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Spin echo

Tsz Ching Fok | Ioanna Skampardoni | Imaging Lab 2017


Overview
1. The principles of spin echo formation
2. Spin echo imaging
3. Different types of contrast in spin echo imaging
a. T1 weighting
b. T2 weighting
c. Proton density weighting
4. Inversion Recovery Preparation SE sequence
5. Multi Slice SE sequence
6. SE vs GE
7. Clinical Applications
Tsz Ching Fok | Ioanna Skampardoni | Imaging Lab 2017
The principles of spin echo formation
- Started with an excitation
pulse of 90
- Turns Mz into Mxy

- FID is generated

- Followed by a refocusing
pulse of 180
- Dephasing of spins

- Relaxation of transverse
magnetization

Tsz Ching Fok | Ioanna Skampardoni | Imaging Lab 2017


Spin Echo Sequence
- SE sequence with all RF
pulses and magnetic field
gradients for spatial
encoding

Tsz Ching Fok | Ioanna Skampardoni | Imaging Lab 2017


Different contrasts in SE imaging

- Based on T1, T2 relaxation times and proton density (PD)

Tsz Ching Fok | Ioanna Skampardoni | Imaging Lab 2017


T1 weighted
- Short TR, short TE

- Depends on the length of T1 relaxation


- Rate of energy dissipation into the
surrounding molecular lattice and
hydration layer

- T1 (eg. Fat) < T1 (eg. CSF)

- Different Mz values presented, after


applying 90, different Mxy components
are generated
- S: signal difference

Tsz Ching Fok | Ioanna Skampardoni | Imaging Lab 2017


T2 weighted
- Long TR, long TE

- Amount of signal loss depends on the time


between excitation and TE

- At intermediate TE the difference in transverse


magnetization can be maximized

- TE too long or too short will cause no T2


contrast in acquired image

- T1 (eg. Fat) < T1 (eg. CSF)

- T2 weighted images can only be generated


using SE sequences

Tsz Ching Fok | Ioanna Skampardoni | Imaging Lab 2017


Proton density weighted
- Long TR, short TE

- Relies mainly on differences in


the number of magnetized
protons per unit volume of tissue

- Minimizes influence from both


relaxation times

- CSF > fat > gray matter > white


matter
Tsz Ching Fok | Ioanna Skampardoni | Imaging Lab 2017
T1
Properties of Spin Echo
- Pros:

- Flexible and specific contrast


T2
behaviour (T1, T2, PD weighted)

- Insensitivity to signal loss caused by


field inhomogeneities

- Cons: PD

- The ratio of data acquisition time to


repetition time is unfavorable ~2%

Tsz Ching Fok | Ioanna Skampardoni | Imaging Lab 2017


Inversion Recovery Preparation SE sequence
- Add additional 180 pulse at the beginning before the
SE sequence

- Enhance T1 contrast

- TI: time between inversion pulse and 90 excitation


pulse

- TI is chosen such that longitudinal magnetization Mz of


a tissue crosses 0, signal by this tissue is suppressed

- Common type:

- STIR

- FLAIR

Tsz Ching Fok | Ioanna Skampardoni | Imaging Lab 2017


Multi-Slice SE Imaging
- Waiting time for T1 relaxation in
one slice can be used for
excitation and acquisition of
data from other slices

- Increases efficiency

- Approx. 33 slices can be


acquired in 1 interval

Tsz Ching Fok | Ioanna Skampardoni | Imaging Lab 2017


Clinical Applications
- T1: provides best contrast for
paramagnetic contrast agents
(Gadolinium based compounds)

- T2: highlighting CSF sheath

Tsz Ching Fok | Ioanna Skampardoni | Imaging Lab 2017


Comparison between SE and GE
- Gradient Echo (GE) uses
magnetic field gradient applied
in one direction and then
reversed to induce the formation
of an echo

- SE uses the 180 refocusing


pulse

Tsz Ching Fok | Ioanna Skampardoni | Imaging Lab 2017


Comparison between SE and GE
- Axial View

- Not much difference

- Sagittal View

- Signal voids in GE image can be seen in nasal and oral


cavities

- Cause:

- Signal in GE sequence is determined by T2* rather than


T2 decay due to the absence of refocusing pulse

Tsz Ching Fok | Ioanna Skampardoni | Imaging Lab 2017


Reference
- Jung B. A. and Weigel M. Spin Echo Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Journal of magnetic resonance imaging 2013; 37: 805-817.

- Bushberg J.T. et al. Essential Physics of medical imaging. 3rd Edition. 2012.

- Bushberg J, Seibert J, Leidholdt E, Boone J. The Essential Physics of Medical Imaging. Vol. 30, Medical Physics. 2002. 933 p.

- Jung BA, Weigel M. Spin echo magnetic resonance imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2013;37(4):80517.

- McRobbie DW, Moore E a. MRI Sequences. 2012;(L):3446.

- Huettel S, Song A, McCarthy G. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Vol. 20, Brain- Magnetic resonance imaging. 2009.
542p.

Tsz Ching Fok | Ioanna Skampardoni | Imaging Lab 2017


Q&A
Thank you!

Tsz Ching Fok | Ioanna Skampardoni | Imaging Lab 2017