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How to Make a Professional Printed Circuit Board: the Complete * Guide by Joobarieam (imember/Joebarteami) in electronics (/explorelcategoryitechnologyrkeywordlelectronics/) Download Hi (dHow-to-Make-a-Prfessional-Prirtec-Clrcul-Boarc-¥) 10'Steps + Collection IMadest!@ Favonte = Sharo~ pw About This Instructable © 11.543 views Posted: 163 favortes ee technologies (Arduino, 3D prin.) and DIY projects | practice electonic since lam 12 ‘More by Josbarteam: WR (jcitiovelo- (iciFingerprint Matoa- Lock Proesslonat- Untreskale- Prine Garage (aleompuercicst- Door ContotBex) Beary) Eleni) How a PCB is made ‘Add instructable to: 8.00 Related Hallo everybody, today! il show you how to make professonal PCB, to improve your electronic project, F222 sing ori) Let's start ! Be otorpingn) BD or terretce Step 1: What You Need to Buy Fantastic Double Sided PCBS Siewruang seommone Exposure box (psn govonie flartchassie-nesleror166-6770 him) mht ete Presensibilized epoxy (hitp/ stent nse avintd cei epoxy-100x160mm/dp/1267738) board (PCB) using the UV Sececnaes aes Tin (http: Farnell. comciffart/etain-chimique-a-troididp/4208584? ost=cif+etain&searchView=tableBiscrinonsku=false&ddkey=http%3Af- FR%2FElement14_France%2Fsearch) solution (optional but recommended) How To Solder (idiHow-To- Solder-17), by Mahi Aran: NaOH (http famnell.comvitiar4Sirevelateur-positf-sachet-pourldp/4208547? ane MER=bn_level6_5NP_EngagementRecSingleltem_2) (sodium hydroxide) DIY Prototype Printed Gieult Board (P¢B) Manufacture FeCl (hitp:/ ‘Acetone (you can find it in @ supermarket) (Here is the link to the project related to the PCB you will see in this tutorial Computer Control Box (hitps://wmwinstructables.comv/id/Computer-Control-Box/) ) Step 2: Drawing the PCB Hf you already have the design of your PCB in a file, you can skip this step am using Proteus software to draw my PCBs, but you can also use Fritzing software to do that. The most important is that you can export your design into a pdf file. PDF keeps real size so if you print this file to a 1:1 scale, you will not, have scale troubles after printing Step 3: Printing the Artwork Now print the PCB design on transparent sheets advise you to print a least 3 copies of the artwork, you will get better results, because the opacity will be better al the exposing step.. Step : Setting Up Chemicals During these steps, wear gloves and work in a well ventilated area and wear a pair of goggles. You will handle strong bases and acids. Some of them evaporate easily inthe air. | also advise you to wear a lab coat or old clothes because an iron chloride spot can not be cleaned. Itlets a disgusting yellow- brown color ‘\Never pour liquids containing metals into the environment /!\ Use a bottle of chemical waste that you can give to a waste disposal site Prepare a bath of relelator for prepositive sensibilized epoxy. It|s just sodium hydroxyde ( concentration 1giL ) Let it to the room temperature. Prepare an other bath with a solution of iron Ill chloride (FeCI3) Ifyou want the reaction to go faster, you will need to catalyse the reaction between the acid (FeCI3) and copper of the PCB, it means you will need to heat ‘the iron Ill chloride solution. To do that, | use a hot water bath (see pictures) Without this, the result will not be as expected. Heat the water in a boiler to a temperature of about 80 * C, once it is hot pour the water into a larger container than the FeCI3 one. Place the FeCI3 bath in the hot water bath. ‘iso prepare a water bath, (distiled water is better) to wash the PCB between each steps. It is also a good idea to keep absorbing paper next to you... When you wash the PCB, absorbe water on it to not dilute the next bath. Step 5: Exposing the PCB Pbbbe) or Let's set up the UV-light exposure box. Take the first artwork and attach it to the pane with adhesive tape. (Be careful about the orientation of the artwork !) Then add the second and the third design onto the first one to improve the opacity. Ths trick will prevent UV rays to cross black lines of the design. Now you are ready. You will work with photosensitive resin, so you will have to ‘work in a place where the brightness is reduced unti the PCB is not developed. Ready to start ? Go! Carefully remove the protective film of the PCB. Place the sensitive side into the design and secure it in place with tape. Put al ofthis into the exposure box, sensitive side facing the UV tubes and close the box. Tur it on between 2' to 2°30" no more, During this, put gloves and goggles to protect yourself from chemicals. Once time is over, switch off the exposure box, open it and take the PCB, Step 6: Developing the PCB ster naoH i) Place it immediately into the sodium hydroxide bath, sensitive face up. You should immediately see a blue-purple color (sometimes grey) going into the sodium hydroxide. Slowly shake the bath until you great see the design. (Around 30" - 60") ‘Wash the PCB into the water bath. Step 7: Engraving the PCB Atthis step, the PCB is not photosensitive at all, you can switch on the light ! Now place the PCB copper-face up into the acid bath (FeCl3) and slowly shake it back and forward. The solution always need to move to the reaction take place. (About 20" to 40" depending on the water bath temperature, the surface area of copper to disolve and the concentration of the FeCi3 solution.) When all copper have been dissolved by the acid, remove the PCB and wash it into an other water bath and dry it out Step 8: Washing the PCB ‘After Acetone Now you need to remove the remaining resin on the circuit. To do that, place the PBC into an acetone bath, Acetone will become purple. (Around 10° - 20") The ‘copper is henceforth exposed. ‘Then wash the PCB into water, and you have done ! Step 9: Tinning the PCB Alter Tin I chloride Its an optional step but | advertise you to do it because it will help you to solder components and prevent corrosion. Place the PCB in a empty bath and pour a ite bit of tin Il chloride solution on it. It wil ay down tin on the circuit “** Success ! ** You made a professional PCB ! Step 10: Drilling the PCB After cling and soldering Use a vertical drill and a 0.8mm dri bit to drill every holes, and ifthe pin of the component is too large to go through, use a 1.2mm dil bit to enlarge the frst hole. ( Aivays start wit the smaller dil bit you have, to drill a precise hole ! Itis very important |) ‘And your PCB is done | The only remaining thing is to solder your components onit! hope you like this tutorial Ifyou have any question, leave a comment !;) (Here is the link to the project related to the PCB you saw in this tutorial Computer Control Box (hitps:/www.instructables.comv/id/Computer-Control-Box/) ) Comments Wo nev abe nie commen poly. jase te ponte andeomaiucive, WIMade lt @ Add Images ‘AngeloBrito (imemberiAngeloBrito)) 2017-09-10 Rest Very interesting process, it is similar to the Photo Paper + Laser Printer + Clothes Iron + FeCI3, This one, which I had to use on university is cheaper but the finishing is horrible. Though, i you have access to a maker space you can also use a laser cutter machine to engrave on a black painted copper board and corrode the copper. Which one to do you think would have a better cost vs finishing? ‘And nice work! Fg Joebarteam (/memberlJoebarteam) (author > Angelito (memberAngeloBite) Ifyou have access to a Maker Space with the morren10 (see ‘appropriate equipment (CNC machines...) it must be cheaper and the result may be better than the method | described here. Butiflike me you love making everything by yourself, this method isa very good one. ;) ‘Thank you rufus.wallaby. (memberirufus wallaby 8) 2017-0940 ray | use Protel 1.61 Autotrax for DOS to design PCBS. Then print on a transparency x 2 witha laser printer, | find two transparencies are enough aligned together, also use the highest resolution available during the process. | hhave ui @ UV light box and use that, also developing is the same as you do. | have a tank | keep ferric chloride In with fish tank air bubble agitator and tank heater. When itis etched, | drill wth 0.62mm forthe ic sockets .7mm for everything else unless the component requires larger holes. | use a PROXXON TBM220 mini dril press and the drills are PCB carbide bits, | have a selection from .Smm to 3mm going up in .tmm steps. find itis useful to keep the resist on tll you finish diling then as you do take it off with acetone and scrub the board with a stainless steel scouring pad. Once the board is dry | brush the board with a mixture of Rosin flux and isopropyl alcohol , about 30%, This protects the board ‘and makes it easier to solder. When the board is populated, al flux is taken off with 100% isopropyl and replaced with a PCB protection coating, | wil ry the tinning from Element 14 on my next project, but the rosin flux is cheap, the ‘same as used lubrication in bowing a string instrument ike a violin Regards Robert Scott Foo Joebarteam (imember!Joebarteam/) (author) > rfuswalaby 9 (members wala. 2017-09-10 ray ‘Thank you. | did not know the Rosin flux with isopropyl alcohol method. | learned ‘something ! The inning seems to be expensive but only few drops are ‘enough, ‘Thank you again Mickaal.T richardfiroone (Imomberirichardfireone) 2017-08-10 ety excellent ob, thank you for this Fg ‘Arsam-Torabi (momberfArsam