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VERBE DE LEGATURA

Exista un numar de verbe care nu exprima o actiune. Aceste verbe sa numesc


Linking Verbs (verbe de legatura). Ele trebuie stiute pentru ca sunt insotite
totdeauna de un substantiv sau adjectiv. Ele formeaza predicatul nominal.
Substantivul sau adjectivul care insoteste verbul se numeste nume predicativ.

I am an actress - Eu sunt actrita. (sunt actrita e predicat nominal)


sunt - verb
actrita - substantiv (nume predicativ)
My neighbor seems happy - Vecinul meu pare fericit (pare fericit e predicat
nominal)
pare - verb
fericit - adjectiv (nume predicativ)

In engleza urmatoarele verbe sunt totdeauna verbe de legatura si trebuie urmate


de un nume predicativ:
to be - a fi
to become - a deveni
to seem - a parea
She is funny - Ea este nostima
Budgies become frightened easily - Papagalii perus devin usor speriati
It seemed like a good idea - Parea o idee buna

In engleza urmatoarele verbe NU sunt totdeauna verbe de legatura functia lor in


propozitie depinde de context:
to appear - a aparea, a parea
to feel - a simti
to grow - a creste
to look - a privi, a cauta, a parea
to prove - a dovedi
to remain - a ramane
to smell - a mirosi
to sound - a suna
to taste - a gusta
to turn - a (se) intoarce, a deveni

To appear, to look si to turn au valoare de predicat nominal atunci cand au


intelesul unuia din verbele care am vazut ca sunt totdeauna predicate nominale: to

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be, to become, to seem

Predicate nominale:
He appears tired He seems tired Pare obosit
He looks familiar He seems familiar Pare cunoscut
He turned 16. - He became 16 (nu se zice) - A implinit, (a devenit de)16 ani.

NU sunt predicate nominale


He appeared on TV - A aparut la televizor
He is looking for his watch - Isi cauta ceasul
He turned the car to face the gate - A intors masina ca sa fie cu fata spre poarta

Daca celelalte verbe prezentate: to feel - a simti, to grow - a creste, to prove - a


dovedi, to remain - a ramane, to smell - a mirosi, to sound - a suna, to taste - a
gusta pot fi considerate sinonime cu verbul to be, atunci avem de-a face cu un
predicat nominal care trebuie urmat de un adjectiv sau de un substantiv.

I feel a stong pain - Simt un mare junghi: verb de actiune


I feel tired - Ma simt obosita - Sunt obosita: verb de legatura (predicat nominal)
I grow a tree - Cresc un copac: verb de actiune
He will grow tall - El va creste inalt - El va fi inalt: verb de legatura (predicat
nominal)

Exista cateva adjective in engleza care nu pot sta decat pe langa un verb de
legatura.
Ele nu pot fi folosite pe langa substantive.
1. He is ill. - E bolnav.
2. An ill man - Nu e corect.

Iata lista acestor adjective:


afraid: I am afraid - Mi-e frica
asleep: He is asleep - El doarme
alone: I am alone - Sunt singur
alive: I am alive - Sunt viu
aware: I am aware of that - Sunt constient de acest lucru
awake: It's ok, I am awake - E ok, nu dorm
content: I am content - Sunt multumit
due: The paper is due tommorow - Referatul are scadenta maine
ready: I am ready - Sunt gata
unable: I am unable to sing - Nu pot sa cant

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glad: I am glad you came - Ma bucur ca ai venit
sorry: I am sorry - Imi pare rau
well: He is well - El e bine
ill: He is ill - El e bolnav
sure: I am sure - Sunt sigur

LECTIA 2
Verbul in orice limba semnifica o actiune sau o stare. Verbul in limba engleza, prin
forma sa arata timpul la care se face acea actiune. Prin urmare, verbul in limba
engleza, are mai multe timpuri. Timpurile de baza desi sunt prezent, trecut, viitor,
atunci cind se face o traducere, nu exista o corespondenta perfecta a timpurilor.
Totusi, pentru placerea exercitiului incerc mai jos sa fac o paralela intre timpurile
verbelor in limba engleza si timpurile verbelor in limba romana:

1. Prezent:

ma joc (verbul in romana) -> I play, I am playing (verbul in engleza)


2. Imperfect:

ma jucam (verbul in romana) -> I was playing (verbul in engleza)


3. Perfectul compus:

m-am jucat (verbul in romana) -> I played, I have played, I have been playing
(verbul in engleza)
4. Perfectul simplu:

ma jucai (verbul in romana) -> I played (verbul in engleza)


5. Mai mult ca perfectul:

ma jucasem (verbul in romana) -> I had played (verbul in engleza)


6. Viitor:

ma voi juca (verbul in romana) -> I will play, I will be playing (verbul in
engleza)
7. Viitorul perfect:

ma voi fi jucat (verbul in romana) -> I will have played, I will have been playing
(verbul in engleza)
Dupa cum se vede in exemplul de mai sus, perfectul compus din limba romana
poate avea drept corespondent mai multe timpuri in limba engleza.

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Dupa modul in care se formeaza timpurile verbelor in engleza, verbele in engleza
se impart in verbe regulate si verbe neregulate. In cazul verbelor neregulate, in
engleza trebuiesc stiute cele 3 forme ale verbului.

In engleza, verbul to play = a (se) juca este verb regulat. Ca verb regulat:

- formele continue primesc un "-ing" la sfarsit;

- trecutul simplu al verbului (in engleza) primeste "-ed" la sfarsitul verbului;

- participiul trecut al verbului se formeaza prin adaugarea lui "-ed" la sfarsitul


verbului.

Verbul in limba engleza formeaza timpurile (unele timpuri) cu ajutorul altor verbe
(auxiliare). Verbele auxiliare in limba engleza sunt: to be (a fi) , to have (a avea). Si
in Limba Romana se folosesc verbele auxiliare, dar nu in acelasi fel.

Verbele in limba engleza au urmatoarele timpuri:


Simple Past Tense
Trecutul simplu in engleza

Simple Past Tense : Forme


Afirmativ :

S + verbul la forma a II a de pe lista verbelor iregulate


We went to the zoo yesterday. Am fost la zoo ieri.

S + verb + ed pentru cele regulate


I phoned her. I-am dat telefon.

Negativ :

S + aux DO la trecut (did) + not + verbul la infinitiv


We did not finish the project in due time. Noi nu am terminat proiectul la
timp.

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Interogativ :

Did + S + verbul la infinitiv ?


Did you eat all the chocolate? Ai mancat toata ciocolata?

Trecutul simplu (Simple Past Tense) se foloseste pentru a exprima :

A. Actiuni terminate in trecut la un timp stabilit

o Cand locul si timpul unde se petrece actiunea ne sunt date


Marta called me in the morning from the hospital. Marta m-a sunat dimineata
de la spital.

o Cand se intreaba timpul


When did you go to the Opera? Cand ai fost la Opera?

o Cand timpul e definit ca rezultat al unei intrebari


When did they find her? They found her 2 hours ago. Cand au gasit-o? Ei au
gasit-o acum 2 ore.

B. Actiuni care s-au intamplat imediat una dupa alta in trecut


They went into the house, brought food from the fridge and set the table in the
yard. Ei s-au dus in casa, au adus mancare din frigider si au pus masa in curte.

C. Obiceiuri in trecut care acum sunt terminate


I used to go to ballet 5 years ago. Obisnuiam sa ma duc la cursuri de balet
acum 5 ani.

Adverbe ce se folosesc cu Simple Past Tense : yesterday, the day before yesterday,
last week, two weeks ago

Past Continuous Tense

Trecutul continuu in engleza

Past Continuous Tense : Forme


Afirmativ :

S + verbul To BE la past tense + verbul de conjugat + ING

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I was reading the lesson when the teacher came in. Citeam lectia cand a
intrat profesoara.

Negativ :

S + verbul To BE la past tense la forma negativa + verbul de conjugat + ING


They werent looking for Susan; they were looking for her sister. Ei nu o
cautau pe Susan, ei o cautau pe sora ei.

Interogativ :

Verbul To BE la past tense + S + verbul de conjugat + ING


Was he driving too fast when he had the accident? Conducea el prea repede
cand a avut accidentul?

Trecutul simplu (Past Continuous Tense) se foloseste pentru a exprima :


actiune care se afla in desfasurare la un moment dat in trecut.
While wou were having a bath, the phone rang. In timp ce faceai baie a sunat
telefonul.

actiune care continua de ceva vreme


Yesterday I was jogging in the park. Ieri, faceam jogging in park.

actiune care are loc in acelasi timp cu o alta actiune in trecut


While I was reviewing the article my husband was watching his favourite tv
show. In timp ce eu revizuiam articolul sotul meu urmarea show-ul tv favorit.

un echivalent in trecut al prezentului continuu


They told us they were spending the night at Select. Ei ne-au spus ca o sa-si
petreaca noaptea la Select.

Adverbe folosite cu Past Continuous Tense: while, when , all morning, all night, as

Past Perfect Tense

Trecutul perfect in engleza

Past Perfect Tense : Forme


Afirmativ :

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S + Past tense al verbului To HAVE + participiu trecut
Atentie: La verbele regulate participiul trecut = verb + ed iar la cele
neregulate este forma a 3a de pe lista verbelor iregulate.
At last she showed me the dress she had bought. Intr-un sfarsit, mi-a aratat
rochia pe care si-o cumparase.

Negativ :

S + Past tense al verbului To HAVE + Not + participiu trecut


They hadnt gone to Mt. Omu, they had gone to another peak. Ei nu au mers
pe varful Omu, au mers pe alt varf.

Interogativ :

Past tense al verbului To HAVE + S + participiu trecut


Hadnt he loved you? Nu te iubea?

Past Perfect Tense se foloseste pentru a exprima :


- O actiune care a avut loc inaintea altei actiuni in trecut.
By 12 o clock the cleaning lady had aired all the rooms in the hotel. Pana la ora
12 camerista aerisise toate camerele din hotel.

- Cauza unui efect trecut


Why did the window break? Because he had thrown a stone at it. De ce s-a
spart geamul? Pentru ca el a aruncat o piatra in el.

Adverbe care se folosesc cu Past Perfect Tense: just, already, by, hardly, scarcely

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Trecutul perfect continuu in engleza

Past Perfect Continuous Tense : Forme


Afirmativ :

S+ had been + participiu prezent Participiu prezent = verb + ing


I have been thinking of writing you a mail when you called me. Eu ma
gandisem sa iti scriu un mail cand tu m-ai sunat.

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Negativ :

S + had + Not + been + present participle


I hadnt been waiting long in a queue when I heard a voice calling my name.
Nu stateam de mult la rand, cand au auzit o voce strigandu-mi numele.

Interogativ:

Had + S + been + present participle


They hadnt been doing their tasks so they didnt get a bonus. Ei nu si-au
indeplinit din taskuri deci nu au primit un bonus.

Past Perfect Continuous se foloseste pentru a exprima :


- O actiune in desfasurare la un moment dat in trecut, durata fiind precizata.
They had been working for over an hour until the bus came. Ei vorbisera timp
de o ora pana a venit autobuzul.

- Arata efectul unei actiuni intamplate in trecut.


Marc was tired because he had been working for a project all night long Marc
era obosit pentru ca a lucrat pentru un proiect toata noaptea.

Adverbe care se folosesc cu Past Perfect Continuous Tense: by the time, since,
for, before

Present Simple Tense

Prezentul simplu in engleza

Present Simple Tense: Forme


Afirmativ :

Subiect + Verbul la infinitiv


Exceptie : La pers a III sg verbul se termina mereu in s sau es :
The boy wants a toy car for Christmas. Baiatul vrea o masina de jucarie
pentru Craciun.

Atentie: 1. Verbele care se termina in -y la pers a III sg, y se transforma in -ies:


I cry She cries.
I play He plays.

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2. Verbele care se termina in o, -ss, -x, -sh, -ch primesc la pers a III
sg - es
My mother usually goes to the market in the morning. Mama se duce de
obicei in piata dimineata.

Negativ :

Subiect+ do not/ does not + verb

She does not sing in the school chorus. Ea nu canta in corul scolii.

Interogativ :

do not/ does not + Subiect + verb

Does she want to participate in the competition? - Vrea ea sa participle in


competitie?

Present Simple Tense se foloseste pentru a exprima :


- Adevaruri general valabile :

The earth has 2 emispheres - Pamantul are 2 emisfere.

- Actiuni repetitive:

She takes piano lessons each day at 5 oclock. Ea ia lectii de pian in fiecare zi la
ora 5.

- Actiuni de moment, terminate in momentul in care sunt savarsite :

Mark gets out of bed, goes to the bathroom and washes his teeth. Mark se da jos
din pat, se duce la baie si se spala pe dinti.

- Actiuni obisnuite :

My grandfather and Iusually look at the starts when the sky is clear. Bunicul
meu si cu mine, noi ne uitam de obicei la stele cand e senin.

- Actiuni planificate in viitor, obligatorii (cu verbe de miscare) :

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The year ends with the 31st of December. Anul se termina cu 31 decembrie.

Present Continuous Tense

Prezentul continuu in engleza

Present Continuous Tense: Forme


Afirmativ :

Subiect + Prezentul verbului a fi + ing :

She is cutting the cake in slices. (Ea taie prajitura felii.)

Negativ :

Subiect + Prezentul verbului a fi + not + verb + ing :

She is not talking at the moment, she is eating. (In acest moment ea nu
vorbeste, mananca.)

Interogativ :

Prezentul verbului a fi + Subiect + verb + ing :

Is she smiling ? (Ea zambeste ?)

rezentul continuu se foloseste pentru a exprima :


- actiune care se intampla in momentul vorbirii
Ex. The wind is blowing.- Vantul sufla.
It is raining outside. - Ploua afara.

- actiune care se extinde pe o perioada putin mai lunga de timp


Ex. Julia is reading a novel by Dickens. - Iulia citeste un roman de Dickens.

- actiune temporara, limitata


Ex. I live in Cluj but this year I am living in Bucuresti. Traiesc in Cluj dar in
acest an locuiesc in Bucuresti.

- planuri imediate pentru viitorul apropiat


Ex. The children are going camping today. Copiii merg cu cortul astazi.

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- actiune frecvent repetata, suparatoare se foloseste deseori cu adverbele always,
forever, constantly
Ex. Ann is always making plans without taking into consideration all the facts.
Ann isi face mereu planuri fara sa ia in considerare toate aspectele.

- in propozitii subordonate
Ex They will go jogging while the babies are sleeping. Ei vor face jogging cat
timp copii dorm.

Exista o serie de verbe care nu se folosesc la Prezent Continuu. Ele se impart in


urmatoarele categorii :
Verbe de perceptie : feel, hear, see, smell, taste
Verbe de opinie : assume, believe, consider, doubt, feel (= a crede), find (= a
considera), suppose, think
Verbe care se refera la perceptie mentala: forget, imagine, know, mean, notice,
recognize, remember, understand
Verbe care exprima emotii sau chiar dorinte : envy, fear, dislike, hate, hope, like,
love, mind, prefer, regret, want, wish
Verbe folosite pentru masurat : contain, cost, hold, measure, weigh
Alte verbe : look (= a se asemana), seem, be (in majoritatea cazurilor), have = a
poseda)

Unele verbe pot fi folosite la forma continua dar isi schimba sensul :
Exemple:

Verbul to see (a imagina) :

I think you are seeing things, there is no one in the house. Cred ca iti imaginezi
lucruri, nu e nimeni in casa.
Verbul to smell (a adulmeca, a mirosi) :

She is smelling the roses.- Ea miroase trandafirii.


Verbul to look (a se uita) :

Tom is looking at Maria.


Verbul to be (a se comporta) :

She is being rude. Ea se comporta nepoliticos.

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Expresii de timp folosite cu prezentul continuu : now, at the moment, at present,
these days, still, nowadays, today, tonight.

Present Perfect Tense

Prezentul perfect in engleza

Present Perfect Tense: Forme


Afirmativ :

Subiectul + Auxiliarul HAVE la prezent + past participle al verbului de


conjugat
We are not going on holiday since the prices have rise. Noi nu mai mergem
in vacant deoarece preturile au crescut.

Negativ :

Subiectul + have/has not + past participle al verbului de conjugat


I havent seen her this morning, she is probably sleeping. Nu am vazut-o de
dimineata, probabil doarme.

Interogativ :

Auxiliarul HAVE la prezent + Subiectul + past participle al verbului de conjugat


Havent you eaten too much chocolate already? Nu ai mancat deja destula
ciocolata?

Present Perfect Tense se foloseste pentru a exprima :


- o actiune care incepe in trecut, continua in trecut si se termina in prezent sau
foarte aproape de prezent.
Tell me, what have you done? Spune-mi, ce ai facut?

- o actiune care s-a terminat recent al carei rezultat este vizibil si in prezent
We have just finished redecorating our house. Tocmai am terminat de redecorat
casa noastra.

Adverbe folosite cu Present Perfect Tense: since si for, already, yet, just, ever, how
long, recently

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Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Prezentul perfect continuu in engleza

Present Perfect Continuous Tense: Forme


Afirmativ :

Subiectul + prezentul perfect al verbului to be (have/has been)+ participul


prezent al verbului de conjugat (baza + ing)
They have been reading a lot of book lately. Ei au citit o multime de carti in
ultima vreme.

Negativ :

Subiectul + prezentul perfect al verbului to be (have/has been)+ NOT +


participul prezent al verbului de conjugat
They havent been watching TV this afternoon. Ei nu s-au uitat la tv in
acesta dupa-amiaza.

Interogativ :

Prezentul perfect al verbului to be + Subiectul + participul prezent al verbului


de conjugat
What have you been doing ? I have been working on a new project. Ce ai mai
facut? Am lucrat la un nou proiect.

Present Perfect Continuous se foloseste pentru a exprima :


- o actiune care incepe in trecut, ajunge in prezent si are sanse de a continua in
viitor.
It has been snowing for 4 hours. Ninge de 4 ore.

- o actiune recenta ar carei rezultat poate fi vazut


Why is you hair wet? Because I have been swimming. De ce ai parul ud?
Pentru ca am inotat.

Adverbe folosite cu Present Perfect Continuous : for, since

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Simple Future Tense

Viitorul simplu in engleza

Simple Future Tense: Forme


Afirmativ :

S + will + verbul la infinitiv


You will feel better if you take this pill. - Tu o sa te simti mult mai bine daca iei
acesta pastila.

Negativ :

S + will not (wont) + verbul la infinitiv


I wont tell where she is. Nu iti voi spune unde este ea.

Interogativ:

Will + S + verbul la infinitiv


Will you love me in 10 years? O sa ma iubesti si peste 10 ani?

Future simple se foloseste pentru a exprima :


- Promisiuni, amenintari, cereri, sperante
I will never tell you anything. Nu o sa iti mai spun niciodata nimic.

- Actiuni care vor avea loc in viitor si peste care nu putem avea control
Next year Easter will be on 15 of April.

- Decizii luate pe moment, spontane


I will buy this car, I love it. Voi cumpara acesta masina, imi place.

- Previziuni despre viitor


I believe she will be a great politician one day. Cred ca va fi un bun politician
intr-o zi.

Going To Future
Se foloseste pentru a exprima :
- Planuri, intentii pentru viitor
I am going to travel to Spain one day. Intentionez sa vizitez Spania intr-o zi.

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- Predictii bazate pe ceea ce stim sau ce vedem
Look at the sky. It is going to rain soon. Uita-te la cer, va ploua in curand.

- Actiuni la care ne-am hotarat deja sa le facem in viitorul apropiat


We are going to visit our relatives in the weekend. Noi vom merge sa ne
vizitam rudele in acest weekend.

Adverbe folosite cu Simple Future Tense : tomorrow, the day after tomorrow,
soon, next week, in a week, month

Future Continuous Tense

Viitorul continuu in engleza

Future Continuous Tense: Forme


Afirmativ :

S + Will be + present participle

The Health Organisation will be opening a new hospital in this city.


Organizatia de sanatate va deschide un nou spital in acest oras.

Negativ :

S + will not (wont) + present participle


The train wont be arriving any time soon; there was an accident on the road.
Trenul nu va ajunge prea curand, a avut loc un accident pe drum.

Interogativ:

Will + S + be + present participle


Will you be shouting at me if I tell you the truth? Vei tipa daca iti voi spune
adevarul?

Future Continuous Tense se foloseste pentru a exprima :


- Actiuni care se vor desfasura intr-un anumit punct din viitor
By this time tomorrow I will be sailing on the Mediteranean Sea.

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Actiuni care vor avea loc in viitor ca urmare a unei actiuni de rutina sau unui
aranjament
Do not interrupt her now. She will be signing a contract. Nu o intrerupe acum.
E pe cale de a semna un contract.

Adverbe si locutiuni adverbiale folosite cu Future Continuous Tense : tomorrow,


by this time tomorrow.

Future Perfect Tense

Viitorul perfect in engleza

Future Perfect Tense: Forme


Afirmativ :

S + will have + past participle al verbului de conjugat past participle =


forma a III a verbului
Tomorrow at 9 they will have left for Sibiu. Maine la ora 9 ei vor fi plecat
spre Sibiu.

Negativ :

S + will not have + past participle al verbului de conjugat


When you phone Julie I will not have arrived at the station. Cand o suni pe
Julie eu nu voi fi ajuns in statie.

Future perfect se foloseste pentru a exprima :


- O actiune vazuta din viitor dar care se intampla in trecut
They will have had dinner by the time their friend arrives. Ei vor fi luat cina
pana vor ajunge prietenii lor.

Adverbe ce se folosesc cu Future Perfect Tense : by the time, after, unti, by

Future Perfect Continuous Tense

Viitorul perfect continuu in engleza

Future Perfect Continuous Tense: Forme


Afirmativ :

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S + will have been + present participle al verbului de conjugat present
participle = verbul + ing
While Michael will have been writing his exercices, Maria will have been
playing the violin. Cat timp Mihai isi va fi scris exercitiile, Maria va fi cantat la
vioara.

Negativ :

S + will not have been + present participle al verbului de conjugat


You will not have been working here by this summer. Tu nu vei fi lucrat aici
pana in aceasta vara.

Future Perfect Continuous se foloseste pentru a exprima :


- O actiune in desfasurare la un moment dat in viitor, durata actiunii find precizata.
Tomorrow at 7 I will have been sleeping for 10 hours. Maine la ora 7 voi fi
dormit de 10 ore.

Adverbe ce se folosesc cu Future Perfect Continuous Tense : byfor

Future-in-the-Past Tense

"Viitorul in trecut" in engleza

Future-in-the-Past Tense: Forme


Afirmativ :

S + would + infinitivul verbului de conjugat


She told me I would be in trouble Ea mi-a spus ca voi intra in bucluc.

Negativ :

S + would not + infinitivul verbului de conjugat


We never thought they would not win. Noi nu ne-am gandit niciodata ca ei
nu vor castiga.

Future-in-the-past se foloseste pentru a exprima :


- o actiune posterioara unei actiuni din trecut.

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They knew the boss would not call them back to work. Ei stiau ca seful nu ii va
chema inapoi la munca.

>>> Verbele modale in engleza - Exercitii


Verbele modale in engleza - Exercitii
Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii din romana in engleza:

Stiu sa joc sah foarte bine.


ASCUNDE traducerea
I can play chess very well.

As putea vorbi cu directorul, va rog ?


ASCUNDE traducerea
Could I speak to the director, please?

Ce sa cumpar prietenului meu de ziua lui ?


ASCUNDE traducerea
What shall I buy my friend for his birthday ?

Nu trebuie sa ma trezesc devreme maine.


ASCUNDE traducerea
I mustn't wake up early tomorrow.

Ar trebui sa invat sa schiez.


ASCUNDE traducerea
I should learn how to ski.

Doctorul mi-a spus ca nu ar trebui sa mananc atat de multa carne.


ASCUNDE traducerea
The doctor told me I shouldnt eat so much meat.

Ar trebui sa-i cumperi niste flori daca o vizitezi.


ASCUNDE traducerea
You ought to buy her some flowers if you visit her.

Mergem la un concert diseara ?


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ASCUNDE traducerea
Shall we go to a concert tonight ?

Deschizi usa, te rog ?


ASCUNDE traducerea
Will you open the door, please ?

Ai putea sa ma ajuti cu tema de casa ?


ASCUNDE traducerea
Could you help me with the homework ?

Nu poate fi John cel care a facut asta.


ASCUNDE traducerea
It can't have been John who did it.

Imperativul in engleza

Imperativul in engleza

Modul de formare al imperativului in engleza:

1. Lets + infinitivul scurt (Imperativul in engleza - forma cu verbul "let" )

==> Pentru a indica un sfat, o sugestie, o actiune ce trebuie facuta acum sau mai
tarziu
Lets cross the street !

Lets call tomorrow !

2. Folosirea infinitivului scurt (fara "to")

==> Imperativul in engleza - forma simpla

Cross the street!

Call me tomorrow!

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3. Dont + infinitivul scurt (Imperativul in engleza - forma negativa )

==> Pentru a indica o actiune ce nu trebuie facuta


Dont cross the street !

Dont call me tomorrow !

4. Do + infinitivul scurt

==> Pentru a accentua ideea ca actiunea e importanta pentru vorbitor


Do cross the street !

Do call me !
Do have a seat !

Do come in !

Intrebuintarea infinitivului in engleza:

1. Pentru a face o urare:


Have a good time !

2. pentru a exprima o porunca, un ordin:


Come on!

Concordanta timpurilor in engleza

Timpul unui verb in propozitia subordonata se schimba in functie de timpul


verbului din propozitia principala.

Regulile de baza, in ceea ce priveste concordanta timpurilor in engleza, sunt dupa


cum urmeaza:

I. Daca verbul din propozitia principala este la timpul prezent (Present Tense sau
Present Perfect Tense) sau viitor, verbul din subordonata poate fi la orice timp, in
functie de sensul ce urmeaza a fi exprimat (concordanta timpurilor in engleza cazul
I)
Exemple:
He says that he comes now.
He says that he came yesterday.

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He says that he will come tomorrow.
He will say that he comes then.
He will say that he came then.
He will say that he will come then.

II. Daca timpul din propozitia principala este la past tense, timpul din propoziia
subordonata va fi la timpul corespunzator din trecut (concordanta timpurilor in
engleza cazul II)

Exemple:

He said that he would come.


He told me that he had been away.
We saw that the lights had been turned off.

Exceptii:

a) Un timp la trecut in propoziia principala poate fi urmat de un timp la present


in propoziia subordonata, atunci cand propoziia subordonata exprima un adevar
universal.
The teacher told us that saying the truth is always best.
He told me that the Hindus burn their dead.

b) O propoziie subordonata care exprima un loc, motiv sau comparaie poate fi la


orice timp, conform sensului ce urmeaza a fi exprimat.
He didnt get to Bucharest because he is ill.

c) Daca propoziia subordonata este o propoziie adjectivala, poate fi la orice timp,


dupa cum necesita sensul.
Yesterday I saw a man who plays the guitar.
Yesterday I saw a man who played the guitar in the square.

III. De notat ca atunci cand propozitia subordonata este introdusa prin conjunctia de
schop that, se respecta urmatoarele reguli (concordanta timpurilor in engleza cazul
III):
- Folosim may in propozitia subordonata atunci cand propozitia principala este
la present tense.

- Folosim might in propozitia subordonata atunci cand propozitia principala


este la past tense.

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I study that I may pass.
I will study that I may pass.
I studied that I might pass.
We eat that we may live.
He ate that he might not die.

IV. Daca propozitia principala este la viitor, nu folosim timpul viitor in propozitiile
subordinate care incep cu when, until, before, after etc. (concordanta timpurilor in
engleza cazul IV) :
I will call you when dinner is ready. (NOT I will call you when dinner will be
ready.)
I shall wait until you return. (NOT I shall wait until you will return.)

V. Expresiile ca si as if, if only, it is time and wish that sunt de obicei urmate de
timpuri la trecut (concordanta timpurilor in engleza cazul V).
I wish I was a bit taller.
It is time we started working.
He talks as if he knew everything.

Gerunziul si infinitivul in engleza

Gerunziul si infinitivul in engleza

Infinitivul in engleza reprezinta modul care denumeste actiunea sau starea


exprimata de un verb.

Folosirea infinitivului in limba engleza


A. Infinitivul scurt se foloseste:
1. Dupa "had better", "more than", "would rather", "would better", "nothing but",
"had rather"

He would rather sing than read. (Mai bine ar canta decat sa citeasca.)

2. Dupa verbele "to make", "to have", cand au sens cauzativ

He makes me laugh. (Ma face sa rad.)


3. Dupa verbele "to see", "to let", "to hear", "to fill", "to watch", "to help" (la
diateza activa)

Did you hear her sing ? (Ai auzit-o cantand?)

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4. Dupa verbe modale cu exceptia lui "ought to"

The children can sing loudly. (Copiii pot canta tare.)


B. Infinitivul lung se foloseste de regula in doua tipuri de constructii:
1. Constructia acuzativ + infinitiv

We want you to call us tonight. (Vrem ca sa ne suni diseara.)

Aceasta constructie se foloseste dupa verbe ca: "to consider", "to prefer", "to
imagine", "to find", "to order", "to allow", "to think", "to suppose", "to want", "to
hate", "to declare", "to like", "to believe", "to know"

2. Constructia nominativ + infinitiv

He is known to be a great writer. (E cunoscut ca fiind un mare scriitor.)

Spre deosebire de constructia cu acuzativ, constructia cu nominativ are drept


caracteristica faptul ca predicatul propozitiei este la diateza pasiva.
Constructia cu nominativ poate fi folosita si dupa urmatoarele verbe la diateza
activa: "to happen", "to prove", "to be sure", "to be likely", "to seem", "to be
unlikely":

I happen visit her today. (Se intampla sa o vizitez astazi.)

Infinitivul in limba engleza se folosesc dupa anumite adjective sau pentru a


exprima un scop, sau dupa verbele "to ask", "to wonder", "to find out", "to
understand", cand acestea sunt urmate de cuvinte interogative ca: "how", "who",
"what", "where":

Its difficult drive that car.

Infinitivul prezent in engleza arata ca actiunea se desfasoara in acelasi timp cu


verbul dupa care este asezat: I hope to sing a song (Sper sa cant un cantec)
Infinitivul perfect in engleza arata ca actiunea exprimata de el este anterioara celei
aratate de verbul din fata lui: Im sorry to have told him your secret (Imi pare rau ca
i-am spus secretul tau).

Gerunziul in engleza

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A. Gerunziul prezent in engleza are aceeasi forma cu participiul prezent
Pentru diateza activa se formeaza astfel: verb + ing (working)
Pentru diateza pasiva se formeaza astfel: being + verb 3/ - ed (being worked)

Reguli ce se aplica la formarea gerunziului in engleza:

1. Verbele terminate in "e" mut il pierd la gerunziu: to make making; to hope -


hoping
2. Se dubleaza consoana finala la verbele care au o singura silaba si se termina in
consoana precedata de o singura vocala sau verbele care au mai multe silabe dar se
accentueaza ultima, sau cele terminate in "p" sau "l": to cut cutting; to stop
stopping; to forget forgetting
3. Verbele terminate in "ic" primesc "k" apoi "ing": to picnic - picnicking

4. Verbele terminate in "ie" transforma literele in "y": to lie - lying

B. Gerunziul perfect in engleza are aceeasi forma cu participiul perfect si exprima


o actiune sau o stare anterioara
Pentru diateza activa se formeaza astfel: having + verb 3/- ed
Pentru diateza pasiva se formeaza astfel: having + been + verb3/ - ed

Utilizarea gerunziului in engleza


1. Dupa verbe de atitudine: "to like", "to dislike", "to enjoy", "to prefer", "to hate"
I enjoy seeing him. (Ma bucur sa il vad.)

2. Dupa verbe care descriu etapele unei actiuni : "to continue", "to begin", "to
stop","to keep","to start"

He kept going (A continuat sa mearga)

3. Dupa verbe care descriu activitate mentala: "to forget", "to remember", "to
imagine", etc:

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I must remember turning the TV off. (Trebuie sa-mi amintesc sa opresc
televizorul).

4. Dupa expresiile personale:

"I cant help" (Nu pot sa nu, Nu ma pot abtine),

"I cant stand" (nu pot suporta)

5. Dupa verbul "to mind" :

Would you mind closing the door (Te superi daca inchizi usa?)

6. Dupa verbe tranzitive: "to admit", "to delay", "to suggest", "to prevent", "to
involve":

He admitted being late. (A recunoscut ca a intarziat.)

7. Dupa expresiile impersonale:

Its no good (nu e bine sa), it's good, its worth (merita sa), its no use (nu e
folositor sa), its useless (e inutil sa)

Verbele in engleza care folosesc fie infinitivul fie gerunziul: advise, agree, allow,
begin, can/could bear, cease, continue, forget, hate, intend, like, love, mean, need,
permit, prefer, propose, recommend, regret, remember, require, start, stop, try, used
to.

Verbe in engleza care folosesc infinitivul sa gerunziul fara sa-si modifice intelesul:
begin, start, continue, cease; cant bear; intend; advise, allow, permit, recommend;
it needs/ requires/ wants.

Verbele neregulate in engleza

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Verbele neregulate in engleza

Lista verbelor neregulate este urmatoarea:

Verbul la infinitiv Verbul la trecut Verbul la participiu trecut Traducere


to abide abode / abided abode / abided / abidden (a
se supune)
to alight alit / alighted alit / alighted
(a aprinde)
to arise arose arisen
(a se ridica)
to awake awoke awoken
(a se trezi)
to be was/were been
(a fi)
to bear bore born / borne
(a naste)
to beat beat beaten
(a bate)
to become became become (a
deveni)
to begin began begun
(a incepe)
to behold beheld beheld
(a zari)
to bend bent bent
(a indoi)
to bet bet bet
(a paria)
to bid bade bidden
(a licita)
to bid bid bid
(a invita)

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Verbul la infinitiv Verbul la trecut Verbul la participiu trecut Traducere
to bind bound bound
(a lega)
to bite bit bitten
(a musca)
to bleed bled bled
(a sangera)
to blow blew blown
(a sufla)
to break broke broken
(a sparge)
to breed bred bred
(a creste)
to bring brought brought
(a aduce)
to broadcast broadcast / broadcasted broadcast / broadcasted (a
difuza)
to build built built
(a construi)
to burn burnt / burned burnt / burned
(a arde)
to burst burst burst
(a izbucni)

Verbul la infinitiv Verbul la trecut Verbul la participiu trecut Traducere


to bust bust bust
(a da buzna)
to buy bought bought
(a cumpara)
to cast cast cast
(a arunca)
to catch caught caught
(a prinde)

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to choose chose chosen
(a alege)
to clap clapped / clapt clapped / clapt
(a aplauda)
to cling clung clung
(a se agata)
to clothe clad / clothed clad / clothed
(a imbraca)
to come came come
(a veni)
to cost cost cost
(a costa)
to creep crept crept
(a se furisa)
to cut cut cut
(a taia)
to dare dared / durst dared
(a indrazni)
to deal dealt dealt
(a imparti)
to dig dug dug
(a sapa)
to dive dived / dove dived
(a se scufunda)
to do did done
(a face)
to draw drew drawn
(a desena)

Verbul la infinitiv Verbul la trecut Verbul la participiu trecut


Traducere
to dream dreamt / dreamed dreamt / dreamed
(a visa)

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to drink drank drunk
(a bea)
to drive drove driven
(a conduce)
to dwell dwelt dwelt
(a locui)
to eat ate eaten
(a manca)
to fall fell fallen
(a cadea)
to feed fed fed
(a hrani)
to feel felt felt
(a simti)
to fight fought fought
(a lupta)
to find found found
(a gasi)
to fit fit / fitted fit / fitted
(a potrivi)
to flee fled fled
(a fugi)
to fling flung flung
(a arunca)
to fly flew flown
(a zbura)
to forbid forbade / forbad forbidden
(a interzice)
to forecast forecast / forecasted forecast / forecasted (a
prezice)
to foresee foresaw foreseen
(a prevedea)
to foretell foretold foretold
(a prevesti)
to forget forgot forgotten
(a uita)

Verbul la infinitiv Verbul la trecut Verbul la participiu trecut Traducere

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to forgive forgave forgiven
(a ierta)
to forsake forsook forsaken
(a abandona)
to freeze froze frozen
(a ingheta)
to frostbite frostbit frostbitten
(a degera)
to get got got/gotten
(a lua/ a obtine)
to give gave given
(a da)
to go went gone/been
(a merge)
to grind ground ground
(a macina)
to grow grew grown
(a creste)
to handwrite handwrote handwritten
(a scrie cu mana)
to hang hung/hanged hung/hanged
(a spanzura)
to have had had
(a avea)
to hear heard heard
(a auzi)
to hide hid hidden
(a ascunde)
to hit hit hit
(a lovi)
to hold held held
(a tine)
to hurt hurt hurt
(a durea)
to input input / inputted input / inputted
(a introduce)
to keep kept kept
(a tine)
to kneel knelt / kneeled knelt / kneeled
(a ingenunchea)

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to knit knit / knitted knit / knitted
(a tricota)
to know knew known
(a sti/ a cunoaste)
to lay laid laid
(a aseza)
to lead led led
(a conduce)
to lean leant / leaned leant / leaned
(a sprijini)

Verbul la infinitiv Verbul la trecut Verbul la participiu trecut Traducere


to leap leapt / leaped leapt / leaped
(a sari)
to learn learnt / learned learnt / learned
(a invata)
to leave left left
(a pleca)
to lend lent lent
(a imprumuta)
to let let let
(a lasa)
to lie lay lain
(a minti)
to light lit lit
(a aprinde)
to lose lost lost
(a pierde)
to make made made
(a face)
to mean meant meant
(a insemna)
to meet met met
(a intalni)
to melt melted molten / melted
(a topi)
to mislead misled misled
(a induce in eroare)

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to mistake mistook mistaken
(a gresi)
to misunderstand misunderstood misunderstood
(a intelege gresit)
to mow mowed mown
(a cosi)
to overdraw overdrew overdrawn
(a descoperi contul)

Verbul la infinitiv Verbul la trecut Verbul la participiu trecut Traducere


to overhear overheard overheard
(a auzi fara sa vrea)
to overtake overtook overtaken
(a depasi)
to pay paid paid
(a plati)
to prove proved proven/proved
(a dovedi)
to put put put
(a pune)
to quit quit quit
(a renunta)
to read read read
(a citi)
to rid rid / ridded rid / ridded
(a scapa)
to ride rode ridden
(a calari)
to ring rang rung
(a suna)
to rise rose risen
(a se ridica)
to rive rived riven / rived
(a se despica)
to run ran run
(a alerga)
to saw sawed sawn / sawed
(a taia cu ferastraul)

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to say said said
(a spune)

Verbul la infinitiv Verbul la trecut Verbul la participiu trecut Traducere


to see saw seen
(a vedea)
to seek sought sought
(a cauta)
to sell sold sold
(a vinde)
to send sent sent
(a trimite)
to set set set
(a pune)
to sew sewed sewn / sewed
(a coase)
to shake shook shaken
(a scutura)
to shave shaved shaven / shaved
(a barbieri)
to shear shore / sheared shorn / sheared
(a tunde)
to shed shed shed
(a varsa)
to shine shone shone
(a straluci)
to shoe shod shod
(a incalta)
to shoot shot shot
(a impusca)
to show showed shown
(a arata)
to shrink shrank shrunk
(a micsora)

Verbul la infinitiv Verbul la trecut Verbul la participiu trecut Traducere

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to shut shut shut
(a inchide)
to sing sang sung
(a canta)
to sink sank sunk
(a scufunda)
to sit sat sat
(a sta)
to slay slew slain
(a ucide)
to sleep slept slept
(a dormi)
to slide slid slid / slidden
(a aluneca)
to sling slung slung
(a arunca)
to slink slunk slunk
(a se furisa)
to slit slit slit
(a despica)
to smell smelt / smelled smelt / smelled
(a mirosi)
to sneak sneaked / snuck sneaked / snuck
(a se furisa)
to sow sowed sown
(a semana)
to speak spoke spoken
(a vorbi)
to speed sped / speeded sped / speeded
(a se grabi)
to spell spelt / spelled spelt / spelled
(a silabisi)
to spend spent spent
(a cheltui)
to spill spilt / spilled spilt / spilled
(a varsa)
to spin span / spun spun
(a invarti)
to spit spat / spit spat / spit
(a scuipa)

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to split split split
(a imparti)
to spoil spoilt / spoiled spoilt / spoiled
(a rasfata)
to spread spread spread
(a imprastia)

Verbul la infinitiv Verbul la trecut Verbul la participiu trecut Traducere


to spring sprang sprung
(a izvori)
to stand stood stood (a
sta in picioare)
to steal stole stolen (a
fura)
to stick stuck stuck
(a infige)
to sting stung stung
(a intepa)
to stink stank stunk
(a puti)
to stride strode / strided stridden (a
umbla)
to strike struck struck / stricken (a
lovi)
to string strung strung (a
lega cu sfoara)
to strip stript / stripped stript / stripped (a
dezbraca)
to strive strove striven (a
se stradui)
to swear swore sworn (a
injura)
to sweat sweat / sweated sweat / sweated (a
transpira)
to sweep swept / sweeped swept / sweeped (a
matura)
to swell swelled swollen (a
se umfla)

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to swim swam swum (a
inota)
to swing swung swung (a
se legana)
to take took taken (a
lua)
to teach taught taught (a
preda)
to tear tore torn (a
rupe)
to tell told told (a
spune)
to think thought thought (a
gandi)
to thrive throve / thrived thriven / thrived (a
prospera)
to throw threw thrown (a
arunca)
to thrust thrust thrust (a
izbi)
to tread trod trodden (a
calca)
to undergo underwent undergone (a
indura)
to understand understood understood (a
intelege)
to undertake undertook undertaken (a
prelua)

Verbul la infinitiv Verbul la trecut Verbul la participiu trecut Traducere


to upset upset upset (a
supara)
to vex vext / vexed vext / vexed (a
necaji)
to wake woke woken (a
trezi)
to wear wore worn (a
purta)

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to weave wove woven (a
tese)
to wed wed / wedded wed / wedded (a
casatori)
to weep wept wept (a
plange)
to wend wended / went wended / went
(a se indrepta)
to wet wet / wetted wet / wetted (a
uda)
to win won won
(a castiga)

Verbul la infinitiv Verbul la trecut Verbul la participiu trecut Traducere


to wind wound wound
(a intoarce)
to withdraw withdrew withdrawn
(a retrage)
to withhold withheld withheld
(a retine)
to withstand withstood withstood (a
rezista)
to wring wrung wrung
(a rasuci)
to write wrote written (a
scrie)

Verbele fara forma continua in engleza

Verbele fara forma continua in engleza

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Verbele fara forma continua in engleza sunt:

1. Verbele de perceptie : to feel, to hear, to notice, to see, to smell, to taste

exemplu: I see a nice flower (Vad o floare frumoasa).

Atentie:

- Daca actiunea este una voluntara (constienta) se poate folosi aspectul continuu:
What are you seeing ? (se presupune ca persoana vrea sa vada ceva)

- Se poate folosi forma continua si daca sensul verbului nu mai este cel de baza:
I am seeing my dentist on Friday. (sensul nu mai e de a vedea ci de a fi consultat,
de a se duce la)

2. Verbe care exprima posesia : to posses, to owe, to belong to, to own, to keep, to
hold

exemplu: I keep it for me (O pastrez pentru mine).

3. verbele modale: can, may, must, ought to

exemplu: I must go there. (Trebuie sa ma duc acolo.)

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4. Verbe care exprima sentimente, atitudini, trairi emotionale: to love, to like, to
dislike, to detest, to prefer, to abhor, to adore, to hate

exemplu: I like your car. (Imi place masina ta.)

5. Verbe care exprima dorinta: to wish, to want, to intend, to desire

exemplu: I want to go there. (Vreau sa ma duc acolo.)

6. Verbele care exprima activitati mentale: to agree, to believe, to distrust, to


imagine, to doubt, to remember, to understand, to suppose, to recognize, to forget,
to think, to mean

In cazul in care se foloseste forma continua apare o modificare de sens:


I am thinking. (nu se spune si ce gandesc.)

7. Alte verbe care nu pot avea forma continua: to expect, to suffice, to differ, to
appear, to contain, to deserve

Exemplu: That idea appears to be interesting.

Verbele modale in engleza

Verbele modale in engleza

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Verbele modale in engleza reprezinta o categorie speciala de verbe auxiliare,
utilizate pentru a exprima sugestii, oferte, cerinte, dorinte, intentii, politete, tact.
Verbe modale in engleza sunt considerate urmatoarele: can, could, may, might,
must, ought to, would, shall, will, should.

Caracteristicile verbelelor modale in engleza

- Verbele modale in engleza nu sunt precedate de particula "to"


- Verbele modale in engleza sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt al verbelor de
conjugat: Smoking can damage your health.
- Verbele modale in engleza cand sunt urmate de auxiliarul be si un verb la
participial present, indica o actiune prezenta sau viitoare: She must be driving home
now.
- Verbele modale in engleza atunci cand sunt urmate de auxiliarul have si un verb
la participial trecut, verbele modale indica o actiune trecuta: She must have gotten
home by now.
- Verbele modale in engleza nu primesc terminatia "s" la persoana a III-a singular
si nu au forma de Past Tense sau participiu prezent: He can speak English.
- Forma interogativa, se realizeaza prin asezarea verbului modal in fata subiectului,
fara ajutorul auxiliarului do: Must I read the book again?
- La forma negative, not sta imediat dupa verbul modal: We must not get home
late.
- Se folosesc in intrebarile disjunctive (question tags): He can drive, cant he?
- Atunci cand se repeta o idee, verbele modale se pot folosi fara auxiliar: If they
cannot lend me the money Ill find someone who can.

Verbul modal Can/could pot exprima in limba engleza:


- o abilitate (fizica sau intelectuala): He can play the guitar
- o posibilitate: Can you join us?
- o probabilitate: It could rain today.
- o permisiune (Could este mai politicos decat Can).: You can have my CD if you
want to.
- o sugestie: If you dont have anything to do now, you can help me cooking.
- o imposibilitate, cand avem formele de negative: It is too late, so it cannot be
Jack knocking.

Verbul modal May/might au urmatoarele sensuri in limba engleza:


- o cerere sau permisiune: May I use your pen?

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- o posibilitate: Where is your brother? He may be playing soccer. He might be
reading a book.

Verbul modal Must se foloseste pentru a exprima in limba engleza:


- o necessitate, uneori un ordin: I must wash the dishes tonight.
- o certitudine: He must be very pleased with his accomplishments.
- o presupunere: You must know him very well, since you are good friends.

Observatie: Lipsa necesitatii impune folosirea verbelor do not need to sau do not
have to. Had to se foloseste pentru a exprima o obligatie sau necesitate din trecut.

Verbul modal Shall/ should


Verbul modal Shall se foloseste in limba engleza pentru:
- a exprima o hotarare: I shall visit you again.

- a cere un sfat: Where shall I go ?


- a face o oferta sau o sugestie: Shall we go to a movie together ?

Verbul modal Should se foloseste in limba engleza pentru:


- a exprima ce e bine si ce e rau in anumite imprejurari: Nobody should drink and
drive
- a exprima un sfat: You should really go to a doctor
- a exprima o indoiala: I think we should have enough time for this.
- a exprima iritarea: Why should I know where you put your keys ?

- a exprima o posibilitate: You should arrive before noon.

- a face referire la un eveniment: If you should decide to come, let us know.


- a exprima o dezaprobare cu privire la o actiune: She shouldnt have driven so
fast.

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Will/ would
Cu sensul de verb modal, will se foloseste in urmatoarele cazuri in limba engleza:
- pentru exprimarea unei cereri: Youll help me with dinner, wont you?

- pentru a exprima o certitudine cu privire la o situatie din present sau viitor: Ill be
sleeping by this time tomorrow.
- pentru exprimarea dorintei de a face ceva: Ill have only tea.
- pentru a exprima un ordin/oferta/invitatie/amenintare: Youll turn the TV of right
now!/Hell wait for you in the car/Turn the radio off, or Ill leave the room.
- pentru a exprima un obicei sau o trasatura de character: Shell read the book in
the garden, for very long, every day.

Would este forma de trecut a verbului will si se foloseste astfel:


- pentru a formula cereri, oferte, invitatii: Would you like some coffee?
- pentru a face o cerere in mod politicos: I would like to use this machine if
possible.

Verbul modal Ought to exprima o probabilitate sau un sfat in limba engleza.

http://www.gramatica-limbii-engleze-online.ro/Gramatica-limbii-
engleze/Numeralul/numeralele-adverbiale-in-engleza.php

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