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CHAPTER I

Introduction

Agriculture in the Philippines employs 47% of the Filipino workforce as of 2013,


according to World Bank statistics. Agriculture accounts for 12% of Filipino GDP as of
2013, according to the World Bank.

The Philippines is the 8th largest rice producer in the world, accounting for 2.8% of global
rice production. The Philippines was also the world's largest rice importer in 2010. In 2010,
nearly 15.7 million metric tons of palay (pre-husked rice) were produced. In 2010, palay
accounted for 21.86% percent of gross value added in agriculture and 2.37% of GNP.

Region 02 has vast land resources for rice production. The production and income of
farmers in this area is very low due to insufficient irrigation water. Also, because of human
activities, it substantially destroyed and rampantly abused the use of soil and water
resources that resulted to soil fertility losses, severe erosion, declining aquifer elevation
and finally, declining the trend in crop yield.

The Municipality of Solana is located Southwestern part of Cagayan. It is bounded on the


north by the Municipality of Amulung, on the south by the Municipality of Enrile, Cagayan
and Rizal, Kalinga, on the east by the municipality of Tuguegarao City and on the west by
the municipality of Tuao. It is about 11.0 kilometers from Tuguegarao City, the capital
town of Cagayan and about 486.0 kilometers from the city of Manila. The climate of Solana
belongs to the type 3 climate (Corona Classification) characterized by two distinct seasons,
the wet and dry. It is relatively dry from November to April and wet during the rest of the
year.

According to Dara (2004), USAID rehabilitated three major rural irrigation systems and
returned more than 300,000 hectares of cultivated land to full irrigated production. This
included de-silting and widening irrigation canals, repairing and replacing water intakes,
canal banks, protection walls, turnouts, and sluice gates. Decades of war have destroyed
much of Afghanistans irrigation and other water supply systems, which are vital for the
agricultural economy. This has been complicated by the drought that Afghanistan has
experienced in recent years. As an arid and semi-arid country, irrigation is essential for
food production-there can be no food security without water security.

The effect of climate change on the countrys agriculture are expected to bring adverse
changes in temperature and precipitation which lead to adverse weather condition that may

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result to flood and long period droughts which affect agricultural activities. The Philippines
being a tropical country is prone to drought and when prolonged may lead to crop losses
due to insufficient soil moisture availability (Balderama, 2012).

Based on the study conducted by Gatta in 2012, water impoundments have long been a
viable water control technology for construction, flood control, irrigation, containment and
shoreline stabilization. More recently, their use as holding basins in natural gas exploration
projects has been recognized. The environmental and economic qualities of above-ground
water impoundments make them a feasible alternative to in-ground water impoundments
and use of tank trucks in rocky and mountainous natural regions. In addition, the basic
purpose of impounding reservoir is to hold runoff during period of high runoff, and release
it during period of low runoff; the specific functions of reservoir are hydroelectric flood
control, irrigation, water supply and recreation. Many large reservoirs are multipurpose.
Also, the use of reservoir for temporarily storing stream flow often results in a net loss of
total stream flow due to evaporation and seepage (Abdullahi, 2014).

Krishnaveni et.al said in 2000 that there are several problems of the irrigation tanks, such
as reduction of design discharge as a result of silting of channel and tanks, deterioration of
stone masonry channel, and encroachment of drainage courses and tank water spread leads
to the decline of tank performance. Rehabilitation project have been undertaken not only
to spread the benefits of irrigation to more agriculture land but also to improve water use
efficiency so that water can be withdrawn from agriculture use for other uses.

Recently, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) targeted several irrigated
areas with chemically-impaired water bodies for accelerated technical and financial
assistance to improve water quality. Participation in USDA water quality programs is
voluntarily and farmers or groups apply for assistance. A water quality plan, specifically
tailored to each irrigation system, is prepared by Soil Conservation Service (CSC) and the
farmer. Many irrigation systems are over 100 years old and in need of rehabilitation and
modernization. Improvement in irrigation water management is an important as structural
practices to enable farmers to control pesticide, fertilizer, sediment, toxic, and salinity
pollutants, which may move with the water to the ground or surface waters (Hedlund,
2009).

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Our group got a recommendation from the Department of Agriculture a request from the
farmers of Brgy. General Balao, Solana, Cagayan to conduct a feasibility study of a
diversion dam in their place for the sole purpose of solving their problems in water for
proper irrigation of their crops.

Based from our ocular survey on the study area, the main source of irrigation water is from
a pump or engine set from a creek as a source of irrigation and there is still no irrigation
canal or structure on the rice area. So, we made this proposal of building an irrigation
system to facilitate easy access of water going to the planting area.

Statement of the Problem

Most of the farmers in Brgy. Gen. Balao, Solana, Cagayan rely on rainfall and some
pumped out water for the irrigation needs of their plants from a remittent creek. However,
during the second cropping, the area is almost at fallow. Sometimes, due to the terrain of
the study area and also due to heavy rains, the crops are destroyed by the flood which gives
them very low harvest during cropping season.

Background of the Study

A letter request was course to the Department of Agriculture office from the Local
Government Unit (LGU) of Solana, Cagayan due to the demand of the farmers in Barangay
General Balao because of the problems in the said area when dry season is coming, for they
are just merely relying on the pumps and engine set in their irrigation for their agricultural
crops.
We proposed a diversion dam with irrigation catering that certain barangay to
suffice the need of the rice crops in water supply especially in the time of drought and to
encourage them to develop their lands to maximize its utility to contribute more in the rice
production of the region. With our proposal, we can help the economy and also the farmers
to earn more profit.

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It is for this reason that this study is being made to determine its feasibility and help
farmers increase their farm income through the establishment of a Diversion Dam Project
which can serve an area of 70.0 hectares of Riceland during wet and dry seasons.

Objectives of the Study


Generally, the Rehabilitation of General Balao Communal Irrigation System aims
to effectively use the water resources on the said barangay to irrigate rainfed areas.

Specifically, it aims:
1. To increase cropping intensity and crop productivity hence, transforming poor
upland rural communities into more self-reliant and viable communities while
harmonizing natural resources management and infrastructure development.
2. To enhance the environment services of agriculture in terms of flood mitigation,
fostering groundwater recharge and sediment capture.
3. To alleviate the day-to-day life of the people in the barangay who solely rely on
their crop productions.
4. To lessen the burden of the farmers on fetching water to supply water using
pumps and engines in their rice fields especially on dry seasons.

Significance of the Study

This study or project provides water for irrigation which helps the farmers to
increase the crop production for the good of every person relying on their agriculture and
also helps them save time and energy from using pump and engine sets or from rain
feeding.

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CHAPTER II

Methodology

This section illustrates the approach and methodology which has been pursued to undertake
the study. In this study, the first step is to analyze the area, the status quo, and the things
they do, the methods they were using. Surveys are intended to supply the information
needed for assessment whether they are okay with the current situation for the study area.

1. Preliminary Survey

With the assistance of Department of Agriculture Regional Office in the survey we


initiated, the following things were done to enhance the feasibility of the proposed project:

a. Information Gathering
We gathered data and information through the aid of internet surfing
regarding the site, like its location, physical features, populations, their livelihood there,
etc. and with the aid of past projects done at the same place with the same purpose or idea
in order to educate us some information ahead of time before the site visit.

b. Site Observation/Ocular Surveying


We went to Barangay General Balao, Solana, Cagayan and see for ourselves
the problem that was reported. There, we witnessed their method of irrigation wherein they
utilize water pumps with the use of gasoline as the medium for it to work. We also
witnessed the present condition of the farm wherein earth cracks where present which
means that the irrigation system they were using was not effective.

c. Interview
We interviewed some tenants and farmers along the way while going to the
farm proper, we asked them questions like their names, family sizes, how long they were
staying in the said barangay, the history of the barangay wherein they told us that there was
an earth dam constructed long ago but it was already destroyed by a storm then, also asked
questions regarding their crop intensity per annum, their income per annum, expenses per
annum, farm area per tenant, etc. We asked them to accompany us to where the nearest
body of water is and we saw the creek they were talking about.

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2. Detailed Engineering Review

After the approval of the resolution, the survey team formally gather data for the
design of the structure. Using Total Station to exactly gather the necessary information
about the terrain. They also tested the soil characteristic of the area for the canals.

Subsequently, we designed the structure based on the data gathered during the
survey with accordance to the standard design. By the help of design software like
AutoCAD, designing the structure was made faster and more convenient.

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CHAPTER III

Existing Conditions of the Study Area

This section shows the current condition of the study area which includes the agro-
economic, meteorological and rain data which is needed to be considered in designing the
diversion dam.

1. Agro-Economic Data:

The age range of farmers in General Balao is from 16 to 55, which means that at an
early age of 16 years old, if he already knows how to do the job, then he can be a farmer
already. Some of them has sari-sari store for extra income, some of them also sell
vegetables and some of them do other jobs to make it up per day. Farmers harvest an
average yield of 100-120 cavans each of the 2 cropping seasons per year and leads them
to an income of 15 to 30 cavans each farmer and sells at a price of P12 per kg. to
interested buyers. Farmers use an average of P13, 000 per hectare for fertilizers, gas
for pumps, seeds, etc. Farmers also pay 8 cavans of rice per 100 cavans of rice threshed
from a thresher. In times of flood, they can only get 40 cavans or nothing at all on the
whole 70 hectares of the land. Each hectare has an average of 3-5 number of farmers
tending to it.

2. Meteorological Data:

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Temperature, Humidity and Winds

The latest record in Tuguegarao City, begin the hottest city in the country,
was recorded at 42.2C.

Tuguegarao is the nearest station with climatic data to the project site.
observation at Tuguegarao shows a mean annual temperature of 26.70C. The
coldest period is from December to February and the warmest months are from
April to July. A minimum temperature of 15.80C was recorded on January, 1968.

Relative humidity records at Tuguegarao show an average value of 83.50C


with May having the lowest mean value of 80.73%.

Wind speed recorded at Tuguegarao shows an average value of 57.78 kph.


The calmest periods are from May to June and August to September. Maximum
wind speed recorded in October, 1974 with 268.71 kph. Minimum wind speed of
11.20 kph was taken in January, 1979.

3. Rain Data:

The graph is subdivided into two parts, one of which shows the average number of days
where Solana, Cagayan experienced rainfall, while the other one shows the precipitation
for Solana. We can see from the graph, the months wherein rainy days are prominent and
also the precipitation wherein it is relatively high starting at the month of May up to
December.

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4. Source of Water

The source of water is a creek near the study area. The creek, though not direct, is
connected to the Cagayan River so the water flowing at it is suitable for irrigation. In the
past, farmers are already using the creek for years and found out that there were no harmful
effects from its water.

5. Existing Facilities

There was once an earth dam built during 1960s but failed its purpose due to a
storm that time which ravaged the earth dam and destroyed it along other irrigation
structures. The farmers have their way of irrigation wherein they use pumps or engines to
pump out water to the farm area.

6. Irrigable/ Service Area

Rice is the principal crop of the project area. Dominant soil types in the area are
clay loam, silt loam and silty clay. The potential irrigable area has a good terrain to use for
maximum efficiency of the irrigation system. The net irrigable area is estimated to be 70
hectares.

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CHAPTER IV

Technical Aspect of the Study

This section is where the discussion of the basic and operation flow of the project is located
and where the technicalities and basic structure of the proposed study is presented. This
includes the list of equipment, materials, structure plan and also the source of the supplies
use in the proposed project.

Scope of Work
As a result of the existing conditions, in order to address the current problem of rice
production on the area, the rehabilitation of the whole irrigation system is proposed. The
following facilities will boost rice productivity.

Reinforced Concrete Dam Structure:


- Diversion dam is needed to raise the water level of the creek to allow the water
to be redirected. The redirected water can be used to supply irrigation systems
and reservoirs in the area. The water diverted by the diversion dam to the
reservoirs will then be used for the agricultural land for irrigation.

Canal Networks
- Canal networks are connections of canals from the dam to different partitions
along the area. It is important because it is where we plan out on how the water
will flow through the areas where water is mostly needed at the farm. Canal
networks include the main canal, the branch canal, the distributary canals and
water courses which leads to the farm.

Canal Structures
- Canal structures serves as the control and measurement of the water flow. It is
needed to know if the water going through an area is rapid or slow, enough or
plenty. These canal structures help regulate the flow and deliver the correct
amount of water to the different branches of the system and onward to the
irrigated fields

Sustaining/Improvement of Agricultural Institution


- Improving the current agricultural institution of General Balao will definitely
boost up the utility and maintenance of the diversion dam.

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Site Description

Location: General Balao, Solana, Cagayan


Latitude: 17 38 37.8 N
Longitude: 121 37 58.1 E
Source: Google Earth

The site is located in General Eulogio Balao, Solana, Cagayan, one of the barangays of
Municipality of Solana which are in the outlying area. Due to drastic weather change, some
parts of the farm are still in good condition but several areas are either lacking in moisture
or has too much moisture. The farm is really good for agriculture but due to the problem,
some areas of the farm are not being utilized well which is very detrimental to the part of
the farmers and tenants.

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Specifications

Specifications set by Department of Agriculture for the design criteria of a


diversion dam:

Criteria for site selection:

1. The dam site must be located in a long, uniform and straight reach of river.

2. The foundation must be sufficiently stable to sustain the weight of the dam and
nearly impervious.

3. The site must preferably ne the narrowest part of the river but it should be of
sufficient width such that after the construction of the dam, it will have the capacity
of discharging the maximum allowable flood concentration depending on
the characteristic of the foundation.

4. The river banks must be firm and stable to provide good anchorage of the dam
abutments and they must be high enough to allow freeboard on the maximum afflux
elevation.

5. No possibility that the river might change its course.

6. The site must have adequate watershed area so that the average streamflow
during dry season can irrigate the potential irrigable area.

7. The diversion canal is short and minimizing the need of costly structure, tunnels
or deep cuts.

8. The source of construction materials like sand, gravel, boulders and rock must
be abundant.

9. No considerable damage due to inundation of public and private properties and


facilities upstream will result after the dam is constructed.

10. The value of necessary land and right-of-way is cheap.

11. The site is accessible to transportation

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12. No water rights grantee is affected

13. No factory or mining activity upstream of the dam site mustbe present as mill
or mine tailings will pollute the good quality of irrigation water.

14. The requirement as to cofferdam, pumping and other provisions for dewatering
the site is minimum.

Structural Component

Concrete Dam Structure:


The structural component of the project is a Concrete Dam with the following
description:

Dam Length = 11.60 meters

Dam Height = 1.5 meters

Dam Width = 16.0 meters

Irrigation System:

The irrigation system consists of a network of canals, canal structures,


drainage crossing and road crossing designed to maintain efficient distribution of
water. Farm ditches take off directly from the main canal instead of the
conventional main-canal-to-lateral-to-farm ditch scheme in large irrigation system.

The main canal will be provided with division boxes at the take-off points
of farm ditches, it will be strategically located to provide efficient water
distribution. Division boxes are typically located to fit the topography of the service
area.

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Construction and Institutional Development

A. Material specification
A.1 Quality
Use materials which are new and without flaws or defects of any type, and
which are the best of their class and kind. Materials should also comply with
proper dimension as provided below.

A.2 Substitutions
Pipe sizes referenced in the construction documents are minimum sizes, and
may be increased at the option of the Contractor.
B. Design parameters
-Check Technical Study
C. Construction Specification
C. 1. Compaction
Dam- to be compacted every 30 cm of backfill
Canal- to be compacted well
C. 2. Clearing and grubbing
The clearing, grubbing, removing and disposing all vegetation and debris as
designated in the contract, except those objects that are designated to remain in
place or are to be removed in consonance with other provisions of this
Specification. The work shall also include the preservation from injury or
defacement of all objects designated to remain.
C.3. Gabion
For gabion, a 2.7mm diameter mesh is recommended to improve durability.
C.4 Concreting works
- shall be done under the close supervision of resident engineer
C.5 Excavation, Trenching & Backfill
C.5.1. Excavation
-Excavate to permit the pipes to be laid at the intended elevations and to
permit work space for installing connections and fittings.
-Minimum cover (distance from top of pipe or control wire to finish grade):
1. 18-inch over mainline pipe.
2. 3-inch minimum mulch cover over drip lateral pipe in planting
beds downstream of drip system zone control valves.

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-Excavated material is generally satisfactory for backfill. Backfill shall be
free from rubbish, vegetable matter, frozen materials, and stones larger than
2-inches in maximum dimension. Remove material not suitable for backfill.
Backfill placed next to pipe shall be free of sharp objects which may damage
the pipe. Stones larger than 1-inch maximum dimension are not permitted
in first (deepest) 6-inches of backfill.

C.5.2. Trenching
- Trenches will be straight with the bed level and graded.
Mainline Excavation
a) Trenching for mainlines will be performed by experienced
operators using an excavator or backhoe with bucket width at least
150 mm (6 inches) larger than the pipe diameter.
b) The material re0moved whilst digging will be placed at a
safe distance from the top edge of the trench (to avoid collapsing the
trench) and there will be a minimum of loose spoil left in the bottom
of the trench prior to pipe laying.

C.5.3. Backfill
-done only after lines have been reviewed and tested.

Institutional Development

Farmer Beneficiaries will be organized into Irrigation Association/ Cooperative. They will
be provided with series of training which includes the following:

1. Basic Leadership Course


2. Operation and Maintenance
3. Water and Watershed Management

These trainings aim to enhance leadership and technical capability of the farmer
beneficiaries or association to effectively manage the project. The project will be formally
turnover to the Association after its completion.

Cost Estimate

The cost of the project is estimated by summing up all individual costs covering all
components of construction items, namely: equipment, labor, materials and transport.

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Individual cost refers to the unit price of each work item as indicated in the cost estimate
sheet. Unit prices may mean either total cost per unit construction item or a lump sum for
a specialized item.

The rate of each cost are based on what prevailed in the locality as revealed by inquiries
and interviews with local dealers and suppliers. In this regard, all relevant information
required in the cost development including construction work program were gathered and
formulated beforehand.

The total project cost is estimated at P3,158,316.21. This covers all expenses incurred
during the construction of the main structure and irrigation works. Cost of right-of-way
and other properties traversed by the project facilities will be counterpart of farmer-
beneficiaries.

Construction Project Management

The Project Engineer is the head of the project wherein, he engages in the design
of temporary structures, site planning and layout, cost estimating, planning and scheduling,
management, materials procurement, equipment selection, cost control, and quality
management. Under the Project Engineer are the Materials Engineer and Construction
Engineer. Under the Materials Engineer would be the Quality Control and Quantity
Surveyor who monitors the materials used in the construction. Under the Construction
Engineer are the Geodetic, Structural, Geotechnical Engineer and the Safety Officer.

Manpower Requirement

The project has 2 Foremen, 2 Asst. Foremen, 10 Heavy Equipment Operators, 6


Light Equipment Operators, 2 Drivers, 7 Skilled Laborers, 25 Unskilled Laborers.

Equipment Utilization

Utilized Heavy Equipment are 180 HP Bulldozer (D7E PS), 140 HP Bulldozer (D6c
LPG/PS), 105 HP Bulldozer (D5 PS), 75 HP Bulldozer (D4 PS), Wheel Loader 944A
(1.34m3), 115 HP Motor Grader, Backhoe (0.75 m3). Utilized Light Equipment are Tandem
Roller (6-8 tons), Vibratory Roller (CA-15), 1-bagger Concrete Mixer, Water Pump
(4"dia.), Water Pump (3" dia.), Dump Truck All Model (6-8 m3), Dump Truck All Model
(3-5 m3), 1000 gallon Water Truck, Low Bed Trailer

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PERT-CPM and S-Curve

The construction of the project will have a duration of 112 days (roughly 3
months and 22 days) if everything goes smoothly as planned. If there will be 3 days delay
the s-curve shows that there will be an 81.58% chance that the project will be built in 115
days. If we will accelerate the project and finish it 3 days earlier, the s-curve shows
18.51% chance that the project will finish in 109 days.

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CHAPTER V

Financial Analysis & Investment Appraisal

This section is where the discussion of price analysis for the project cost and income
is located to determine whether the project or study is technically feasible and economically
viable or not.

Economic Justification

Job Generation
With the present scenario, flood and drought have been a serious problem to the
lives of Brgy. General Balao farmers. Thats why, a proposed diversion dam is being
studied to put an end on these perennial problems. And with these, there will be a job
generation on the construction of the diversion dam. The whole project will need one
project manager, surveyor, agricultural engineer, QA Engineer, medical team, accountant,
finance engineer, site foreman, masons, carpenters, plumbers, and drivers. The
construction of the said project will open opportunities and will have a double win scenario
on the part of the workers and the engineers.
After the construction process, it is implied that the operation will take place. The
operation and maintenance of the diversion dam shall need a committee which will govern
the whole area to be irrigated. It shall include a head and environmental coordinators in
which the farmers of the said barangay will be the ones to occupy the said positions. It is a
two-way success on the part of the farmers/tenants and on the people who will occupy the
said positions because both will be benefited.

Increase in Crop Production


The improvement of irrigable area through the construction of our proposed
diversion dam will increase the harvest of agricultural crops significantly will increase the
expected harvest and will generate more profit for the farmers. Also, with the non-usage of
gas, it can add budget for the purchase of agricultural crops that is to be planted.

Prevent Lost of Agricultural Crops


One of the goals of our project proposal is to prevent loss of agricultural crops.
During the rainy and dry seasons, General Balao is experiencing massive flood and long
drought that will cause loss of crops. By the use of our proposed project diversion dam
with irrigation system, it will avoid the loss of crops, it will lessen wasted crops and money
and also the higher chance to collect the expected harvest that will benefit the farmers of
the said area.

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Energy Efficiency
The project aims to lessen the energy that is being used during the whole process
of cropping. The present scenario in Barangay General Balao, is the farmers are pumping
water for the agricultural crops it will require of gasoline and we know that gasoline and
other equipment is costly for the farmers. It will lessen the income of the farmers. By used
of diversion dam it will remove the used of pumping system and reduces the work and
energy of farmers in the said barangay and for them to gain more income for their everyday
used and for their families.

Flood Control
When we visited the area, we learned that its not only the drought that causes
problem to the farmers, more often the flood when the heavy rain comes. Rain water from
higher slope tends to go the rice field and lower area causing it to be submerge. By this
scenario, our proposal shall cater the problems like inundate to roads by constructing a
reservoir and canal for networks for the dry or rain fed agricultural area.

Investment Appraisal

The investment costs P3,158,316.21 for the construction of the irrigation system.
Having 20% increase in cost gives us an NPV or Net Present Value of P32,940,926.45
and a Benefit Cost Ratio of 3.81 with an Internal Rate of Return of 37.053%.
Considering 20% increase in cost and 20% decrease in benefit gives us an NPV of
P24,005,958.88 and a CBR of 3.05 with an IRR of 26.33%.

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CHAPTER VI

Summary of Findings, Conclusion & Recommendations

Summary of Findings

From the analysis of data, the findings were as follows:

1. The irrigation system will raise the crop production of the area and greatly
reduce the cost of production.

2. The rice field will not be flooded anymore especially during rainy seasons
because of the presence of the irrigation system.

3. The farmers can now utilize their rice field efficiently without skipping any
cropping season due to the past problems like extreme flood and drought.

Conclusion

In a very comprehensive study and investigation that has been undertaken on the
technical appraisal, assessment and evaluation of the proposed project, major concerns
were being considered, these are:

1. Physical features of the site/project area


2. Fulfillment of the projects purposes;
3. Availability of materials and labor force in the project area during the
construction.

In the final evaluation from the economic viability aspects of the project, it yielded
an Internal Rate of Return of 37.053% and BCR of 3.81 with 20% increase in cost.
Economic Internal Rate of Return of 37.053. Considering 20% increase in cost and 20%
decrease in benefit, it yielded a CBR of 3.05 with an IRR of 26.33%. Having an Irrigation
System on the farm will drastically help to lessen the cost of production from using gas in
pumps and boost the crop production for higher income and to improve our countrys
agriculture.

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Based from the different criteria in evaluating, this project has led to the conclusion
that the project as described in this report is technically feasible and economically viable.

Recommendations

Arriving to the conclusion that the proposed diversion dam is technically feasible
and economically viable. It is recommended that the development of the proposal should
go forward so long as that all methods of construction would comply with the specifications
and standards set forth by the government. Construction permits and other important
documents should be availed from the LGU Solana Engineering Office and General
Construction Notes should be provided for further references. All works executed should
be done as reflected by the plans provided by the governing agency. Problems and
clarifications should be presented to the governing agency.

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References

Dara, C., et. Al. (2004). Rehabilitation of irrigation systems in afghanistan. United States
Agency for International Development, P1.

Gatta, B. (2012). Portable, above-ground water impoundments provide storage for


hydraulic fracturing operations. Industrial WaterWorld Articles. P1.
Abdullahi, I. (2014). Analysis of reservoir water variation in gubi dam treatment plant.
American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER). Volume-03, Issue-05, pp-01-15. e-
ISSN : 2320-0847 p-ISSN : 2320-0936.

Krishnaveni, M., et. Al. (2011). Rehabilitation of irrigation tank cascade system using
remote sensing gis and gps. AGRIS. P1.

Hedlund, J. (2009). Rehabilitating irrigation systems with usda water quality programs.
Irrigation and Drainage: Saving a Threatened ResourceIn Search of Solutions. pp. 286-
293

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