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Bibliography Objectives Delineated Factors Methods Major Findings

Chatveera, B., & This study is aimed at Composite, High- Experimental Test results showed that a mix haVing 2% fiber content by
Nimityongskul, P. investigating the range water method weight of cementitious material with rice husk ash was the optimum mix of the
(2013). Use of Water physical and reducing agent, composite. The ductility of water hyacinth fiber reinforced semi-sheet roofings was
Hyacinth Fiber as mechamcal properties Mortar, Production Significant high compared to that of plain mortar semi-sheet roofings. Test results
Randomly-Oriented of method, indicated that water hyacinth fiber is a highly absorptive fiber and its tensile strength
Reinforcement in water hyacinth fiber and Properties, Rice and
Roofing Sheets. KKU the mechanical hush ash, Roofing modulus of elasticity are low.
ENGINEERING jproperties of fiber sheet, Water
JOURNAL, 21(1-2), reinforced roofing sheet hyacinth fiber,
77-92. using Workability
water hyacinth as fiber
and rice husk ash as
Hazarika, A. To know the bio- Portland cement, Experimental 1. The consistency has shown a decreasing trend with some of the doses. The
(2016). Evaluation of admixtures important sustainable method decrease of consistency value for BA140 and BA150 solidifies the point that the bio
a Vegetable Extract role in the development concrete extract has a slight plasticizing ability. There is a decrease of 1% in consistency when
for Using as an of modern sustainable technology, plant bio extract was added.
Organic Admixture in concrete technology as extract, fresh 2. The plasticizing property is also reinforced by the water requirement test for making
Sustainable Cement well as reduces the cement composite cement paste. Reference paste (50gm of cement) required 20 ml of water whereas
Based Composite expenses otherwise property, only 17 and 15 ml of Ba140 and BA120 was required respectively for making paste.
Preparation (Doctoral incurred with the use of mechanical 3. The setting time have also presented a very peculiar behaviour. The setting time
dissertation, synthetic admixtures. property, durability, when the extract was used showed a decreasing trend. This can be the result of
Kaziranga University). The relative market internal curing increase in calcium ion concentration, leading to accelerated hydration reaction. Quick
share of bio-admixtures agent, plasticity, setting is of high demand in cold climatic regions.
in comparison with costefficient. 4. A method was developed and tested to evaluate the water retention capacity of
synthetic admixtures is cement pastes. Using the method, the movement of circular water font can be distinctly
gradually increasing detected because of the development of colour. The diameter of circular font can be
due to increasing directly related with water retention capacity of the cement paste.
worldwide 5. From the water retention test the bio-polymeric extract was also found to have water
environmental retention capacity.
awareness for 6. The compressive strength in case of BA120, though stayed low initially, i.e. in range
constituents in building with the cubes having 4% PVA solution ( PVA < 2% is the allowable limit) , but at a
materials. later stage (28th day and 56 day) the strength of cubes of the higher dose of
biopolymer, BA120, has increases to the range of the reference mortar cubes.
7. The addition of bio-polymeric admixture also improves the compressive strength
behaviour of cement mortars. The rate of increase in strength of bio-polymeric mortars
is normally higher than that of reference mortar samples.
8. With reference to the reference mortars, the compressive strength of the BA140 has
shown no change in strength behaviour till 28 days. But the strength after 28 days has
increased for the mortar cubes having BA140.
9. The strength of the mortars/concrete cubes are generally considered to stop
increasing after 28 days, as happened in case of reference mortar cubes, but cubes
with both BA120 and BA140 showed a positive curve when tested on 56th day (figure
6.1) this could be another criterion for which this bio-admixture has a strong property
for its acceptance worldwide.
10. Porosity determination of the mortar cubes presented a notable decrease in
porosity in the BA cubes than the Ref cubes. The bio polymeric extract decreases the
water retention capacity of cement mortar. This indirectly indicates the lowering of
water accessible porosity of the mortar cubes. The improvement of water accessible
porosity is beneficial for durability performances in mortars in deleterious environment.
11. The measurement of compressive strengths of cement mortar with and without the
presence of bio polymeric extract it can be concluded that the presence of bio
polymeric extract improves the durability performances of cement mortar in simulated
sea-water conditions.
12. The performances of the cement mortars containing bio polymeric extract are quite
better than that of the reference mortars (mortars prepared by water only) in the
investigated time periods. Particularly, better performances of polymeric mortar in oven
dry conditions, indicates that the investigated bio polymeric extract can be considered
as an internal curing agent. 13. The durability performance can be correlated with the
higher water absorption capacity of bio polymeric mortar samples.

14. The increase in cohesiveness of the cement mortar due to bio polymeric extract
additions and the probable formation of polymer films in the mortar samples improve
pore structure of bio polymeric mortar samples, which ultimately improves the durability
performance in various aggressive conditions.
Umoh, A. A., & The main purposes of MUSA Experimental The study reveals that the consistency of the cement paste decreases with increased
Nnana, S. P. A study setting PARADISIACA, method in the MPPPF content, and delay in initial and final setting times of the paste as the
of musa paradisiaca retarders are in delaying PSEUDO-STEM quantity of MPPPF increases indicating that MPPPF is a set retarding admixture. A
pseudo-stem pith fluid setting time and to PITH FLUID, SET- highest compressive strength of 21.74 N/mm2 was attained with 0.75% MPPPF
as set-retarding offset the accelerating RETARDING, content at 28 days curing which is 31.37% greater than the compressive strength of the
admixture in cement effect of high ambient ADMIXTURE, control mortar specimen at the same age. It means that 0.75% MPPPF is the optimum
paste and mortar. temperature (hot CEMENT PASTE , content that also contributes to strength development of the mortar. The effect of
weather), to keep the MORTAR , Water MPPPF on water absorption property of cement mortar was found not to be significant
mortar or concrete hyacinth when compared with the reference mortar, whereas the saturated density of the test
workable throughout the mortars was found to be higher than those of the reference mortar. The study
entire transport, placing recommended that Musa Paradisiaca pseudo-stem pith fluid could be used as
and finishing periods. retarding admixture in masonry cement mortar, however, further study is on going to
compare its performance with known organic and inorganic set-retarders.
Sathya, A., This study aims to use Bio-admixture, Experimental The present study reveals that the compressive strength and setting time of cement
Bhuvaneshwari, P., extract of Water cement, concrete, method are influenced by the bio-admixture-hydro extract and bio fine powder of water
Niranjan, G., & Hyacinth, as bio- water hyacinth, hyacinth. This is a novel approach evaluating the role of water hyacinth on mechanical
Vishveswaran, M. admixture in cement setting time, properties of concrete and cement. The setting time was found to be delayed with
(2013). Inuence of and concrete. compressive increase on replacement percentage of bio admixture whereas, the compressive
Bio Admixture on strength strength and workability increased with increasing concentration of bio admixture.
Mechanical Sorptivity was also reduced with increased replacement percentage. The presence of
Properties of Cement photochemical such as lingo-cellulose, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids have
and Concrete. enabled to identify this bio admixture as retarding but strengthening agent of cement
and concrete.
Davies, R. M., & This sturdy aims to Densification; Experimental This work was conducted to investigate the effect of process variable on the durability
Abolude, D. S. evaluate the effect of biomass; physical; method of the briquettes produced from water hyacinth and plantain peels at different levels of
(2013). Mechanical process variable on plantain peels; binder, particle size and compaction pressure. The quality of the briquettes improved
handling shattering index and binder with binder proportion and as well as compaction pressure. The binder proportion,
characteristics of compressive strength compaction pressure and particle size had significant effect on the durability of the
briquettes produced characteristics of the briquettes (P< .05).
from water hyacinth water hyacinth The optimum binder level, compaction pressure and particle size required to produce
and plantain peel as briquettes. the briquettes with highest durability strength is tagged DIP4B5 and 96%. The result
binder. Journal of compared favourably with fuelwood. Thus, densification process had improved the
Scientific Research handling characteristics of briquettes. The briquettes fuel produced are environmental
and Reports, 2(1), 93- friendly, reduce health hazard associated with the use of fuelwood and reduce
103. desertification and its environmental implication. Therefore, combination of water
hyacinth and plantain peels are very suitable for briquette production for domestic and
industrial uses.

Ciobanu, C., Lazu, The aim of this paper is Portland cement, Experimental The degree of hydration of C3S and C2S assessed by the proportion of Ca(OH)2, in
I., & Pcurariu, C. to present the effect on Viscosity modifying method and cement pastes containing VMA is close or even higher than the proportion of Ca(OH)2
(2013). Investigation Portland cement admixtures, Investigatory from the standard sample (with no addition). Exceptions are samples A7 and A8 which
regarding the effect of hydration, of some VMA Hydration, Thermal contain natural cellulose fibres and A9 containing a modified polysaccharide. Mortars
viscosity modifying which can be used analysis, Setting containing VMA require a larger amount of water to achieve standard consistency. This
admixtures upon the together or as time, Mechanical justifies the fact that mechanical strengths decrease with increasing the amount of
Portland cement substitutes for cellulose strength water. Higher porosity and higher average pore radius of samples containing VMA
hydration using ethers. These VMA are: reflect the VMA effect of air entraining, which also cause the decrease of mechanical
thermal natural cellulose fibres strength. Additions of natural cellulose fibres (MA1 and MA2) and chemically modified
analysis. Journal Of with different length and starch (MA16) are distinguished as viscosity modifiers that do not substantially affect
Thermal Analysis & thickness, diutan gum, the rate of hydration of cement and mechanical strengths after hardening.
Calorimetry, 112(1), welan gum,
331-338. polygalactomannane
ethers, polyacrylamide,
hydroxypropyl starch,
chemically modified
starch, modified
polysaccharide and a
high-molecular mass
synthetic copolymer.
Putra, A., Handayani, This paper reports aquifer layer, Experimental Admixtures of cement and polymer resin with various compositions of water, cement,
G., Satira, S., Viridi, experiments on the cement, coefficient Method and polymer have been prepared for water storage in an aquifer layer. It has been
S., & Nugraha, N. permeability of the of permeability, shown that as the water to cement ratio increases, the coefficient of permeability
(2010). Preliminary admixtures of cement porosity, resin, increases. Moreover, the increase in the volume of resin decreases the coefficient of
Study Of The and polymer resin. water hyacinth permeability. Relating the permeability with the porosity, it has been found a
Permeability Of Because these relationship having a tendency to a power law. More data are needed for verifying the
Cement-Resin admixtures must keep relationship.
Admixture using and slow down the
water hyacinth. AIP infiltration rate of water,
Conference we need to determine
Proceedings, 1325(1), the coefficient of
47-49. permeability and its
correlation with other
Bedard, C., & Todays concrete Chemical, Experimental It is important to understand admixture-cement and admixtureadmixture interactions so
Mailvaganam, N. P. incorporates a mixture Admixtures, Method optimal use of materials can be achieved, admixture-cement incompatibility can be
(2005). The Use of of chemical and mineral Cement, prevented, better troubleshooting of field problems is possible, and more accurate
water hyacinth admixtures. They Compatibility, prediction of concrete properties is possible.
Admixtures in interact with cement water hyacinth
Concrete. Part I: constituents and
Admixture-Cement influence cement
Compatibility. Journal hydration. An
Of Performance Of admixtures
Constructed performance is
Facilities, 19(4), 263- dependent on its type
266. and dosage,
composition, specific
surface area of the
cement, type and
proportions of the
aggregate, sequence of
addition of water and
admixture, compatibility
of admixtures, water/
cement ratio, and
temperature and
conditions of curing.
Wang, C., Tannant, To presents laboratory Admixture, Experimental Many factors should be taken into account when selecting appropriate admixtures for a
D. D., Padrutt, A., & test results showing the Cement, Backfill, Method particular backfill operation. An important factor is the fill strength. Laboratory strength
Millette, D. (2002). influence of cement Strength, water tests should be conducted to optimise a backfill recipe design. An economics analysis
Influence of water admixtures on the hyacinth. can be conducted to determine the net benefit of using a relatively expensive
hyacinth Admixtures compressive strength of admixture versus the benefits of higher strength and easier fill transportation and
on Cemented Backfill three types of cemented placement that can be obtained with addition of an admixture. Laboratory testing for
Strength. Mineral backfill: cemented the compressive strength of three different types of back- fill have demonstrated that
Resources aggregate fill (CAF), certain cement admixtures can substantially improve the strength of the fill. Strength
Engineering, 11(3), cemented hydraulic fill increases of up to 50% relative to mix designs without an admixture were obtained.
261. (CHF) and cemented Appropriate selection of an admixture also provides other benefits such as reduced
paste fill (CPF). water content, improved pumpability, and delayed setting time.
Izotov, V., & This paper examines Hydration, Portland Experimental The present experimental data demonstrate that the complex admixture based on a
Ibragimov, R. (2015). the effect of a Cement, Complex Method polycarboxylate ether, sodium sulfate, and phenylethoxysiloxane influ ences the
Hydration products of polycarboxylate Admixture hydration, structure formation, and mor phology of the hydrates forming in cement
portland cement etherbased complex stone under various hardening conditions.
modified with a water admixture on the phase
hyacinth composition and degree
admixture. Inorganic of hydration of cement
Materials, 51(2), 187- stone.
Jongpradist, P., Portland cement is Mechanical Experimental The saturation condition of cement-clay admixtures under different applications or
Youwai, S., & widely used for the properties; method construction techniques is emphasized, and the role played by water content in such
Jaturapitakkul, C. improvement of soft clay Cement; Clays; mixtures is discussed. The existing fundamental or key parameters for assessing the
(2011). Effective Void in many applications Void ratio; Water mechanical properties of cement-treated clay are then reviewed. With the results from
Ratio for Assessing and construction content; previous studies, the additional laboratory tests on air-cement-treated clay in this study
the Mechanical methods. Because of Lightweight; Foam, indicate that to work with a wide range of water contents and unsaturated conditions,
Properties of water the high initial water water hyacinth both the water content and the void ratio must be taken into account. A new parameter,
hyacinth Admixtures content of in situ soft the effective void ratio, est, is developed as Cw lneot=Aw. Results from different
at High Water clay, the additional test conditions on samples with different saturation conditions, curing times, and mixing
Content. Journal Of water in the cement components show the effective void ratio is an efficient parameter to characterize the
Geotechnical & slurry to be mixed, and mechanical properties of wet and air-admixed cement-clay mixtures. However, the
Geoenvironmental the added air in some proposed parameter is developed on the basis of limited data for specific soils and
Engineering, 137(6), applications, the ranges of water contents, and a broader set of studies are needed to enhance the
621-627. mixtures have a high reliability of this parameter.
water content and void
ratio in either almost-
saturated or
unsaturated conditions
Madan, Alok, Andrei An important objective Fibers; Post Experimental Few research studies are reported in the literature on the nonlinear flexural behavior of
M. Reinhorn, and of the study is to tensioning; investigation concrete masonry elements with unbonded flexural reinforcement under reversed
John B. Mander. rationally model the Masonry; Shear cyclic loading. The limited experimental data available on the in-plane hysteresis
"Fiber-Element Model effect of the absence of walls; Lateral behavior of posttensioned masonry walls suggests that longitudinally
of Posttensioned bond between the loads; Cyclic loads. posttensioned/reinforced slender hollow block concrete masonry shear walls with
Hollow Block Masonry longitudinal reinforcing ungrouted cells i.e., ungrouted longitudinal reinforcement with or without prestress
Shear Walls under steel posttensioned or dissipate less hysteretic energy under reversed cyclic in-plane lateral loading in
Reversed Cyclic unprestressed and comparison to their grouted counterparts. Nevertheless, the theoretically predicted and
Lateral surrounding masonry, available experimentally recorded lateral in-plane force-displacement hysteresis loops
Loading." Journal Of as well as the effect of presented in this paper demonstrate that such walls offer a viable lateral load resisting
Structural posttensioning of mechanism as they can sustain large nonlinear displacements without significant loss
Engineering 134, no. longitudinal steel on the in strength or stiffness. The advantage of longitudinally posttensioned/reinforced hollow
7 (July 2008): 1101- nonlinear in-plane force- block concrete masonry shear walls with ungrouted cells may result from the damage
1114. Academic displacement behavior control and inherent recentering ability nonlinear elastic behavior of such walls in the
Search Premier, of slender hollow block event of severe earthquakes. It is hypothesized that the rocking motion observed in
ebscohost (accessed masonry shear walls such walls has a beneficial isolation effect that limits the amount of earthquake force
January 12, 2017). subjected to reversed entering the structural wall element, thus limiting the seismic damage in the wall while
cyclic lateral loading. achieving large nonlinear wall displacements. A significant functional advantage of
hollow block concrete masonry walls is their low thermal conductivity due to the heat
insulation properties of the air gap and possible insulative inserts in the ungrouted
hollow cells. Since the hollow concrete masonry cells are left ungrouted, such walls
also offer the feasibility of adopting passive energy dissipation devices in the ungrouted
cells to supplement the energy dissipation by the posttensioning/reinforcing steel.
S. J. Tan1,2 In this paper, the effect Recycled high- Experimental The addition of 6 wt% of PE-g-MAH into rHDPE/WHFPE-g-MAH composites gave
A. G. Supri1 of compatibilizer density method the highest tensile strength and Youngs modulus but lowest elongation at break and
K. M. Chong3. concentration on tensile polyethylene _ water absorption. This indicated the concentration of 6 wt% of PE-g-MAH showed
Properties of recycled properties, Compatibilizer _ better interfacial bonding between WHF and rHDPE matrix compared to others
high-density water absorption Water hyacinth concentration of PE-g-MAH. The SEM morphology displayed less fiber pull out and
polyethylene/water properties, fiber fiber detachment in rHDPE/WHFPE-g-MAH composites in comparison to rHDPE/
hyacinth fiber morphological WHF composites
composites: the effect properties and FTIR
of different analysis of recycled
concentration of high-density
compatibilizer. polyethylene/water
Polym. Bull. hyacinth fiber
DOI 10.1007/s00289- (rHDPE/WHF)
015-1387-3 composites will be
Supri, A. G., Tan, S. The objective of this Low-Density Experimental In the study LDPE/NR/WHFPANI composites exhibited higher tensile
J., Ismail, H., & Teh, study is to determine Polyethylene, Natural method strength, Youngs modulus, elongation at break, conductivity,
P. L. (2014). the effects of PANI Rubber, Water and melting temperature but lower molar
Properties of on the properties of Hyacinth Fiber, sorption, capacitance, percentage crystallinity, and interparticle
(Lowdensity LDPE/NR/WHF Composites, Effect of spacing than LDPE/NR/WHF composites. These
polyethylene)/(natural composites with Polyaniline results were due to better interfacial adhesion between the
rubber)/(water different fiber WHFPANI and LDPE/NR phases, as evidenced in the
hyacinth fiber) loadings. SEM morphology.
composites: The
effect of
polyaniline. Journal of
Vinyl and Additive
Technology, 20(2),