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# 3 DESIGN OF RECTANGULAR BEAMS

## 3.1 Singly Reinforced Rectangular Sections

Consider the stress & strain distribution for a rectangular cross section of singly reinforced
concrete beam shown below.

c f cd = 0.85f ck/c f cd

x C 0.8x C
NA
D d
As s A sf s A sf s
d'
b Simplified Stress
Cross section Strain Stress Distribution (EBCS-2)

## In accordance with LSD method, at ULS of collapse:-

c approaches cu = 0.0035
f yd
The reinforcing steel shall yield first ( y d )
Es

## Ductility is ensured by means of under reinforcement.

At balanced failure simultaneous failure of the two materials (Concrete & Steel)
occurs.
Let x b be the depth to the NA at balanced failure. From the strain relation,
xb d xb cu * d
xb
cu yd cu yd

## If x < x b Steel yields first

If x > x b Crushing of concrete takes place first.
FH = 0 Ts = CC As fyd = 0.8 xb b fcd
Substituting for xb and simplifying,
0.8 * cu f
b * cd (a steel ratio for balanced case)
cu yd f yd

1
However, for ductility purpose the steel ratio may range b/n 0.75 b to 0.9 b, and in some
cases as low as 0.5 b in ACI code, but in EBCS-2 ductility is ensured by keeping kx max =
0.448 for 0% redistribution or even less for redistribution > 0% .

## Rewriting the force equilibrium

byfcd = As fyd b * 0.8x fcd = bd fyd
x * f yd f yd
kx m, where m
d 0.8 * f cd 0.8 * f cd

Mc = 0 Md = As fyd (d - 0.4x)
Substituting the value of x and simplifying
Md = 0.8 bd2 fcd kx (1-0.4 kx)

2 4M
When the above equation is solved for kx, k x 0.5c1 c1 2 d k x max
bd c2

## where c1 = 2.5 , c2 = 0.32fcd , kx max = 0.448 for 0% redistribution.

The section capacity for single reinforcement case may be computed from Mt = 0, when
kx > kx max
Md = 0.8bx fcd (d-0.4x) x = kx max d
= 0.8bd2 fcd kx max (1 -0.4 kx max)
If kx < kmax 0.8bd2 fcd kx(1 -0.4 kx )

Example 3.1.1
A simply supported beam spans 8m and is subjected to a LL = 30 kN/m in addition to self
weight. Materials C-25, S-300, class I are used. If b = 250mm, determine the depth required
to satisfy singly reinforced section at mid-span and the corresponding flexural
reinforrcement.

Solution:
Depth for deflection:
0.6 f yk Le
d 0.4
400 a
8000
d 0.85 340mm
20
D d l 2 s cov er
340 20 2 6 25 381

Say D = 400mm

2
Load on beams: Dead load, gk = 0.4*0.25*25 = 2.5 kN/m
Live load, qk = = 30 kN/m
Design load, d = 1.3DL + 1.6LL
= 1.3*2.5 + 1.6*30 = 51.25
pd L2 51.25 * 8 2
Analysis: M max M d 410 kN
8 8
Design constants:
25 0.85 f ck
C 25 f cu 25MPa, f ck 20 MPa, f cd 11 .3MPa
1.25 1.5
300
S 300 f yk 300MPa, f yd 260.87 MPa
1.25
fyd 260.87
m 28.78
0.8 fcd 0.8 * 11 .3

## C1 = 2.5 , C2 = 0.32fcd = 3.616 Mpa

Check depth: Md = 0.8bd2fcdkx(1 0.4kx)
kx = kxmax = 0.448 for 0% redistribution.

M d max
d 702.4mm
0.8bf cd k x max 1 0.4k x max
D 702.4 60 (two layers assumed ) 762.4mm Dused not safe
Revise using D = 800mm
pd = 51.25 + 1.3(0.8 0.4)*0.25*25 = 54.5 kN/m
p d L2 54.5 * 8 2
Md max 436 kNm
8 8
436
Rechecking d 702.4 * 724.3 mm
410

## D = 724.3 + 60 = 784.3mm < 800mm safe

Use d = 800 - 60 = 740mm
Reinforcement:
1
4M

kx C1 C1
2

2
bd 2 C 2

1 4 * 436 * 106
2.5 2.5
2

2 250 * 740 2 * 3.616

## = 0.424 < 0.448 Ok!

kx 0.424
0.015
m 28.78

3
As = bd = 0.015 * 250 * 740 = 2728 mm2
2728
# 20 = = 8.7 use 920 in two rows.
314

## d=740mm 2nd row , d2 = 25+6+20+10+10 = 81mm

920
5 * 41 4 * 81
d = 58.8mm
9
d1
d 58.8mm<60mmsafe!
b=250mm

## Example 3.1.2 (analysis of singly reinf.rect.beam)

A tensile reinforced beam has b = 250mm and d = 500mm to the center of bars. If fy =
400MPa and C-30, find the design flexural strength Md for (a) As = 224 bars (b) As = 432
bars.
Solution
Design strength of materials assuming class I work.
30 0.85 * 24
C-30 fck = 24MPa f cd = 13.6MPa.
1.25 1.5
400
fyk = fy = 400MPa fyd = = 348MPa
1.15
(a)

* 24 2
As = 2* 905mm 2
4
As 905
224
d=500mm = 0.00724
bd ( 250(500)
f yd 348
m= 32
0.8 f cd 0.8 * 13.6
d1=45m
250mm m

## kx = m = (0.00724)(32) = 0.232 < kxmax(0.448) (steel is yielding)

Section capacity (flexural strength)
Md = 0.8bd2fcdkx(1-0.4kx)
Md = 0.8*250*5002*13.6*0.232*(1-0.4*0.232)*10-6
= 143.12kNm

4
(b)

432
d=500mm l = 32mm , s = 8mm(assumed)
d11= 32 + 8 32 56mm
2
1
d2 = 32 + 8 + 32 + 32 +
d1
32 45 45 32 32 120mm
250mm 2
3 * 56 120
d1 = 72mm
4

D 500 + 75 = 575mm
* 32 2
As = 4* = 3217mm2
4

As 3217
= = 0.026
bd 250 * 500
kx = m = 0.026 * 32 = 0.824 >> 0.448 (concrete is crushing)
Md = 0.8bd2fcdkxmax(1-0.4kxmax)
= 0.8*250*5002*13.6*0.448*(1-0.4*0.448)*10-6
= 250.05kNm.

Exercise 3.1.1
A singly reinforced rectangular beam made using concrete of grade C-30 and steel of grade
S-400 has width b = 500mm and gross depth D = 600mm. Determine the capacity of the
section for flexure if the tensile steel area is As = 5 30.

Exercise 3.1.2
A rectangular singly reinforced beam is to be designed for dead load of 7.3 kN/m plus self
weight and live load of 17.5kN/m , with a 6.7m simple span material strengths will be S-400
and C-25 for steel and concrete respectively. The total beam depth must not exceed 600mm.
calculate the required beam width and tensile steel requirement.

Procedure in design.
- Assume b&d ( use deflection requirement )

5
D = d + cover + s + l
2
(s = dia.of stirrup)

## (l = dia. of long bars)

- with this D, find dead load and together with live load determine Mmax.
- Find constants kxmax , m

M l
-Find R (R = 0.8fcdkxmax(1-0.4kxmax)) d = Rb , hence new D = d + cover + s +
2

- If new D is greater than the first D, use D slightly larger than new D to find the dead load.
Together with live load determine Mnew.
M new
- Find dnew = Dnew = dnew + cover +s + l
Rold bold 2

## - For Dnew Dold , d = Dold-cover -s - l

2

kx 1
4 M dnew

As bd , where k x c1 c12 c1 2.5, c 2 0.32 f cd
m 2
c 2 bd 2

## 3.2 Doubly Reinforced Rectangular Sections

If the depth of an RC beam is limited due to architectural or other reasons the section may
not have sufficient compressive area of concrete to resist the moment induced in it. In such
cases the capacity of the section can be increased by placing steel in the compression zone
to carry the additional compressive force.

## Assume that As1 & As2 are stressed to fyd.

Figure 3.2.1 Flexural StressMdistribution
d = Mdc+ Mindsc doubly reinforced rectangular RC beam

Where Muc is the BM carried by the concrete and partial area of tensile steal.

6
Mdc = 0.8bd2 fcd k1 (1-0.4 k1)
In which k1 = kx max, the maximum steel ratio corresponding to single reinforcement section
in case of design and
A As'
k1 s m k x max for the case of analysis.
bd
Mdsc is the BM carried by compressive steel and the corresponding tensile steel.
'
Mdsc = As fyd (d-dc)
The yielding of the compressive steel may be checked from the strain relation as
x d c'
sc * cu yd
x

## Example 3.2.1 (Design of doubly reinf.rect.beam)

Solve example 3.1, when the depth D is 650mm and b = 300mm

Solution
pd = 1.6LL + 1.3DL = 1.6*30 + 1.3* 0.65 * 0.3 * 25
= 54.3375 kN/m.
pd l 2 54.3375 * 8 2
M d max 434.70kNm
8 8
Section capacity
Mdc = 0.8bd2fcdkxmax(1-0.4kxmax)
kxmax = 0.448
Assume d1 = 60mm d = 650-60 = 590mm.
Mdc = 0.8*300*5902*11.3*0.448(1-0.4*0.448)
= 347.14kNm < 437.70 the section has to be doubly reinforced.
K x max 0.448
As1 = bd * 300 * 590 2755mm 2
m 28.78
Mdsc = Mdmax Mdc = 434.70 - 347.14 = 87.56kNm.
M d sc 87.56 *106
As2 = 610mm 2
f yd (d d 1 ) 260.87 * (590 40)
As = As1 + As2 = 2755 + 610 = 3365mm2
3365
# 20 = = 10.72 use 1120 bars.
414
Compression bars:

7
Xmax = Kxmax d = 0.448*590 = 264.32mm.
X max d 1 264.32 40
sc = cn * 0.0035
X max 264.32

sc = 0.00297 0.0030
f yd 260.87
yd = 0.0013
Es 200 * 10 3

## Since sc> yd compression bars have yielded.

fs1 = fyd As1 = As2 = 610mm2
610
# 20 = 1.94 use2 20bars
314

20 comp. bars

6 stirrup
650mm 6 * 41 5 * 81
d' 59.2mm 60mm
20 tens. bars 11
Safe and economical

300mm

Example 3.2.2
A rectangular concrete beam measures 300mm wide and has an effective depth of 450mm.
compression steel consisting of two 24 is located 50mm from the compression face of the
beam. If C-30 and S-400 are used, what is the design moment capacity of the beam for the
following alternative tensile steel areas?
(a) As = 330 in one layer, (b) As 430 in two layer, (c) As = 630 in two layers? (Note check
for yielding of compression steel in each case)

Solution
Design strengths and constants.
30 0.85 * 24
C-30 fck = 24 MPa f cd 13.6MPa
1.25 1.5
400
S-400 fyk = 400MPa fyd = 348MPa
1.15
f yd 348
m= 32
0.8 f cd 0.8 * 13.6

8
dc = 50mm 24 comp. bars

6 stirrup
d = 450mm As = 3*707 mm2 = 2121mm2
30 tens. bars As = 2*452 mm2 = 904mm2

300mm

As As 1
k1 = m K x max

bd
2121 904
k1 = (32) 0.288 0.448
(300)( 450)
Mdc = 0.8bd2fcdk1(1-0.4k1)
= 0.8*300*4502*13.6*0.288(1-0.4*0.288)*10-6
= 168.43kNm.
Check yielding of compression reinforcement:
xmax = kxmaxd = 0.448*450 = 201.6mm
X max d c1 201.6 50
sc = cu * 0.0035 0.00263
x max 201.6
fyd 348
yd = 0.00174 sc comp. steel has yielded.
s 200000

Mdsc = As1fyd(d-d 1c )
= 904*348*(450-50)*10-6
= 125.84kNm.
Moment capacity: Md = 168.43 + 125.84 = 294.27kNm

9
Alternative method using design tables (singly reinforced Sections)

Derivation

Md = 0.8bd2fcd m(1-0.4 m)
Md
0.8 f cd m(1 0.4 m)
bd 2
Md
Let k m 0.8 f cd m(1 0.4 m)
bd 2
Md Md 1
As *
Mc = 0 f yd (d 0.4 x) d x
f yd (1 0.4 )
d
1 ks * M d
ks As
Let x d
f yd (1 0.4 )
d
Steps
Md
1. Evaluate b
km
d
2. Enter the general design Table No.1a using km and concrete grade.
3. Read ks from the same Table corresponding to steel grade and km.
ks * M d
4. Evaluate As
d

## Note: - In all cases

- Md is in KN-m
- b m
- d m

Cover to Reinforcements

The concrete cover is the distance between the outermost surface of reinforcement
(usually stirrups) and the nearest concrete surface.

10
The thickness of cover required depends both upon the exposure conditions and on the
concrete quality.
To transmit bond forces safely, and to ensure adequate compaction, the concrete cover
should never be less than:
(a) or n ( 40mm), or
(b) ( + 5mm) or (n + 5mm) if dg > 32mm
Where = the diameter of the bar.
n = the equivalent diameter for a bundle.
dg = the largest nominal aggregate size.

Minimum cover
Type of exposure Mild Moderate Sever
Min. cover (mm) 15 25 50

Durability and control of crack width is related with finishing and provision of adequate
cover to reinforcement. Nominal cover for structural elements located in the interior of the
building with dry environment and mild condition is 15 mm, example slab; humid
environment with moderate exposure is 25 mm, example beam; severe environment is 50
mm, example footing.

Spacing of Reinforcements
The clear horizontal and vertical distance between bars shall be at least equal to the
largest of the following values.
(a) 20 mm
(b) The diameter of the largest bar or effective diameter of the bundle
(c) The maximum size of the aggregate dg plus 5mm.
Where bars are positioned in separate horizontal layers, the bars in each layer should
be located vertically above each other and the space between the resulting columns of
the bars should permit the passage of an internal vibrator.

## Effective Span Length

The effective span of a simply supported member shall be taken as the lower of the
following two values:
(a) The distance between the center line of supports.

11
(b) The clear distance between the faces of supports plus the effective depth.
The effective span of a continuous element shall normally be taken as the distance
between the center lines of the supports.
For a cantilever, the effective span is taken to be its length, measured from.
(a) The face of the supports, for an isolated, fixed ended cantilever.
(b) The center line of the support for a cantilever which forms the end of a
continuous beam.

## Effective Depth for deflection requirement

Deflection limits are assumed to be satisfied when the minimum effective depth for a
particular member is
0.6 * f L
yk
d 0.4 e
400
a

where fyk is equal to character strength of reinforcement, Le is the effective span (the
shorter span in case of two way slab), is constant, a function of restraints given below).

Table values of a

## Member Simple End span Interior span cantilever

Beams 20 24 28 10
Slabs:
Span ratio 2:1 25 30 35 12
Span ratio 1:1 35 40 45 10
* For intermediate values interpolation.

## Preliminary Sizing of Beam Sections

Ideal values of span effective depth ratios, recommended in the ISE manual for the
preliminary sizing of reinforced concrete beams are given in table below.
Support conditions Cantilever Simple Support Continuous End spans
ISE manual (l/d) 6 12 15 13.5

4 T- SECTIONS

12
Reinforced concrete floors or roofs are monolithic and hence, a part of the slab will act with
the upper part of the beam to resist longitudinal compression. The resulting beam cross-
section is, then, T-shaped (inverted L), rather than rectangular with the slab forming the
beam flange where as part of the beam projecting below the slab forms the web or stem.

be

hf
D
b

Fig. 3.3.1

The T-sections provide a large concrete cross-sectional area of the flange to resist the
compressive force. Hence, T-sections are very advantageous in simply supported spans to
resist large positive bending moment, where as the inverted T-sections have the added
advantage in cantilever beam to resist negative moment.

As the longitudinal compressive stress varies across the flange width of same level, it is
convenient in design to make use of an effective flange width (may be smaller than the actual
width) which is considered to be uniformly stressed.
Effective flange width (according to EBCS 2, 1995)
For interior beams T-sections

le
b
be w 5
C / C beam spacing
For edge beams inverted L- sections

le
bw
be 10
bw half the clear dis tan ce to adjacent beam

where le is the effective span length & bw is the width of the web.

13
There are three distribution type of flexural behavior of T-sections.
When the T-section is subjected to BM, and tension is produced on the flange portion, it
is treated as a rectangular section with b = bw.
When the T-section is subjected to +ve bending moment and the equivalent compressive
stress block lies within the flange as shown below (y < h f), the section can be analysed
as rectangular with effective width be.
This case is a case of under reinforced condition or large flange thickness, which can
be confirmed first by computing (with b = be, = As/(bed)) using relation established
for rectangular beams and evaluate the NA depth, x = md. Compare y = 0.8x with hf.

bw

When y > hf, the section acts as T-beam and hence analysis accounting the T-geometry
becomes essential which is shown in the figure below.

be c f cd

hf 0.8x
x Cc

s
d' Ts

bw
Cross section Strain Stress

## Cross-section Design and Analysis

Design

14
4M d
- Assuming b = be compute k x 0.5 c1 c1 and x = kx d
be d 2 c 2
i) If y = 0.8x < hf , section is rectangular as assumed.
kx
As = be d
m
ii) If y > hf T beam analysis is required.
M uf
As = ASf + Asw = + wbwd in which,
Z f * f yd

## Muf = (be-bw)hf fcd zf

hf
Zf d
2

k w 0.5 4 M uw
w c1 c1
m m bw d 2 c 2
Muw = Mu - Muf

iii) When the flange is on the tension side, then the cross- section is designed as if it were
rectangular with b = bw

Analysis

As
, X = md
be * d

## i) If y = 0.8X<= hf the section is analyzed as rectangular with b = be.

Mu = 0.8bed2fcd m (1-0.4 m)
ii) If y = 0.8X< hf the section is analyzed as T-beam.
Muf = (be-bw)hf fcd zf
M uf
ASf =
Z f * f yd

Asw = As - ASf
Asw
w =
bw * d

## Muw = 0.8bwd2fcd wm(1-0.4wm)

Mu = Muf +Muw

15
Example 4.1
The simply supported parallel T-beams sustain floor system which span 7m and subjected to a
total design BM of 500kNm. The beams are spaced at 2000mm on centerline. The other beam
dimensions are hf = 800mm, bw = 400mm, D = 400mm. Materials, fck = 20MPa; steel, fyk =
300MPa and class I work. Determine the tensile steel area required at mid-span of and
interior beam.
Solution

Constants:
A A fcd = 11.3Mpa
7m fyd = 260.87Mpa
M = 28.78
C1 = 2.5
C2 = 0.32fcd = 3.616MPa
2m 2m 2m

80mm=hf
D=400mm

Bw=400mm

Section A-A

## Check depth for deflection

f ykLe
Beam, d (0.4 + 0.6* ) Le = 7000
400 a

a = 20
300 7000
d (0.4 + 0.6 * )* = 297.5mm
400 20
D 297.5 + 75 = 372.5mm < 400mmsafe.
For +ve BM flange is on compression side

16
l 7000
bw 5 400 1800mm
be 5
c/c dist. 2000mm
be = 1800mm
Since the BM is very large, assume two layers of 26 steel.
d1 = 26+8+26+13 = 73mm 75mm.
d = D-d = 400-75 = 325mm
Check T-beam (assuming b = be)
4M d
Kx = 0.5 c1 c1
2

be d 2 c 2

4 * 500 * 106
= 0.5 2.5 2.52 2
1800 * 325 * 3.616

## = 0.336 < kxmax.

X = kxd = 0.336*325 = 109.23mm > hf
T-section
Mdf = (be-bw)hf fcd (d-hf/2)
= (1800-400)*80*11.3*(325-80/2)*10-6
= 360.70kNm.
M df 360.70 * 10 6
Asf =
4852mm 2
h 260.87 * (325 80 )
f yd (d f ) 2
2
1 2 4 M dw
kw = c1 c1 Mdw = Md-Mdf
2 bw d 2 c 2

= 500-360.7
= 139.3kNm

1

4 * 139.3 * 10 6
2.5 2.5
2
Kw = 2 = 0.443<0.448 (singly reinforced)
2
400 * 325 * 3.616

kw 0.443
Asw = bw d * 400 * 325 2003mm
2

m 28.78
As = Asf + Asw = 4852 + 2003 = 6855mm2
6855
#26 = 12.93 say 13.
530

17
Use 13 26 bars in two layers.

1800mm

80mm

400mm 1326

400mm

Example 4.2
For the T-section singly reinforced with high strength steel (fy = 460 N/m2) calculate the
design moment capacity of the section.
Assume the grade of concrete as c-30.

1200mm

120mm

400mm 1224

70mm

350mm

Solution
460
Analysis: fyk = 460MPa fyd = = 400MPa
1.15
C-30 fcd = 13.6Mpa.
f yd 400
M= = 36.76
0.8 f cd 0.8 * 13.6

## d = 120 + 400 = 520mm.

be = 1200mm
As = 12*452 = 5424mm2
As 5424
= = 0.008694.
bed 1200 * 520

18
X = md = 0.00869 * 36.76 * 520 = 166mm
Y = 0.8x = 0.8*166 = 133mm> 120mm
T-section analysis is required.
Mdf = (be-bw)hf fcd Zf
hf
Zf = d- = 520- 120 = 410mm
2 2
Mdf = (1200-350)*120*13.6*410*10-6
= 568.75kNm.
M df 568.75 * 10 6
Asf = = 3468mm2
Z f f yd 410 * 400

## Asw = As-Asf = 5424-3468 = 1956mm2

a sw 1956
w = = 0.01075
bw d (350)(520)

Kw = mw = 36.76*0.01075 = 0.395<kxmax
Mdw = 0.8 bwd2 fcd kw (1-0.4kw)
= 0.8*350*5202*13.6*0.395*(1-0.4*0.395)*10-6
= 342.51kNm.
Md = Mdf + Mdw = 568.75 + 342.51
= 911.26kNm

19
5 ANALYSIS OF BEAMS FOR SHEAR

## 5.1 The ULS Design of Beams for Shear

Beams are designed for flexure and then the influences of other actions on its capacity are
assumed.

## The ULS of shear is characterized by either diagonal compression failure of concrete or

failure of the web reinforcement due to diagonal tension.

When a beam is subjected to flexure and shear, the shear resistance in the absence of shear
reinforcement is contributed by concrete compression zone, mechanical interlock of
aggregate at the crack and dowel action of the longitudinal reinforcement. The
contributions of the later two are difficult to quantify.

Hence, the resistance to a diagonal tension is obtained as the sum of the resistance of the
web reinforcement and the concrete section.

In checking this resistance, the critical section for shear is assessed a distance d from the
face of face of support in the same way as in WSD method.

## (i) Only normal web reinforcement

When the shear force in a section does not exceed the shear strength of the concrete v c, only
nominal web reinforcement need be provided.

## Vc = 0.25 fctd K1 K2 bwd

Where: k1 = 1+50 2.0
k2 = 1.6 d 1.0, d is effective depth in m. For members where more than 50%

20
of the bottom reinforcement is curtailed, k2 = 1.0.
As
= 0.02 (bw = the minimum width of the web)
bw * d

## As = the area of the tensile reinforcement anchored beyond the intersection of

the steel and the line of possible 450 crack starting from the edge of the section.

## lb,net lb,net Section considered

Vsd Vsd
0
45
d 45
0
45
0

As As Vsd
lb,net

When Vsd < Vc, the section is adequate and provide nominal web reinforcement specified by
longitudinal spacing as:

(a) All beams except joists of ribbed slabs, shall be provided with at least the minimum
web reinforcement given by:
0.4 Av Av f yk
min s max
f yk bw s max 0.4bw

## Where: fyk is in MPa

Av = Pair area of stirrups
s = Spacing in mm
bw = width of web

(b) The maximum spacing smax between stirrups, in the longitudinal direction, shall be as
given below.
2
smax = 0.5d 300mm if Vsd V RD
3
2
smax = 0.3d 200mm if Vsd > V RD
3
(c) The transverse spacing of legs of stirrups shall not exceed d, or 800mm, which ever is
the smaller.

21
(ii) Limiting value of ultimate shear stress

In order to prevent diagonal compression failure in the concrete the shear resistance (VRd) of
a section shall not be less than the applied shear force at d distance from face of support
(Vsd).
Where, VRd = 0.25fcdbwd
When Vsd > VRd, the section size must be increased.

## (iii) Shear reinforcement

When Vc < Vd < VRd, shear reinforcement need be provided.
Av df yd
Vs Vd Vc ; Av = pair area of reinforcement
s

As Av
nAvf yd

## When inclined bars are used,

Av df yd Sin cos
Vs
s
Where: = the angle of inclination from the horizontal.

Example 5.1
A rectangular beam, is to be designed to carry a design shear force of Vd = 100kN. The width
of the beam is 300mm and is made using concrete fck = 20MPa, class I work. It is flexurally
reinforced with 220 at top and 320 at bottom which continued uninterrupted in to the
support
(a) Determine the minimum required depth when pair legged stirrups of 8 c/c 250mm are
used, and

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(b) Determine the spacing of stirrups required when the gross depth of the beam is 400mm,
assume fyk = 300MPa for both types of reinforcement.
(c) Determine also min d below which the usage o RC is not possible.
Solution
Design constants
0.85 f ck f yk
fcd = 11 .3 fyd = 160.87
1.5 1.15
2
0.21 f ck 3
fctd = 1.03
1.5
a v df yd
(a) Vd = Vc + Vs = 0.25fctd K1K2bwd +
S
3 * 314
Assume K2 = 1.0, K1 = 1+ 50 * 1 157 d
300d
2 * 50 * d * 260.87
100 * 10 N 0.25 * 1.03 * (1 157 d ) *1.0 * 300d
3

250
Solving d = 488mm k2 = 1.6-0.488 = 1.112
Revising K2 = 1.112
157
100*103 = 0.25 * 1.03 * 1.112 * (1 + ) * 300d 104.348d
d
d = 455mm, k2 = 1.155.
Revising further d = 445
D = 445 + 45 = 490
Use 300 x 490
(b) when D = 400
d = 400-45 = 355mm
As 3 * 314
= 0.0088
bd 300 * 355
Vc = 0.25 * 1.03 * 1.44 * 1.245 * 300 * 355 * 10-3
a v df yd 2 * 50 * 355 * 260.87
S= 182.19mm
Vd Vc 100 * 10 3 49.17 * 10 3

## Use 8 c/c 180mm

(c) Design for shear
VRd = 0.25fcdbwd = 0.25 * 11.3 * 300d 100*103
d 118mm

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