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MATH 1110 Mathematics for IT

Lecture Notes (Book A)

CRN
Student Name
Midterm Marks & Grade
Final Marks Expected
Grade Point Average (GPA)

Devi Ambati
School of Business, IT and Management
Durham College
January 2017 (FALL)

Problem Solving is a skill acquired


through extensive practice.
You dont become a professional
basketball player by watching television.
and
You cant become an IT person just by
watching professors lecture.

devi.ambati@durhamcollege.ca
905-721-2000 ext: 2350
Room No: D218
CONTENTS
S/N Lesson Details Page No.
1 Lesson 1 : Course Introduction and Excel 3-16

2 Lesson 2 : Mathematical Problems (Review) use of SALS 17-36


Basic Arithmetic Operations and Excel

3 Lesson 3 : Mathematical Problems (Review) use of SALS 37-46


Basic Algebra including Ratios and Proportions

4 Lesson 4 : Computer Math and Microsoft Excel 47-67

5 Lesson 5 : Business Management and Excel 68-81

6 Lesson 6 : Test1 Format and Review 82-90

7 Appendix A : Classwork 1 91-94

8 Appendix A : Classwork 2 95-98

9 Appendix A : Classwork 3 99-102

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MATH 1110 Mathematics for IT
Course Introduction
1. Communication:
Name: Devi Ambati B.Sc(Maths), B.Tech(Electronics), M.S(Computers)
e-mail: devi.ambati@durhamcollege.ca (preferred DC Connect email)
Phone: 905-721-2000, ext: 2350
Office Location: D218

2. Course outlines (Objectives, Text book, Evaluations, etc.)


general\math1110_course_outline.pdf

3. Lecture notes (DC Connect)


DC Connect: https://durhamcollege.desire2learn.com/
The complete course material is available both as a hard copy and on the campus DC Connect.
Navigate to the course to see the features particularly the main course page (weekly news), Calendar,
Mail, Content, Discussions, Assignments, Quizzes, Project, Grades, etc.

4. On-line Materials (Books)


http://vig.pearsoned.ca/catalog/academic/product/0,1144,0138142254-SS,00.html
http://wps.prenhall.com/chet_cook_intcommath_2/
http://www.cengage.com/cgi-
wadsworth/course_products_wp.pl?fid=M20bI&product_isbn_issn=9781111969752
http://wps.prenhall.com/ca_ph_hummelbrunner_CBM_7

5. Math Puzzles (just for fun if you want to look at them)


Open Teaching Math from DC Connect: jokes_facts\teaching_math.txt)
http://www.beliefnet.com/columnists/watchwomanonthewall/2013/02/teaching-of-math-1950-to-the-
present.html
Pretty Cool (Brain challenge) : jokes_facts\Pretty Cool.docx
Beauty of Math (jokes_facts\Beauty of Math.doc )
Math Puzzle : ( jokes_facts\math_puzzle.txt)
Try more puzzles
http://www.teach-nology.com/worksheets/math/puzzles/
http://www.math.utah.edu/~cherk/puzzles.html
http://www.math.com/students/puzzles/puzzleapps.html
http://www.mathpuzzle.com/
http://www.mathsisfun.com/puzzles/

6. Amazing Excel
It's unbelievable to start with, but once you do it, you marvel at the Patience and imaginative creativity of
the author!!
o Open the attached file using Microsoft Excel. jokes_facts\Village1.xls
o Select the sheet using Ctrl + A.
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o Set the Row height as 15 (Click Format -> select Row Height)
o Set the width as 2 (Click Format -> select Column width)
o Finally set the View - >zoom at 15%
o Unbelievable but true.... It's really cool.... apparently such a thing can be done using Excel. (if you do not
know how to do, open jokes_facts\Village1 Solution.xls. you will see beautiful Indian women as:

7. Math Jokes
A. MATHEMATICIAN / STATISTICIAN / ACCOUNTANT FINALIST

o A mathematician, statistician and accountant were finalist for a position as VP in a large


corporation. The hiring committee asked them all the same last question:

o The mathematician was first. "How much is 500 plus 500?" they asked "1000" he replied
without hesitation." Thank you", they dismissed him.

o Next the statistician. "How much is 500 plus 500?""On the average, 1000 with 95 % confidence"
replied the statistician" Thank you", they dismissed him.

o Next the accountant. "How much is 500 plus 500?""What would you like it to be?" responded the
accountant. They hired the accountant.

B. MATHEMATICIAN / PHYSICIST / COMPUTER SCIENTIST


A physicist, a mathematician and a computer scientist discuss what is better: a wife or a
girlfriend.
The physicist: "A girlfriend. You still have freedom to experiment."
The mathematician: "A wife. You have security."
The computer scientist: "Both. When I'm not with my wife, she thinks I'm with my
girlfriend. With my girlfriend it's vice versa. And I can be with my computer without
anyone disturbing me..."
C. BRAIN
After joining the college, I really appreciate my brain which is divided in two parts right and left:
in Right, nothing is Left
In Left, Nothing is Right

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D. PIZZA :
Write the expression for the volume of a thick crust pizza with height "a" and radius "z".
Source: Reddit
The formula for volume is (radius)2(height). In this case, pizza.

E. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SCHOOL AND COLLEGE


During School, if you were late, you had to sit at the last bench
But in college, if you are late, you have to sit on the first bench

F. SOLVOING AN EQUATION
Teacher: How do you solve any equation?
Student: Multiply both sides by zero.

G. MATHEMATICIAN / ENGINEER / COMPUTER SCIENTIST


A mathematician, an engineer, and a computer scientist are vacationing together. They are
riding in a car, enjoying the countryside, when suddenly the engine stops working.
The mathematician: "We came past a gas station a few minutes ago. Someone should
go back and ask for help."
The engineer: "I should have a look at the engine. Perhaps, I can fix it."
The computer scientist: "Why don't we just open the doors, slam them shut, and see if
everything works again?"

H. COPYING
A math student is pestered by a classmate who wants to copy his homework assignment. The
student hesitates, not only because he thinks it's wrong, but also because he doesn't want to
be sanctioned for aiding and abetting.

His classmate calms him down: "Nobody will be able to trace my homework to you: I'll be
changing the names of all the constants and variables: a to b, x to y, and so on."
Not quite convinced, but eager to be left alone, the student hands his completed assignment
to the classmate for copying.

After the deadline, the student asks: "Did you really change the names of all the variables?"
"Sure!" the classmate replies. "When you called a function f, I called it g; when you called a
variable x, I renamed it to y; and when you were writing about the log of x+1, I called it the
timber of x+1..."

I. MORE JOKES
http://www.workjoke.com/projoke22.htm
http://www.ahajokes.com/food_joke_of_the_day.shtml
http://www.math.ualberta.ca/~runde/jokes.html
http://www.sonoma.edu/Math/faculty/falbo/jokes.html
http://www.math.utah.edu/~cherk/mathjokes.html
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Lecture
8. Tools Used in this course
DC Connect College Course website
SALS (Student Academic Learning Services) Review of Basic Mathematics
Word with Equation Editor (Microsoft or Open Office)
Excel with Equation Editor (Microsoft or Open Office)
Electronic Calculator or manual calculator
(Start All Programs Accessories Calculator, Click View -> Scientific Calculator)
Use any on-line calculator (http://www.ecalc.com/calculator/scientific/)

9. How to maintain Folders on your laptop?


Create a folder called MATH1110 to store all your work either in drive C or drive D. Create Assignments,
Lectures, etc. under MATH1110 folder as:
Move to windows Explorer or My Computer
Move to the C: drive or D: drive
Make a folder called FALL or WINTER
Move to FALL or WINTER
Make a folder called MATH1110 (Mathematics For IT)
Make a folder called assignments
Create other folders like lessons, test, project, etc.
Repeat the above for all other courses in this semester (optional)

10. Install network printer drivers based on your class time table
*H133* or *H134* or *H135*

11. SALS (Student Academic Learning Services)


The Student Academic Learning Services (SALS) Centre is here to help Durham College students meet their
academic goals. It is located in SSB 204 in the Student Services Building
SALS is open Monday to Friday, 8:00AM to 5:00PM, T: 905.721.2000 ext. 2491

http://www.durhamcollege.ca/sals --> external website allowed for every user.

http://www.durhamcollege.ca/student-experience/helping-you-succeed/student-academic-
learning-services-sals - Watch the Video about SALS

http://www.durhamcollege.ca/student-experience/helping-you-succeed/student-academic-learning-
services-sals/sals-dc-connect-course your website where you can register and access SALS resources.

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12. Sample Assignment
Look at the sample assignment, and see how to create solution document using Microsoft word with
equation editor.

MATH 1110 Mathematics for IT

A. Follow the instructions given below to submit your Assignment work.


Use MS Word to open a new solution file.
Write your Student Id, Name, Course Code, CRN, Date, Type on the top of the page as shown below and
Save it as lesson1_sample . CRN refers to your section number.
Student ID :
Student Name:
Course Code : CRN: Create a new document
Date : and write your details as
Type : Lesson1 - Sample Assignment indicated.
Draw a dotted line
Type your solution (show working clearly).
Paste your work whenever you see Submit for any question (It could be Excel output in cropped format
showing the column and row numbers correctly) make sure you type the question number as Q1, Q2,
etc.
You must insert page numbers at the bottom of the page
Submit both the solution document and excel files to DC Connect as per the due date. If you do not
submit both the files, it will be marked for 0. This is not to be submitted and for practice only.

1. Use MSWord to solve the following questions and show your working clearly

a. 2 +3 * 7 1 Copy the questions to the


2 7 solution document and show
b. ________ your working clearly in the
3 3 new document
2. Create an Excel sheet as shown below and save it as sample_sol.xls:

Create an Excel worksheet and


complete the work. Paste the
Excel sheet (use Snipping
Tool) in the solution document
to show the data and also
column and row numbers.

Paste the Excel output in your solution document.

Now save the solution document 7


Submit the solution document and Excel file to DC
Connect DropBox folder.
13. Assignment Solution

Student ID : 10018.
Name : Devi Ambati
Course Code: MATH 1110 CRN: 22105
Date :
Type : Sample Assignment Solution
..

1. Use MSWord to solve the following questions and show your working clearly

a. 2 +3 x 7 1

= 2 + 21 1
= 22

2 7 9
b. 3
3 3 3
2.

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B. MICROSOFT EXCEL : INTRODUCTION (http://www.excelfunctions.net/ )

1. What is a worksheet?

A sheet of paper with a grid of columns and rows is called a worksheet. We use a lot of worksheets in our
daily life. Look at Johns household expenditure for the first two months. It is called a budget
worksheet.

The worksheet has 9 rows and 3 columns. Each row and column has a heading for easy reference. The
worksheet has a main heading too Home Budget. The vertical columns show budget type followed by
the months in which transactions took place. While the rows show how the money is spent. Text and
numbers are entered in the worksheet cells. A cell is an intersection of a row and column. We add up all
the expenses in each column and store it under expenses and then subtract it from income to give us
savings.

2. What is a spreadsheet?

A spreadsheet is a program that makes the computer screen as an electronic worksheet allowing data to
enter in the form of rows and columns,
and manipulate it according to the
requirements. The rows are numbered
as 1, 2, etc. and the columns are named
as A, B, etc. Microsoft Office Excel has
more rows and columns than ever before
with the following new limits: 18,278 (A
to ZZZ) columns wide by 1,048,576 rows
tall.

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A change in any of data in the rows or columns will show it up in the final calculations. Totals and
averages are recalculated automatically whenever values are changed in the worksheet cells. The results
can be shown in the form of charts. Drawing charts with a spreadsheet programs is easy.

3. Starting Microsoft Excel

Select Start->All Programs -> Microsoft Office -> Microsoft Office Excel, the following screen will be
shown:

The ribbon in Microsoft Excel has eight tabs of command buttons:

Here are some of the buttons in each of the tabs:


Tab Buttons and functions
Home Has most frequently used buttons such as: Cut, Copy & Paste, format, and
search tools
Insert These buttons allow you to insert columns, rows, charts and other objects
Page Has buttons such as page orientation, margins, etc used to format a worksheet
Layout page for printing
Formulas These buttons allow you to build mathematical equations in a worksheet.
Data Has buttons to deal with importing and exporting data from other external
packages and also do special operations like sorting and filtering.

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Review Similar to Microsoft Word, Review buttons perform spelling checks, and
maintain various versions of your worksheets.
View Lets you switch on and off a variety of viewing options.
Add-Ins This tab is visible only when you have added any program associated with
Microsoft Excel.

Your tab setting view may be slightly different based on how your Microsoft Excel setup.

Each tab on the ribbon can be activated by clicking the tab name. As you can see there are many screen
elements that are useful in creating, editing, formatting, printing and saving worksheets:

Screen element Function


Title bar Displays the name of the current worksheet (Book1 is the default name); the
Spreadsheet name and the familiar windows controls
Status bar Shows the useful information such as Excel mode (Ready. Edit, etc.) and layout
buttons and zoom control slider
Rectangular (grid) area The grid area where you enter data and formulae in various cells.
Scroll bars Used to view the hidden portions of large worksheets.
Name box
Active cell A cell is a storage space within the worksheet. A cell with the cell pointer is called the
active cell outlined by a bold black line.
Columns Columns are identified by letters A to Z, then AA to AZ, ...
Rows Rows are identified by numbers 1, 2, 3, ..
Formula bar Contains data or formula for an active cell.
Worksheet tabs When you open a new worksheet, it contains three worksheets Sheet1, Sheet2, and
Sheet3 which can be renamed.
Excel window controls To minimise or exit Microsoft Excel window.
Worksheet window To minimise or exit worksheet
controls
Zoom slider Used to zoom in and out on the cells in the worksheet area by dragging the slider to
the right or left, respectively

View buttons Used to select between three layouts for the worksheet area:
Normal view (default) shows the worksheet cells with the column and row
headings.
Page Layout View displays rulers, page margins, headers and footers, and
shows page breaks for the worksheet
Page Break Preview enables you to adjust the paging of a worksheet.

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4. How to enter data in a worksheet?

Each cell may contain any one of the following items:


Label
Numbers
Date/ time
Formula

Label: Text entries into a worksheet cell are called labels. A label usually begins with a letter and is left
justified. For example, Date, Income, Expenses, etc. are called labels.

Numbers: A number usually starts with an arithmetic sign or a numerical digit and is right justified.
Numbers can be formatted in many ways. For example, the number 4500 can be formatted as:

Number type Display


General 4500
General with decimals 4,500.00
Currency $ 4,500.00
Scientific 4.5E+03

Date/Time. You can enter the date/time using the usual conventions, as illustrated in the following table.
Data entry Display
30 Oct 95 30-Oct-95
10:30 10:30 AM
23:30 23:30 PM

Formula: A formula is mathematical expression to do


calculations. It always starts with a symbols like =,
+, and @. For example the formula in cell C2 is
Income Expenses. However, we will write this
formula in the worksheet using cell addresses as
+A2-B2 (or =A2-B2) in the cell C2 to calculate the
Profit. (i.e.) You have to translate math formulas into
equivalent excel formula using cell addresses.

Example 1: Create the following worksheet by entering the formulas for P, Q and R. Rename the
worksheet as FORMULAS and save the excel file as lesson1_examples.
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Range of cells: A range of cells is a group of adjacent cells in the worksheet. You can specify a range by
keying in the cell in the upper left corner, : and the cell in the lower right corner.

Example 2: Create the following Worksheet under Sheet2 and rename it as INVENTORY.

Example 3: Create the following worksheet under Sheet3 and rename it as GRADES.

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The formula for average can be entered as = (B3+B4+B5+B6+B7)/5 or =AVERAGE(B3:B7)

Navigating in the worksheet: Microsoft Excel has a grid of 18,278 (A to ZZZ) columns and 1,048,576 rows.
How do you move around this gigantic worksheet? How did you manage to move around in a large excel
file? We will use mouse pointer keys to navigate in the worksheet.

To move to any cell, simply click in the respective cell. The cell address where the cell pointer will be
shown in the Name box. There are a few keyboard short cuts to move around the worksheet as given
below:

Where to move? Keys to use


Move one cell up, down, left, or right from the current active cell Arrow keys
Move to the beginning of the row. Home key
Move to the beginning of the worksheet Ctrl + Home
Move to the last cell in the worksheet. Ctrl + End
Move down one screen. PgDn
Move up one screen. PgUp
Move one screen to the right. Alt + PgDn
Move one screen to the left. Alt + PgUp
Move the window, but not the cell pointer (used as on/off key) ScrLk
Go to a specific cell F5

Use the scroll bars to display the hidden parts of the worksheet. Use the function key F5 to move to any
cell. When you press the function key F5, you will see the following dialog box:

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Enter the cell address in the Reference box and press OK button for the mouse pointer to
move cell B200 quickly.

Example 4 : Create the following worksheet in Sheet 4 and rename it as Employee.

Fill-in Phone and address columns with some meaningful data


Fill in Sales values for each Customer
Find the Total Sales in column G10 using the formula and not the functions.

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Student Course Agreement

I, ___________________________________________________ student ID # ______________ with


regards to the course known as ____________________________________ have read and understand
the course content, outline and expectations which clearly state the following:

1. No student is allowed to use Internet / E-mail / Chatting or other subject works during the lecture
unless informed by the instructor. If a student is caught, he/she will be asked to leave the class
immediately without any warning.

2. Attendance is marked daily both for lectures and labs.

3. Copying the class works, collaborative works, assignments, quizzes, project, tests, etc. is not
tolerated. Once found, a mark of 0 will be awarded for all the students who are involved (All will be
penalized with an academic alert also)

4. Assignments must be completed on or before the due date. Late assignments will be evaluated with
25% penalty for 3 more days from the due date.

5. Group work (Project) must be completed on or before the due date. A mark of '0' will be given for
late submission of project/group work.

6. Random in-class work and quizzes will be given, with no opportunity to make up if absent (i.e.) A
mark of '0' will be awarded if absent.

7. Students are expected to write all tests. Prior notice is required if a student is unable to write a
scheduled test with a valid reason. Make-up tests will not be provided, however the % weighting of
one missed test may be applied to the final exam for those students who attend the classes regularly
and provide valid reasons.

Signature: ______________________________ Date: ________________

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MATH 1110 Mathematics for IT
Mathematical Problems (Arithmetic) and Excel
Contents: Number theory ((natural, integer, rational, irrational, real, signed numbers, Absolute value), Order of operations
(BEDMAS), Fractions, Decimals, Percent, Significant digits, Rounding, Estimations, Exponents, Measurement,
Scientific and Engineering Notation
Microsoft Excel Functions (ROUND, ROUND UP, ROUND DOWN, INT, TRUNC, MROUND< FLOORING, SUM,
AVERAGE, MIN, MAX, COUNT, COUNTA, COUNTBLANK)

A. SALS (Student Academic Learning Resources)

Please access this website and register for SALS if not done already using the following link:

http://www.durhamcollege.ca/student-experience/helping-you-succeed/student-academic-learning-
services-sals/sals-dc-connect-course

or when you login to DC Connect, you will see SALS where you can register.

Once you access the SALS website, SALS provide several topics to review your mathematical skills. You will be
given quizzes in DC Connect based on these topics.
Decimals
Exponents
First Degree equations
Fractions
Functions
Integers
Measurement
Order of Operations
Rational Numbers
Significant Digits
Unit Conversions

References: Calculators Online to assist


Google Calculator- Scientific : https://www.google.ca/?gws_rd=ssl#q=5+to+the+power+of+28.4
Fraction calculator : http://www.calculator.net/fraction-calculator.html
Radical/Roots : http://www.calculatorsoup.com/calculators/algebra/radical.php
Convert Number to Scientific Notation : http://www.webmath.com/sn_convert.html
17
B. Number theory (http://www.rapidtables.com/math/symbols/Basic_Math_Symbols.htm)

1. Numbers
Natural numbers: 1,2,3 are also called as
positive integers

Integers: whole numbers (both positive and


negative also called as signed numbers)
-2, -5, 5, 0, 1, 5
Rational numbers: any number that can be
represented by the division of one integer
by another. 3.5, -2.5, 11/2
Irrational Numbers: a number cannot be
written as a division of one integer by
another. Example, 22/7, , 3.14
Real numbers: integers, rational numbers,
irrational numbers
The Number line (negative numbers, 0 and
positive numbers)

Absolute value: The absolute vale of a


negative number is the corresponding
positive number (ABS function in Excel)
symbol: | |
|-5|=5 |89| = 89

Reciprocals: The reciprocal of a number is 1


divided by the number. (ex: reciprocal of 2 is
, reciprocal of 5 is 1/5)
Constants: hold fixed numbers (2,3,5)

Variables: take different values


Ex: B=2A

where B and A are variables and 2 is a constant.


2A is called expression and
B=2A is called an equation or a formula. B = 2*A or A = B/2

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2. Fundamental Operations of Algebra (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division)

Algebraic laws a= 2, b = 3, c =4
o Commutative law of addition: a+b = b+a
2+3 = 5, 3+2 = 5

o Associative law of addition: a + ( b + c) = (a + b) + c


a+ (b+c) = 9 and (a+b)+c = 9

o Commutative law of multiplication: ab = ba


2*3=6
3*2=6

o Associative law of multiplication: a(bc) = (ab)c


2 * (3*4) = 24 (2*3) * 4 = 24

o Distributive Law: a(b +c) = ab + ac


2 (3 + 4 ) = 2 * 3 + 2 * 4 2 * 7 = 14
= 6 + 8 = 14

Operations on Positive and Negative numbers


o Sum of two positive numbers is positive:
6 +5 = 11

o Sum of two negative numbers is negative:


-6 -5 = -11

o Addition of numbers of different sign:


6-5 = 1, -6+5 = - (6-5) = -1

o Subtraction of one number from another: 6-(-2) = 6 + 2 = 8


6 -2 = 4
6 (-2) = 6 + 2 = 8
o Multiplication of numbers:
+*+ =+ 6 * 5 = 30
- *- =+ -6 * -5 = 30
+*- =- 6 * -5 = -30
- *+ =- -6 * 5 = -30
Operations with zero and one
o a+0=a
o a 0 = a, a * 1=a
o a* 0=0 1 * a=a
o 0 a=0 a 1=a
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3. Order of operations: BEDMAS

Examples:
1. 20*6 18 * 3 + 7 * (91-65)

2. An IT professional needs to add some RAM to the office computers. She needs 2 GB of RAM for 29
computers and 3 GB of RAM for the other 13 computers. How many GB of RAM are required?

4 Fractions (Fraction Calculator : http://www.calculator.net/fraction-calculator.html )

(a) Addition of common fractions

2 ()
2 3=
3 ()

When a whole number is divided into a larger whole number, the


result is too small to be a whole number itself.
This particular number is called a common fraction.

Example: To add common fractions, the denominator must be the same.


2 3 5
+ =
7 7 7
Example: Simplify
2 1 6 5 11
+ = + =
5 3 15 15 15
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Example: Express the following fraction into lowest fraction
3 33 1
= =
6 63 2

Example: Half of the space on a hard drive is filled with video files and another third is filled with audio
files. How much of the hard drive is filled?

1 1 3+2 5
+ = =
2 3 6 6

Example: A standard 19 1U rack mountable server is 1 thick. How thick is a 3U storage server if it is 5
times as thick?

Example: Solve the division of common fractions


2 1 2 4 8 2
= = =2
3 4 3 1 3 3

Example: How many 2 foot network cables can be cut from a 1000 foot?

Example: A programmer works 5 hours a day for 5 days in a typical work week, but 9 hours a day
for 6 days in the last week before a big project deadline. How many extra hours worked in
the last week?

5 Decimals
Decimals are a way to represent fractions. Decimals and fractions both represent values in-between two
whole numbers

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6. Percent (per 100)

(i.e.) Percent is another kind of fraction where the denominator is hidden and has a value of 100

8.3% = 0.083 (8.3/100)

435% = 4.35 (435/100)

Example: A software license costs $150.00 plus 13% tax. How much is the Tax?
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Equivalent forms : Fractions, Percents and decimals are three different forms for the same number

Example: Express as decimal and also percent

(a) Finding the amount: You can find the amount given the rate in %.

()
Amount = Base * Rate /100 = 100

Example: What is 30% of 400?

Example: 35 is what percentage of 400?

Amount = 35, base = 400, let X be the Rate


( ) 400 35100
= ==> 35 = ==> = = 8.75%
100 100 400

Example: 25 is what percentage of 1200? (round one digit after decimal point)

Example: 10% of what number is 500 (or 500 is 10% of what number?. Here you are finding the base)

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(b) Percent Increase or decrease (i.e. Percent Change)
( )
=

Example: Ann works in a supermarket for $10.00 per hour. If her pay is increased to $12.00, then what is
her percent increase in pay?

Percentage Increase =

Example: At Durham College the tuition fee has decreased from 4000 to 3000. What is the percentage
decrease?

Percentage Decrease =

(c) Percent Efficiency



=

Example: What is the percent efficiency of a machine in which work input is 4800J and work output is
3600J?

3600 / 4800 = 75%

Example: An electric motor consumes 800 watts and has an output of 700 watts. Find the efficiency of
the motor.

(d) Percent Error: Percent Error (deviation) is a measure of the accuracy of any measured value. It is
easily determined by comparing the difference between the actual value and the measured value to
the actual value itself.

Example: The weather station predicts 20mm of rain, but there is actually got 25mm of rain. Find the
percent error.

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(e) Percent Concentration

=

Example: Determine the percent composition by mass of a 250 g salt solution which contains 20 g salt.

7. Approximation of Numbers (significant digits and rounding)

Significant digits: Excel has several functions. The number of significant digits in an answer to a
calculation will depend on the number of significant digits in the given data, as discussed in the rules
below:

Non-zero digits are always significant. Thus, 22 has two significant digits, and 22.3 has three
significant digits.

With zeroes, the situation is more complicated:


a. Zeroes placed before other digits are not significant; 0.046 has two significant digits.
0.46 * 10-1 or 4.6 * 10-2 or 46 * 10-3
b. Zeroes placed between other digits are always significant; 4009 kg has four significant digits.
c. Zeroes placed after other digits but behind a decimal point are significant; 7.90 has three
significant digits. 7.9 has 2 significant digits
d. Zeroes at the end of a number are significant only if they are behind a decimal point as in (c).
Otherwise, it is impossible to tell if they are significant. For example, in the number 8200, it is not
clear if the zeroes are significant or not. The number of significant digits in 8200 is at least two,
but could be three or four depending on type of data. To avoid uncertainty, use scientific
notation to place significant zeroes behind a decimal point:

8.200 * 103 has four significant digits


8.20 * 103 has three significant digits
8.2 * 103 has two significant digits

Accuracy: The number of significant digits it has.

Precision: refers to the number of digits after the decimal point: 4.567 (in this case is it is 3)

25
Round Off: Add 1 if the discarded digit is more than 5 :
o 2.567 -> rounded to 3 significant digits -> 2.57
o 2.561 -> rounded to 3 significant digits -> 2.56
o 2.567 -> rounded to 2 significant digits -> 2.6
o 2.541 -> rounded to 2 significant digits -> 2.5

Ceiling 2.1 3 2.6 => 3 2.4 ______

Floor -> 2.1 2 2.6 2 2.8 ______

Example: Find the significant d in the following:

Number of significant digits


24300
2.340
0.67560
243.00
0.0654

8. Estimations

Estimating is an important part of mathematics and a very handy tool for everyday life. Get in the habit
of estimating amounts of money, lengths of time, distances, and many other physical quantities.
Rounding off is a kind of estimating. The Principles of estimation:

Round the numbers so that there is one nonzero digit in each number
Perform the calculations with the rounded numbers

Example: Estimate the sum 363 + 258 + 428

26
Example: Phil and Melissa bought their first car last week. The selling price of this compact car was
$8980. The dealer preparation charge was $289 and the sales tax was $449. Estimate the
total cost that Phil and Melisa had to pay.

9. Exponents
am x an = a m+n
23 x 22 = 2 3+2
= 25

am an = a m-n
2523 = 2 5-3
=22

(am)n = a mn
(23) 2
= 2 (3x2)
= 26

(ab)m = ambm (4x5)2 = 42 x 52

(a/b)m = am/bm (4/2)3 = 43/23

a0 = 1 if a 0 a0 is undefined if a = 0
a 1 = a

Examples:
(a) = =
(b) = + =
(c) ( ) = = =
(d) = 46

Examples: Find the value for these exponents

(a) = _______ (b) = _________________ (c) ( ) = ____________

10. Measurements

27
28
Example: Convert 23 degree Celsius to Fahrenheit degrees.

Example: Convert 85 degree Fahrenheit to Celsius degrees.

Example: Convert -15 degree Celsius to Fahrenheit degrees.

Computer System: A byte is the amount of computer memory needed to store one alphanumeric
character. It uses TB, GB, MB, KB will be discussed later.

11. Scientific, Engineering and Computer Notation

Scientific Notation: A number in scientific notation is expressed as the product of a number greater than
or equal to 1 and less than 10, and a power of 10, and is written as:
P x 10k (where P is between 1 to 10, k can take positive or negative value)

Example: Convert 493,000,000 to scientific Notation.


4.93 x 108 as the decimal point is moved 8 positions.

Example: Convert 0.000000054 to scientific Notation.


0.54 * 10-7
Example: Express 9.2 105 in decimal notation
920000
Engineering notation: It is a specialized form of scientific notation where the powers are limited to
multiples of 3 such as,103, 106, or 109. The power is chosen so that the final number will be between 1
and 999
Example: 45,000 = 45 * 103
450,000 = 450 * 103
0.000000065 = 65 * 10-9

Computer Notation: The number is always represented less than 1


Example: 345000 0.345 * 106
0.00000032 = 0.32 * 10-6

Example: The sampling rate of a CD is 44,100Hz. Express this number in (a) engineering, (b) scientific
and (c) computer notations.

29
Engineering notation (in terms of 1000s) : 44,100 = 44.1 * 103
Scientific notation (less than 10): 4.41 * 104
Computer representation (less than 1): 0.441 * 105

Example: Express 3560000 in engineering, scientific and computer notations.

(a) Engineering: ____________________

(b) Scientific : _____________________

(c) Computer : _____________________

Example: Express 0.00000078 in engineering, scientific and computer notations.

(a) Engineering: ____________________

(b) Scientific : _____________________

(c) Computer : _____________________

30
MICROSOFT EXCEL: FUNCTIONS (http://www.excelfunctions.net/ )

1. Functions
Function Syntax
ROUND ROUND function rounds off the value into the specified number of decimal places and
uses the round-off value in calculations. ROUND(number,num_digits)

Formulas: Results:
A B A B
1 =ROUND( 100.319, 1 ) 1 100.3
2 5.28 =ROUND( A2, 1 ) 2 5.28 5.3
3 5.9999 =ROUND( A3, 3 ) 3 5.9999 6
4 99.5 =ROUND( A4, 0 ) 4 99.5 100
5 -6.3 =ROUND( A5, 0 ) 5 -6.3 -6
6 -100.5 =ROUND( A6, 0 ) 6 -100.5 -101
7 -22.45 =ROUND( A7, 1 ) 7 -22.45 -22.5
8 999 =ROUND( A8, -1 ) 8 999 1000
9 991 =ROUND( A9, -1 ) 9 991 990

ROUNDUP The ROUNDUP function is used to round a number upwards towards the next highest number (also known
as CEIL). ROUNDUP is similar to the ROUND function except that it always rounds a number upward while
the ROUND function will round up or down depending on whether the last digit is greater than or less
than 5. = ROUNDUP ( Number, Num_digits )
Formulas Results:
A B A B
1 =ROUNDUP( 11.111, 1 ) 1 11.2
2 11.111 =ROUNDUP( A2, 2 ) 2 11.111 11.12
3 11.111 =ROUNDUP( A3, 0 ) 3 11.111 12
4 11.111 =ROUNDUP( A4, -1 ) 4 11.111 20
5 -11.111 =ROUNDUP( A5, 2 ) 5 -11.111 -11.12
6 -11.111 =ROUNDUP( A6, -1 ) 6 -11.111 -20

ROUNDDOWN = ROUNDDOWN ( Number, Num_digits )


Formulas: Results:
A B A B
1 =ROUNDDOWN( 99.999, 1 ) 1 99.9
2 99.999 =ROUNDDOWN( A2, 2 ) 2 99.999 99.99
3 99.999 =ROUNDDOWN( A3, 0 ) 3 99.999 99
4 99.999 =ROUNDDOWN( A4, -1 ) 4 99.999 90
5 -99.999 =ROUNDDOWN( A5, 2 ) 5 -99.999 -99.99
6 -99.999 =ROUNDDOWN( A6, -1 ) 6 -99.999 -90

INT The INT function requires only a single number argument. Excel rounds the value
down to the nearest integer. = INT(Number)

Formulas: Results:
A B A B
1 =INT(100.9) 1 100

31
2 5.22 =INT( A2 ) 2 5.22 5
3 5.99 =INT( A3 ) 3 5.99 5
4 99.5 =INT( A4 ) 4 99.5 99
5 -6.1 =INT( A5 ) 5 -6.1 -7
6 -100.9 =INT( A6 ) 6 -100.9 -101

FLOOR The FLOOR function returns a number rounded down based on the number
of digits = FLOOR ( number, significance )
Formulas: Results:
A B A B
1 Number Floor 1 Number Floor
2 26.75 =FLOOR( A2, 0.1 ) 2 26.75 26.7
3 26.75 =FLOOR( A3, 0.5 ) 3 26.75 26.5
4 26.75 =FLOOR( A4, 1 ) 4 26.75 26
5 26.75 =FLOOR( A5, 10 ) 5 26.75 20
6 26.75 =FLOOR( A6, 20 ) 6 26.75 20
7 -26.75 =FLOOR( A7, -0.1 ) 7 -26.75 -26.7
8 -26.75 =FLOOR( A8, -1 ) 8 -26.75 -26
9 -26.75 =FLOOR( A9, -5 ) 9 -26.75 -25

CEILING The Excel Ceiling function rounds a supplied number away from zero, to the
nearest multiple of a given number. = CEILING( number, significance )

Formulas: Results:
A B A B
1 number ceiling 1 number ceiling
2 22.25 =CEILING( A2, 0.1 ) 2 22.25 22.3
3 22.25 =CEILING( A3, 0.5 ) 3 22.25 22.5
4 22.25 =CEILING( A4, 1 ) 4 22.25 23
5 22.25 =CEILING( A5, 10 ) 5 22.25 30
6 22.25 =CEILING( A6, 20 ) 6 22.25 40
7 -22.25 =CEILING( A7, -0.1 ) 7 -22.25 -22.3
8 -22.25 =CEILING( A8, -1 ) 8 -22.25 -23
9 -22.25 =CEILING( A9, -5 ) 9 -22.25 -25

Example 1: Create the following and rename the worksheet as FUNCTIONS. Save the worksheet as lesson2_examples.

32
2. Using the Fill Handle.

Example 2: You can fill the worksheet with values automatically as:

Start from a new worksheet and rename it as FILL_HANDLE.


Type 100 in cell A1.
Click on A1, then position the mouse pointer at its fill handle until the pointer changes into a
cross.
Click and drag the left mouse down the rows until you reach cell A10 and then release the mouse
button. You will see 100 appears in all the rows
Click on B1 and enter 100, Click on B2 and enter 105.
Select B1 to B2 and then position the mouse pointer at its fill handle until the pointer changes a
cross.
Click and drag the left mouse button down the row until you reach cell A10. You will see 100,
105, 110, 115, etc.
Type Jan in Cell C1, then using the fill handle, drag it to cells C2..C12. You will see Jan, Feb. Mar,
until Dec.
Type 0 in cell D1. On the Home tab, in the Editing group, click Fill, and then click Series. Select
Linear under Type. Enter the step value as 5 and start value as 50.

Click Ok. You will see the values as 0,5,10,15. Until 50.

3. Copying formulas

Microsoft Excel has a feature to copy a formula from a cell (source) to another cell (destination). The
formula in the destination would be the same as the one in the source cell except that its row and
column references will be changed. Cell reference means changing the row number and column letter
relative to the position of the formula.

For example, look the worksheet with numbers and formulas. The formula =B4 + C5 is entered in the cell
F6 (source).

33
Example 3: Create a new worksheet and rename it as TIMESHEET. Enter the formatting and formulas as
indicated.

Select A2:G2 and select Format Cells option (when you right mouse click the worksheet).

Adjust the text orientation to 45 degrees.


Select the border tab and choose Presets as Outline and Inside.
Click Ok.
Enter the formulas as shown:

34
Note: Observe the formulas: SUM, AVERAGE, MAX, MIN, COUNT, COUNTA, COUNBLANK

Save the worksheet.

Example 4: Create a new worksheet and rename it as SALES as shown below:

Format Row 4 with slanted as shown in Timesheet.

Draw the borders for A4 to G10.

To find the total sales for each day, follow the instructions given below:
o Enter TOTAL SALES in A9
o Find the total sales from B9:F9

To find the totals for each region, do the following:


o Enter REGION TOTAL in cell G4. Select G4 and press button to wrap the text in that
column.
o Find the Region Totals in cells C5 to G9

To find the average sales for each day, follow the instructions given below:
35
o Enter AVERAGE SALES in A10
o Find the average sales from B10:F10.

Format the cells in B5:G10 as currency with no decimals.

To insert a clipart picture, follow the steps as:

o Select Insert -> Online Pictures


o Select Office.com : ClipArt. .
o Type Sales in Search for box, select Big Sale picture. Adjust it such that it will appear in
column C.

To show the formulas, press Ctrl+` (back quote above the Tab key) and adjust the columns if
necessary. To return to the normal mode, press Ctrl+` again.

Save the file.

You can preview or print the worksheet in Landscape mode. (Use Page Layout to set the landscape
mode). Select File->Print to see the worksheet. Do not print the worksheet.

36
MATH 1110 Mathematics for IT
Mathematical Problems (Algebra)
Contents: Use of SALS algebra, Introduction to algebra (constants, variables and expressions), Linear equations, Solving
equations, formulas and literal equations, Ratios and Proportions

ALGEBRA

1. Constants
A constant is a number (5,10), PI, etc. which have the same value. The constant value never
change in a program and defined at the beginning of a program.

2. Variables

A variable is a symbol, usually a letter of the alphabet, that stands for a number.
Area = length * width
= l *w where l and w are variables

3. Terms/expressions

A term is a number, a variable, or a product of a number and one or more variables separated from
other terms in an expression by a + sign.

Like terms have identical variables and identical exponents.

4. Addition and Subtraction of Algebraic Expressions


Any combination of numbers and literal symbols that results from algebraic operations is known
as an algebraic expression. Ex: 2x + 3y -2 where x and y are variables.

37
Example: Simplify
2 + 2 + 3 5 + 22

Example: Simplify
(-5) (x-3y) = (-5) (x) (-5) (3y)
= -5x (-15y)
= -5x + 15y

Example: Simplify -3 (5y 8) + 2 (3y + 8)

Example: Simplify 2.4(x+3.5) + 2 (1.4x + 1.9y)

5. Multiplication of Algebraic Expressions Example: Simplify


(3 5)(2 + 3)

Example: Simplify
(2x - 5) (x 3)

Example: Simplify (2x + 3) ( x- 4)

= 2x * x + 2x * -4 + 3 * x + 3 * -4
= 2x2 - 8x + 3x 12
= 2x2 - 5x 12
38
6. Division of Algebraic Expressions

Divide the constants first, then the terms with the same base by bringing the co-efficient to the
numerator. When a co-efficient is brought to the numerator, the sign changes from + to and to +.


Example: = =

( )
Example: = =


Example: =


Example: =

7. Equations using one unknown

An equation is a mathematical statement that says two expressions are equal.


An equation ax + b = 0 x = -b/a
is known as a linear equation of one unknown, where a and b are constants.

Example: Simplify 6 + x = 13 x = 13 6 = 7

Follow the procedure given below for solving equations:


Remove any parentheses by using the distributive property.
Collect like terms on each side of the equation.
Perform the same operations on both sides until x = result is obtained
Check by substituting the solution back into the original equation.

2x + 6 = x 3
2x x = -3 -6
x = -9

Substitute x in the above equation to verify whether the result is correct or not.
LHS = 2 * -9 + 6 = -12
RHS = -9 3 = -12
LHS = RHS

39
Example:
29 = m +12
-m = 12 29
-m = -17 m = 17

Example: Simplify 3-2x = 6x -33

Example: Simplify x = 341.25 + 0.025 x

Example: Simplify 2x + 66 = 5x 32

Example: A saleswoman at a department store earns $1000 per month, plus 6% commission on her
total sales. If she earned $2200, what was the amount of her sales?

8. Solving System of two Linear Equations in two unknowns

An equation ax + by = c is known as a linear equation of two unknowns, where a, b and c are


constants

Two linear equations, each containing the same two unknowns are said to be system of
simultaneous linear equations.

40
Example: Determine whether x = 4 and y =-1 is a solution of the following two equations:
x y = 5 (1)
2x + y = 7 (2)
Example: Solve using substitution
Substitute the values, x=4 and y=-1 in the two equations method.
2x + y = 8 (1)
LHS of eq (1) 4 (-1) 3x 2y = 5 (2)
5 = 5 RHS of eq (1)

LHS of eq (2) 2 * 4 + (-1) = 7


8 1 = 7 RHS of eq (2)

Note: x=4, y=-1 is a solution

(a) Solution by substitution:

Solution by addition
Example: Solve using addition method
2x + y = 8 (1)
3x 2y = 5 (2)

Substitute x and y in eq (1) and see


whether it works or not.

41
(b) Solution by subtraction

Example: Solve using subtraction


method.
2x + y = 8 (1)
3x 2y = 5 (2)

Example

When to use which method


Use substitution when you find a variable without any co-efficient (i.e.) as x or y in one of
the two equations
2x + y = 20
3x + 2y = 15

Use addition method, when a variable has + in one equation and - in another equation with
or without co-efficient
2x - 3y = 20
3x + 2y = 15

Use subtraction method, when a variable has + (-) in both the equations,
2x + 2y = 25
3x + 4y = 40

2x - 2y = 25
3x - 4y = 45

(c) Applications

42
Example: The perimeter of a rectangle is 64 centimeters. The length is 4 centimeters less than the
triple the width. What are the dimensions of the rectangle?

Example: There were 380 tickets purchased for a major league baseball game. The lower box tickets
cost $12.50 and the upper reserved tickets cost $8.00. The total amount of money spent
was $3940.00. How many of each kind of ticket were purchased.

9. Formulas and Literal Equations

A formula is an equation that expresses the relationship between two or more related quantities.

Example: Calculate the current drawn (in amps) by a 12 volt cable fan that uses 6 watts. The formula
for watts is W=VA where W=watts, V-Volts and A=amps

W= V * A or A = W/V
A = 6/12 = 0.5A

43
Example : In a forestry, a formula used to determine the volume V of a wood log is V = L (B + b)
where L is the length of the log and B and b represent the area of the ends of the log.
Find L (in feet) if V = 119 ft3, B = 12 ft2 and b = 5 ft2

10. Ratios

A ratio is in simplest form when the two numbers do not have a common factor and both numbers are
whole numbers.
250 1 60
Example: Find the ratio of 80 =
500 2
60 3
= = 3: 4
80 4
Example: Find the simplest ratio for the following:

20 5

16 4

Example: Lina earns $500 weekly. Out of that $500 gross pay, $125 is withheld for federal taxes and $60
is withheld for provincial taxes. What is the ratio of the amount withheld for provincial taxes
to gross pay?

60 3
= 500 = 25

This shows that for every $25 Lina makes, $3 of it is withheld for Provincial taxes.

Example: Find the ratio of 60 years to 85 years

60 12
= = 12: 17
85 17

44
Example: Find the ratio of 5 liters to 20 liters

11. Rates

Example: Write the ratio of $80 to 25kgs.


80 16 3.2 Example: Find the ratio of a rice bag costing
= = $12.45 with a weight of 8Kg.
25 5 1

(i.e.) 1 kg costs $3.20

12. Proportions

Multiply the numerator and denominator by 20.

(i.e.) An equation states that two ratios (a:b = c:d) are equal is called a Proportion.
45
ad = bc (by cross multiplying)

Example: 1 cm represents 10km in a map, find the distance (x) represented by 3.5cm on the map.
3.5cm 1cm

x 10km

x 3.5 *10 35km

Example: Given that 1inches = 2.54cm, what is the length (x) in centimeters of the diagonal of a flat
computer screen that is 17.0 in long?

1in 17.0in

2.54cm xcm

x 2.54 *17 43.2cm

Example: A person 1.8m tall is photographed, and the film image is 200 mm high. Under the same
conditions, how tall is a person whose film image is 145 mm high?
1.8
= 14.5
200

200x = 1.8 * 145


x = 1.8*145/200 = 1.3

Example: Given 1 cm represents 20km on the map, Find the distance if it is 2.5 cm on the map.

Example: A car travels 125 miles in 3 hours. How far would it travel in 5 hours (round your answer to 2
digits after the decimal point)?

46
MATH 1110 Mathematics for IT Computer
Math and Excel

Contents: Units, Speed of Computers (Hz, KHz, MHz, GHz), Systems (decimal, binary, octal, hexadecimal
and conversion from one system to another including fractions), Binary codes (BCD, ASCII,
EBCDIC), Digital Technology Metrics (bits, bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB), Binary Arithmetic (addition,
subtraction, multiplication and division)
Microsoft Excel: BASE conversion (DEC, BIN, HEX, OCT), CONVERT, DATE, TIME, PRODUCT,
QUOTIENT, SUMPRODUCT, RAND and RANDBETWEEN

1. Units

Most scientists use engineering notation and the metric system for recording measurements. (The
metric system is also called the international system of Units or SI). The following table lists some of the
most common System of Units prefixes and their symbols.

Prefix Symbol Exponent


Yotta Y 10 24
Zetta Z 10 21
Exa E 10 18 (Quintillion) 1,000,000,000,000,000,000
Peta P 10 15 (Quadrillion) 1,000,000,000,000,000
Tera T 10 12 (Trillion) 1,000,000,000,000
Giga G 10 9 (Billion) 1,000,000,000
Mega M 10 6 (Million) 1,000,000
Kilo K 10 3 (Thousand) 1,000

Milli m 10 -3 1/1,000 = 0.001


Micro 10 -6 0.000001
Nano n 10 -9 0.000000001
Pico p 10 -12
Femto f 10 -15
Atto A 10 -18
Zepto z 10 -21
Yocto y 10 -24
http://calculateme.com/index.htm

Example: Convert 2.3G into Mega units

Example: Convert 4560K into Mega units

47
2. Speed of Computers

Time period is the time taken for the signal to complete one cycle (starting from 0, go to positive
direction, then to negative direction and back to 0)

It is measured in seconds (s), but time periods tend to be short so milliseconds


(ms) and microseconds (s) are often used. 1ms (milli second)= 0.001s (10-3 second) and
1s (micro second) = 0.000001s (10-6 second).

Frequency is the number of cycles per second.


It is measured in hertz (Hz), but frequencies tend to be high so kilohertz (kHz) and megahertz
(MHz) are often used. 1kHz = 1000Hz and 1MHz = 1000000Hz.
1 1
frequency = and time period =
time period frequency

For example, the Mains electricity in Canada has a frequency of 60Hz, so it has a time period
of 1/60 = 0.01667s = 16.67ms, where UK uses 50Hz (1/50 = 0.02sec or 20 msec).

The CPU speeds are measured in GigaHertzs. For example, Intel Core 17 Extreme Processor has
the following speeds

T = 1/f = 1 / 2.9 = 10^-9/2.9 seconds

Example: Assume the CPU clock speed is 2.35 GHz. Convert into Hz.

Example: Assume the CPU clock speed is 3.5 GHz. Find the time taken to execute one instruction inside
the processor.

Example: It takes 5.5 nano seconds to execute one instruction inside the processor. Find the process
speed in GHz.
48
Data Transmission Speed

In data transmission, bits per second (abbreviated bps bits per second or bit/sec) is a common
measure of data speed for computer modems and transmission carriers. As the term implies, the speed
in bps is equal to the number of bits transmitted or received each second. Larger units are sometimes
used to denote high data speeds. One kilobit per second (abbreviated Kbps in the U.S/ Canada; kbps
elsewhere) is equal to 1,000 bps. One megabit per second (Mbps) is equal to 1,000,000 bps or 1,000
Kbps.

Computer modems for twisted pair telephone lines usually operate at 57.6 Kbps (serial
Transmission) or, with Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) service, at 512 Kbps or faster.
Cable modems designed for use with TV cable networks, can operate at more than 1.5 Mbps.
Fiber optic modems (parallel Transmission) can send and receive data at higher Mbps.

Note: You will learn more about these in data communication course.)

Example: Express the value 35678bps in KBPS

Example: Express the value 4.567 * 1011 bps in GBPS.

3. Number systems (Decimal, Binary, Octal, Hexa)

There exists different number systems depending on the need.

49
The number of different symbols used in these systems are compared here:

(a) Decimal Number System


From counting by means of rocks to finger symbols our current numerical system has evolved from
the Hindu numerals to present day numbers. The journey has taken us from 2400 BC to present day
and we still use some of the old numerical systems and symbols. Our system of numerical is ever
changing and who knows what it will look like in 2140 AD. Will we still count using our fingers or will
mankind invent a new numerical tool? Decimal number system is also called Hindu-Arabic, or
Arabic, number system,

The current number system is called decimal number system. (base=10, radix=10)

Positional Weight:

103 102 101 100


(1000) (100) (10) 1
5 1 2 8
MSD (Most Significant Digit) LSD (Least Significant Digit)

Note: Each position to the left of the decimal point indicates an increased positive power of 10.

50
(b) The Binary Number System

In binary system, base=2 (0 or 1), whereas in decimal, base=10 (0,1,. 9 > 10 symbols)

(i) Positional weight: In Binary , the positional weight is from right to left is

23 22 21 20
8 4 2 1
1 1 0 1 8 +4 + 1 = 13
(MSB Most Significant Bit) (LSB Least Significant Bit)

Each binary digit, or bit, has a different value depending where it is located in a binary number
The least significant digit, on the right, has a value of 1
Each bit to the left is worth twice as much as the previous one

Example:

Example:

Note: You can also use window Calculator or Microsoft Excel to do the conversion using BIN2DEC
function.

Excel: use =BIN2DEC(10110) function

Calculator: The calculator is found under Start Accessories. Start the calculator, then
click on the View drop down menu, followed by clicking on "Programmer." Select Bin,
which is short for binary, type in 10110, then click on "Bin". Now select Dec, the decimal
number 22 will be displayed.

51
(ii) Converting decimal numbers to binary numbers (use Microsoft Excel function DEC2BIN)

To convert a decimal number to its binary equivalent, continually subtract the largest possible
power of 2 until the decimal number is reduced to 0., placing a binary 1 in columns that are used
and a binary 0 in the columns that are not used.

Decimal = 53 Binary 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
0 1 1 0 1 0 1
53-32 = 21 -16 = 5 -4 = 1 -1 = 0

Example: Convert the decimal number 156 into binary number.

Divide by 2 continuously and use the reminders starting from LSB to form the number

The number is: 10011100

Using the calculator: Type in 184, then click on "Bin," which is short for binary, and the display
will convert 184 from decimal to 10111000 in binary.

Example:

Example:

The possible numbers using 8 bits 0. 28 1 = 255


32 bits 0. 232 -1 = 4294967295

52
Given n bits, the highest number = 2n 1. The possible values are 0 to 2n -1 (i.e.) The number of
combinations are 2n

4 bits the highest number is 24 -1 = 15, the possible numbers are 0,1,15 (there are 16
numbers namely 0000 (0), 0001 (1), 0010 (2), 0011 (3), 0100 (4), 0101 (5), 0110 (6), 0111 (7)
,1000 (8), 1001 (9), 1010 (10), 1011 (11), 1100 (12), 1101 (13), 1110 (14), 1111 (15)

Example: Convert binary to decimal and decimal to binary as needed


Binary Decimal
1011011 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

11001001 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

10111101 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 53

128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 215

(c) The Hexa decimal Number system

Computers use binary, humans use decimal. Hexa-decimals are used as shorthand for large binary
numbers. Hexa means 16. (0-9, A-F) where A=10 (1010), B=11 (1011), C=12 (1100), D=13 (1101),
E=14(1110), F=15(1111). In computers one byte (8 bits) are represented as 2 hexa degits.

53
Example: Convert the hexa number A37E to decimal. (HEX2DEC)

Example: Convert decimal number 135 to hexa number (DEC2HEX)

Example: Convert the hexa number 8B to binary (HEX2BIN)

8B 1000 1011

Example: Convert the binary number 1100101101 to hexa number (BIN2HEX)


Group into 4 digits starting from right backwards, and then convert it into hexa number.

11 0010 1101
3 2 D

Example: Convert the hexa decimal number to decimal and binary and also vice versa
Hexa Decimal Decimal Binary
FA 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

7D 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

234 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

10111001

01101101

54
(d) The Octal Number System

Octal means 8 namely 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7. (base=8)

i. Convert the octal number 723 to decimal number (OCT2DEC)

723 8 -> 7 * 8^2 + 2 * 8^1 + 3 * 8^0


= 448 + 16 + 3
= 467 10

ii. Convert the decimal number 571 to Octal number (DEC2OCT)

(571)10 => (1073)8


divide by 8 and take the reminder as LSD

iii. Convert the octal number 723 to binary number (OCT2BIN)


723 8 = 111 010 011

iv. Convert the binary number 101100111 to Octal number (BIN2OCT)


Divide the binary number into 3 digits starting from right to left
101100111
101 100 111 -> 547

Example: Convert the numbers from one unit to another unit


Binary Decimal Number Hexa Decimal Octal
10110100

225

7E5

347

55
4. Binary Codes (BCD, ASCII, EBCDIC, UNICODE),

The ones and zeros that are stored in a computer are often meant to represent something other than
binary numbers. This process is called encoding. Two common forms of data that people need to
encode are decimal numbers and text files. Codes are used to represent the letters and special
characters (such as +,-,*,$,&) in terms of 0s and 1s

0001 0010 0011 1000 1234 (BCD)


0100100011011001 Hi (ASCII)

a. BCD (Binary Coded Decimal)


BCD uses 10 symbols (0-0000 to 9-1001, 1010, 1011, 1100, 1101, 1110, and 1111 are INVALID
CODE in BCD code) to be used in calculators and other digital appliances to
represent/manipulate numbers. Although decimal numbers can be translated directly into
binary, it is often more convenient to translate each decimal digit separately. This type of
encoding is called Binary Coded Decimal or BCD. In BCD each decimal digit is represented by a
four digit binary number

2709 in binary : _____________________

Example: convert the BCD number 123 to binary number

Example: Convert the binary number 0101 1000 0110 0001 into BCD

Example: To represent 99 in BCD, we need 8 bits 1001 1001


With 8 bits, you can represent a maximum of 255 in decimal

11111111 (binary) 255 1111 (binary ) 15


1001 1001 (BCD) 99 1001 (BCD) 9

b. ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) code

The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) is the standard alphanumeric
code for keyboards and a host of other data interchange tasks. It is widely used in all computers
56
except IBM mainframe computers. ASCII is used to represent symbols such as keyboard
characters as well as some control characters. Letters, numbers, and single keystroke
commands are represented by a seven-bit word. Unix and DOS based operating systems use ASCII
for text files.

It is 7-bit or 8-bit alphanumeric code.


7-bit code is standard ASCII supports 127 characters.
Standard ASCII series starts from 00h to 7Fh, where 00h-1Fh are used as control characters
and 20h-7Fh as graphics symbols.
8-bit code is extended ASCII supports 256 symbols where special graphics and math's
symbols are added.
Extended ASCII series starts from 80h to FFh.

ASCII Alphanumeric Code


Char 7 bit ASCII HEX Char 7 bit ASCII HEX Char 7 bit ASCII HEX
A 100 0001 41 a 110 0001 61 0 011 0000 30
B 100 0010 42 b 110 0010 62 1 011 0001 31
C 100 0011 43 c 110 0011 63 2 011 0010 32
D 100 0100 44 d 110 0100 64 3 011 0011 33
E 100 0101 45 e 110 0101 65 4 011 0100 34
F 100 0110 46 f 110 0110 66 5 011 0101 35
G 100 0111 47 g 110 0111 67 6 011 0110 36
H 100 1000 48 h 110 1000 68 7 011 0111 37
I 100 1001 49 i 110 1001 69 8 011 1000 38
J 100 1010 4A j 110 1010 6A 9 011 1001 39
K 100 1011 4B k 110 1011 6B blank 010 0000 20
L 100 1100 4C l 110 1100 6C . 010 1110 2E
M 100 1101 4D m 110 1101 6D ( 010 1000 28
N 100 1110 4E n 110 1110 6E + 010 1011 2B
O 100 1111 4F o 110 1111 6F $ 010 0100 24
P 101 0000 50 p 111 0000 70 * 010 1010 2A
Q 101 0001 51 q 111 0001 71 ) 010 1001 29
R 101 0010 52 r 111 0010 72 - 010 1101 2D
S 101 0011 53 s 111 0011 73 / 010 1111 2F
T 101 0100 54 t 111 0100 74 , 010 1100 2C

57
U 101 0101 55 u 111 0101 75 = 011 1101 3D
V 101 0110 56 v 111 0110 76 RETURN 000 1101 0D
W 101 0111 57 w 111 0111 77 LNFEED 000 1010 0A
X 101 1000 58 x 111 1000 78 0 011 0000 30
Y 101 1001 59 y 111 1001 79 0 011 0000 30
Z 101 1010 5A z 111 1010 7A 0 011 0000 30

c. EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code) code


The extended binary coded decimal interchange code (EBCDIC) is an 8-bit alphanumeric code
which has been extensively used by IBM in its mainframe applications.
http://www.legacyj.com/cobol/ebcdic.html

EBCDIC Code
Char EBCDIC HEX Char EBCDIC HEX Char EBCDIC HEX
A 1100 0001 C1 P 1101 0111 D7 4 1111 0100 F4
B 1100 0010 C2 Q 1101 1000 D8 5 1111 0101 F5
C 1100 0011 C3 R 1101 1001 D9 6 1111 0110 F6
D 1100 0100 C4 S 1110 0010 E2 7 1111 0111 F7
E 1100 0101 C5 T 1110 0011 E3 8 1111 1000 F8
F 1100 0110 C6 U 1110 0100 E4 9 1111 1001 F9
G 1100 0111 C7 V 1110 0101 E5 blank ... ...
H 1100 1000 C8 W 1110 0110 E6 . ... ...
I 1100 1001 C9 X 1110 0111 E7 ( ... ...
J 1101 0001 D1 Y 1110 1000 E8 + ... ...
K 1101 0010 D2 Z 1110 1001 E9 $ ... ...
L 1101 0011 D3 0 1111 0000 F0 * ... ...
M 1101 0100 D4 1 1111 0001 F1 ) ... ...
N 1101 0101 D5 2 1111 0010 F2 - ... ...
O 1101 0110 D6 3 1111 0011 F3 / ... ...

d. UNICODE

Unicode is a way to assign unique numbers (called code points) to characters from nearly all
languages in active use today, plus many other characters such as mathematical symbols. There
are many ways to encode Unicode strings as bytes, such as UTF-8 and UTF- 16.
ASCII assigns values only to 128 characters (a-z, A-Z, 0-9, space, some punctuation, and some
control characters).
For every character that has an ASCII value, the Unicode code point and the ASCII value of that
character are the same.

58
In most modern applications you should prefer to use Unicode strings rather than ASCII. This will
for example allow you to have users with accented characters in their name or address, and to
localize your interface to languages other than English
UTF-8 (U from Universal Character Set + Transformation Format8-bit- is a character encoding
capable of encoding all possible uses 8-bit code units. It was designed for backward compatibility
with ASCII.
UTF-8 has become the dominant character encoding for the Internet, accounting for more than
half of all Web pages. The Internet Mail consortium (IMC) recommends that all e-mail programs
be able to display and create mail using UTF-8] The W3C (World Wide Web Consortium
international standards recommends UTF-8 as default encoding in their main standards for XML
and HTML
http://unicode-table.com/en/
UNICODE vs ASCII
Unicode: is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding and handling of text.
It uses 16 bits to represent each character. This means that 65 536 different characters can
be represented in unicode - more than enough to represent characters and symbols from
many different alphabets.
ASCII is an 8 bit code used to represent characters. ASCII can represent 128 different
characters as the 8th bit is only used as check digit. In extended ASCII, all 8 bits are used to
represent the character set, therefore, 256 characters can be represented

5. Digital Technology Metrics (http://www.wu.ece.ufl.edu/links/dataRate/DataMeasurementChart.html )

We measure computer information (data) in bits and bytes. Bit is short for binary digit. It is the smallest
unit of information that a computer can understand. One bit represents a 1 or 0 digit in a binary
numeral or a true or false logical condition. A bit is represented physically by high or low voltage in a
circuit or a small magnetized spot on a disk.

Byte is short for binary term. A byte usually contains 8 bits, with 256 possible combinations. It can
represent a single character, such as a letter, a digit, or special symbols like #, $, etc. Large numbers
of bytes can be expressed by kilobyte and megabyte, giga byte, etc.

Kilobyte: The value of a kilobyte is 1024. Worked out as 2^10. Normally Kilo refers to 1000 but in
computing kilobyte is 1024.

Megabyte: Likewise, 1024Kb is referred to as a "Megabyte". Normally a Mega refers to one million. In
computing 1 Mega byte is 1,048,576 bytes. Worked out as 2^20, or 1024*1024.

59
where uur means hours

Example: Convert 15MB into KB.

Data
Size
Measurement
Bit Single Binary Digit (1 or 0)
Byte 8 bits
Kilobyte (KB) 1,024 Bytes 210 =1024
Megabyte (MB) 1,024 KB = 220 = 1,048,576 bytes
Gigabyte (GB) 1,024 MB = 230 = 1,073,741,824 bytes
Terabyte (TB) 1,024 GB = 240 = 1,099,511,627,776 bytes
Petabyte (PB) 1,024 TB = 250 = 1,125,899,906,842,624 Bytes
Exabyte (EB) 1,024 Petabytes 2^60

Example: Convert 12GB into MB.

Example: Convert 1602345678 bytes into GB (use 1024 and not 1000 in the unit conversion)

60
6. Binary Arithmetc
Computers consists of CPU which contains ALU (Arithmetic and Logical Unit) and control unit.

1. Binary Arithmetic: Arithmetic operations are possible on binary numbers just as they are on decimal
numbers.

a. Binary addition: Addition is almost as easy as "one and one is two". Indeed, there are only "zero and
zero is zero", "one and zero is one", and "one and one is two":

0 0 1 1
A B C Carry Sum
+0 +1 +0 +1
0+0+0 0 0
---- ---- ---- ----
0+0+1 0 1
0 1 1 10
Carry 0+1+0 0 1
0+1+1 1 0
1+0+1 1 0
1+1+0 1 0
1+1+1 1 1

Show your working to add


(a) 7+8

(b) 13 + 12

(a) 2 + 4 = 6

010
100
--------
110

(b) 3 + 5 = 8

11
1 1 (3)
+ 1 0 1 (5)
--------
10 0 0 (8)

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b. Binary Subtraction
Example: Show the working for
0 0 1 1 (a) 8-2
-0 -1 -0 -1
---- ---- ---- ----
0 1 with borrow 1 1 0

(b) 10- 4

c. Binary Multiplication

0 0 1 1 Example: Show the working for


x0 x1 x0 x1 8*3
---- ---- ---- ----
0 0 0 1

Example

9* 4 =

d. Binary Division: division is just repeated subtraction as in decimal arithmetic:

Show the working of 11/3

62
B. Microsoft EXCEL

1. BASE Conversion functions (DEC, BIN, HEX, OCT)

BIN2DEC Converts a binary number to a decimal

BIN2HEX Converts a binary number to hexadecimal

BIN2OCT Converts a binary number to octal

DEC2BIN Converts a decimal number to binary

DEC2HEX Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal

DEC2OCT Converts a decimal number to octal

HEX2BIN Converts a hexadecimal number to binary

HEX2DEC Converts a hexadecimal number to a decimal

HEX2OCT Converts a hexadecimal number to octal

OCT2BIN Converts octal number to binary

OCT2DEC Converts octal number to a decimal

OCT2HEX Converts octal number to hexadecimal

Example 1: Try the following conversion functions and rename the worksheet as BASE. Save the file as
lesson4_examples.

2. CONVERT function
The format of the function is : CONVERT( number, from_unit, to_unit ) Where the arguments are as follows :

number - The number to be converted

from_unit - A text string, denoting the current unit for the original number

to_unit - A text string, denoting the unit that you want to convert the original number to

63
The from unit and to_unit arguments to the Excel Convert function must make sense i.e. they may not be from
different measurement types (eg. temperature & distance). If you attempt to convert between two different
measurement types, Excel will return the #N/A error.

The tables below show all the different measurement types that the Excel Convert Function can work with, and show the
text abbreviations that must be supplied to the function to denote each unit type. Note that the text abbreviations for
the unit types are case sensitive.

Distance Units Time Units


Meter "m" Year "yr"
Statute Mile "mi" Day "day"
Nautical Mile "Nmi" Hour "hr"
Inch "in" Minute "mn"
Foot "ft" Second "sec"
Yard "yd"
Angstrom "ang"
Pica "Pica" Weight & Mass Units
Gram "g"
Slug "sg"
Liquid Units Pound Mass "lbm"
Teaspoon "tsp" U (Atomic Mass Unit) "u"
Tablespoon "tbs" Ounce Mass "ozm"
Fluid Ounce "oz"
Cup "cup"
U.S. Pint "pt" (or "us_pt") Force Units
U.K. Pint "uk_pt" Newton "N"
Quart "qt" Dyne "dyn" (or "dy")
Gallon "gal" Pound Force "lbf"
Liter "l" (or "lt")

Pressure Units
Temperature Units Pascal "Pa" (or "p")
Degree Celsius "C" (or "cel") Atmosphere "atm" (or "at")
Degree Fahrenheit "F" (or "fah") mm of Mercury "mmHg"
Kelvin "K" (or "kel")

Energy Units
Power Units Joule "J"
Horsepower "HP" (or "h") Erg "e"
Watt "W" (or "w") Thermodynamic Calorie "c"
IT Calorie "cal"
Electron Volt "eV" (or "ev")
Horsepower-Hour "HPh"
Magnetism Units Watt-Hour "Wh"
Tesla "T" Foot-Pound "flb"

64
Gauss "ga" BTU "BTU" (or "btu")

In addition, the following text can be prepended any metric to_unit or from_unit
(eg. the "c" prepended to the meter unit, "m" becomes "cm" to denote centimeters) :

Multiplier Multiplier Value Abbreviation


exa 1.00E+18 "E"
peta 1.00E+15 "P"
tera 1.00E+12 "T"
giga 1.00E+09 "G"
mega 1.00E+06 "M"
kilo 1.00E+03 "k"
hecto 1.00E+02 "h"
dekao 1.00E+01 "e"
deci 1.00E-01 "d"
centi 1.00E-02 "c"
milli 1.00E-03 "m"
micro 1.00E-06 "u"
nano 1.00E-09 "n"
pico 1.00E-12 "p"
femto 1.00E-15 "f"
atto 1.00E-18 "a"

Example 2 : Use convert function to convert the data from one unit to another and rename the
worksheet as CONVERT.

65
3. DATE and TIME functions

Excel has several DATE and TIME functions.

Example 3: Try some of the DATE and TIME functions; rename the worksheet as DATE_TIME.

66
4. PRODUCT, QUOTIENT and SUMPRODUCT functions

Example 4: try the functions and save the worksheet as PQSUM.

5. RAND and RANDBETWEEN functions

Example 5 : Try the functions and save the worksheet as RAND.

67
MATH 1110 Mathematics for IT Business
Management & Excel
Contents: BUSINESS MANAGEMENT: Averages (simple and weighted), GPA, CGPA, simple Interest and applications.
MICROSOFT EXCEL: Relative and absolute cell addressing, IF and LOOKUP functions. (Grade calculation, GPA and CGPA)

BUSINESS MANAGEMENT
We will learn about averages, GPA, CGPA, simple interest and applications in this lesson.

1. Problem definition:
Most applied problems are first word problems which need to be converted into an equation and
then solve the equation. Follow the steps given below to solve any word problem:

(a) Equation with unknown variables

Example: Jack was 12 years older than Ali. Together their ages totaled 158 years. What were their
ages?

68
2. Averages

Example: There are 3 Topics in MATH 1110. John got 82, 68, 88, 72, 78, 96 and 83 for 7 quizzes in Topic A.

(1) If all the quizzes count equally, what is Johns average for Topic A

(2) If his marks for Topic B and Topic C are 72.4 and 68.9 respectively and all Topic marks
have equal value, what is his course average?

Weighted Average:

Let X be a variable that takes the values x1, x2, xn and let w1, w2, . wn. The weighted average for X is
given by:

69
Example:

Example: A shipment of 10 cases of widgets costs $0.20 per case. Because of heavy consumption of widgets,
a second shipment of 40 cases now costs $0.30 per case. Find the (a) average cost (b) weighted
average cost (or average cost of using both (a) mathematically and Excel

(a) Average cost

(b) Weighted average cost per case =

(c) Microsoft Excel

70
Example: Find the final mark for Riya if their marks in MATH 1110 are as follows:

Mark Allocation Weightage Riya


Classworks (17%) 17% 95
Quizzes (12%) 12% 90
Assignments (16%) 16% 100
Project (10%) 10% 75
Test1 (20%) 20% 70
Final Exam (25%) 25% 90
Final Mark (Simple average
without taking the weightages)

Final Mark (weighted Average)

Note: Please observe the weighted average is not the same as the simple average.

Note: Can you find the averages using Microsoft Excel? Write down the formulas for simple average and
weighted average.

3. GPA (Grade point average): GPA measures the students overall academic performance on a scale of
5.0 at Durham College.

http://www.durhamcollege.ca/wp-content/uploads/grading-and-promotion-procedure.pdf

A students GPA is the weighted average of all grades received. In order to calculate an average
using our letter grade scale, each grade is assigned a number of points:
From To Grade Grade point Achievement
90% 100% A+ 5.00 Outstanding
85% 89% A 4.50 Exemplary
80% 84% A- 4.00 Excellent
75% 79% B+ 3.50 Very Good
70% 74% B 3.00 Good
65% 69% C+ 2.50 Satisfactory
60% 64% C 2.00 Acceptable
55% 59% D+ 1.50 Conditional Pass
50% 54% D 1.00 Conditional Pass
0% 49% F 0.00 Fail
71
Each course is also assigned a credit hour weight (usually 3.0). To calculate the GPA, we multiply the course credit
hours by the grade points earned. This gives us the quality points for each course. We then sum the total quality
points and divide by the total number of credit hours to get the GPA.
GPA = Total Weights / Total Credits

Example: John (sample) had obtained the following grades. Find his GPA.

FALL 2016
Course Grade GPA Grade Total
Hours Points Points
Communications I For It (COMM 3201) B+ 3 x 3.5 = 10.5
Computer Systems-Hardware (CSYS 1122) C+ 4 x 2.5 = 10.0
Intro To Databases (DBAS 1201) A- 4 x 4.0 = 16.0
Data Communications & Networking I (DCOM 1100) D 4 x 1.0 = 4.0
Mathematics For I.T. (MATH 1110) A+ 3 x 5.0 = 15.0
Introduction To Programming (PROG 1205) F 4 0.0 0.0
TOTAL 22.0 55.5
GPA = 55.5/22 = 2.5

Example: Please calculate the GPA based on the grades you are expecting this term.
FALL 2016
Course Grade GPA Grade Total
Hours Points Points
Communications I For It (COMM 3201) 3 x =
Computer Systems-Hardware (CSYS 1122) 4 x =
Intro To Databases (DBAS 1201) 4 x =
Data Communications & Networking I (DCOM 1100) 4 x =
Mathematics For I.T. (MATH 1110) 3 x =
Introduction To Programming (PROG 1205) 4
TOTAL 22.0

GPA = ________________

Note: Create an excel work sheet to calculate your GPA. You will learn about how to calculate the Grade
Points automatically for each course using LOOKUP function.

4. CGPA (Cumulative Grade Point Average)

If John repeats the course he failed (PROG 1205) and completes it successfully, the old grade is no longer
counted toward his GPA. However, it still appears on his transcript marked with an E as an excluded course.
The new grade is marked with an I as an included course:

72
FALL 2016
Course Grade GPA Grade Total
Hours Points Points
Communications I For It (COMM 3201) B+ 3 x 3.5 = 10.5
Computer Systems-Hardware (CSYS 1122) C+ 4 x 2.5 = 10.0
Intro To Databases (DBAS 1201) A- 4 x 4.0 = 16.0
Data Communications & Networking I (DCOM 1100) D 4 x 1.0 = 4.0
Mathematics For I.T. (MATH 1110) A+ 3 x 5.0 = 15.0
Introduction To Programming (PROG 1205) F 4 x 0.0 = 0.0 E
TOTAL 18.0 55.5
WINTER 2017
INTRODUCTION TO PROGRAMMING ( PROG 1205) C+ 4 x 2.5 = 10.0 I

TOTAL 22.0 65.5


GPA = 65.5 / 22 = 3.0

Note: Similarly, CGPA is calculated for all semesters based on the total Points for all the semesters
divided by total GPA hours (i.e.)

Interest

There are two types of Interest calculations (a) Simple Interest and (b) Compound Interest. You will be
learning simple interest here.

A simple interest is calculated using the following formula:

I = Principal Amount (P) * Time (T in Years) * Rate (R in %)


----------------------------------------------------------------------------
100

I=

Note: Time if the problem is asked in months, divide by 12,


Days, divide by 365 or 366

You can rewrite the equation to calculate P, T and R as:

100 * I = PTR

() () ()
P= T= R=

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The Maturity amount or final amount with interest is
Maturity Amount (S) = Principal Amount (P) + Interest (I)

You can also find the Interest given the maturity amount and the principal amount as:
I = = Maturity Amount (S) Principal Amount (P)

Example: Find the Interest for the principal amount $72,240 at 8% for 2.5 years

Example: Find the interest for the principal amount $3380 at 7% for 266 days (assume 365 days in a
year)

Example: Anita bought a new computer system. To pay for the system, she borrowed from the
4
credit union at 8 5 interest for 20 months. Find the interest.

Example: HarbourTown Marina purchased four boat lifts for raising and lowering large boats into the
water. The boat lifts cost $62,200 each. They borrowed the money from the bank for 240 days
at 11%. Find the maturity value (assume 365 days in a year).

Example: Find the principal amount if Rate: 8%, Time: 210 days and Interest: $33.08 (assume 365 days in
a year).

Example: Hank Wilkins invested $5200 in a mutual fund containing bonds. Find the rate given that he
earned $257.83 in 10 months.
74
Example: Create an Excel worksheet to compute the simple interest, Principal amount, Rate and Time in Years
where needed.

Note: Check your answers below:

75
Microsoft EXCEL

1. Relative and Absolute Cell addressing


If you want to use the value of a cell in a formula in another cell of the spreadsheet, then you refer to this
cell by means of its cell address. This cell address consists of a column indicator and a row number, e.g.
cell D14 is the cell in column D, row 14.

When a cell address includes a $ character before the column or row number, the address is considered
as an absolute address. When a cell address does not include any $ characters, the address is considered
to be a relative address. This means that the program does not store the actual address, but instead the
program stores the number of columns and rows calculated relative to the cell containing the formula.

Example 1: Create the following worksheet and rename it as ADDRESSING. Save the file as lesson5_examples

Absolute address -> the PI value must be the same, so we used $B$3 to reference PI and when the
formula is copied, it does not change. Press F4 to convert Relative address to an Absolute address.

Relative address -> when the formula is copied, the addresses change based on the row and column.

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2. IF function
The IF function checks whether a condition is met, and returns one value if TRUE and another value if
FALSE.
IF (logical condition, [Value if true], [Value if False])

The logical condition is defined as:


Cell address < operator> Value or Cell address

Example : Let A1 = 25, B1 = 10 C1=5. Determine the logical value for each of the expressions,

Operator Meaning Examples


True/False True/False
< Less than A1 < 30 True A1 < B1
> Greater than A1 > 50 A1 > B1
<= Less than or equal C1 <= 10 A1 <= B1
>= Greater than or equal B1 >= 50 A1 >= B1
= Equal A1 = 5 A1 = B1
<> Not equal A1 <> 9 A1 <> B1
AND If both the conditions must AND(A1<30, B1>=5)
be true, then the output is
true
OR Any of the conditions are OR(A1 <10, B1>5)
true, the output is true

Example 2: Compare your output using Microsoft Excel and rename it as CONDITIONS.

Example 3: Type the following and rename it as IF.

77
An IF statement has at least 3 parts called arguments. When you type an IF statement, the tool tip
automatically appears to tell you the 3 arguments required. The first part of the IF statement is called a
logical test, which is also often referred to as a condition. Note that all text is surrounded by quotes
when used in formulas. There are a few exceptions, such as True and False. If the value in cell A2 is
greater than or equal to 50 (True), displays PASS, otherwise (false) and displays FAIL.

Nested IFs
The IF function can be nested, when you have multiple conditions to meet. The FALSE value is being
replaced by another If function to make a further test. You may only use 7 nested IF statements. That
means 8 IFs can be in your formula; 7 being nested inside the first. If you have a requirement for more
than 7, use VLOOKUP, instead.

Example 4: Type the following in column C and observe the output.

IF with AND
Lets suppose that a sales bonus is based on having made at least 20 sales call, and having made at least
15,000 in sales. We must check both conditions, using an AND statement.

Example 5: Type the following and rename it as IF_AND_OR.

IF with OR
Now, lets use IF with an OR statement. In this case, a sales bonus is based on having made at least 20
sales calls, OR having made at least 15,000 in sales. If either condition is met, the bonus is given.
Example 5: Enter the formula in column E as:. IF(OR(B2>20, C2>15000),Yes,No)

78
3. VLOOKUP function

The VLOOKUP function looks for the values and keeps the resulting value in the table. The syntax of the
VLOOKUP is as follows:
=vlookup(lookupvalue,table,column#,[false/true])
where
lookupvalue the value that is looked up in the first column of the table.
table the location (range) of the table of data
column# the number of the table column where the result in located
false matches exact number
true matches range of values

Example 6: Let us find the grade given final mark using VLOOKUP function by typing in sheet6.

Observe the formulas used to compute the grade. The lookup table range is given as absolute address in
the VLOOKUP function as:

5. LOOKUP

The Excel Lookup function has two forms - the Vector form and the Array form. (you can also use VLOOKUP)

Vector form

LOOKUP(lookupvalue, lookup_vector, result_vector)

Where lookupvalue is Value that you want lookup, lookup_vector is a 1-dimensional data)

The data must be arranged in ascending order or descending order.


79
Example 7: Create the following worksheet and rename it LOOKUP.

Array form

The array form of the Lookup function 'looks up' a supplied value in the first column or row of a supplied data array (i.e.
a 2-dimensional table of data) and returns the corresponding value from the last column or row of the array.
The format of the function is:
LOOKUP( lookup_value, array )

Example 8: Create the following worksheet and rename it LOOKUP_ARRAY.

6. HLOOKUP

The Excel HLOOKUP function 'looks up' a given value in the top row of a data array (or table), and returns the
corresponding value from another row of the array. The syntax of the function is:

HLOOKUP( lookup_value, table_array, row_index_num, [range_lookup] )

lookup_value: The value that you want to look for, in the first row of the supplied data array
table_array: The data array or table, that you want to search the first row of, for the supplied lookup_value
row_index_num: The row number, within the supplied array, that you want the corresponding value to be returned from
[range_lookup]: An optional logical argument, which can be set to TRUE or FALSE, meaning :

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o TRUE: if the function cannot find an exact match to the supplied lookup_value, it should use the closest match
below the supplied value (Note: If range_lookup is set to TRUE, the top row of the table_arraymust be in
ascending order)
o FALSE: if the function cannot find an exact match to the supplied lookup_value, it should return an error

The data must be arranged in ascending or descending order.

Example 9: Create the following worksheet and rename it HLOOKUP.

Example 10: Find the score given a student name in Biology. Create the following worksheet and rename it as
HLOOKUP_2.

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MATH 1110 Mathematics for IT Test
1
Contents: Weeks 1-6 materials

A.TEST1 FORMAT

Topics : weeks 1-6 Lessons 1-5 (yellow book - Lecture Notes: Book A)

Marks : 20%

Format :
Section A : DC Connect : Multiple Choice and Short Answer Questions. You are not allowed to
re-visit the questions
Section B : Microsoft Excel

Resources Needed :
Laptop with Network connection (wired/wireless)
Access to DC Connect
Calculator (manual or electronic on your laptop)
Microsoft Excel
Formula sheet (one A4 sheet with double sided / two A4 sheets with single sided). Prepare a
formula sheet by going through lessons 1-5. You are not allowed to write examples, only
formulas.

Instructions :
Closed book with formula sheet
Can access only DC Connect (quiz) and DropBox
No other Internet Access

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MATH REVIEW (prepare a formula sheet)

1. An electrical signal travels 30 cm (centimeters) in one nanosecond. If a signal takes 12 nanoseconds


to reach the end of a cable and reflect back, how long is the cable? _______ cm

2. Each month you need to make one 27-MB full backup, three 12-MB differential backups, and
twenty-four 4MB incremental backups. Will a 160-MB tape hold all the backups? Give your answer
as YES or NO _____________

3. Your computer has 512 MB of RAM but reserves 64 MB for an onboard video card, leaving 448 MB
of available RAM. How much available RAM would you have if you doubled the system RAM and
doubled the amount reserved for the video card? _____________ MB

4. Assembling a computer takes a technician 15 minutes. How many computers can be assembled by 3
technicians in five 8 hour days (five days, 8 hours in each day)? __________ computers

5. If a RAM costs $85 per GB, how much will it cost to upgrade a lab of 35 computers from 2 GB to 4GB
of RAM? $_____________

6. If RJ-45 connectors cost 40 cents each, and Cat 5 cable costs 15 cents per foot, what would it cost to
make twenty-four 3-foot cables? Note: Cables need an RJ-45 connectors at each end.
$_____________ (dollars and cents)

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7. A database has six fields that vary in length according to the table below:

Field Name Size


First_Name 28 bytes
Last_name 36 bytes
Address_1 128 bytes
Address_2 128 bytes
State 18 bytes
Postalcode 6 bytes

If there are 500 entries in each field how large is the database? ____ bytes

8. A video game designer is adding texture to the walls of a virtual environment. There are 4 walls per
room, 12 rooms per building, and 3 buildings. If each wall takes five minutes to texture, how many
hours will the job take? ____________________ hours

9. An antivirus program can scan 15 executable files per second and 220 data files per second. If the
computer contains 330 executable files and 3080 data files, how long will the scan take?
______________ seconds

10. There are 8 bits in a byte, 1024 bytes in a kilobyte, and 1024 kilobytes in a megabyte. How many bits
are in one megabyte? __________________ bits

11. An old 3.5-inch floppy disk reads from both sides. Each side has 80 tracks, 18 sectors per track, and
512 bytes per sector. How many bytes of data will one disk hold? _______________ bytes

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12. A web designer took 15 hours to design a 21-page web site. Should she charge $195 an hour or $145
a page? Give your answer in HOUR or PAGE whichever is more money ________________________

9 5
13. Reduce to lowest terms :
15 3 2

14. Reduce to the lowest terms with positive exponents


1010 5
2 4 2

15. Reduce to lowest terms with positive exponents


18 3 ()2
(a)
2 3

5 25 10
(b) 13 + 25
16

16. A CD cleaning solution is made by mixing 2 1/2 liters of distilled water with 1/3 liter of concentrated
cleaner. How much solution is made?

17. The DC power connector in a computer is already 5 7/8 inches long. If a 3 7/16-inch extension is
added, how far can the power connecter now reach?

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18. A computer contains three memory modules (of RAM) of the following sizes: 1/2 GB, 2 GB, and 1/4
GB. How much RAM is in the computer

19. A technician spent of an hour assembling a computer, 1 hours installing the operating system,
of an hour installing drivers and updates, 1 1/3 hours installing applications, and 4 hours for burn-
in testing. How long did the whole process take?

20. Multiply and Simplify

21. Divide and Simplify

22. Solve for x 2x + 50 = (4x-3) * 5

23. 8% of what amount is $10 accurate to the cent?

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24. 350% of what amount is $1000 accurate to the cent?

25. Solve: 5(2 c) = 10(2c - 4) - 6(3c + 1)

26. It takes 20 minutes of machine time to manufacture Product X and 30 minutes of machine time to
manufacture Product Y. If the machine operated 47 hours last week to produce a combined total of
120 units of the two products, how many units of Y were manufactured?

6 41 : 5 : 8 34
27. Express the following ratio in its lowest terms:

28. Solve for x and y:


x + y = 40
x + y = 20

29. Express the value 1,564 MHz as GHz.

30. Convert the decimal number 5641 into binary value

31. Convert the binary number 11010101100110 to Hexadecimal

87
32. The course Credit hours and grades for Johns fall semester as given below: At his college, A 5
points, B 4 points, C 3 points and D 2 points.

Courses MATH COMP ENGLISH DATABASE TECHNICAL ELECTIVE


Credit Hours 4 3 3 4 4 3
Grade A D B A C B

What is Johns GPA?

33. The owner of a computer repair shop borrows $2000 at 6.5% interest per annum and pays back the
loan after 15 months. What is the interest charged?

34. A company borrows $20,000 on which $1200 interest is paid annually. What was the interest rate?

35. Judy has $60 to spend on a meal. She paid 10% as a tip on the cost of the meals. How much can she
spend on her meals?

36. Find the Interest Rate if the principal amount is $5000.00 for 2 years with an interest of $800.00

88
B. Microsoft Excel

Creating worksheet with labels, numbers, dates, mathematical equations, etc.


Inserting pictures, Formatting worksheet
Formulas and Functions including IF and VLOOKUP
Practice examples in the lessons, classworks and assignments

1. Create a worksheet to enter the two mathematical equations assuming x=5 and y=8
3
(a) 2 2 6 +
52

3
(b) 3 +
20 20

Rename the worksheet as equations.

2. Create the following worksheet and save it as Review.

Find the totals for Sales Reps and also for each product.
Find the Maximum Sales for each product
Find the Lowest Sales for each product

3. Create the worksheet and rename it as Travel

Amount Due is (IF Total Kms <=500, then Total Kms travelled * 0.52, Else Total Kms travelled *
0.65
Find the Average Amount Due
89
CLASSWORKS

90
Appendix A: Classwork 1
(pre-test)

Note: Show the working clearly and not answers in the space provided where needed. Marks will be deducted if working
is not shown.

1. Simplify 9 3 (2+6) 6 -2 5

15000
3. Evaluate to 2 decimals places 183
1+0.2
365

4. Determine the exact time between January 30, 2015 and May 20, 2015 by counting both days (try also using
Excel)

6) A computer has two hard drives. One is 65GB in size and the other is 189GB. What is the total storage size
for both hard drives?

8. Express0.275 as a common fraction in lowest terms:


91
9. Write the numbers in numerical order smallest to largest 7, -13, -19, 25, 5 (circle the correct answer)

A) -13, -19, 5, 7, 25 B) 25,7,5,-13, -19


C) 5,7,13,19,25 D) -19, -13, 5,7,25

10. Solve the equation: a-8 = -1 (circle the correct answer)

A) -9 B) 9 C) 7 D) -7


11. Solve the equation: 4
= 5 (circle the correct answer)

A) 9 B) 1 C) 8 D) 20

12. A piece of wire, 536 cm long is cut into two parts such that the longer part is 3 times as long as the shorter
part. What are the lengths, in cm, of the two parts?

13. Your 260-GB hard drive is completely full. If you remove 23GB of programs, 55GB of video files, and 47GB of
audio files, how many GB of space still will be available for use?

14. You work at a computer store that charges $127 to upgrade the RAM in a computer but offers to buy back the
old RAM for $29. What does the upgrade cost?

15. An IP address is made of 4 x 8 bits. How many bits are in an IP address?

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16. A company spends $39,000 on a site license for a word-processing program. If the company has 675
computers, how much is the company spending per computer?

17. A USB cable has two sections. One is 5 feet long, and the other is 7 long. How long is the overall cable
(display as a mixed fraction)?

18. How many 4cm by 4 cm tiles are needed to cover an area, which measures 24 cm, by 28 cm?

19. It takes a bus 3 hours to travel from Toronto to Parry Sound. If the bus averages 88 km/hr, how far is it to
Toronto to Parry Sound?

20. A video card draws 0.4 A at 5.0 V, 2.5 A at 3.3 V, and 0.4 A at 12 V. Find the sum of all three products to
calculate the watts used by the video card. Note: Watts is calculated by multiplying volts by amps. (round
your answer to 2 digits after decimal point) W = V *A

21. Windows represents used hard drive space with a pie chart. Suppose you have a computer with two hard
drives. If one 120-GB hard drive looks 3/4 full, and the second 120-GB drive is only 1/3 full, what is the total
amount of free space left on the computer?

93
22. Of all computer game players, 3/8 are men over age 50, and 2/5 are women. What fraction represents men
who are about 50 years and less?

23. A flat-screen monitor measures 16.5 inches by 12.2 inches. What is the surface area of the monitor? (round
your answer to 0 decimals)

24. A network administrator is responsible for 143 computers, but only 87 are working. What percent of the
computers are working? (round your answer to 2 decimals)

25. You can see 28 wireless networks from your laptop, and 4/7 of them are unsecured. How many unsecured
networks do you see?

94
Appendix A: Classwork 2
(Lessons 2 and 3)

Note: Show the working clearly and not answers in the space provided where needed. Marks will be deducted if working
is not shown.

1. Find the absolute value of


(a) |-55| __________ (b) |23-5+18| ____________

2. Evaluate $450(1 + 0.10 100/365) to the nearest cent. $____________

45|5|
3. Simplify the expression (round your answer to one decimal position) _______________
1(6)+|2|

4. A property was sold for 150% of what Mr. John paid in 2000. If he had originally paid $89,200, what was the
property sold for?

5. Riya is taking Ella out to dinner. She has $66 to spend. If she wants to tip the server 10%, how much can she
afford to spend on the meal?

6. The size of the hard drive is 485.95GB. Peter used 135.58GB by storing his files. What percentage of the hard
drive is full to the nearest tenth of a percentage?

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7. Round off the given approximate numbers (i) to 3 signficant digits and (ii) to 2 significant digits

3 significant digits 2 significant digits


a) 6.436

b) 700056

c) 0.008549

8. Estimate what it will cost to purchase 85 new computers if an average new computer costs $1200.

9. Express the given expression in simplest form with only positive exponents
( 2 4 6 )( 5 2 4 )

10. A weather forecaster has predicted a high temperature of 35C for tomorrow. Find this temperature in
degrees Fahrenheit.

11. Express in (a) scientific notation (b) engineering notation (c) computer notation

Scientific notation Engineering notation Computer notation


(1-10) (in powers of 3) (less than 1)
56000000

0.0000789

12. Find x by simplifying the equation (round your answer to 2 decimals_


(13 3x) (5x 4) = 70

96
13. A company employs 204 employees, divided among three shifts. There are three times as many on the first
shift as on the second shift, and four more on the third shift than on the second shift. Determine how many
were on each shift.

14. A theatre holds 400 seats. Two types of seats are available: orchestra and balcony. The cost of an orchestra
seat is $60, and the cost of a balcony seat is $45. If all 400 seats are sold the theatre would collect $22,500.
How many of each type of seat is available?

15. The offices of three companies, A, B, and C, occupy floor space of 310, 120, and 475 square meters
respectively. If the total rent for the space is $38,225 per month, how much rent should be paid by company
B? (round your answer to the nearest cent)

16. Elaine was cooking dinner for some friends. She went out to do the shopping and spent $60. She spent twice
as much on food as on drinks. How much did she spend on each?

17. Find the ratio of $1032 for 32 rolls of film

18. During one month, a local fast-food chain served 5605 corn dogs and 989 fish sandwiches. The next month,
the numbers were 7327 corn dogs and 1286 fish sandwiches. Was the ratio of corn dogs to fish sandwiches
the same in both months? Yes or No.

97
19. The manufacturing cost of a deluxe candle is made up of $1.20 in paraffin, $0.90 in dye, $1.50 in overhead,
and $4.50 in direct labour. Express the ratio between these costs respectively in their lowest terms.

20. At a college in eastern Ontario, 3 out of every 10 students worked either a full-time or part-time job in
addition to their studies. If 4600 students were enrolled at the college, how many did not have a full-time or
part-time job?

21. Create the following worksheet and rename is as SALES. Save the worksheet as Classwork2. Format Columns
B-E as currency with 2 decimal places.

(a) Enter the formula to find the sum of the sales for all quarters in Column F. Format as Currency with no
decimals
(b) Enter Average in A9 and Find the average sales for each quarter in row 9
(c) Enter Lowest in A10 and find the lowest sales for each quarter in row 10
(d) Enter Highest in A11 and find the highest sales for each quarter in row 11
(e) Enter Number of Salespersons in A12 and count the Number of Sales persons and store in B12.
(f) Insert a picture about any cloth business (or your own picture)
98
Appendix A: Classwork 3
(Lessons 4 and 5)

1. Convert the following:


(a) 5768M into Giga units

(b) 7540K into Mega Units

(c) Clock speed 2.78Ghz, Convert to MHz

(d) Frequency = 2MHz Time: ___________

(e) Frequency = ___________ GHz Time : 55 nano second

2. Fill the table with the appropriate values:


Binary Decimal Octal Hexa Decimal
(a) 101011011

(b) 762

(c) 725

(d) FA

3. A survey of randomly chosen residences in a city revealed that 18 people had four television sets each,
28 people had three sets each, 81 had two sets each, 152 had one set each, and 25 people had no TV
set at all. Based on the survey, what would you estimate to be the average number of TV sets per
household (weighted average)?

4. Ali got 68.5, 87.8, 81.5, 95.6 and 53.8 marks for 5 tests in MATH 1110. Find the average mark.
(round your answer to the nearest interger)

99
5. Judy's grades and course credits in her first semester at college are listed below.

Grade B A D C B D
Credits 5 3 2 3 3 4

Calculate her grade point average (GPA) for the semester assuming A 4 points, B 3 points, C
2 points, D 1 point. (round your answer to 1 digit after the decimal point)

6. Jasons grades and course credits in her first semester at college are listed below.

Grade A+ B C+ D B C
Credits 4 3 3 2 4 3

Calculate her grade point average (GPA) for the semester based on Durham College Grading system.
(round your answer to 1 digit after the decimal point)

7. Find the interest for $2000 for 1 year, 3 months and 15 days at an interest rate of 8%. Round your
answer to the nearest cent.

8. Find the Time in years if $5000 invested at the rate of 10% and received $8000 as maturity
amount. Round your answer to the nearest cent.

100
9. Fill with the appropriate values only in the shaded areas.
Principal (P) Time (T) R (Rate) Interest (I) Final Amount (S)
(a) $1200.00 5 months 6.5%

(b) 2 years 5% $2000.00

(c) $1500.00 100 days $300.00

(d) $850.00 2 years and $250.00


5 months

(e) $1200.00 5% $1800.00

(f) $5000.00 1 year 5 months andd


2%
14 days

10. You are asked to help a vehicle rental store to keep track of their rentals. Please prepare two excel
worksheets as:

Worksheet1 (rename as vehicles) :

o The first worksheet is about car details such as:


registration number (maximum 8 characters),
manufactuer (maximum 20 characters)
model (maximum 20 characters)
manufacured date
cost price,
purchased date,
insurance amount,
additional details,
photo.
Add 2 more columns of your own

101
o Data:
Add at least 2 rows of data with 8 blank rows for future data entry
Insurance amount is 0.15% of the cost price.

o Do the following:
Total Price of the vehicles
Total Insurance amount
Average price of the vehicle
Lowest price of the vehicle
Number of vehicles in the store

Worksheet2 (rename as rentals) :

o The second work sheet contains rental details such as:


car registration number,
customer name,
rented from,
rented to,
rent,
taxes
final charge,
remarks (any information about the customer).
Add another 2 columns of your own

o Data:
add at least 2 rows of data with 8 blank rows for future data entry
the formula for tax is : (if the rent is >100, tax is 13% of the rent, else it is 10% of the
rent)
the formula for final charge is rent + taxes

o Find the following:


Total final charges of the vehicles

You must use proper formatting of the excel worksheets.


Use currency format with 2 decimals where money is used.
Write your name and student number in each sheet.
Insert a picture for each worksheet to illustrate the theme of the worksheet.
Save the worksheets as classwork3

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103
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