose-glycogen)
Remove toxins from blood
Remove old/damaged RBCs
Regulate nutrient or metabolite levels in bloodkeep constant supply of sugars, fats, amino acids, nucleotides
(including cholesterol)
Secrete bile via bile ducts and gall bladder into small intestines.
Red blood cell decomposition and recycling of components
Toxin neutralization
Conversion of substrates: altering amino acids, amino acids to sugars, sugars to amino acids, etc.to insure
adequate supply of necessary molecules of life.

What is bile?
Bile composed of water, ions, bile acids, organic molecules
(including cholesterol, phospholipids, bilirubin)
Gallstones are mostly cholesterol
Acids and salts emulsify fats for absorption across wall of small
intestines into lacteal lymph capillaries (review)
Contains waste products from RBC breakdown and other
metabolic processing (color of feces from bilirubin in bile)(review)
Ions buffer chyme from stomach
1. Review

Drills

Directions: Match the items in Column A with the items in Column B. Write the letter of the correct answer on the blank.
Column A Column B
____1. bacterial infection present in the mouth, nose, and throat entering A. allergies
the lungs
B. asthma
____2. caused by infections or any type of pollution that can trigger
asthma symptoms C. chronic bronchitis
____3. airways are inflamed, causing wheezing and shortness of breath.
D. chronic obstructive
____4. an inflammation of the bronchial tubes that cause cough with pulmonary disease
mucus, shortness of breath, wheezing and chest tightness for a
long period of time or sometimes chronically E. pneumonia
____5. inability to exhale normally, which results to difficulty in breathing

2. Activating Prior Knowledge Liver Brainstormtake 30 seconds to write what


comes outtop of your head
Largest solid-mass organ of the body
Perhaps least understood, both popularly and Adjective/phrase 1:
scientifically? Adjective/phrase 2:
Brainstorm: 30 seconds and three adjectives or
phrases Adjective/phrase 3:

TEACHER: Ranulfo C. Mayol Jr. DATE: September 4


SUBJECT: Science 4 PAGE NO.
ACTIVITY TITLE: Small and Large intestine, Gallbladder and pancreas

LEARNING TARGETS: Describe the parts and functions the following organs
Small and Large intestine
Gallbladder
pancreas
DURATION 3 sessions

CONCEPT NOTES
FUN FACTS ABOUT THE STOMACH
The Tasmanian Devil can swallow 40 percent of its body weight in a half-hour. That's like eating 216 hamburgers for
lunch!
If you ate like a vulture, you could ear 108 hamburgers in one meal. They eat 20% of their body weight. Their
stomach acid is so strong they can dissolve botulism and cholera.

STOMACH
Functions:
1. Store Food, so it can be slowly released into a small intestine. Your whole
Thanksgiving dinner can take your stomach diameter from 2 to 8 diameter.
2. Churn food. Secretions from the stomach turns everything gooey, called CHYME.
3. Kill bacteria. The stomach is very acidic (pH 1) like battery acid. Chyme will even
eat through clothing.
4. Some digestion: of proteins.
5. Some absorption: of water, alcohol (alcohol is absorbed in the mouth, too!)
Food takes four hours to completely leave the stomach.
It is folded over into RUGAE, to allow for expansion of the stomach.

STOMACH ACID
There are gastric pits in the stomach lining. Gastric refers to the stomach.

Cells in the gastric pits make acid and digestive enzymes.


There are also lots of goblet cells which make mucus to prevent the stomach from digesting itself. Bacterial infection
can erode this area = GASTRIC ULCER.

HEARTBURN is when acid goes from the stomach up into the esophagus (ACID REFLUX). People can take a mild
antacid like Tums for relief.

FUN FACTS ABOUT THE STOMACH


The Tasmanian Devil can swallow 40 percent of its body weight in a half-hour. That's like eating 216 hamburgers for
lunch!

If you ate like a vulture, you could ear 108 hamburgers in one meal. They eat 20% of their body weight. Their
stomach acid is so strong they can dissolve botulism and cholera.

Describe the parts and functions the following organs
Small and Large intestine
Gallbladder pancreas
CONCEPT NOTES
SMALL INTESTINE (Small bowels)
These are the longest part of the GI tract (9 feet long, 1 diameter)
The small intestine is the most important region of the GI tract because almost all of the digestion and absorption of food
takes place here.
Structure
The small intestine needs a lot of surface area: 200 square meters, which is the floor space of a typical house. How do you
get such a lot of surface area? There are lots of folds called MICROVILLI, which make a brush border (looks like a brush).
Just like the stomach has gastric pits, the small intestine has INTESTINAL CRYPTS where there are cells that produce enzymes
for digestion.

The DUODENUM is the first part of the small intestine. This is where digestion begins. There are two ducts at the beginning
of the duodenum from the pancreas and gallbladder.

PANCREAS is a gland that makes hormones, digestive enzymes, and INSULIN, which is a protein that grabs a sugar molecule in
bloodstream and carries it into each cell. If the pancreas is malfunctioning and does not make insulin = DIABETES. The pancreas
also produces BICARBONATE to reduce the pH of the stomach contents so you dont get an ulcer.

GALL BLADDER secretes bile, which breaks down fats. When you go to McDonalds and order the Big Mac, fries, and
shake, you get 200 grams of fat (one week supply), which globs together in the intestine, and that much more bile is
needed to break it down.

The main purpose of the small intestine is to absorb nutrients from the food into the bloodstream to be taken to all the cells
of the body. After the food passes through the small intestine, it goes to the large intestine.

LARGE INTESTINE (Colon, or large bowel)


This is 5 feet long and 4 diameter
The large intestine is important for several reasons:
1. Absorbs a LOT of water from the food
2. Absorbs electrolytes (Na, K, etc) out of the food
3. Stores feces for defecation
4. Contains bacteria (E. coli), about 3 pounds of it! These bacteria have functions:
a. Make vitamins (B12, K)
b. Allow material to move through large intestine easier
c. Keep out harmful bacteria
d. They eat things you cant digest
i. Fiber
ii. Some sugars that we dont have enzymes for

When these bacteria are happy and dividing, they produce gas. If you are lactose intolerant, you are missing the
enzyme to break down lactose so the bacteria gets more sugar and you get more gas! Beans also have these sugars,
so they give you gas. Mexico has different strains of E. coli in their water; the two strains battle it out and you get
diarrhea. Diarrhea is when the large intestine does not absorb water dehydration. Cholera is a disease which
attacks the large intestine, preventing water absorption, and can be fatal in 24-48 hours. The difference between
diarrhea and constipation is the amount of water absorbed.
Right where the small intestine enters into the large intestine is a little sack filled with E. coli as well, called the APPENDIX.

It might become inflamed, which closes off the opening. It can rupture = APPENDICITIS, which needs antibiotics and surgery
or can be fatal. Most common age for this is late teens to early 20s because a child has a larger opening which shrinks with
age. When youre done growing, its done shrinking, so if you havent had a problem by then, you might be ok.

Up from the cecum is the ASCENDING COLON, TRANSVERSE COLON, and DESCENDING COLON. Then there is an S shaped
section called the SIGMOID COLON, which leads to the RECTUM, and out the ANUS.


Science 4
Study Guide
Common Heart Diseases
Parts and Functions of the Lungs
Lung Diseases
Parts and Function of the Liver
Illness Affecting Liver
Parts and Functions of the Stomach
Written Test 2: September 1