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Consider the stress & strain distribution for a rectangular cross section of singly reinforced

concrete beam shown below.

c f cd = 0.85f ck/c f cd

x C 0.8x C

NA

D d

As s A sf s A sf s

d'

b Simplified Stress

Cross section Strain Stress Distribution (EBCS-2)

c approaches cu = 0.0035

f yd

The reinforcing steel shall yield first ( y d )

Es

At balanced failure simultaneous failure of the two materials (Concrete & Steel)

occurs.

Let x b be the depth to the NA at balanced failure. From the strain relation,

xb d xb cu * d

xb

cu yd cu yd

If x > x b Crushing of concrete takes place first.

FH = 0 Ts = CC As fyd = 0.8 xb b fcd

Substituting for xb and simplifying,

0.8 * cu f

b * cd (a steel ratio for balanced case)

cu yd f yd

1

However, for ductility purpose the steel ratio may range b/n 0.75 b to 0.9 b, and in some

cases as low as 0.5 b in ACI code, but in EBCS-2 ductility is ensured by keeping kx max =

0.448 for 0% redistribution or even less for redistribution > 0% .

byfcd = As fyd b * 0.8x fcd = bd fyd

x * f yd f yd

kx m, where m

d 0.8 * f cd 0.8 * f cd

Mc = 0 Md = As fyd (d - 0.4x)

Substituting the value of x and simplifying

Md = 0.8 bd2 fcd kx (1-0.4 kx)

2 4M

When the above equation is solved for kx, k x 0.5c1 c1 2 d k x max

bd c2

The section capacity for single reinforcement case may be computed from Mt = 0, when

kx > kx max

Md = 0.8bx fcd (d-0.4x) x = kx max d

= 0.8bd2 fcd kx max (1 -0.4 kx max)

If kx < kmax 0.8bd2 fcd kx(1 -0.4 kx )

Example 3.1.1

A simply supported beam spans 8m and is subjected to a LL = 30 kN/m in addition to self

weight. Materials C-25, S-300, class I are used. If b = 250mm, determine the depth required

to satisfy singly reinforced section at mid-span and the corresponding flexural

reinforrcement.

Solution:

Depth for deflection:

0.6 f yk Le

d 0.4

400 a

8000

d 0.85 340mm

20

D d l 2 s cov er

340 20 2 6 25 381

Say D = 400mm

2

Load on beams: Dead load, gk = 0.4*0.25*25 = 2.5 kN/m

Live load, qk = = 30 kN/m

Design load, d = 1.3DL + 1.6LL

= 1.3*2.5 + 1.6*30 = 51.25

pd L2 51.25 * 8 2

Analysis: M max M d 410 kN

8 8

Design constants:

25 0.85 f ck

C 25 f cu 25MPa, f ck 20 MPa, f cd 11 .3MPa

1.25 1.5

300

S 300 f yk 300MPa, f yd 260.87 MPa

1.25

fyd 260.87

m 28.78

0.8 fcd 0.8 * 11 .3

Check depth: Md = 0.8bd2fcdkx(1 0.4kx)

kx = kxmax = 0.448 for 0% redistribution.

M d max

d 702.4mm

0.8bf cd k x max 1 0.4k x max

D 702.4 60 (two layers assumed ) 762.4mm Dused not safe

Revise using D = 800mm

pd = 51.25 + 1.3(0.8 0.4)*0.25*25 = 54.5 kN/m

p d L2 54.5 * 8 2

Md max 436 kNm

8 8

436

Rechecking d 702.4 * 724.3 mm

410

Use d = 800 - 60 = 740mm

Reinforcement:

1

4M

kx C1 C1

2

2

bd 2 C 2

1 4 * 436 * 106

2.5 2.5

2

2 250 * 740 2 * 3.616

kx 0.424

0.015

m 28.78

3

As = bd = 0.015 * 250 * 740 = 2728 mm2

2728

# 20 = = 8.7 use 920 in two rows.

314

920

5 * 41 4 * 81

d = 58.8mm

9

d1

d 58.8mm<60mmsafe!

b=250mm

A tensile reinforced beam has b = 250mm and d = 500mm to the center of bars. If fy =

400MPa and C-30, find the design flexural strength Md for (a) As = 224 bars (b) As = 432

bars.

Solution

Design strength of materials assuming class I work.

30 0.85 * 24

C-30 fck = 24MPa f cd = 13.6MPa.

1.25 1.5

400

fyk = fy = 400MPa fyd = = 348MPa

1.15

(a)

* 24 2

As = 2* 905mm 2

4

As 905

224

d=500mm = 0.00724

bd ( 250(500)

f yd 348

m= 32

0.8 f cd 0.8 * 13.6

d1=45m

250mm m

Section capacity (flexural strength)

Md = 0.8bd2fcdkx(1-0.4kx)

Md = 0.8*250*5002*13.6*0.232*(1-0.4*0.232)*10-6

= 143.12kNm

4

(b)

432

d=500mm l = 32mm , s = 8mm(assumed)

d11= 32 + 8 32 56mm

2

1

d2 = 32 + 8 + 32 + 32 +

d1

32 45 45 32 32 120mm

250mm 2

3 * 56 120

d1 = 72mm

4

D 500 + 75 = 575mm

* 32 2

As = 4* = 3217mm2

4

As 3217

= = 0.026

bd 250 * 500

kx = m = 0.026 * 32 = 0.824 >> 0.448 (concrete is crushing)

Md = 0.8bd2fcdkxmax(1-0.4kxmax)

= 0.8*250*5002*13.6*0.448*(1-0.4*0.448)*10-6

= 250.05kNm.

Exercise 3.1.1

A singly reinforced rectangular beam made using concrete of grade C-30 and steel of grade

S-400 has width b = 500mm and gross depth D = 600mm. Determine the capacity of the

section for flexure if the tensile steel area is As = 5 30.

Exercise 3.1.2

A rectangular singly reinforced beam is to be designed for dead load of 7.3 kN/m plus self

weight and live load of 17.5kN/m , with a 6.7m simple span material strengths will be S-400

and C-25 for steel and concrete respectively. The total beam depth must not exceed 600mm.

calculate the required beam width and tensile steel requirement.

Procedure in design.

- Assume b&d ( use deflection requirement )

5

D = d + cover + s + l

2

(s = dia.of stirrup)

- with this D, find dead load and together with live load determine Mmax.

- Find constants kxmax , m

M l

-Find R (R = 0.8fcdkxmax(1-0.4kxmax)) d = Rb , hence new D = d + cover + s +

2

- If new D is greater than the first D, use D slightly larger than new D to find the dead load.

Together with live load determine Mnew.

M new

- Find dnew = Dnew = dnew + cover +s + l

Rold bold 2

2

kx 1

4 M dnew

As bd , where k x c1 c12 c1 2.5, c 2 0.32 f cd

m 2

c 2 bd 2

If the depth of an RC beam is limited due to architectural or other reasons the section may

not have sufficient compressive area of concrete to resist the moment induced in it. In such

cases the capacity of the section can be increased by placing steel in the compression zone

to carry the additional compressive force.

Figure 3.2.1 Flexural StressMdistribution

d = Mdc+ Mindsc doubly reinforced rectangular RC beam

Where Muc is the BM carried by the concrete and partial area of tensile steal.

6

Mdc = 0.8bd2 fcd k1 (1-0.4 k1)

In which k1 = kx max, the maximum steel ratio corresponding to single reinforcement section

in case of design and

A As'

k1 s m k x max for the case of analysis.

bd

Mdsc is the BM carried by compressive steel and the corresponding tensile steel.

'

Mdsc = As fyd (d-dc)

The yielding of the compressive steel may be checked from the strain relation as

x d c'

sc * cu yd

x

Solve example 3.1, when the depth D is 650mm and b = 300mm

Solution

pd = 1.6LL + 1.3DL = 1.6*30 + 1.3* 0.65 * 0.3 * 25

= 54.3375 kN/m.

pd l 2 54.3375 * 8 2

M d max 434.70kNm

8 8

Section capacity

Mdc = 0.8bd2fcdkxmax(1-0.4kxmax)

kxmax = 0.448

Assume d1 = 60mm d = 650-60 = 590mm.

Mdc = 0.8*300*5902*11.3*0.448(1-0.4*0.448)

= 347.14kNm < 437.70 the section has to be doubly reinforced.

K x max 0.448

As1 = bd * 300 * 590 2755mm 2

m 28.78

Mdsc = Mdmax Mdc = 434.70 - 347.14 = 87.56kNm.

M d sc 87.56 *106

As2 = 610mm 2

f yd (d d 1 ) 260.87 * (590 40)

As = As1 + As2 = 2755 + 610 = 3365mm2

3365

# 20 = = 10.72 use 1120 bars.

414

Compression bars:

7

Xmax = Kxmax d = 0.448*590 = 264.32mm.

X max d 1 264.32 40

sc = cn * 0.0035

X max 264.32

sc = 0.00297 0.0030

f yd 260.87

yd = 0.0013

Es 200 * 10 3

fs1 = fyd As1 = As2 = 610mm2

610

# 20 = 1.94 use2 20bars

314

20 comp. bars

6 stirrup

650mm 6 * 41 5 * 81

d' 59.2mm 60mm

20 tens. bars 11

Safe and economical

300mm

Example 3.2.2

A rectangular concrete beam measures 300mm wide and has an effective depth of 450mm.

compression steel consisting of two 24 is located 50mm from the compression face of the

beam. If C-30 and S-400 are used, what is the design moment capacity of the beam for the

following alternative tensile steel areas?

(a) As = 330 in one layer, (b) As 430 in two layer, (c) As = 630 in two layers? (Note check

for yielding of compression steel in each case)

Solution

Design strengths and constants.

30 0.85 * 24

C-30 fck = 24 MPa f cd 13.6MPa

1.25 1.5

400

S-400 fyk = 400MPa fyd = 348MPa

1.15

f yd 348

m= 32

0.8 f cd 0.8 * 13.6

8

dc = 50mm 24 comp. bars

6 stirrup

d = 450mm As = 3*707 mm2 = 2121mm2

30 tens. bars As = 2*452 mm2 = 904mm2

300mm

As As 1

k1 = m K x max

bd

2121 904

k1 = (32) 0.288 0.448

(300)( 450)

Mdc = 0.8bd2fcdk1(1-0.4k1)

= 0.8*300*4502*13.6*0.288(1-0.4*0.288)*10-6

= 168.43kNm.

Check yielding of compression reinforcement:

xmax = kxmaxd = 0.448*450 = 201.6mm

X max d c1 201.6 50

sc = cu * 0.0035 0.00263

x max 201.6

fyd 348

yd = 0.00174 sc comp. steel has yielded.

s 200000

Mdsc = As1fyd(d-d 1c )

= 904*348*(450-50)*10-6

= 125.84kNm.

Moment capacity: Md = 168.43 + 125.84 = 294.27kNm

9

Alternative method using design tables (singly reinforced Sections)

Derivation

Md = 0.8bd2fcd m(1-0.4 m)

Md

0.8 f cd m(1 0.4 m)

bd 2

Md

Let k m 0.8 f cd m(1 0.4 m)

bd 2

Md Md 1

As *

Mc = 0 f yd (d 0.4 x) d x

f yd (1 0.4 )

d

1 ks * M d

ks As

Let x d

f yd (1 0.4 )

d

Steps

Md

1. Evaluate b

km

d

2. Enter the general design Table No.1a using km and concrete grade.

3. Read ks from the same Table corresponding to steel grade and km.

ks * M d

4. Evaluate As

d

- Md is in KN-m

- b m

- d m

Cover to Reinforcements

The concrete cover is the distance between the outermost surface of reinforcement

(usually stirrups) and the nearest concrete surface.

10

The thickness of cover required depends both upon the exposure conditions and on the

concrete quality.

To transmit bond forces safely, and to ensure adequate compaction, the concrete cover

should never be less than:

(a) or n ( 40mm), or

(b) ( + 5mm) or (n + 5mm) if dg > 32mm

Where = the diameter of the bar.

n = the equivalent diameter for a bundle.

dg = the largest nominal aggregate size.

Minimum cover

Type of exposure Mild Moderate Sever

Min. cover (mm) 15 25 50

Durability and control of crack width is related with finishing and provision of adequate

cover to reinforcement. Nominal cover for structural elements located in the interior of the

building with dry environment and mild condition is 15 mm, example slab; humid

environment with moderate exposure is 25 mm, example beam; severe environment is 50

mm, example footing.

Spacing of Reinforcements

The clear horizontal and vertical distance between bars shall be at least equal to the

largest of the following values.

(a) 20 mm

(b) The diameter of the largest bar or effective diameter of the bundle

(c) The maximum size of the aggregate dg plus 5mm.

Where bars are positioned in separate horizontal layers, the bars in each layer should

be located vertically above each other and the space between the resulting columns of

the bars should permit the passage of an internal vibrator.

The effective span of a simply supported member shall be taken as the lower of the

following two values:

(a) The distance between the center line of supports.

11

(b) The clear distance between the faces of supports plus the effective depth.

The effective span of a continuous element shall normally be taken as the distance

between the center lines of the supports.

For a cantilever, the effective span is taken to be its length, measured from.

(a) The face of the supports, for an isolated, fixed ended cantilever.

(b) The center line of the support for a cantilever which forms the end of a

continuous beam.

Deflection limits are assumed to be satisfied when the minimum effective depth for a

particular member is

0.6 * f L

yk

d 0.4 e

400

a

where fyk is equal to character strength of reinforcement, Le is the effective span (the

shorter span in case of two way slab), is constant, a function of restraints given below).

Table values of a

Beams 20 24 28 10

Slabs:

Span ratio 2:1 25 30 35 12

Span ratio 1:1 35 40 45 10

* For intermediate values interpolation.

Ideal values of span effective depth ratios, recommended in the ISE manual for the

preliminary sizing of reinforced concrete beams are given in table below.

Support conditions Cantilever Simple Support Continuous End spans

ISE manual (l/d) 6 12 15 13.5

4 T- SECTIONS

12

Reinforced concrete floors or roofs are monolithic and hence, a part of the slab will act with

the upper part of the beam to resist longitudinal compression. The resulting beam cross-

section is, then, T-shaped (inverted L), rather than rectangular with the slab forming the

beam flange where as part of the beam projecting below the slab forms the web or stem.

be

hf

D

b

Fig. 3.3.1

The T-sections provide a large concrete cross-sectional area of the flange to resist the

compressive force. Hence, T-sections are very advantageous in simply supported spans to

resist large positive bending moment, where as the inverted T-sections have the added

advantage in cantilever beam to resist negative moment.

As the longitudinal compressive stress varies across the flange width of same level, it is

convenient in design to make use of an effective flange width (may be smaller than the actual

width) which is considered to be uniformly stressed.

Effective flange width (according to EBCS 2, 1995)

For interior beams T-sections

le

b

be w 5

C / C beam spacing

For edge beams inverted L- sections

le

bw

be 10

bw half the clear dis tan ce to adjacent beam

where le is the effective span length & bw is the width of the web.

13

There are three distribution type of flexural behavior of T-sections.

When the T-section is subjected to BM, and tension is produced on the flange portion, it

is treated as a rectangular section with b = bw.

When the T-section is subjected to +ve bending moment and the equivalent compressive

stress block lies within the flange as shown below (y < h f), the section can be analysed

as rectangular with effective width be.

This case is a case of under reinforced condition or large flange thickness, which can

be confirmed first by computing (with b = be, = As/(bed)) using relation established

for rectangular beams and evaluate the NA depth, x = md. Compare y = 0.8x with hf.

bw

When y > hf, the section acts as T-beam and hence analysis accounting the T-geometry

becomes essential which is shown in the figure below.

be c f cd

hf 0.8x

x Cc

s

d' Ts

bw

Cross section Strain Stress

Design

14

4M d

- Assuming b = be compute k x 0.5 c1 c1 and x = kx d

be d 2 c 2

i) If y = 0.8x < hf , section is rectangular as assumed.

kx

As = be d

m

ii) If y > hf T beam analysis is required.

M uf

As = ASf + Asw = + wbwd in which,

Z f * f yd

hf

Zf d

2

k w 0.5 4 M uw

w c1 c1

m m bw d 2 c 2

Muw = Mu - Muf

iii) When the flange is on the tension side, then the cross- section is designed as if it were

rectangular with b = bw

Analysis

As

, X = md

be * d

Mu = 0.8bed2fcd m (1-0.4 m)

ii) If y = 0.8X< hf the section is analyzed as T-beam.

Muf = (be-bw)hf fcd zf

M uf

ASf =

Z f * f yd

Asw = As - ASf

Asw

w =

bw * d

Mu = Muf +Muw

15

Example 4.1

The simply supported parallel T-beams sustain floor system which span 7m and subjected to a

total design BM of 500kNm. The beams are spaced at 2000mm on centerline. The other beam

dimensions are hf = 800mm, bw = 400mm, D = 400mm. Materials, fck = 20MPa; steel, fyk =

300MPa and class I work. Determine the tensile steel area required at mid-span of and

interior beam.

Solution

Constants:

A A fcd = 11.3Mpa

7m fyd = 260.87Mpa

M = 28.78

C1 = 2.5

C2 = 0.32fcd = 3.616MPa

2m 2m 2m

80mm=hf

D=400mm

Bw=400mm

Section A-A

f ykLe

Beam, d (0.4 + 0.6* ) Le = 7000

400 a

a = 20

300 7000

d (0.4 + 0.6 * )* = 297.5mm

400 20

D 297.5 + 75 = 372.5mm < 400mmsafe.

For +ve BM flange is on compression side

16

l 7000

bw 5 400 1800mm

be 5

c/c dist. 2000mm

be = 1800mm

Since the BM is very large, assume two layers of 26 steel.

d1 = 26+8+26+13 = 73mm 75mm.

d = D-d = 400-75 = 325mm

Check T-beam (assuming b = be)

4M d

Kx = 0.5 c1 c1

2

be d 2 c 2

4 * 500 * 106

= 0.5 2.5 2.52 2

1800 * 325 * 3.616

X = kxd = 0.336*325 = 109.23mm > hf

T-section

Mdf = (be-bw)hf fcd (d-hf/2)

= (1800-400)*80*11.3*(325-80/2)*10-6

= 360.70kNm.

M df 360.70 * 10 6

Asf =

4852mm 2

h 260.87 * (325 80 )

f yd (d f ) 2

2

1 2 4 M dw

kw = c1 c1 Mdw = Md-Mdf

2 bw d 2 c 2

= 500-360.7

= 139.3kNm

1

4 * 139.3 * 10 6

2.5 2.5

2

Kw = 2 = 0.443<0.448 (singly reinforced)

2

400 * 325 * 3.616

kw 0.443

Asw = bw d * 400 * 325 2003mm

2

m 28.78

As = Asf + Asw = 4852 + 2003 = 6855mm2

6855

#26 = 12.93 say 13.

530

17

Use 13 26 bars in two layers.

1800mm

80mm

400mm 1326

400mm

Example 4.2

For the T-section singly reinforced with high strength steel (fy = 460 N/m2) calculate the

design moment capacity of the section.

Assume the grade of concrete as c-30.

1200mm

120mm

400mm 1224

70mm

350mm

Solution

460

Analysis: fyk = 460MPa fyd = = 400MPa

1.15

C-30 fcd = 13.6Mpa.

f yd 400

M= = 36.76

0.8 f cd 0.8 * 13.6

be = 1200mm

As = 12*452 = 5424mm2

As 5424

= = 0.008694.

bed 1200 * 520

18

X = md = 0.00869 * 36.76 * 520 = 166mm

Y = 0.8x = 0.8*166 = 133mm> 120mm

T-section analysis is required.

Mdf = (be-bw)hf fcd Zf

hf

Zf = d- = 520- 120 = 410mm

2 2

Mdf = (1200-350)*120*13.6*410*10-6

= 568.75kNm.

M df 568.75 * 10 6

Asf = = 3468mm2

Z f f yd 410 * 400

a sw 1956

w = = 0.01075

bw d (350)(520)

Kw = mw = 36.76*0.01075 = 0.395<kxmax

Mdw = 0.8 bwd2 fcd kw (1-0.4kw)

= 0.8*350*5202*13.6*0.395*(1-0.4*0.395)*10-6

= 342.51kNm.

Md = Mdf + Mdw = 568.75 + 342.51

= 911.26kNm

19

5 ANALYSIS OF BEAMS FOR SHEAR

Beams are designed for flexure and then the influences of other actions on its capacity are

assumed.

failure of the web reinforcement due to diagonal tension.

When a beam is subjected to flexure and shear, the shear resistance in the absence of shear

reinforcement is contributed by concrete compression zone, mechanical interlock of

aggregate at the crack and dowel action of the longitudinal reinforcement. The

contributions of the later two are difficult to quantify.

Hence, the resistance to a diagonal tension is obtained as the sum of the resistance of the

web reinforcement and the concrete section.

In checking this resistance, the critical section for shear is assessed a distance d from the

face of face of support in the same way as in WSD method.

When the shear force in a section does not exceed the shear strength of the concrete v c, only

nominal web reinforcement need be provided.

Where: k1 = 1+50 2.0

k2 = 1.6 d 1.0, d is effective depth in m. For members where more than 50%

20

of the bottom reinforcement is curtailed, k2 = 1.0.

As

= 0.02 (bw = the minimum width of the web)

bw * d

the steel and the line of possible 450 crack starting from the edge of the section.

Vsd Vsd

0

45

d 45

0

45

0

As As Vsd

lb,net

When Vsd < Vc, the section is adequate and provide nominal web reinforcement specified by

longitudinal spacing as:

(a) All beams except joists of ribbed slabs, shall be provided with at least the minimum

web reinforcement given by:

0.4 Av Av f yk

min s max

f yk bw s max 0.4bw

Av = Pair area of stirrups

s = Spacing in mm

bw = width of web

(b) The maximum spacing smax between stirrups, in the longitudinal direction, shall be as

given below.

2

smax = 0.5d 300mm if Vsd V RD

3

2

smax = 0.3d 200mm if Vsd > V RD

3

(c) The transverse spacing of legs of stirrups shall not exceed d, or 800mm, which ever is

the smaller.

21

(ii) Limiting value of ultimate shear stress

In order to prevent diagonal compression failure in the concrete the shear resistance (VRd) of

a section shall not be less than the applied shear force at d distance from face of support

(Vsd).

Where, VRd = 0.25fcdbwd

When Vsd > VRd, the section size must be increased.

When Vc < Vd < VRd, shear reinforcement need be provided.

Av df yd

Vs Vd Vc ; Av = pair area of reinforcement

s

As Av

nAvf yd

Av df yd Sin cos

Vs

s

Where: = the angle of inclination from the horizontal.

Example 5.1

A rectangular beam, is to be designed to carry a design shear force of Vd = 100kN. The width

of the beam is 300mm and is made using concrete fck = 20MPa, class I work. It is flexurally

reinforced with 220 at top and 320 at bottom which continued uninterrupted in to the

support

(a) Determine the minimum required depth when pair legged stirrups of 8 c/c 250mm are

used, and

22

(b) Determine the spacing of stirrups required when the gross depth of the beam is 400mm,

assume fyk = 300MPa for both types of reinforcement.

(c) Determine also min d below which the usage o RC is not possible.

Solution

Design constants

0.85 f ck f yk

fcd = 11 .3 fyd = 160.87

1.5 1.15

2

0.21 f ck 3

fctd = 1.03

1.5

a v df yd

(a) Vd = Vc + Vs = 0.25fctd K1K2bwd +

S

3 * 314

Assume K2 = 1.0, K1 = 1+ 50 * 1 157 d

300d

2 * 50 * d * 260.87

100 * 10 N 0.25 * 1.03 * (1 157 d ) *1.0 * 300d

3

250

Solving d = 488mm k2 = 1.6-0.488 = 1.112

Revising K2 = 1.112

157

100*103 = 0.25 * 1.03 * 1.112 * (1 + ) * 300d 104.348d

d

d = 455mm, k2 = 1.155.

Revising further d = 445

D = 445 + 45 = 490

Use 300 x 490

(b) when D = 400

d = 400-45 = 355mm

As 3 * 314

= 0.0088

bd 300 * 355

Vc = 0.25 * 1.03 * 1.44 * 1.245 * 300 * 355 * 10-3

a v df yd 2 * 50 * 355 * 260.87

S= 182.19mm

Vd Vc 100 * 10 3 49.17 * 10 3

(c) Design for shear

VRd = 0.25fcdbwd = 0.25 * 11.3 * 300d 100*103

d 118mm

23

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