Sunteți pe pagina 1din 32


International Journal for Clergy mm June 1 985

What Human Nature Did Jesus Take?


Keep dreaming! Sexism is sin. If the "world field" is not because I dropped my third year at
Seldom have I seen a more needed or ready for this, it is time for leadership to seminary to become a ministerial helper.
more accurate article than "Dream or point the way fearlessly toward God's Another item I asked for was a newsletter
Die" (October, 1984). Bietz is right ideal of equality. within south France so we could be in
when he says that we need to again Please, brethren, you who will be touch with other ministers' wives with
kindle the dreams of Adventism or die. It addressing this issue: Be fair with my the same problems and so strengthen our
seems to me that the genius of Advent- daughters. Don't make them face the ties.
ism at its beginning was the spiritual tragedy of secular society's being more My letter is to ask you what I can do
appeal it made to its members. Today we open than their church to their tal here in France to promote Shepherdess
see an ever-increasing bureaucracy, with ents. Pastor Dick Donaldson, Gaston, International. Christiane Bosdedore,
good intentions, consolidating its power Oregon. Oullins, France.
while members lose interest and devo
tion. Only as we realize again our need of We suggest you begin by encouraging
the Spirit and of having liberty to walk
Thanks for understanding development of Shepherdess organizations in
I am a retired United Methodist your union. Also inform women in your
and dream as God leads us will we ever
see this situation reversed. minister who would like to know what area of the contimdng-education courses
your standards are for ministerial cre available for them (see advertisement, p. 30
I am persuaded that we need unity,
dentials in the Seventh-day Adventist this issue). Ask your division president's or
not uniformity; we need direction, not
Church. I am not committing myself to a ministerial secretary's wife to share the
directives. We do not need those who
will merely manage our affairs by devis switch, but I am so impressed with your "Shepherdess International Resource Mate
ing a policy for every situation as much as ministers that I would like to know rials, " which are mailed to her quarterly.
"where they are coming from." Shepherdess International.
we need those who will boldly lead us,
I have, for some time, been involved
beyond the bounds of policy if need be,
to test the leading of the Spirit, The in the program of the local [Adventist]
church does not need centralized power congregation worship services, Bible General Conference session
as much as it needs dispersed power. We studies, Wednesday-night studies, and It seems very possible even proba
fellowship and have become con ble that there may not be another
do not need a denomination as much as
we need a cause, or retrenchment as vinced that you are the true church, General Conference session after 1985.
much as we need daring advance. have the most adequate literature, most What is done at this conference may lay
"Where there is no vision, the people effective church program, and proper the groundwork for a spiritual work and
perish." Lord, give us vision once doctrines. revival that is desperately needed by the
again! Pastor David E. Thomas. MINISTRY has been such a blessing to whole church and each of us as individ
me in helping me to understand your uals. It seems that we have no real
Women in ministry position and your power as a church. I conception of the experience that we
am grateful to you for it. Retired need in walking with Christ as did Enoch
I am a father of two daughters ages 9
Pastor, Texas. through these last days, being fitted for
and 6. I want them to reject sex role
stereotypes that limit their dreams. translation. Ray and Frances Foster,
I turned from your December Annual Shepherdess International Loma Linda, California.
Council Report with sadness. It hurts me I was very interested in the Shep
to see the great difficulty my church is herdess section in the September, 1984,
having granting equality to its women MINISTRY ("Shepherdess International Special needs and blessings
who strive for ministry. If one of my What Is It?"). I was glad to read about Please send copy of MINISTRY, January,
daughters were to respond to God's call Shepherdess International because 1985, to replace my copy recently
to pastoral ministry, I would feel great about the same time I had to fill out a chewed up by the dog. Need article "Is
pain if a church leader were to tell her form for our local field president (South Money the Problem?" Pastor, Marks,
she could not serve as fully as her male France). I had to mention what kind of Pennsylvania.
colleagues. We men should realize that activities I would like to see encouraged
the church would probably come crum in the future for us ministers' wives. In your January issue I was blessed by
bling in on top of us if all the female Imagine my surprise when I found three the article "Pastoral Counseling: Who,
church officers went on strike for one or four of the items I had asked for set Whom, How?" God's timing is always
month! It is mainly women who keep the down there in black and white! It gave right! The entire issue is special. Keep
church functioning on the local level. me a lot of comfort because I felt so alone up this vital "ministry." Personally,
How long can we deny them leadership and so inadequate. MINISTRY has helped me more than I can
on the conference level? First I had asked for more education say. Pastor, San Francisco.
]. Robert Spangler
J. David Newman
David C. James
Kenneth R. Wade
HELD REPRESENTATIVE: International Journal for Clergy
Rex D. Edwards
Robert H. Brown June 1985/Volume 58/Number 6
P. Gerard Damsteegt
Raoul Dederen Planned Giving Versus Project Giving/4. When you
Lawrence T. Geraty need funds to keep the church running, is it better to
Roland R. Hegstad
Arnold Kurtz make special appeals or to rely on regular planned
Leo R. Van Dolson giving to fulfill the needs? Donald E. Crane contributes
CONSULTING EDITORS: good answers to our Keeping Church Finance Christian
R. A. Anderson series.
C. E. Bradford
Mervyn Hardinge, M.D.
Richard Lesher The Minister and Anger/7. Is it wrong to be angry, or
Enoch Oliveira is it all right to be angry just as long as you don't act
N. C. Wilson angry? What is the best way to deal with feelings of
SPECIAL CONTRIBUTORS: anger? What should you do if you lose your cool in
Floyd Bresee
Donald Crane front of the congregation? Marilyn Thomsen continues
Paul Smith her popular series of interviews with Dr. Archibald
W. B. Quigley Hart.
Ella Rydzewski What Human Nature Did Jesus Take?/8. For at least
Bonnie Bowler
the past thirty years Seventh-day Adventists have
ART DIRECTOR: debated whether Jesus took fallen or unfallen human
Byron Steele
nature in His incarnation. Kenneth Gage and Benjamin
Helcio Deslandes Rand present two different perspectives. We hope that
CIRCULATION MANAGER: these two articles will lead to greater understanding.
Robert Smith And perhaps help draw closer together those who differ.
L. Rhea Harvey From the Editors
ADVERTISING MANAGER: The Nature of Christ/24- ]. Robert Spangler.
Thomas E. Kapusta Wise Rule in the Church/25. J. David Newman.
INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENTS: How Good Must It Get?/25. Kenneth R. Wade.
Africa-Indian Ocean, Ted N. C.
Australasia, A. N. Duffy
Eastern Africa, Harry A. Cartwright The Joy of Friendship/28. Friendship can be impor
Euro-Africa, Johannes Mager tant too for pastor's wives. Maria Loren's story illus
Far East, James H. Zachary trates the value of closeness.
Inter-America, Carlos Aeschlimann
North America, William C. Scales,
Jr., Samuel Meyers
Northern Europe, David E. Lawson
South America, Daniel Belvedere
Southern Asia, John Wilmott
Trans-Africa, D. W. B. Chalale
MINISTRY (ISSN 0026-5314),
the international journal of the
Seventh-day Adventist
Ministerial Association 1985,
is published monthly by the
General Conference of Seventh-day
Adventists and printed by the Review
and Herald Publishing Association,
55 West Oak Ridge Drive,
Hagerstown, MD 21740, U.S.A.
Subscriptions: US$19.95 a year
in U.S., US$22.30 a year elsewhere.
Single copy: US$2.00. Member
Associated Church Press.
Second-class postage paid at
Hagerstown, Maryland. Postmaster:
send address changes to MINISTRY,
55 West Oak Ridge Drive, Hagers
town, Maryland 21740. Editorial From the Editors/24
Office: 6840 Eastern Avenue NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20012. Shepherdess/28
Stamped, self-addressed envelope Shop Talk/31
should accompany unsolicited Recommended Reading/32
Planned giving
project giving
When you need funds to keep the church running, is it better to make special
appeals or to rely on regular planned giving to fulfill the needs?
Keeping Church Finance Christian _ 6 Donald E. Crane

lanned giving versus project giving is a topic of considerable

debate within some Christian fellowships. While some believe
that all giving should be planned giving, others believe that
project giving is better in some cases. Which, then, is the right
approach? Is there a reliable methodology for deciding when and
how much to give? Or is it possible that With our terms defined, let us con you." Thus it is clear from both the Old
both planned and project giving are at sider a few basic giving principles that may Testament and the New Testament that
times right and Biblically correct? guide us in understanding the advantages God's portion should be set apart before
In an objective consideration of the and disadvantages of both planned and meeting personal, family, or business
options, it is important to first of all project giving. needs.
define our terms. For the purpose of this 1. The Bible teaches that we are to give 2. We are to give to God as continually
article, planned giving is "an agreement to God the first part of our increase or and generously as He gives to us. God
one makes to give to the Lord contin income. "Honour the Lord with thy provides daily for our existence. He
uously and regularly a percentage or an substance, and with the firstfruits of all sustains the life-giving currents that
amount of his income." For example, a thine increase," we are told in Proverbs circulate through our bodies. He is the
Christian family practices planned giv 3:9. Giving the firstfruits to God was an source of the food we eat, the water we
ing by following the Biblical principle of honored tradition in Israel, and is still drink, and the air we breathe. "Every
tithing returning 10 percent of their among Orthodox Jews. Special offerings good gift and every perfect gift is from
income to God's storehouse. Project of the choicest firstfruits were made at above" (James 1:17). "It is of the Lord's
giving is essentially "giving whatever each of the three great annual feasts of mercies that we are not consumed,
seems right to whatever seems worthy." Israel Unleavened Bread, Pentecost, because his compassions fail not. They
It is often more spontaneous, but gener and Tabernacles. are new every morning: great is thy
ally of shorter duration than planned We find the God-first principle in the faithfulness" (Lam. 3:22, 23). As Chris
giving. An example would be a sponta New Testament, too. Paul exhorted the tians we have much to be thankful for.
neous gift to keep a religious broadcast Corinthian church members to set aside We should especially be thankful for
on the air. an offering every first day of the week (1 what Christ has done for us through the
Cor. 16:2) for the poor believers in plan of redemption. "O give thanks unto
Donald E. Crane is an associate secretary Jerusalem. The key word in Christ's the Lord, for he is 'good: for his mercy
of the Ministerial and Stewardship Asso exhortation to His followers in Matthew endureth for ever. Let the redeemed of
ciation of the General Conference of 6:33 is "first." If we put God first, He the Lord say so, whom he hath redeemed
Seventh-day Adventists. says, "all these things shall be added unto from the hand of the enemy" (Ps. 107:1,
here is no record in the Bible of tithe being used for the construction of
buildings such as temples or churches. Voluntary offerings were used
for Temple repair and to meet the operating expenses of the sanctuary.

2). In Ephesians 5:20 we are told to give very ancient origin and that it was in now, behold, I have brought the first-
"thanks always for all things unto God existence before the formation of the fruits of the land, which thou, O Lord,
and the Father in the name of our Lord Jewish nation. In Hebrews 7:17 Christ is hast given me. And thou shalt set it
Jesus Christ." Certainly, if we are to give referred to as "a priest for ever after the before the Lord thy God, and worship
continuously and generously as God order of Melchisedec." If Abraham, who before the Lord thy God" (verse 10). In 2
gives to us, our praises and our giving will is the father of all the faithful, returned Corinthians 8 and 9 the apostle Paul lists
not be sporadic or according to how we the tithe to Melchizedek, it would be giving as a "grace" and a "service." Thus
happen to feel at the moment. Rather, reasonable to believe that tithing is not the act of giving is not simply a means of
our gifts will flow as continous expres merely a Jewish custom but rather is supplying the wants of the saints. It is
sions of gratitude. Christian in substance. Jesus Himself also to be a grace and a service to glorify
3. Giving is a sign of allegiance to Christ endorsed the tithing principle in the God.
as our sovereign Lord, and an expression of context of the weightier matters of the 5. We are to give to God in proportion to
our stewardship relationship to Him. Abra law (Matt. 23:23). blessings received. In the Bible system of
ham gave to Melchizedek, priest of the 4. We are to give to God as an act of tithes and offerings the amount given by
Most High God, "tithes of all" (Gen. worship. In the Jewish economy, gifts and different people varies greatly because it
14:20). In this record there is no offerings were an essential part of the is proportional to income. "Every man
statement to suggest that tithing origi worship service and a joyful expression of shall give as he is able, according to the
nated with Abraham. On the contrary, praise to God. For example, in Deuter blessing of the Lord thy God which he
the inference is clear that it was some onomy 26 we find the special instruc hath given thee" (Deut. 16:17). In the
thing well understood at the time, that tions the children of Israel were to follow New Testament, Paul declares, "It is
the custom of returning the tithe was of in returning the firstfruits to God: "And accepted according to that a man hath,


Tithes and offerings This priority may Individual judgment God may receive the
are returned to God seem illogical to makes the final leftovers or
as "firstfruits" when the unspiritual. decision as to "when," nothing at all.
personal income is "what," and "how
received. much."
Giving to God Seems to some like Individual becomes Giving is more by
becomes a habit. a tax. bonded to a project by impulse than principle.
direct gifts and In time, increased
promotional appeals. appeals are needed
to do the job.
If project is mis
managed or appeals
cease, giving may
Giving to God Less spontaneous The individual The amount is not
is based on and ego satisfying. determines the always regular and
blessings project and the proportionate to the
received. amount. Frequent blessings received.
ego satisfaction. Giving is directed
to things rather than
to God.
Reduces promo Members are fre No time limitations Spirituality of church
tional time, thus quently uninformed, for promotions. The services may decrease,
creating a more owing to church's lack latest in fund-raising owing to constant
worshipful church of communication methods can be used. monetary appeals.
service. to members.
Helps to prevent Some feel it Can be initiated When the crisis ends,
emergencies. lacks per to meet specific giving may stop.
sonal appeal. emergencies.

w hichever method you follow, you must develop plans for involving
members through education, commitment, and follow-up. A
combination of the two has proved satisfying to many.

and not according to that he hath not" included a faithful return of tithes and "They had all things common. . . . And
(2 Cor. 8:12). And again, "as God hath offerings (Ex. 25:2; cf. 1 Chron. 29:9). distribution was made unto every man
prospered him" (1 Cor. 16:2). Thus There is no record in the Bible of tithe according as he had need" (Acts 4:32-
giving should be based not on the merit being used for the construction of 35). In the first and second letters to the
of certain projects or on one's personal buildings such as temples or churches. Corinthians Paul stressed regularity and
preferences, but rather on the basis of Voluntary offerings were used for Tem liberality as giving principles for Chris
blessings received from God. ple repair (2 Chron. 24:9, 10, 12) and to tians.
6. Our giving to God should include an meet the operating expenses of the 7. A tithe of our increase or income and
honest return of the tithe (one tenth of our sanctuary (Ex. 30:13-16; Neh. 10:32, a portion of our freewill offerings are to be
income) plus liberal freewill offerings. In 33). There were also special offerings for deposited in God's storehouse. "Bring ye all
Malachi, God posed the question as to the poor in both Old Testament and the tithes into the storehouse, that there
how Israel had robbed Him. Then He New Testament times. The New Testa may be meat in mine house" (Mal.
answered, "In tithes and offerings" ment church recognized God's claim to
(chap. 3:8). God's plan has always the ownership of all their possessions. (Continued on page 26)


Allows church Church bureaucracy Allows churches Irregular income
to develop long- may take member to develop cre can prove
range goals that support for granted ative ideas to disastrous to
can be sustained and become less respon fulfill church creative ideas and
indefinitely with sive to grass-roots mission. lead to unfinished
adequate education issues. projects.
and communication.
Is successful in Some believe ir Is successful in Frequent promo-
funding group inhibits private funding specific tions for special
projects, and initiative and projects. projects neutralize
forms the basis individual freedom. church budget effec
of the church bud tiveness.
get process.
Encourages members Members sometimes Members are free to May undermine unity
to deposit tithes feel deprived of support a variety of and effectiveness
and offerings in direct influence in independent special of group effort, and
God's "storehouse." church enterprises. projects. erode the church's
This creates a solid financial base.
financial base for
church growth

Regularity in fol Supporters may be A financially suc Members frequently have

lowing the Bible plan come critical of cessful method for guilt feelings and won
of tithes and offer project givers who funding capital der if they have given
ings liberates mem frequently do not improvement and enough. The spiritual
bers from feelings of carry their fair construction effect may be
pressure, manipula share of church projects. negative.
tion, and guilt. financial responsi
Members know they bilities.
are contributing
their fair share.
Motivating princi Some members may give Motivating principle Frequently greater recog
ple is love to because of duty, with can be love for nition is given to the
God. Encourages legalistic motivations. God, but project human donor than to God.
self-denial and giving also fulfills Selfishness may increase.
self-sacrifice. human need for
recognition and reward

The minister
and anger
A minister's position sets him up for many hurts that can lead to anger. Is it
wrong to be angry, or is it all right to be angry just as long as you don't act
angry? What is the best way to deal with feelings of anger, and what should
you do if you ' 'lose your cool' ' in front of the congregation?
_ by Marilyn Thomsen and Archibald D. Hart

Thomsem What is anger? Hart: There are at least three types of express anger back to the one who caused
anger. Anger as a defense, as instinctive it, they will either internalize it or take it
Hart: Anger can be a feeling or aggres protection, is legitimate. When the out on someone else. And the most
sive behavior. Anger as feeling is always organism is threatened, anger will be common "someone else" is, of course,
legitimate, because it serves as a signal. aroused to defend it. The other forms of the family.
Anger is to the emotions what pain is to anger anger in response to hurt, and
the physical body. It says, "Something is anger as a response to frustration are
wrong with my environment. What can seldom justified. Thomsen; Is a minister more likely than
I do now?" It can motivate you to move most people to misdirect his anger toward his
to the next step of dealing with whatever family because they're "safe"?
is wrong. Unfortunately, our human Thomsen; When does anger become a
mechanism is such that by nature we moral issue? Hart: I'm not sure he's more likely. I
want to quickly move on to angry think that we're all prone to taking it out
behavior. Hart: When you translate it into on the immediate family. They are very
aggression. The moment you move convenient scapegoats. Because the
beyond the point where it is a feeling and pastor has more reason for anger, perhaps
Thomsen! We want to resolve our anger. a signal to take constructive steps to deal there would be more scapegoating ten
with the source of irritation, then it dencies.
Hart: Yes. And the quickest way is to becomes a moral issue.
turn it into aggression. If I can express
my anger as an aggressive act "You Thomsen; Hou> can the minister's spouse
stepped on my toe so I'll punch you in the Thomsen; Do pastors have any unique or help the minister deal with anger?
nose" I'll quickly get rid of my anger. especially difficult-to-control anger triggers'!
But in the process I may start a war, so it Hart: She needs to understand that
wouldn't serve any good purpose. Hart: The multiplicity of people they when she's being jumped on, it's not a
minister to invariably creates a multitude personal thing. It will help if she can
of hurts. The pastor is open to being adjust her thinking and her attitudes and
Thomsen; Is anger ever appropriate? criticized, offended, and hurt by every learn not to take things personally.
one. The more people a person is Second, the best way to resolve anger is
responsible for, the greater is the poten to be able to talk about it and get it
Dr. Archibald D. Hart, dean of the tial for hurt. Unfortunately, most pastors outside you so you can objectively look at
Graduate School of Psychology, Fuller who experience the feeling of anger what's causing the trouble. A spouse can
Theological Seminary, is interviewed by don't understand the difference between be a sounding board for a pastor that
Marilyn Thomsen, director of public the feeling and the behavior. There is an other person with whom he can talk and
relations and media, Southern Califor erroneous idea that when you're angry, share his frustrations and anger.
nia Conference of Seventh-day Advent- you should give expression to it. Since
ists. pastors often feel that they cannot (Continued on page 22)"

What human
nature did
Jesus take?
What Greek terms underlie the key words and phrases in the discussion?
What was Christ's primary mission? What limits does His primary mission
impose on the human nature He took in the Incarnation? C by Benjamin

eventh'day Adventist theology presents two alternative views

concerning the human nature ofJesus Christ. Christ had a sinful
human nature because He had a sinful mother like the rest of us,
or He had a sinless human nature because, unlike the rest of us,
He had God for His Father. 1 The first view stresses His identity
with man; the second focuses on His splitting, with no practical meaning? I penetrate to the real meaning of Christ's
uniqueness as man. Some try to bridge believe we must understand Christ's humanity as "the seed of Abraham"
the two by saying Jesus had a sinful human nature to really appreciate what (Heb. 2:16) and "the seed of David"
physical nature but His human birth was He endured, how He alone can be our (Rom. 1:3). We will note the harmony
like our new birth born of the Spirit. Saviour, how He can be our example, between these passages and the Greek
They say that Jesus began in Bethlehem, our utter need of His substitution all the terms we studied. 4- We will then take a
where we begin when born again. Others way to the kingdom, and our urgent need look at Christ's mission to save man.
suggest that the parallel breaks down of a Christ-centered, not man-centered, Throughout the investigation we will
under investigation. They believe that outlook. These practical implications document the overwhelming Biblical
Jesus was both sinful and sinless in will become obvious as we explore the evidence that Jesus did in fact take a
human nature, sinful only in that He Biblical evidence. sinless human nature at birth (spiri
took sin-weakened physical nature but First, a broad overview. 1. We will tually) while possessing a similar physical
sinless in that He never became sin in confine ourselves to the Biblical data, nature to others of His day. 5. This will
birth. acting from the premise that all doctrinal force upon us the question Does He
Are we simply left to take our pick? truth issues out of Scripture. 2 2. We will really understand us, then? Or, put other
Does it really matter which view we come to grips with the linguistic and ways, is He a remote extraterrestrial
choose? Is this merely academic hair- theological meaning of the Greek words being who had an unfair advantage over
sarx, hamartia, isos, homoioma, mono- us? Was He really tempted in all points as
genes, and prototokos. 3. Allowing scrip we are? Can He really be a sympathetic
Benjamin Rand is a pseudonym. ture to interpret scripture, we will (Continued on page 10)
What human
nature did
Jesus take?
What backgrounds do the early church councils provide for our current
debate on the nature of Christ? What do the key New Testament passages
indicate about the kind of human nature He took? Why did He take human
nature, and what does this reveal about the kind He took? _ by Kenneth

n the early Christian centuries, thinkers generally agreed that

Jesus hadapreexistent life as God and lived a sinless life as man.
But differences of opinion arose when certain Church Fathers
(mostly the Alexandrian school) tended to emphasize Christ's
divinity at the expense of His full humanity. l Equally earnest
theologians (the Antiochene school) influence of Augustine's theology a sophical presuppositions. Without some
stressed His full humanity, fearing that theological system that generally rested higher point of view, some transcending
the Alexandrians were doing great dam on Neoplatonic presuppositions. 4 The Biblical principle or later prophetic
age to the meaning of Christ's role as Jesus of the Middle Ages, immaculately authority, the decision of the councils
man's Saviour. 2 In their counterre- conceived and barely touched by the appear open to several interpretations,
sponses, these two schools of theological troubles of humanity, was the logical depending upon which side of the
thought tended to overemphasize their result of Alexandrian-Augustinian the Chalcedonian formula seems to be
positions. ology. Until recent times this Alexan underemphasized at the moment.
As years went by, the Alexandrian drian emphasis also dominated Protes Unfortunately this formula placed two
emphasis became the prevailing teach tant Christology. apparently irreconcilable contradictions
ing of the Roman Catholic Church, 3 Chalcedon, an early church council side by side without defining how they
primarily through the overpowering (A.D. 451), decreed that Jesus was vere could exist in a baby born of an earthly
Deus and vere homo "truly God" and parent. Since Chalcedon we have
"truly man." But the church councils did learned (1) that both truths must be
Kenneth Gage is a pseudonym. not fully answer basic questions about stressed with equal emphasis and (2) that
Christ's nature. Ever since, people have nothing is gained by merely settling for a
All Scripture quotations in this article, unless
otherwise marked, are from the Revised Standard attempted to supply the answer, the mutually exclusive contradiction. If
Version. results depending upon their philo (Continued on page 10)
or outward side of life" [2 Cor. 11:18]; soma, yet the word "body" (N.I.V.) in 1

From page 8
(7) "the willing instrument of sin" [Rom.
7:18]; and (8) the source of sexuality
(John 1:13]. Only one of these (number
7) has to do with sin. Therefore sarx does
Timothy 3:16 is not soma but sarx. It
merely means "enfleshment," not "sin
How, then, do we understand these
not necessarily mean ' 'sinful' '5 words: God sent His "Son in the likeness
In Greek, the usual word for "sin" is of sinful flesh, and. . . condemned sin in
high priest? If Christological discussion hamartia 6 and not sarx. Schweitzer's the flesh" (Rom. 8:3)? First, consider
is to be fruitful and faith-building, it theological dictionary notes that sarx what Paul could have said. He might
must first clearly define terms in a way may designate an earthly sphere (see 1 have written, (1) God sent His Son in
that is either informed by or true to Cor. 1:27), not necessarily "sinful and sinful flesh or (2) in the likeness of flesh.
Scripture. 3 hostile to God, but simply . . . limited The first would mean His flesh was sinful,
and provisional." 7 It also says sarx may and the second would say that He only
The Word became flesh mean an object of trust (see Rom. 2:28). appeared to be in the flesh but was really
The Bible says, "The Word [Christ] Here "what is sinful is not the sarx, but some extraterrestrial being (cf. 1 John
was made flesh" (John 1:14). What does confidence in it." 8 Schweitzer con 4:1-3, a text misunderstood by some). 10
the Greek word for "flesh" mean? Does it cludes, "Where sarx is understood in a Paul said neither. He focused on
tell us whether Christ's human nature full theological sense, as in Galatians Christ coming in the likeness of sinful
was sinful or sinless? Sarx appears 151 5:24, it denotes the being of man which flesh. The key word is "likeness." Two
times in the New Testament. 4 Amdt and is determined, not by his physical Greek words are translated "like" in
Gingrich's A Greek-English Lexicon gives substance, but by his relation to God." ' English: isos, meaning "same," as in Acts
it eight meanings: (1) the material Does God becoming flesh merely 11:17, where "God gave them the like
covering a body [1 Cor. 15:39]; (2) the mean He received a human body? Christ [same, isos] gift," and homoioma, used in
body itself as a substance [chap. 6:16]; said of His incarnation, " 'Sacrifice and Romans 8:3, meaning "similar" (because
(3) "a man of flesh and blood" [John offering you did not desire, but a body human), but not "same" (because not
1:14]; (4) "human or mortal nature, you prepared for me' " (Heb. 10:5, sinful). Scripture is consistent on this
earthly descent" [Rom. 4:1]; (5) "corpo N.I.V.). In agreement Paul wrote, "He point. Thus Philippians 2:7 says of Jesus
reality, physical limitation(s), life here appeared in a body" (1 Tim. 3:16, that He "was made in the likeness
on earth" [Col. 1:24]; (6) "the external N.I.V.). The Greek word for "body" is [homoioma] of men." " Hebrews 2:17

difficulty. Therefore it is surely not this earth and lived as a man among

From page 9
soteriologically helpful or appropriate to
conclude that the core event of Christi
anity can tell us nothing more than that
we face a divine paradox. We must move
men. The man Christ Jesus was not the
Lord God Almighty, yet Christ and the
Father are one." 5
"The humanity of the Son of God is
beyond the wrong question. everything to us. It is the golden chain
either emphasis is qualified by philo that binds our souls to Christ, and
sophical presuppositions, the central The primary Issue through Christ to God. This is to be our
truth of Christianity is distorted, if not The salvation issue is not primarily study." 6
destroyed. And in the process most other ho<w God became man, but why. Why have many who claim orthodoxy
fundamental Christian doctrines are Whenever we try to answer the first resisted the full implications of "truly
severely warped. question without first asking the second, man"? Psychologically, all of us feel the
But what more could have been done we unconsciously (1) are driven by our need to put distance between Jesus and
at Chalcedon? The Chalcedonians were own presuppositions (such as our ourselves. We know who we are. We
at the limit of human understanding thoughts regarding the nature of sin) or know our thoughts and our failures. So
when they tried to fathom how the (2) fall into Greek categories of thought we find it very difficult to accept the
nature of God merged with the nature of (that is, trying to define such concepts thought that Jesus possessed the same
man. And once we begin asking how, we and words as hypostasis, anhypostasia, flesh and blood, the same genes affected
merely revive fruitless, ageless contro ousia, and prosdpon), (3) tread in areas by the same law of heredity, that have
versies. And we end up either with for which there is no divine revelation, affected the rest of us. Some, trying to
liberal Ebionitism, which refused to and thus simply (4) relive all the futile appear faithful to Biblical terms, have
accept our Lord's divinity as vere Deus, or controversies that have divided the gone so far as to suggest that He
with unconscious Docetism (so-called church for centuries. "vicariously" 7 took weakened human
orthodoxy), which refused to accept His Without question, mystery envelops flesh. That Jesus started life carrying the
humanity as vere homo in the fullest the Incarnation. But the mystery is weaknesses of His human ancestors
sense. regarding how God and man were strikes many as something improper,
When we focus first or only on the blended, not why. A perceptive writer even as being blasphemous.
abstractions of the two natures and on observed: "There is no one who can Theologically we state the resistance
what appear to be logical impossibilities, explain the mystery of the incarnation of in other ways. We ask, How could Jesus
every "solution" arouses someone else's Christ. Yet we know that He came to be sinless without being separated from
says, "He had to be made like (homoiod) forming the bridge from God to man. ing what constitutes sin. How was Baby
his brothers in every way, in order that God creatively worked on the planet Jesus different if bom with a sinful
he might become a merciful and faithful again, as in Eden. Whether using dust of nature?
high priest" (N.I.V.). the ground or Mary's womb, the life The Bible gives two definitions of sin,
Do these Greek words and these came from Him. Both constituted mira one in terms of behavior, one in terms of
passages suggest that Jesus was only cles never known before or repeated relationship. Thus "sin is the trans
similar to other humans in having a since. The sheer Godness of these events gression of the law [lawlessness]" (1 John
sin-affected physical human body, but must not be lost in superficial compari 3:4), and "whatsoever is not of faith is
not the same as other humans, for He sons with other humans. All others have sin" (Rom. 14:23). Both of these were
alone was sinless in His spiritual relation two human parents. But not Adam and present in the original sin in Eden.
ship with God? Ellen White thought Christ. Man comes into the world in one Adam and Eve disobeyed God's com
so.'2 The Biblical evidence we have of three ways: creation, birth, or Incar mand not to eat the fruit from the
looked at so far supports such a conclu nation. forbidden tree (Gen. 3:2-6), and they
sion. The second principle is: Christ's mis doubted God's word. He has said, "Don't
sion must determine the extent of His eat it or you will die." Eve thought it
Why only similar, not the same? identity with our humanity. To be our looked good for food and desirable for
From this Biblical material come two Saviour, Jesus must become one with us. gaining wisdom. So they took the plunge
principles that guide us in our quest. The But He could not go beyond the require and ate. Why? Doubting God led to
first is: Who Jesus Christ is determined ments of His mission, He could not disobeying Him. To doubt someone is a
the extent of His identity with our become a sinner (in nature or act) cessation of trust or faith in him a
human nature. In other words, He was Himself. As in the sacrificial system, broken relationship. The tempter caused
more than Mary's baby. He was God. In Christ's mission could be accomplished them to believe him and their senses
becoming man He did not cease to be only by a Lamb without spot or blemish more than God. Out of this broken
God. 13 This means that His eternal or any such thing. relationship he caused them to break
unbroken relationship with God was not God's commandment. The original sin
shattered by His becoming human. The The original sin was first a broken relationship. To define
Incarnation was not just another human In this discussion we must take sin merely as "lawbreaking or wrong acts"
birth. It was God spanning the chasm seriously the devastating nature of sin. is looking only at its outer manifestation.
gouged by sin, and within His very being Every baby is self-centered before know At its root, sin is a broken relationship

the infected stream of genes and chro those who believe He took the nature of God did not have sufficient love for man
mosomes shared by the rest of the unfallen Adam and thus was exempt to exercise self-denial and self-sacrifice
children of Adam? Or we affirm "that from certain liabilities all other children on man's behalf (see John 3:16). 3. To
Christ could not have had the same of Adam share at birth; and (3) those reveal Himself as man's substitute and
nature as man, for if He had, He would who consider these differences immate surety, showing what justice and love
have fallen under similar temptations." 8 rial to the plan of salvation. meant as He conquered sin and suffered
As John Knox put it: "How could Christ Each group arrives at its position on its consquences, as He paid the penalty
have saved us if He were not a human the nature of Jesus because of certain that justice required (see Rom. 3:25,
being like ourselves? How could a human (perhaps unconscious) presuppositions. 26). I3 4. To reveal Himself as man's
being like ourselves have saved us?" 9 These determine their understanding of example by providing fallen men and
The issue seems stalemated until we such categories as human depravity, women with a model of obedience (1
ask why He came the way He did. If we atonement theory, and righteousness by Peter 2:21, 22). He thus gave them hope
do not face this question correctly, every faith. It seems to me that these theologi that the same power that enabled Him to
other Biblical theme seems to become cal concepts will remain relatively resist sin was freely available so that
distorted. unclear until we understand why Jesus those who sought it could also obey the
We assume that Jesus' true humanity came to earth. Further, we will under laws of God (see 1 John 3.-3; Rev. 3:21). M
neither diminishes His divinity nor stand neither these nor the nature of 5. To reveal Himself as man's teacher as
implies that He would have to be a Christ's humanity until we stand on the He defined clearly the principles of
sinner. And we further contend that to vantage point of the great controversy God's government and the plan of
focus on Jesus as very man is not an theme that permeates Scripture. 10 redemption (see John 13:13). 15 6. And to
exercise in peripherals or an act of Why did Jesus, like every baby two reveal Himself as man's high priest as He
spiritual arrogance. On the contrary, thousand years ago, take the condition of established His credibility and proved
this emphasis may be the surest way to fallen mankind and not that of Adam "in His ability to make overcomers out of
understand the simplicity of the plan of his innocence in Eden"? u If Christ had men and women (Heb. 2:17, 18; 4:14-
salvation. taken the pre-Fall state, only a few of the 16). 16
Three groups exist among those who issues in the great controversy would
have no question about the deity of Jesus: have been settled. He came: 1. To set Scholars who agree
(1) those who view Him as taking the forth clearly the character of God the This understanding is far from unique.
nature of fallen man, as every child of Father (see John 14:9; Heb. 1:3). 12 2. To Many Biblical scholars have challenged
Adam who has come into the world; (2) silence Satan's falsehoods, such as that the so-called orthodox view that Christ
between the sinner and God. 14 through one man, and death through connection, to bring eternal life. The
Christ came to the world to restore the sin, and in this way death came to all parallelism in Romans 5:12-14 is crucial
relationship, not to continue in the men, because all sinned. . . . Conse to its meaning. "As sin ends in death, so
separation. Thus He came similar to us quently, just as the result of one trespass righteousness in life. " 19 If "Adam's one sin
(as a human, physically speaking) but was condemnation for all men, so also is the fount of death for all men, and was
not the same as us (in broken relation the result of one act of righteousness was so the moment it was committed before
ship with God, spiritually speaking). justification that brings life for all men. any men were born," 20 then Christ's
Immanuel, or "God with us," means He For just as through the disobedience of sinlessness is the fount of all righteous
crossed the abyss between God and man, the one man the many were made ness. He was similar to us, as bom within
He annihilated the estrangement by sinners, so also through the obedience of human physical limitations, but not the
coming from God's side to ours. But He the one man the many will be made same as us, because not bom a sinner in a
established the connection once more righteous" (Rom. 5:12-19, N.I.V.). broken relationship with God.
only because throughout the Incarna Note the thrice-repeated parallels The Biblical fact that sin is passed on
tion He remained in unbroken relation between the two Adams. Death, or from Adam to each baby born (not
ship with God He remained sinless condemnation, does not pass on to each Adam's guilt, but death, the result of his
spiritually. person only because of his own sin. It sin) means that sin cannot be defined
Romans 5:12-14 is considered "one of does that, too. But in a more profound merely as "act." 21 That is too superficial
the most difficult places of scripture," I5 sense, death passes on to every man a definition. Though sin includes wrong
and "the details of the exegesis of because of Adam's sin, or broken rela choices, and therefore acts, and even
Romans 5:12-21 are disputed," 16 but I tionship with God. (That Adam's sin thoughts (see Matt. 5:28), it also
believe the analogy between Adam and affects all the race is mentioned five includes nature. 22 If we were not bom
Christ is the clearest found in the Bible. times in verses 15-19.) It simply isn't true sinners, then we would not need a
Lenski is right in stating: "It is so vital that sin isn't present until the person's Saviour until our first act or thought of
because it goes to the bottom of both sin first act of sin. Men are born sinners. sin. Such an idea does terrible disservice
and deliverance from sin. All else that is "Death reigned" (verse 14) from Adam's to the tragic consequences of sin and to
said in the Scriptures regarding either or sin. Babies die before knowingly sinning. the mission of Christ, as the only Saviour
both rests on what is here revealed as the Severed from the Life-giver, death, not for every human (John 14:6, Acts 4:12).
absolute bottom." " Note what it says: guilt, passed on from Adam to the race. 18 It also means that if Jesus came with a
"Therefore, . . .sin entered the world This is why Christ came to restore the sinful nature but resisted, then perhaps

somehow took Adam's pre-Fall nature Contrary to the Grecian dualism that New Testament support
rather than the human equipment early pervaded much of orthodox Chris Nowhere in the New Testament do we
inherited by every other child of Adam. tianity, the flesh is not evil, nor does it get the slightest impression that Jesus
Among them are Edward Irving, sin of itself. Although the flesh is amoral, visited earth in some kind of heavenly
Thomas Erskine, Herman Kohlbrugge, it does provide the equipment, the space suit that insulated Him from the
Eduard Bohl, Karl Earth, T. F. Tor- occasion, and the seat for sin if the risks inherent in a sin-permeated world.
ranee, Nels Ferre, C. E. B. Cranfield, human will is not constantly assisted by Let us examine some of the New
Harold Roberts, Lesslie Newbigin, E. the Holy Spirit. But a person born with Testament references to our Lord's
Stauffer, Anders Nygren, C. K. Barrett, sinful flesh need not be a sinner. w humanity to see whether this observa
and Eric Baker. 17 It has been frequently observed that tion can be supported.
Wolfhart Pannenberg wrote (1964): the New Testament presents a very A. The virgin birth (Matt. 1:16, 18'25;
"The conception that at the Incarnation uncomplicated, straightforward under Luke 1:26-38; 3:23). The fact that one
God did not assume human nature in its standing that Jesus was a man in every human parent was organically involved
corrupt sinful state but only joined sense of the word. 20 True, New Testa in the birth of Jesus is sufficient to
Himself with a humanity absolutely ment writers remembered Him as pos indicate His indebtedness to human
purified from all sin contradicts not only sessing much more than human signifi heredity. To suggest that He was born
the anthropological radicality of sin, but cance: They reverently referred to Him free from the liabilities of heredity is to
also the testimony of the New Testament as God who became man. But their go down the same road that Roman
and of early Christian theology that the witness to Jesus does not suggest that Catholicism started upon when it con
Son of God assumed sinful flesh and in they thought of Him as having physical, fused sin with physical substance. After
sinful flesh itself overcame sin." 18 emotional, or moral advantages not this confusion, the doctrine of the
None of these men believed that available to His contemporaries. Immaculate Conception became a theo
Christ sinned in either thought or act or At Pentecost, Peter simply called Him logical necessity. In turn, that doctrine
that because He took fallen sinful flesh " 'Jesus of Nazareth, a Man attested by led to the assumption that Christ took a
He needed a Saviour. Generally speak God to you by miracles, wonders, and pre-Fall human nature.
ing, the term sinful flesh means the signs which God did through Him in No Biblical evidence suggests that the
human condition in all of its aspects as your midst'" (Acts 2:22, N.K.J.V.). stream of human heredity was broken
affected by the fall of Adam and Eve. And Paul says Jesus Christ "was bom of between Mary and Jesus. The burden of
Such a nature is susceptible to tempta the seed of David according to the flesh" proof lies with those who believe (1) that
tion from within as from without. (Rom. 1:3,N.K.J.V.). there was a physical break in the heredity
someone else will do the same, and that suffer for the iniquity of the son' " (Eze. sin. 23 That is, each comes into the world
person would not need Jesus to save him. 18:20, R.S.V.)? The Bible also says, with the guilt of Adam's sin, for every
We must understand that both aspects of " 'Visiting the iniquity of the fathers one was seminally present in Adam, and
sin's effects corporate death and per upon the children to the third and the therefore shares in his guilt. Thus,
sonal guilt necessitate a Saviour. We fourth generation of those who hate similarly, Jesus would come into the
need Jesus as substitute for all of our life,
me' " (Ex. 20:5, R.S.V.; cf. chap. 34:7; world with the guilt of original sin. To
and not just from the first time we Num. 14:18; 1 Kings 21:29). Are these get around this predicament, Catholic
knowingly rebel. also contradictory? Again, they consti theology invented the Immaculate Con
tute two sides of a truth, both Biblical. ception. This doctrine postulates that
Sinners at birth The first says one's behavior results in Mary was born without the taint of sin.
Every human, save Christ, is born a either life or death, whereas the second But if God could perform such a salvific
sinner. David said, "Surely I have been a states a person's sin affects his posterity, act for one human, why not for all? This
sinner from birth, sinful from the time too. This is why the Bible affirms, "Even would have saved Christ all the anguish
my mother conceived me" (Ps. 51:5, from birth the wicked go astray; from the of becoming human. Besides, if Mary
N.I.V.). Yet David could also say about womb they are wayward" (Ps. 58:3, became immaculate without Christ, this
God, "You brought me out of the womb" N.I.V.). calls Christ's mission into question.
(Ps. 22:9, N.I.V.). "For thou didst form " 'Rebel from birth' " (Isa. 48:8, The Bible knows nothing of an
my inward parts, thou didst knit me N.I. V.) and "filled with the Holy Ghost, Immaculate Conception, but proclaims
together in my mother's womb" (Ps. even from his mother's womb" (Luke a miraculous conception. Jesus was
139:13, R.S.V.). Are these contra 1:15) again look at two sides, both the unique. It was out of His uniqueness as
dictory? Was David bom a sinner or not? human status at birth as well as God's God that His birth was sinless. At this
They speak of two sides of a truth, both mercy to one in that state. By contrast point Catholic theology overlooks who
equally Biblical. Whereas the first speaks Jesus was not only filled with the Holy Jesus was. It is not necessary to find in
of David's status as a sinner at birth, the Spirit from birth but, unlike anyone else, Mary the reason for Christ's uniqueness.
others tell of God's saving love to him in was bom of the Holy Spirit. Unlike That uniqueness issues out of His own
that state. others He was also God. Does this mean selfhood as God. We now turn to the
Then, how do we interpret the text He has an Immaculate Conception? Biblical data concerning His unique
" The son shall not suffer for the Catholic theology since Augustine ness.
iniquity of the father, nor the father believes everyone is born with original

stream between Mary and Jesus and (2) strongly the solidarity and identification whether from within or without. Jesus
that because of some special insulation, of both Adam and Jesus with the human intended that those in Him would be
He was "exempt" (a familiar word in race. In Adam we have the head of sinful united corporately with the results of His
Roman Catholic theology) from the full humanity, and in Jesus, the head of the saving work. But to accomplish this, He
liability of fallen human nature. 21 overcomers, humanity that conquers all must first have been corporately con
Some refer to Luke 1:35 as if that text temptations. 22 nected with humanity in its fallen
conclusively indicates Christ had a Many consider Romans 5:12 as evi condition. 23
pre-Fall nature. (See various English dence that men and women are born D. Paul's use of sarx. Paul uses sarx
translations, such as the R.S.V.) But sinners, but such is not Paul's argument. ("flesh") in a variety of ways, 24 including
Luke is not discussing our Lord's human He is simply stating an obvious fact the (1) its ordinary meaning of flesh as a
nature. He simply states that Christ's stream of death began with Adam. But physical feature (1 Cor. 15:39; 2 Cor.
holy character would always distinguish Adam's descendants all die "because all 12:7; Col. 2:1); (2) in a metaphorical
Him as our sinless Saviour. men sinned." * sense, as that which distinguishes man
B. The Son of man (Matt. 8:20; 24:27; All men and women are "in Adam" kind from God (1 Cor. 15:50; cf. Eph.
et al.). In this self-description, Jesus through natural birth, but only those 6:12) or that which refers to human
declared His identification and solidarity who choose can be "in Christ," the nature or earthly descent (Rom. 1:3; 4:1;
with mankind. The second Adam is not second Adam. Our Lord has called 8:3); and (3) as a synonym for sin (chaps.
a special creation or a clone of the everyone to be "in Christ," and only 6:19; 7:18; 8:4).
first He is a hereditary descendant, those who frustrate His call will be Paul flees from Hellenistic dualism
bom of a woman. Only by assuming the ultimately lost. and does not ascribe to sarx a substantive
same fallen nature shared by those He The assumption that Jesus took evil and sinfulness. Although sarx is
came to save could He truly be the Son of Adam's pre-Fall nature seems to destroy morally neutral, Paul teaches that it does
man. the force of Paul's parallel and his provide the seat and material in which
C. The Adam/Christ analogy (Romans principle of solidarity. Paul's Adam- evil may operate. It is the place where
5; 1 Corinthians 15). This first/second Christ analogy becomes relevant to self-indulgence is expressed. Christians,
Adam analogy seems to be one of Paul's mankind and to the great controversy though living in physical flesh (sarx),
significant theological motifs. The anal only if Jesus incorporated Himself within should no longer allow sin to rule their
ogy is often considered Paul's counter fallen humanity only if He met sin in sarx (flesh); the Spirit provides power to
part to our Lord's self-identification, Son the arena where all men are, "in Adam," the committed believer who chooses to
of man. In brief, it seems to suggest most and conquered every appeal to serve self, control the desires that naturally arise in
Jesus as unique man 4:9). Its use in the other four references without a human father. He was the only
Jesus was unlike other humans in the throws light on what the word means man who existed eternally as God before
center of His consciousness. This deter when used of Jesus. First, the dead son of becoming also man, and thus was
mined all else. No other human lived the widow of Nain was all she had (Luke uniquely independent of parents for life.
before his birth and made a decision to be 7:12). Second, Jaims may have had sons, And He was the only man who was
born to please the Father. Christ's but it was his only daughter who died similar but not the same as other humans.
consciousness was always Godward. He (chap. 8:42). Third, and the demoniac His uniqueness issued from who He
came to do His Father's will (Heb. 10:9), was the only son of his father in this was. Who He was made His birth
glorified Him throughout life, and fin condition (chap. 9:38). In these three different from that of all other humans.
ished the work He gave Him to do (John passages monogenes doesn't mean "only Possessing the sin-weakened physical
17:4). No other baby, child, or adult has begotten," but "only one of its kind." humanity of His time, He came with an
lived in such utter selflessness for God This fact is even clearer in the fourth eternal and sinless relationship with
and man. Both His sinless acts and example, Hebrews 11:17. There Isaac is God. Attention to Christ as monogenes
sinless spiritual nature issued out of His called monogenes when, in fact, he was would have saved many from pantheism
unbroken Godward orientation. His the secondbom (Ishmael being Abra (Kellogg, Jones, Waggoner) and the
union with God determined the extent ham's first). Nevertheless he was one of a holy flesh movement (Donnell, Indiana
of His union with man. kind, unique, as he alone was the son of Conference). 24
The Greek word monogenes, trans promise. The Bible requires that Jesus' unique
lated "only begotten" in the King James When used of Jesus, monogenes always ness be our starting point in Christology.
Version, actually means "one of a kind." has this one of a kind, unique, connota He is not just another man, but God
Monogenes comes from monos, "one," tion. He was the Son of promise unique become man. "The Word became flesh"
andgenos, "kind" or "type." Monogenes in mission and birth as well as in His life. (John 1:14, N.I.V.). This manward
must not be confused with monogennoo, His unique birth consisted not only in movement is the context from which to
which derives from monos, "one," and how He was born (without human unfold the meaning of the God-man.
gennao, "begotten." Monogennao means father) but in what nature He was born Some neglect this, choosing rather to
"only begotten." (without human sin). begin with the final generation and their
Monogenes is used nine times in the He was one of a kind in that He was postprobationary demonstration. They
Greek New Testament, five times of the only man who was also God. He was reason that if that generation will no
Jesus (John 1:14, 18; 3:16, 18; 1 John the only man who was born by the Spirit, longer do sinful acts while still having

sarx. (See chap. 8:3-9.) "Christ's carnal nature was no unreal 8:1-4, he wrote:
At times Paul uses sarx as a synonym ity, but simple, tangible fact. He shared "By sarx hamartias Paul clearly meant
for sin. And his doctrine of sin is as deep all our conditions. He was under the 'sinful flesh,' i.e., fallen human nature.
as his doctrine of creation is high. But he same powers of destruction. Out of 'the But why did he say en homoiomati sarkos
always keeps sin on the personal level, as flesh' arose for Him the same temptations hamartias ["in the likeness of sinful
a fractured personal relationship or an as for us. But in all this He was master of flesh"] rather than just en sarki hamartias
act of a responsible person (cf. James sin." 25 ["in sinful flesh"]?""
4:17). The results of sin fallen human Karl Earth adds that Christ's perfect Cranfield summarizes five answers that
nature are given to all men and women obedience in our fallen nature means have been suggested: (1) Paul did not
at birth. But no one is held personally that "the commission of sin as such is not wish to imply the reality of Christ's
guilty or responsible for that fallen an attribute of true human existence as human nature. (2) He wanted to avoid
human condition (sarx). such, whether from the standpoint of its implying that Jesus assumed fallen
E. "The likeness of sinful flesh" (Rom. creation by God or from that of the fact human nature. Jesus really took flesh,
8:3). Here we find Paul using words with that it is flesh on account of the Fall." 26 but it was only like, and not identical
great care. He states clearly the perfect "In every respect" (Heb. 2:17) He was with, our flesh. (3) Paul used homoioma
sinlessness of Jesus. But he also empha "in the likeness of sinful flesh" except to indicate that Jesus took our fallen
sizes that our Lord overcame in the same that He did not sin. What better way human nature, but it was only like ours
sinful flesh (sarx) that since Adam all could sin be condemned? How much because ours is guilty of actual sin and He
men and women have inherited. Paul's clearer could Paul have said that pos never sinned. (4) Homoioma here means
message: Jesus remained sinless in the sessing "sinful flesh" does not necessarily "form" rather than merely "likeness."
arena where sin had conquered all other make a person a sinner? Jesus beat back (5) Homoioma here "does have its sense
human beings. In so doing, He exposed Satan in sin-entrenched territory, of 'likeness'; but the intention is not in
the nature and vulnerability of sin. Satan's home field. Never again need any way to call in question.. . the reality
Anders Nygren commented: "It was to anyone, anywhere in the universe, doubt of .Christ's sarx hamartias, but to draw
be right in sin's own realm that the Son the fairness of God's laws or the adequacy attention to the fact that, while the Son
was to bring sin to judgment, overcome of enabling grace and obedient faith. of God truly assumed sarx hamartias, He
it, and take away its power. It is therefore Perhaps C. E. B. Cranfield, professor never became sarx hamartias and nothing
important that with Christ it is actually a of theology at the University of Durham, more, nor even sarx hamartias indwelt by
matter of 'sinful flesh,' of sarx fiamdrtias. has said it best. After taking into view all the Holy Spirit and nothing more (as a
the possible interpretations of Romans Christian might be described as being),
sinful natures, then Christ must have the divine to the human. In determining not qualitatively different from other
been sinless in a sinful nature too. For the human nature of the man Jesus, humans. Was He not born like everyone
will that final generation do better than monogenes must be the starting point and else? Was it not the fuller consciousness
Christ? This is eschatological Chris- center of Christology. of God's presence and His feeling of
tology, or a reading back from the future Prototokos, or "firstborn," is used of absolute dependence upon God that
into Christ's human nature. It allows Jesus seven times (see esp. Heb. 1:6; made Him different from others? Yet
reality outside of Christ to inform us Rom. 8:29; Col. 1:15, 18; Rev. 1:5). someone will come in the future who will
about Christ. But Christ, and not "Firstborn" refers not so much to time transcend Him. 2? Such thinking warns us
eschatology, should be the starting but to importance. As in Hebrew culture that it is dangerous to miss the full
point. We need a Christological escha the firstborn received the family privi Biblical distinction between Christ's
tology rather than an eschatological leges, so Jesus, the "firstborn" among birth and that of all other humans.
Christology. men, won back all the privileges man Karl Earth's theology also contains
The theological mistakes of lost through the Fall. Thus "only begot problems concerning Christ's nature at
Schweitzer and Earth should warn and ten" and "firstborn" are not to be birth. 28 Although he believed Jesus to be
guide us here. Both Schweitzer and interpreted literally when applied to truly God, he didn't allow the Biblical
Barth (in his early writing) began with Jesus. Rather, they imply that He was consequences of that to control his
eschatology and read back into Chris one of a kind, unique. His mission was to understanding of the Incarnation. He
tology, with devastating results. become the new Adam, the new first claimed that the baby Jesus was bom
Schweitzer's Jesus ended up as a deluded born, or head, of the race. This qualified with sinful flesh. 29 The only way Barth
man, 25 and Earth's Christ as a "wholly Him to be our representative, high could get around the consequences of
other" God 26 two opposite overem- priest, and intercessor in the great this was to say that Christ assumed this
phases, neither doing justice to Jesus controversy. sinful flesh within His divine nature in
Christ. Jesus is our example in life, but not in such a way that temptations and sin were
Christological thought needs to begin birth. If He is our example in birth, an impossibility. 30
with Christ's uniqueness as Son of God maybe some other human could achieve The Biblical data leads in the opposite
rather than with His similarity to a perfect life and not need the Saviour. direction of Schleiermacher's and
humans as Son of man. Further, episte- This thought lies at the heart of Friedrich Earth's thinking. The man Jesus is
mologically, we cannot move from the Schleiermacher's theology. He believed unique. He is our substitute in life. He
human to the divine, but we can from that Jesus was only quantitatively and covers our imperfect characters with His

but always remained Himself " (cf. Phil. ours, but that in His case that fallen all the evil pressures which we inherit,
2:7). 28 human nature was never the whole of and using the altogether unpromising
As to number 1, Cranfield notes that Him He never ceased to be the eternal and unsuitable material of our corrupt
it attributes to the phrase a docetic sense Son of God." 31 nature to work out a perfect, sinless
inconsistent with Paul's thought. And it Like Nygren and Barth, Cranfield sees obedience." 33
is contradicted in this very verse (Rom. this passage as stressing where the F. The High Priest's solidarity with
8:3) by en te sarki. He objects to the conflict occurred. God's "condemna humanity (Hebrews). One of the princi
traditional answer (number 2) by saying tion" of sin "took place in the flesh, i.e., pal lines of argument in Hebrews is that
that it "is open to the general theological in Christ's flesh, Christ's human nature. the high priest's efficacy depends upon
objection that it was not unfallen, but ... If we recognize that Paul believed it how closely he identifies with those for
fallen, human nature which needed was fallen human nature which the Son whom he mediates. Jesus is a perfect high
redeeming." 29 In regard to number 3, he of God assumed, we shall probably be priest because of His real identification
points out that homoioma is related to the inclined to see here also a reference to with man's predicaments, whether of the
nature discussed and not the question of the unintermittent warfare of His whole spirit (temptations) or of the body
sinning. "The difference between earthly life by which He forced our (privations and death).
Christ's freedom from actual sin and our rebellious nature to render a perfect 1. Hebrews 2:11: "For he who sancti
sinfulness is not a matter of the character obedience to God." 32 fies and those who are sanctified have all
of His human nature (of its being not In a footnote to this, he says: "Those one origin. That is why he is not
quite the same as ours), but of what He who believe that it was fallen human ashamed to call them brethren." For
did with His human nature." 30 As to nature which was assumed have even specific soteriological purposes, Jesus
number 4, he comments that if Paul more cause than had the authors of the and His fellow human beings had a
meant to say this, it is difficult to Heidelberg Catechism to see the whole common human heredity (this is clearly
understand why he did not simply say en of Christ's life on earth as having stated in verse 14).
sarki hamartias. redemptive significance; for, on this 2. Hebrews 2:14: "Since therefore
Cranfield says: "We conclude that. . . view, Christ's life before His actual the children share in flesh and blood, he
[5] is to be accepted as the most probable ministry and death was not just a himself likewise partook of the same
explanation of Paul's use of homoioma standing where unfallen Adam had stood nature." Paul is here more explicit and
here, and understand Paul's thought to without yielding to the temptation to provides the specific context for the
be that the Son of God assumed the which Adam succumbed, but a matter of chapter. For Jesus to be truly man's
selfsame fallen human nature that is starting from where we start, subjected to Saviour and effective High Priest, He
perfect human character. His character are not considering the nature but the David also presents Him. as the second
is our robe of righteousness, the wedding mission of Christ. They are not con Adam (see Rom. 5:12-21).
garment without which we cannot enter cerned with the type of flesh in which He Does substitution include becoming
the kingdom. He is our substitute in was born (sinless or sinful). Rather, they exactly like us in birth? Could Jesus
death. He died to pay the price of sin in maintain that, as a Jew (Heb. 2:16) and really save us if He did not actually
our place so we can have eternal life. But as their real king (Rom. 1:3), Jesus came become one of us in sinful nature? Did
He is also our substitute in birth. He was as the fulfillment of the covenant. God He really come down into the pit where
born sinless to meet our first need of Him called Abraham out to form a people we are in order to pull us out? Down in
as Saviour, when we are born sinners. through whom He could bless all nations the pit He took hold of real human flesh
The Bible places no salvific value on (Gen. 22:18). Similarly, Jesus came only to the extent that His union with
our first birth. In fact, it clearly states, through Mary to save the nations (Matt. the Father remained unaffected. In other
"Except a man be born again, he cannot 1:18, 21; cf. John3:16). Mission and not words, He could not be sinful in nature,
see the kingdom of God" (John 3:3). nature is the context. for by definition such a nature is the
Only the man Jesus didn't need the new Israel, in the Old Testament period, result of separation from God. Union
birth. That puts Him in a class by and Christian Jews, in New Testament with God and sinful spiritual nature are
Himself. days, looked back to Abraham as the as far removed from each other as are
"father" of God's church in its first form heaven and hell. To say that He became
Christ from Abiohamic, Davidic (seelsa. 51:2; Rom. 4:12; andjames 2:21 identified with us but remained loyal to
line31 and their contexts). So Matthew, writ God is to misunderstand the terrible
From the Biblical data studied thus ing to Jews, begins Jesus' genealogy with nature of sin. Sin means separation from
far, what can we conclude the following Abraham (Matt. 1:1). And the author of God. Either Jesus maintained an unbro
expressions mean: "He took on him the Hebrews, also writing to Jews, says Jesus ken relationship with the Father or He
seed of Abraham" (Heb. 2:16) and "was "took on him the seed of Abraham" let go and plunged into our estrange
made of the seed of David according to (Heb. 2:16). That Jesus is placed in the ment.
the flesh" (Rom. 1:3; cf. John 7:42; 2 line of the Abrahamic covenant does not Jesus was both our substitute and
Tim. 2:8)? Do these passages declare negate His actualizing the very purpose example, and in that order. There is a
that Jesus took a sinful nature issuing of that covenantal line by becoming the priority of substitute over example as
from Abraham and David? In the light of second Adam. In fact, the same book there is of God over man and Saviour
the broad Biblical context, these texts that mentions Christ's connection with over saved. This is important to note.

had to enter man's terrible predicament, beating the path for all to follow. He transition of thought. What more could
the enemy-occupied territory of human broke down every subtle enticement to language say in getting across Paul's
flesh shared by all descendants of fallen do things His way rather than His argument: Jesus was victorious with the
Adam. Father's. He rose triumphant in the very same liabilities and disadvantages com
3. Hebrews 2:16-18: "For surely it is arena where His human counterparts mon to all mankind; therefore, men and
not with angels that he is concerned but have fallen, employing no other weap women can also be victorious with the
with the descendants of Abraham. ons than fallen men and women have at same help He depended on if they too
Therefore he had to be made like his their disposal. "draw near" in time of need.
brethren in every respect, so that he In its most immediately obvious sense, When Paul refers to our Lord's temp
might become a merciful and faithful verses 16-18 seem to say that Christ took tations, he employs simple language in
high priest in the service of God, to make the human nature common to all post- order to be easily understood. Whatever
expiation for the sins of the people. For Fall humanity. the nature of temptations common to
because he himself has suffered and been 4. Hebrews 4:15: "For we have not a man, whether they arise from within
tempted, he is able to help those who are high priest who is unable to sympathize (such as envy, self-will, self-exaltation,
tempted." with our weaknesses, but one who in self-indulgence) or from without (such as
Here the person and work of Jesus are every respect has been tempted as we are, direct appeal from Satan, or objects that
unified in a breathtaking statement. All yet without sin." Jesus felt the full force elicit unholy desire), Jesus experienced
the risks resident in assuming fallen of temptation because He never suc them. He had the power of choice and
human nature are recognized in this cumbed. Those who yield too soon never the heredity that weakens and misdirects
chapter, but in no place more clearly know the oppression of spirit caused by it. He had a nature wherein temptations
than in these verses. Paul's inescapable the full tug of a self-serving opportunity. common to men and women could find
message seems to be that Jesus com From the standpoint of the theology of appeal. But in Jesus, evil found no
pletely identified with sinful men and the great controversy, this text strongly response. In only one sense was Jesus
women in the liabilities inherent in the suggests that because Jesus did not sin, exempt from being "tempted as we
human equipment received at their no man must sin. Our High Priest was are" He never had to contend with a
birth. "made like his brethren in every willpower weakened by His own previous
Jesus is called men's "pioneer of their respect," was "tempted as we are," yet decisions to sin.
salvation [made] perfect through suffer He did not sin. "Let us then with Paul does not support such ideas as
ing" (verse 10). He was the first, from confidence draw near" (verse 16) is a that (1) Jesus was exempt from the
birth to death, to break the power of sin, marvelous, intensely coherent, and tight clamor of humanity's fallen nature or

Christology must never begin with all points as we are? temptation from Him.
example and hope to do justice to His Our Christology affects our under By contrast, the Bible states He "was
substitution. It must take the path that standing of Christ's temptations. For in all points tempted like as we are, yet
leads from substitution to example. We hundreds of years classical Christology without sin" (Heb. 4=15). "In all points"
need His substitution all along the line: considered that Jesus lived on earth as doesn't mean the same temptations
We need His eternal divinity, His sinless God. He had powers that are not (plural), but the same temptation (sin
birth, His sinless life, His perfect death, natively available to other men. Little gular). For example, Jesus was never
His resurrection, His high priestly inter wonder that temptation was considered tempted to watch TV, smoke pot, or
cession, and His second return. We also no ordeal for Him. Although Anselm break the speed limit. But He was
need Him as a man to exemplify total (1033-1109) was the first significant tempted to cease His dependence upon
dependence upon God. scholar to focus on Christ living on earth God. Satan employed different means for
The fact that He was born sinless in no as a man (he wrote Cur Deus Homo), the same end. For the thrust of all
way suggests that law-keeping isn't others subsequently continued to over temptation is to break one's relationship
important to the rest of us who are born look the reality of His ordeal. Thus with God.
sinners. It is not true that belief in Christ's Calvin's belief that Jesus remained on Christ's temptations were greater than
sinless nature means no one else can or heaven's throne while living on earth ours, for only the One who never gave in
should even try to keep the law. Jesus is not (extra Calvinisticum), Luther's commin could feel their full force. 33 B. F.
our substitute so that we can live as we gling of the divine and human natures Westcott expressed it this way: "Sympa
please. (communicatio idiomatum), and Earth's thy with the sinner in his trial does not
enfolding of the assumed humanity depend on the experience of sin but on
Tempted like us within an impregnable divinity (ganz the experience of the strength of the
We have seen that the Biblical data anderer) all made Christ's temptations temptation to sin, which only the sinless
presents a unique human Jesus who unreal and His sinning impossible. E. J. can know in its full intensity. He who
couldn't have had a sinful nature. The Waggoner, like Barth, believed that falls yields before the last strain." 34
question presses, Does He really under Jesus took sinful flesh but couldn't sin But does "in all points" include "in the
stand us, then? Or is He a remote being because He was divine. 32 What good is a same way"? 35 James writes, "Each one is
who had an unfair advantage over us? sinful nature like ours if He had a divine tempted when, by his own evil desire, he
Can He really be a sympathetic high nature unlike ours? The one cancels out is dragged away and enticed" (James
priest? In short, was He really tempted in the other, removing the reality of 1:14, N.I.V.). Evil propensities (a lean-

that (2) He never risked all or that (3) special advantages or that all His marvel- throughout as a genuine struggle to obey,
He didn't really fight the battle of faith as ous moral characteristics were precast in as a seeking and finding. In Luke 2:40 it
every son and daughter of Adam has had some other world. His disciples had speaks of a 'growing and waxing strong,'
to fight it. Despite His inherited human eaten and slept with Him; they had and in Luke 2:52 it speaks of a prokoptein
liabilities, Jesus did not sin such is a listened to His most intimate prayers and (strictly speaking, an extension by
substantial part of Paul's simple good heard His most confidential comments blows, as a smith stretches metal with
news. on circumstances and people in good hammers . . .) of Jesus in wisdom, in
5. Hebrews 5:7-9: "In the days of his times and bad. They knew that the stature, and in favour with God and
flesh, Jesus offered up prayers and sup counsel He was giving them was counsel men. Moreover the temptation narra
plications, with loud cries and tears, to He Himself was practicing. tive (Matthew 4:lff.) obviously
him who was able to save him from His followers had every reason to describes the very opposite of a mock
death, and he was heard for his godly believe that Christ's goodness was a battle, and it would be wrong to con
fear. Although he was a Son, he learned result of daily struggles with the same ceive of it as a merely 'eternal molesta
obedience through what he suffered; and temptations they had to face. Paul could tion by Satan,' to reject it as an 'inward
being made perfect he became the source not say it more plainly: "He learned temptation and trial' of Jesus. To the vere
of eternal salvation to all who obey obedience through what he suffered; and homo there also belongs what we call
him." being made perfect. . ."In other words, man's inner nature." 34
The followers of Jesus apparently His moral development was an example As one modern scholar stated it: "It is
remembered Him as a man such as they of how all men and women would hardly a picture [Heb. 5:7-9] that the
were, except that they could find no fault develop a character such as His: They early Christians would have invented:
in Him (2 Cor. 5:21; 1 Peter 1:19; 2:22; would be made perfect by learning they would be more likely to have
Heb. 4:15; 9:14). He was known as a obedience amid hard decisions. They created a picture of effortless superiority
man who radiated unusual courage, must choose God's will and reject the to all human weakness, such as we find
integrity, personal freedom under all allure of temptations, whether from later. ... In any case, its value lies in
kinds of stress, and victory at every turn, within or from without. giving us the most forceful evidence that
under every circumstance. Barth wrote plainly regarding the Jesus was remembered as a man of like
But the New Testament does not inner temptations and struggles that passions with ourselves who had to win
indicate that His followers ever consid Jesus had to face: "The New Testament in the same way as everyone else." 35
ered that this remarkable Man could not has treated the vere homo so seriously that In Hebrews 5 Paul refers to Christ's
sin. It does not suggest that He possessed it has portrayed the obedience of Jesus "loud cries and tears" and to the fact that

ing to sin) are acquired in two ways: tageous to Him. For if the thrust of contemporaries would still be more
through sinning and through being born temptation is to get one to rely upon degraded because of their own sinning. If
a sinner. Christ did neither. He was born himself rather than God, who would sinful nature is a necessary element of
"that holy thing" (Luke 1:35), and Satan have the greater temptation, Jesus, who being tempted like us, then Christ wasn't
found in Him no evil at all (see John had His own divinity to rely upon, or we, tempted like our generation and those
14:30). "Being in all points tempted like who have nothing comparable? degraded through personal sin. But if His
as we are" must be understood in the Christ's disadvantage in temptation uniqueness made His temptation
light of the Biblical data already consid issued out of His uniqueness. And in this greater, then He didn't need our fallen
ered. It indicates that He, as a unique uniqueness rests our salvation. Only nature to be tempted like us.
human, was tempted in all points like us. Jesus felt the full force of satanic hatred, Not until His death did He, "who
Again, temptation basically involves for Satan's controversy is against Christ knew no sin," become "sin for us" (2
Satan's attempt to break one's relation and not any other human. All hell broke Cor. 5:21). Never before that moment
ship with God. loose against this dependent man Jesus; did sin bring a separation from His
It is unthinkable that Jesus would and besides, Jesus could not get forgive Father, which caused Him to cry out,
plunge into separation from His Father ness if He were overpowered. Imagine "My God, my God, why hast thou
in the very act of coming to do His will. the pressure when every moment, every forsaken me?" (Mat. 27:46). The man
The two are mutually exclusive. His act held such consequences for Himself Jesus became sin for us in mission at death
uniqueness in birth is no cause to cry out, and the whole world! and not in nature at birth.
"Foul play You didn't really become If Jesus must be sinful flesh to under
one of us, You had it easier than us! Who stand our struggles from experience, Doxology
couldn't resist temptations if he had a then how could He empathize with the Theology is a human quest to under
sinless nature like Yours!" How else dregs of the race? How could He save the stand God's self-revelation. Christology
could it be? Any supposed advantage generation plunged two thousand years is the center and heart of theology, for
that Jesus had was not for Himself. His further down into genetic degeneration? Jesus Christ is the greatest revelation of
saving mission determined the extent of If His taking our sinful nature was God to man. He is also the best
His identity with us. prerequisite to His being tempted like us, revelation of authentic man to man.
Yet saying this brings us to a paradox. then He should have come contempo Jesus Christ was unique not only as God
His remaining unlike us did not give Him rary with the last man bom. Yet, even if with us but as man with us. He was
an advantage; it was actually disadvan Jesus were a last-generation person, His sinless divinity united with sin-weak-

He "learned obedience." We have only come down from heaven, not to do my (the principle of solidarity), but He is
to review the texts that speak about own will, but the will of him who sent not one with them as a sinner, that is,
Christ's personal will and how He had to me' " (chap. 6:38). Paul later recapitu from the standpoint of human perfor
use it deliberately and perhaps pain lated Christ's experience as one who had mance (the principle of dissimilarity).
fully ;to understand Paul's reference. to choose between His will and His These two principles describe a simple
At times Jesus had to struggle to subordi Father's: "For Christ did not please reality; they do not constitute a paradox,
nate His will to His Father's. It is because himself " (Rom. 15:3). as if two irreconcilable truths must be
of this that He becomes relevant to us, Sebastian Moore summed it up well: kept in tension. These mutually sup
that He truly becomes our Saviour and "If you have never seen Jesus, in your porting principles made Jesus into the
Example. mind's eye, as faced with inescapable divine fact that forms the basis for all the
The " 'nevertheless' " in the Geth- political, social, and personal-integrity rest of the good news. In the Incarna
semane experience (Matt. 26:39; Mark options, then you are a Docetist. Your tion, the Saviour became a man in every
14:36; Luke 22:42), for instance, is Christ never existed. He is a puppet in a essential respect; He was beset with all
patently not playacting. Jesus could have theologian's puppet show." 36 the human liabilities. He has shown the
recoiled from the cross and turned from The book of Hebrews constantly universe that the sons and daughters of
His Father's will. He could have sinned. emphasizes that Jesus is our perfect high Adam, through His grace, can keep the
But when the decision had to be made, priest and sacrifice because He stood in law of God and prove Satan wrong. 37 In
He did not fail. " 'Nevertheless not my the same arena where all sons of Adam taking on man's nature as it was when He
will, but thine, be done' " (Luke 22:42). stand. It stresses He fills those roles became incarnate, Jesus spanned the gulf
Scripture says Jesus was "being made because He faced every temptation between heaven and earth, God and
perfect" during His thirty-three years on common to sinners, He experienced man. In so doing, He became the ladder
earth. Perhaps not enough attention has every need of helpless men all without that was both secure in heaven and
been given to this important Biblical capitulating to sin. planted solidly on earth, one that men
account of how He developed. Jesus In order to explain adequately how a and women could trust. 38
emphasized His full humanity when He perfect atonement could be made,
reminded His hearers: " 'I can do noth Hebrews seems rather obviously to Earth draws the connections
ing on my own authority; as I hear, I require not a pre-Fall but a post-Fall Karl Barth drew with quick, clean
judge; and my judgment is just, because I human nature of the Son of God. Jesus strokes the indissoluble connection
seek not my own will but the will of him must be one with man in every respect between the humanity ofJesus and man's
who sent me' "(John 5:30). " 'For I have from the standpoint of human equipment salvation: "Flesh (sarx) is the concrete
ened human flesh, but He was equally overcame Satan by His death at Cal from ourselves and our works. We do not
sinless in both natures. He was God with vary which has cosmic and salvific just follow, we fellowship. It is not just
us, but He lived as man with us in a consequences how could I follow? Yes, rules, but relationship. Not just a prac
complete self-emptying (see Phil. 2:7). I long to be like Him, but I admit that He tice, but a Person. For Christianity is
While remaining God, He laid aside the is forever unique. With Peter I confess, Christ through and through. Out of this
use of His divine attributes, living as " 'Go away from me, Lord; I am a sinful communion comes a marvelous won
authentic man totally dependent upon man!' " (Luke 5:8, N.I.V.). Yet He in der we become like the One we admire
His Father in heaven. mercy says, "Come unto me" (Matt. the most! It is a natural by-product of
O wonder, ye inhabitants of the 11:28). He draws me by His uniqueness. longing to have Him dwell within.
far-flung cosmos! Be amazed, ye angels in 1 desperately need that which makes Christology climaxes in the exclamation
heaven! O worship Him, ye sinners on Him different from me. "I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me"
earth! For what other human, born of Christianity is not just to be like Him. (Gal. 2:20). Only in this dependent
woman, can match this One in nature Christianity is life in Him. We are union can Jesus be our model man
and deed? Who else gave up so much for righteous only in Christ, never in our never in His nature at birth.
so few? Who else became limited to one selves. The good news is more than
human body when He existed every "Copy me." It is always first and foremost 1 See E. C. Webster, Crosscurrents in AoVentist
where before? Who else chose to remain "Cling to me," "Abide in me" (John Christology (Beme, Switzerland: Peter Lang Pub.,
Inc., 1984), for a comparative evaluation of the
so limited forever? Who else plunged 15:4), "Christ in you, the hope of glory" Christology of H. E. Douglass, E. Heppenstall, E.
into sin's inoperative, terminal cancer to (Col. 1:27), and "You are accepted in J. Waggoner, and E. G. White. Those focusing on
Christ's sinful nature include (alphabetically): T.
bring radical healing and not become the Beloved" (see Eph. 1:6). A. Davis, Was Jesus Really Like Us? (Washington,
infected Himself? Who else could True Christology ends, not in debate, D.C.: Review and Herald Pub. Assn., 1979);H. E.
become a human physician while dis but in grateful worship and joyful obedi Douglass and Leo Van Dolson, Jesus: The Bench
mark of Humanity (Nashville: Southern Pub.
tancing himself from the human plague? ence. By beholding Him we not only Assn., 1977). Those focusing on Christ's sinless
How could Jesus be my example in all praise Him but become like Him (see 2 nature include (alphabetically): N. R. Gulley,
these? How could I copy Him? How Cor. 3:18). To see His love for us, His Christ Our Substitute (Washington, D.C.: Review
and Herald Pub. Assn., 1982); E. Heppenstall,
could I be eternal, be God, be sinless in unique love as a unique man, galvanizes The Man Who Is God (Washington, D.C.: Review
birth, sinless as a baby, and sinless us; we yearn more to be filled with Him and Herald Pub. Assn., 1977); H. K. LaRondelle,
throughout life? How could I overcome Christ Our Salvation (Mountain View, Calif.:
than to be like Him. This focus is crucial. Pacific Press Pub. Assn., 1980). Classical Chris
all He overcame? And when He finally It is on Him and His works, and away tology has three major overemphases, Jesus as (1)

form of human nature marked by Adam's God as damned and lost. He did not sin in Christ? What is the Biblical
fall.... The Word is not only the eternal produce and establish this form dif witness? There can be little doubt that in
Word of God but 'flesh' as well, i.e., all ferently from all of us; though innocent, this regard Menken, Irving, Barth, and
that we are and exactly like us even in He became guilty; though without sin, others are right as over against the long
our opposition to Him. It is because of He was made to be sin. But these things weight of ecclesiastical tradition and
this that He makes contact with us and is must not cause us to detract from His exegesis. Those passages adduced by
accessible for us. In this way, and only in complete solidarity with us and in that Barth as testimony to this view (see
this way, is He God's revelation to us. He way to remove Him to a distance from Church Dogmatics, vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 152,
would not be revelation if He were not us." 40 e.g., Rom. 8:3; 2 Cor. 5:21; Gal. 3:13;
man. And He would not be man if He "The point is that, faced with God, Matt. 27:38; etc.) are much more readily
were not 'flesh' in this definite sense. . . . Jesus did not run away from the state and interpreted in this way than in the other.
"He was not a sinful man. But situation of fallen man, but took it upon There is also clear testimony in the New
inwardly and outwardly His situation was Himself, lived it and bore it Himself as Testament to the sinlessness of Jesus.
that of a sinful man. He did nothing that the eternal Son of God. How could He These two strands, though logically hard
Adam did. But He lived life in the form it have done so if in His human existence to reconcile, are yet clearly discernible
must take on the basis and assumption of He had not been exposed to real inward and point to the mystery, paradox, and
Adam's act. He bore innocently what temptation and trial, if like other men meaning of the Incarnation." 42
Adam and all of us in Adam have been He had not trodden an inner path, if He Until the third quarter of the twenti
guilty of." 39 had not cried to God and wrestled with eth century Adventist spokesmen con
"There must be no weakening or obscur God in real inward need? It was in this sistently set forth Jesus as one who took
ing of the saving truth that the nature wrestling, in which He was in solidarity our fallen nature. Like many non-
which God assumed in Christ is identical with us to the uttermost, that there was Adventist scholars, they would have
with our nature as we see it in the light of done that which is not [done] by us, the been appalled at the nonsequitur that to
the Fall. If it were otherwise, how could will of God." 41 believe Jesus took fallen human nature
Christ be really like us? What concern In commenting on Earth's position, necessitates believing also that He had to
would we have with Him? We stand John Thompson, joint editor of Biblical be a sinner! 43 Or that He would need a
before God characterized by the Fall. Theology and professor of systematic Saviour! Such assumptions are straw
God's Son not only assumed our nature theology of Presbyterian College, men. In no way did a taint of sin rest on
but He entered the concrete form of our Queen's University, Belfast, asks: "Does Jesus because He was never a sinner.
nature, under which we stand before the assumption of fallen humanity imply He never had "an evil propensity" 44
too divine, the leading view for hundreds of years, The study of Christology must begin with the pp. 680, 681.
seen in the Athanasian-Calvin extra Calvinisticum, Biblical data. Then one can go on to read the Ellen 5 Reinhold Niebuhr incorrectly believed sarx,
in which Christ's divinity remained on heaven's White corpus. Ellen White never intended that in Paul, to be the "principle of sin" (The Nature and
throne while His humanity lived on earth; (2) too the reverse procedure be followed, nor is it true to Destiny of Man [New York: Charles Scribner's
human, Arians; or (3) a divine-human mix, such the Seventh-day Adventist presupposition that the Sons, 1949], p. 152).
as Luther's communicatio idiomatum. The two main Bible is the basis of all Seventh-day Adventist 6 Hamartia and its cognates are found 174
views in Adventism consider each other's Chris- doctrines. times in the New Testament, more than fifty times
tology as making Jesus either too divine or too 3 Definition of terms is crucial in this discus in Paul's writings. Adikia is a more specialized, legal
human. This has obvious influence on how He is sion. From the Biblical data to be considered, we word, which means "not righteous" (opposite to
considered as our example in overcoming tempta will note: 1. Christ was unique as man (similar, not "righteousness," dikaiosune). Paraptoma comes
tions. identical). Therefore, I define His human nature as from parapipto, "to fall down beside." See ed.,
2 For a study in the Ellen G. White corpus, see at most sin-affected physically but absolutely Colin Brown, The New International Dictionary of
Norman R. Gulley, "Behold the Man," Adventist sinless spiritually. He was the height of a man of New Testament Theology (Grand Rapids: Zonder-
Review, June 30, 1983. There is a serious need for a His time; He became tired and hungry and felt van, 1978), vol. 7, p. 573. For general information
theological and hermeneutical study of Ellen pain. But spiritually He maintained an unbroken on hamartia and its uses, see Kittel's Theological
White's writings in general, and her Christology in communion with God as had the pre-Fall Adam. 2. Dictionary of the New Testament (Grand Rapids:
particular. Further research also needs to be done His birth by the Spirit was unique. It cannot be Eerdmans, 1964), vol. 1, pp. 308-311; W. E.
to see whether Ellen White's endorsement of Jones compared to our new birth by the Spirit, for we Vine, Expository Dictionary of New Testament
and Waggoner's theology was particularly support sinned prior to our new birth, whereas He was holy Words (London: Oliphants, 1946), vol. 4, pp.
ive of their new emphasis, away from man to before His birth. Our new birth comes out of the 32-34.
Christ, and not necessarily an endorsement of context of the corruptible. His birth came within 7 G. W. Bromiley, trans. (Grand Rapids:
every detail of their Christology, such as the the context of the holy. 3. The doctrine of sin Eerdmans, 1971), p. 126. For full article see pages
human nature of Jesus. (See Age Rendalen, "The (harmartiology) lies behind the debate on the 124-144.
Nature and Extent of Ellen White's Endorsement nature of Christ (Christology). Sin when under 8 Ibid., p. 130.
of Waggoner and Jones" [research paper, Andrews stood as a broken relationship makes impossible a 9 Ibid., p. 134.
University Library, 1978].) The fact that the sinful nature for Jesus at birth. For there could be 10 1 John 4:1-3 does not speak about which kind
Christology of Jones and Waggoner became ever no greater demonstration of union with God than of human nature (sinful or sinless) Jesus took, but
more pantheistic also needs to be kept in mind. to go to the extent Christ did to do the Father's will human nature itself. Gnostics, and later, Doce-
Pantheism is an overidentification. of God with (Heb. 10:7-9). Both schools of Christology within tists, believed that He did not really become
creation, which could be considered the logical the Seventh-day Adventist Church need to use human, but merely appeared as human. This
conclusion of trying to make the man Jesus, in terms such as flesh, sin, same, simitar, unique, passage labels such a denial of His genuine
nature, altogether like other men. Ellen White's Immaculate Conception, original sin, seed of Abra humanity as antichrist.
use of the term "sinful nature," and its synonyms, ham, and seed of David as they are used by Biblical 11 Here similarity doesn't mean a being other
needs to be defined in the context of its use in her writers or as explained in this article. If this were than human (extraterrestrial). Rather, as a human
time, as well as within the historical context of done, then true communication between them He was only similar to all other humans.
each manuscript, letter, or article occurrence. would be established (they would be speaking 12 "In taking upon Himself man's nature in its
Compilations drawn from a multiplicity of sources about the same things), and many of the differ fallen condition, Christ did not in the least
usually fail to give proper place to historical ences between them would dissipate. participate in its sin. He was subject to the
background. It is obvious that many doctoral 4 Englishman's Greek Concordance of the New infirmities and weaknesses by which man is
dissertations could be helpful here. One fact is sure: Testament (London: S. Bagster and Sons, 1903), encompassed. ... He was touched with the feeling

because He never sinned. Genuine heredity shared by men and women He Assn., 1980), vol. 5, p. 1129.
temptations, real enticements to satisfy 6 ,in The Youth's Instructor, Oct. 13,
came to save. Viewed from the stand 1898.
worthy desires in self-centered ways point of the basic issues in the great 7 Questions on Doctrine (Washington, D.C.:
unquestionably our Lord experienced controversy, His victory takes on a Review and Herald Pub. Assn., 1957), pp. 59, 60.
8 See E. G. White's criticism of this argument,
these with every possibility of yielding. marvelous and eternal perspective. And Selected Messages (Washington, D.C.: Review and
But "not for one moment" 45 did Jesus surely this is exceedingly good news in a Herald Pub. Assn., 1958) book 1, p. 408.
permit temptations to conceive and give universe awash with the bitter fruit of sin 9 John Knox, The Humanity and Divinity of
Christ (New York: Cambridge University Press,
birth to sin. He too waged stern battles and mesmerized with endless misrepre 1967), p. 52, quoted in Robinson, op. cit., p. 89.
with self and against potentially sinful sentations about the character of God Robinson here notes that Knox "presents the
hereditary tendencies, but He never ultimate choice for Christology thus: 'One may
and what He expects from His believing believe that Jesus was not an actual normal man, a
permitted an inclination to become children. man like us, and that He could be the Saviour only
sinful * (see James 1:14, 15). He kept because He was not; or one may believe that He was
an actual normal man and moreover the particu
saying No, while all other human beings 1 J. F. Bethune-Baker, An Introduction to the lar man He was and that He could become the
have said Yes. Early History of Christian Doctrine (London: Meth- Saviour only because He was.' " Page 88.
We close where we began, by asking uen & Co., Ltd., 1957), pp. 255ff.; Arthur C. 10 SeeE. G. White, Education (Mountain View,
McGiffert, A History of Christian Thought (New Calif.: Pacific Press Pub. Assn., 1952), pp. 190,
again the first question that should direct York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1932), pp. 276- 125, 126; in Signs of the Times, Dec. 1, 1890.
all studies regarding the humanity of 290; John A. T. Robinson, The Human Face of God 11 , The Desire of Ages (Mountain View,
(Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1973), pp. Calif.: Pacific Press Pub. Assn., 1940), p. 49.
Jesus: Why did Jesus come to earth? As 39, 40, 101-110, 196ff. See also "Alexandrian 12 , in Signs of the Times, Jan. 20, 1890.
noted earlier, He came to silence Satan's Theology" and "Cyril" in J. D. Douglas, ed., The 13 , The Desire of Ages, p. 686.
misrepresentations and accusations and New International Dictionary of the Christian Church, 14 , Selected Messages, book 3, p. 135; in
(GrandRapids: ZondervanPub. House, 1978), pp. Signs of the Times, Dec. 22, 1887; July 18, 1878.
to fulfill the role of fallen man's substi 26, 277, 278. See. also Selected Messages, book 3, pp. 136-141.
tute, surety, and example. The reason for 2 Douglas, loc. cit., See also "Antiochene 15 , God's Amazing Grace (Washington,
His coming determined the way He Theology," p. 49, and "Theodore of Mopsuestia," D.C.: Review and Herald Pub. Assn., 1973), p.
pp. 964, 965. 141; see also Education, pp. 77, 78.
came or else His coming would not 3 Kenneth S. Latourette, A History o/Christian 16 , Patriarchs and Prophets (Mountain
have fulfilled its purpose. He gloriously ity (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1953), pp. 172, View, Calif.: Pacific Press Pub. Assn., 1958), p.
173. 64.
triumphed over evil; He became the 4 Ibid., pp. 173, 174- See also Robinson, op. 17 See the surveys in Harry Johnson, The
suitable substitute, the pioneer man, cit., p. 110; Hubert Cunliffe-Jones, ed., A History Humanity of the Saviour (London: The Epworth
mankind's model. And He achieved all of Christian Doctrine (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, Press, 1962), pp. 129-189; Karl Earth, Church
1980), p. 122. Dogmatics (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons,
of this amid the worst of circumstances, 3 Ellen G. White, in The SDA Bible Commen 1956), vol. 1, pt. 2, pp. 155ff.; D. M. Baillie, God
exempt from nothing, in the same tary (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Pub. Was in Christ (London: Faber and Faber,'Ltd.,

of our infirmities, and was in all points tempted like 19 Govett, op. tit., p. 142. 28 "What God is in His revelation, He is
as we are. And yet He 'knew no sin.'... We should 20 Lenski, op. cit., p. 364. antecedently, and eternally in His own inner-
have no misgivings in regard to the perfect 21 Several Greek words end in ma in Romans 5. Trinitarian Being" is the basic "revelation" pre
sinlessness of the human nature of Christ." E. G. The ma ending signifies "result." Two of these supposition behind iBarth's theology. In this
White, in Signs of the Times, June 9, 1898 (cited in words are fall and grace, and compare the results of context his logos ensarkos, following enhypostatic
The SDA Bibk Commentary, vol. 5, p. 1131). "He Adam's sin with Christ's salvation. Both results Christology, considers that the humanity of Jesus
was to take His position at the head of humanity by passed onto the human race from these two Adams has existence only in the eternal divinity of Christ.
taking the nature but not the sinfulness of equally irrespective of man's works, which is the This comes close at times" to presenting an eternal
man." E. G. White, in Signs of the Times, May central theme of Paul's Epistle. humanity of Jesus. (See Church Dogmatics, vol. 3,
29, 1901 (cited in The SDA Bible Commentary, vol. 11 There are eleven words in the Hebrew that pt. 2, pp. 484ff., 493.) He also suggests that Jesus is
7, p. 912). connote different nuances of sin (see footnote 23). not one man (homo) but mankind (humanum)
13 He preserved His divinity throughout the 23 For a detailed study on sin, see G. C. (ibid., vol. 4, pt. 2, pp. 48ff.).
Incarnation. It was quiescent within the self-cho Berkouwer, Sin (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1971), 29 Ibid., vol. l,pt. l,p. 191; vol. 3,pt. 2, p. 51;
sen limitations of the kenosis (Phil. 2:6-8). and Piet Schoonenberg, S. ]., Man and Sin: A vol. 4, pt. 1, pp. 69, 88, 90, 93-95, 98, 100, 203.
14 "The Old Testament's view of sin is the Theological View (South Bend, Ind.: University of 30 Ibid., vol. 1, pt. 2, pp. 158ff., 191; vol. 3, pt.
negative reverse side of the idea of the covenant, None Dame Press, 1965). And on Catholic 2, p. 51.
and hence is often expressed in legal terms." The "original sin" see R. C. Broderick, The Catholic 31 The Gospels reveal the covenantal context in
New International Dictionary of New Testament Encyclopedia (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Pub. which Jesus and His contemporaries lived. Abra
Theology, vol. 3, p. 578. "Hamartia is always used Co., 1976), p. 440; Baker's Dictionary of Theology, ham was the father of the faithful children of Israel,
in the New Testament of man's sin, which is pp. 486-489; George Vandervelde, Original Sin: who looked for the Messiah to come as the "son of
ultimately directed against God." Ibid., p. 579. Two Major Trends in Contemporary Roman Catholic David," ot from the Davidic line. Mary's song
"In the fourth Gospel hamartia designates ... a Reinterpretation (Lanham, Md.: University Press of recognizes this (Luke 1:55) as does Zechariah's. He
particular sinful deed, a state, or even a power America, 1982); and John Murray, The Imputation mentioned that salvation had come to the house of
which thrusts man, and the world taken as a whole, of Adam's Sin (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1959). David (verse 69), for God had remembered His
away from God." S. Lyonnet and L. Sabarin, 24 Both pantheism and the holy flesh movement covenant with Abraham (verse 73). The blind
Sin, Redemption, and Sacrifice: A Biblical and failed to give proper place to Jesus as monogenes. cried out to Jesus as "son of David" (Matt. 9:27;
Patristic Study, vol. 48 of Analecta Biblica (Rome: Pantheism overidentified God with man, remov 12:22, 23; 20:30ff.; Mark 10:46, 47). Teachers of
Biblical Institute Press), p. 39. ing the possibility of uniqueness. The holy flesh the law called Him "son of David" (Mark 12:35).
15 R. Govett, Govett on Romans (Florida: Conley movement so focused on becoming like the sinless During His triumphal entrance to Jerusalem, the
and Schoettle Pub. Co., 1981), p. 134. Jesus that again His uniqueness was not given throng cried out hosannas to the "son of David"
" E. F. Harrison, ed., Baker's Dictionary of proper place. (Matt. 21:9). Christ called the crippled woman
Theology, (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, " Albert Schweitzer, The Quest of the Historical "daughter of Abraham" (Luke 13:16). In the story
1969), p. 488. Jesus (London: Adam and Charles Black, 1954), of the rich man and Lazarus, the beggar was carried
17 R.C.H. Lenski, Interpretation of Romans pp. 254, 358, 368ff. to Abraham's side after death (chap. 16:22), and
(Columbus, Ohio: Wartburg Press, 1945), p. 366. 26 Karl Barth, Church Dogmatics, 4 vols. (Edin eternal life is pictured by Christ as participation in
18 John Murray, The Epistle to the Romans, in The burgh: T. & T. Clark, 1936-1969), vol. 1, pt. 2, the kingdom feast with Abraham (Matt. 8:11).
New International Commentary on the New p. 50; vol. 2, pt. 1, p. 63; The Humanity of God While the Jews claimed Abraham as their father
Testament (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1971), vol. (London: Collins, 1961), pp. 44ff. (John 8:33-39), Jesus went beyond this convenan-
1, p. 183. Read also pp. 178-209 on "The 27 Friedrich Schleiermacher, The Christian Faith tal line, stating, "Before Abraham was, I am"
Analogy." (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1928). (verse 58). Two things must be kept in balance:
Jesus is said to be from Abraham only because He
was the promised Messiah, bringing to fulfillment
all the covenantal promises. And Jesus is said to be
before Abraham because antecedently and eter
), pp. tological Perspectives in the Theology of Karl Barth nally He is God.
18 L. L. Wilkins and D. Priebe, trans. Jesus (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Pub. Co., 32 E. J. Waggoner, in Signs of th Times, Jan. 21,
God and Man (London: S.C.M. Press, Ltd., 1968), 1978), p. 149. 1889; cf. Christ and His Righteousness (Oakland,
p. 362. 43 Ellen White, fot example, took special care Calif.: Pacific Press Pub. Co., 1890), p. 28ff.
19 See Johnson, op. cit., pp. 24, 25. not to give the slightest impression that Jesus 33 F. F. Bruce, Commentary on the Epistle to the
20 See Robinson, op. cit., pp. 36, 37. sinned in thought ot act (The Desire of Ages, p. Hebrews (London: Marshall, Morgan and Scott,
21 See Johnson, op. cit., pp. 40-45. 123). He remained untainted, though He was 1974), pp. 87ff.
22 White, God's Amazing Grace, p. 141; White, tempted from within and without (ibid., p. 329; 34 Quoted in Commentary on the Epistle to the
in The SDA Bible Commentary, vol. 6, p. 1092. The Ministry of Healing [Mountain View, Calif- Hebrews, p. 88.
23 Ibid., p. 1074. Pacific Press Pub. Assn., 1942], p. 71; Selected 35 Dietrich Bonhoeffer apparently thought so.
24 See William F. Amdt and F. Wilbur Gin- Messages, book 1, p. 95. See also Testimonies, vol. See Temptation (New York: Macmillian, 1955), p.
grich, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testa 5, p. 177; In Heavenly Places [Washington, D.C.: 16.
ment (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, Review and Herald Pub. Assn., 1967], p. 155;
1957), pp. 750-752. Signs of the Times, Oct. 17, 1900; The Desire of
25 Anders Nygren, Commentary on Romans Ages, pp. 122, 123). He did not overcome sin
(Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1977), pp. 314, 315. because He was God or because He had a special
See also H. C. G. Moule, The Epistle of Paul the kind of human nature; He overcame because He
Apostle to the Romans (Cambridge: The University willed to resist, depending upon enabling grace as
Press, 1899), pp. 138, 139. every overcoming Christian may (Selected Mes
26 Barth, op. cit., p. 156. sages, book 3, pp. 127-142; see also The Desire of
27 C.E.B. Cranfield, The Epistle to the Romans, Ages, pp. 73, 336, 363).
vol. 1, The International Critical Commentary And yet she described the nature Jesus took in nature of man" (Review and Herald, July 17, 1900).
(Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, Ltd., 1980), p. 379. such phrases as the following: "man's fallen nature" Other influential Adventists who have set forth
28 Ibid, pp. 379-383. (Early Writings [Washington, D.C.: Review and the post-Fall human nature of Christ include: A.
29 Ibid. Herald Pub. Assn., 1945], pp. 150, 152; The Desire T. Jones, E. J. Waggoner, J. H. Durland, W. W.
30 Ibid. of Ages, p. 112; Selected Messages, book3, p. 134); Prescott, S. N. Haskell, G. E. Fifield, Uriah
31 Ibid. "the form and nature of fallen man" (Review and Smith, M. C. Wilcox, Joseph E. Steed, Alien
32 Ibid. Herald, Dec. 31, 1872); "the place of fallen Adam" Walket, H. M. Kelley, G. B. Start, Meade
33 Ibid. (fed., Feb. 24, 1874); "identical with our own" MacGuire, R. S. Owen, W. Howard James, C. P.
34 Barth, op. cit., p. 158. Selected Messages, book 3, p. 129); "bearing the Bollman, T. M. French, A. G. Stewart, M. N.
33 Robinson, op. cit., p. 78. humanity we bear" (The SDA Bible Commentary, Campbell, H. L. Rudy, Dallas Youngs, A. E.
36 Quoted in Robinson, op. cit., p. 93. vol. 7, p. 925); "our sinful nature" (Review and Lickey, W. B. Ochs, Frederick Lee, Carlyle B.
37 E. G. White, My Life Today (Washington: Herald, Dec. 15, 1896); "man's nature in its fallen Haynes, W. H. Branson, and M. L. Andreasen.
Review and Herald Pub. Assn., 1952), p. 323. condition" (The SDA Bible Commentary, vol. 5, p. Until its revision in 1949, Bible Readings for the
38 , The Desire of Ages, pp. 311, 312; see 1131); "fallen, suffering human nature, degraded Home Circle clearly taught this position.
also Testimonies (Mountain View, Calif.: Pacific and defiled by sin" (The Youth's Instructor, Dec. 20, 44 White, quoted in The SDA Bible Commentary,
Press Pub. Assn., 1948), vol. 6, p. 147. 1900); "the nature of Adam, the transgressor" (The vol. 5, p. 1128.
39 Barth, op. cit., pp. 151, 152. SDA Bibk Commentary, vol. 7, p. 926); "the level 45 Jbia.; see also Selected Messages, book 3, pp.
40 Ibid., p. 153. (Italics supplied.) of fallen humanity" (General Conference Bulletin, 131, 132.
41 Ibid., p. 158. April 23,1901); "the head of the fallen race" (Signs 46 Selected Messages, book 3, pp. 131, 132; see
42 John Thompson, Christ in Perspective: Chris- of the Times, April 26, 1905); and "the offending also The Desire of Ages, pp. 49, 122, 123.

in a healthy way. Learn how to commu and try to justify themselves by saying,
Minister and nicate better. Learn how to manage your
time. The second area has to do with
"Yes, but . . . you did this, or you said
that." That erodes credibility with the
Anger cognitive skills, attitudes, and values. congregation.
Learn how to filter out irritations, how
From page 7
not to take things too personally. Third,
and most important of all, learn a good Thomsen; What is the role of forgiveness
Thomsen; Do ministers often direct their relaxation skill. Learn how to relax in dealing with anger?
anger inward? physically, because whether it's anxiety
or stress, the damage cannot occur if you Hart: Contemporary psychology
Hart: Yes. Depression and negativity know how to relax physically. teaches us how to hit back at the hurts
are the two main signs of it. An inwardly that people cause us, not how to forgive.
directed anger usually gives rise to It has alienated us further from the
significant depression. Depression is Thomsen; Does a tendency to anger source of our hurt and moved us farther
self-punishing. It keeps a person from diminish with age? away from forgiveness, not toward it. We
feeling good from letting himself feel need to rediscover the centrality of
pleasure at all. It's a way of self-punish Hart: I don't think that age has much to forgiveness in human relationships.
ment. do with it. As we get older some of us Learning how to forgive and knowing
learn not to take things so personally. when to forgive the hurts that are caused
We mellow with experience. But some us are crucial steps to resolving the
Thomsen: Are there certain times when a times aging accumulates hurts. Our resentment that underlies so much of our
pastor is more likely to experience anger? resentment builds, so we become angrier anger. For the anger that is the response
as we get older. It can go either way. It to hurt, forgiveness is the gospel solu
Hart: Some physiological states make us depends on whether or not you're a tion.
more prone to anger. When we have well-adjusted person. If you're well
been subjected to a prolonged period of adjusted, you'll get better as you get
stress, our tolerance for frustration and
our resiliency go down, and we are likely
older. But if you're not, you're in trouble.
to experience anger. Sunday evenings,
when the weekend is over and it's back to
the grind again, I find myself ruminating
Thomsen: How does a minister avoid
overcontrolling emotions in the attempt ~to
and not sleeping well. Monday I'm prone
to be angry. I've got to watch myself very
prevent acting on angry impulses? Is Helping
carefully on Mondays. Hart: By "overcontrolled," you're say
ing he suppresses his emotions? You Prepare
Thomsen; Is unresolved anger a major
source of stress? Thomsen; He becomes very closed.
For Yours
Hart: Yes, because anger triggers the Hart: He retreats, you mean. He Let us help you become a
fight-or'flight response. If you maintain becomes afraid and self-protective. successful EVANGELIST
that response, you are in a state of That's a habit that has to be unlearned. effective COUNSELOR
extreme stress. The only way you can unlearn it is to go and let us keep you abreast of
and get some therapy. You have to learn ISSUES
new habits. It's a slow process and for only 120 per day
Thomsen; Can stress-management stra something that has to be done with the from our live cassette recordings.
tegies help prevent anger? help of another. D Enclosed is $44.95* for my sub
scription to MINISTRY TAPE OF
Hart: Stress-management strategies THE MONTH for which I receive
Thomsen; If a minister has tost control 2/C-90's a month.
have the benefit of getting our stress 'Overseas subscribers add $20
levels down generally, and that will and shown anger to parishioners, how can he for Air Mail Postage.
increase our tolerance in anger-produc resolve that situation? Name _______________
ing situations.
Hart: With much embarrassment and City, State ____
much eating of crow. You can rapidly
Thomsen; Can you recommend a few lose credibility with the congregation if
strategies? you keep losing your temper. I think you
need to avoid unnecessary self-justifica Ministry
Hart: Well, you need to pay attention tion. Apologize. Admit you were wrong. TAPE OF THE MONTH
to three areas in keeping stress levels "I lost my cool. I became angry. I should
down. First, you need to improve your not do that." And try not to do it again.
coping skills. Learn how to be assertive Too often ministers become defensive 6840 Eastern Avenue, NW.. Washington, D.C. 20012

1986 World Ministers
Field Conference
on Archaeology
and Evangelism
In July 1986 the Madaba Plains During the day delegates to the confer
Excavation project will host a seven-day ence will join the excavation team
field conference on archaeology and evan working at Tell el-cUmeiri and undertake a
gelism in Amman, Jordan, in conjunction wide range of excavating and field labora
with our excavation season at Tell el- tory experiences under the guidance of
cUmeiri. Lawrence T. Geraty, Dig Director.
The conference, which opens Sunday An extensive study tour of archaeologi
evening, July 20, and concludes the fol cal highlights in Jordan and Israel is to
lowing Saturday evening, July 26, is immediately follow the conference.
uniquely designed for busy Adventist The tour director is Abraham Terian,
pastors, evangelists, and clergy of all Professor of Intertestamental and Christian
faiths. Literatures at Andrews University.
The key speaker for the conference is Dr. Terian will also conduct a lecture
internationally known religious television series at the conference on the geography
personality George Vandeman of It Is of Bible lands.
Written fame. The cost of the.conference and tour
Pastor Vandeman will conduct nightly (total 18 days July 19 till August 8) is
lectures on the interrelationship of biblical $2530 and includes: round-trip economy-
history, archaeology and contemporary class air fares from New York or Chicago,
evangelism. full board during the conference, half
These timely presentations will be part board during the tour of Israel with first-
of an interest-packed program that draws class hotels (double occupancy), all
on the expertise of a number of evange entrances, sightseeing, ground transporta
lists, archaeologists and scholars. Dig tions, conference supplies and excavation
patron H. R. H. Prince Raad Ibn Zied will fees.
give the keynote address on Sunday Reservations should be accompanied by
evening. Other Jordanian speakers will a $250 deposit; the balance is due April 1.
include: Dr. Fawzi Zayyadine (Amman Make checks payable to: Madaba Plains
and Its Environs) and Dr. Nabil Khairy Project, Atlantic Union College.
(The History and Archaeology of Petra).

Madaba Plains Project, Jordan

For a comprehensive brochure on the conference or for bookings, write to:
W. John Hackwell, Administrative Director, Madaba Plains Project,
Atlantic Union College, South Lancaster, MA 01561 or call us at (617) 365-4561

From the Editors
The nature of Christ
Discussion of Christ's human nature has gone on for nearly two thousand
years, and continues among Seventh-day Adventist scholars. Perhaps we
will never fully understand Christ, but we can accept His gift of life.
Did our Lord in His human nature anything in our journal dealing with the the fact that the need of a personal
begin where all of the other children of nature of Christ for several years. My relationship with Him as our Saviour
Adam began? Did Christ take the human editorial in the April, 1978, MINISTRY transcends all arguments and debates.
nature of pre- or post-Fall man? If the testified to my own struggle with this Let it be remembered that although
human race was affected by the Fall of subject. I pointed out that I had been there may be two camps of believers on
Adam and Eve, was Christ also affected overwhelmed with feelings of inade this subject within our church, there are
the same way or was He exempt? If quacy in attempting to express my significant major points of agreement.
Christ accepted sinless human nature, convictions. I prayed earnestly for the Both sides believe that our Lord was
did He have an advantage over us? Did Lord to help me to dip my pen in the rich fully human and fully divine; that He was
He vicariously take upon Himself fallen ink of love and truth rather than the ink tempted in all points like as we are; that
human nature? If He took fallen human of argument and debate. I am still He could have fallen into sin, thus
nature, was the "fallen" element related convinced that the average man in the aborting the entire plan of salvation, but
only to the physical and not to His moral street or pew would be hopelessly lost if that He never committed one sin. (It
character? Is it possible to settle the issue his salvation depended upon an incisive, seems that to a large degree the differ
of the nature of Christ, which the scholarly understanding of Christ's ence in views may be attributed to
Christian church has struggled with for nature. Yet, in view of the fact that there different understandings of what consti
two thousand years? Is it necessary for us are those who earnestly believe that the tutes sinful nature. There may be much
to have a very definitive and accurate church will fall or rise on its under less separating the two sides in this
understanding of Christ's nature in order standing of Christ and His nature, and in debate then there seems to be.)
to be saved? Must Christ have our fallen view of the renewed printed and verbal I am confident that both of the
nature (without ever sinning, of course) discussions on the subject, I feel that scholars who authored these position
in order for Christians to live the both sides of this question should be papers would agree with me that we all
unsullied life that He lived? examined again. Therefore, we are stand before Christ realizing so little of
Through the years this subject has setting forth two rather lengthy articles His unfathomable love! That our Lord's
been one of fervent discussion. The book from two Adventist scholars. divine-human nature in many respects is
Questions on Doctrine, published in 1957, We will leave it to our readers to study inscrutable.
startled the thinking of Adventist minis carefully the theology and reasoning I conclude with the same words that I
terial leadership, since numerous state introduced in these articles. If after used to conclude my editorial of 1978. "I
ments from Ellen White's pen were used reading them you wish to respond, we can barely touch Your incarnation with
to support the concept that Christ had a urge you to write short, pithy letters of the fingertips of my mind, knowing an
sinless nature. M. L. Andreasen in a not more than 250 words. We cannot infinity of knowledge lies beyond a
series of publications titled Letters to the promise to publish all letters, but we will thousand lifetimes of study. But I can, by
Churches took issue with the position of select some and publish them on a faith, believe You came as One who was
Questions on Doctrine. L. E. Froom's percentage basis to give an idea of the fully God and fully man; One who could
book Movement of Destiny, published in direction the field is taking in this successfully challenge Satan to find in
1971, again emphasized the sinless matter. You the slightest fault; One who identi
human nature of Christ, based largely on Above all, may the study of these fied Himself with me as a human being;
Ellen White's statements. In 1975 the articles lead us to a deeper understanding One who ran the risk of failure in order to
book Perfection, published by the South of the purpose of our Lord's incarnation guarantee my eternal life; One who made
ern Publishing Association, presented and the tremendous sacrifice made on the ultimate sacrifice as a ransom for my
the views of four Adventist theologians our behalf. Let not any argument over soul; and One who still stands at the door
on Christian perfection. The point was His nature obscure His eternal love and of my heart daily knocking and seeking
made that a person's soteriology is
affected by his Christology. Eric Claude
Webster in his published doctoral thesis,
Crosscurrents in Adventist Christology,
states, "The significance of this rift in
Seventh-day Adventism is not insignifi
cant." Page 122.
We have purposely avoided placing
I am convinced that the average man in the pew
would be hopelessly lost if his salvation depended
upon an incisive, scholarly understanding of
Christ's nature. Yet I feel that this question should be
examined again.
entrance, not to condone my sins, but to harshly judge my brother who may not rubber-stamp decisions already made by
help me overcome them. Forgive me, O see every point in doctrine as I see it. My a small elite. Some leaders seem to be
Saviour, for my feeble response to Your only plea is that You will enable me to lift arbitrary in selecting personnel to fill
love. Forgive my arrogance in thinking You, and You only, high before the church offices. In dealing with pastors, a
that I know all about Your nature. Fill world, not with words alone, but with a leader may be tempted to use the power
me with Your magnificent love so that I life surrendered and obedient to Your inherent in the position to further his
may never in the perversity of my mind will." J. R. S. future rather than the future of the
Something within human nature
Wise rule in the church wants to use position power. But that is
not wise rule in the church. Jesus said:
" 'You know that the rulers of the
Gentiles lord it over them, and their
Power. This word conjures up many rely on rewards and threats, subtle as high officials exercise authority over
images: strength, explosion, force, they may be, but on the genuine them. Not so with you.' " Instead, Jesus
energy, authority, vigor, persuasion. relationships he has built with his taught that we must lead with the
Power is neutral; it can be exercised for followers. When people sense that the personal power that comes from being a
good or evil. Pilate asked Jesus, " 'Don't leader considers their good first and his servant. " 'Whoever wants to become
you realize I have power either to free you own second, they will go to extraordi great among you must be your servant' "
or to crucify you?' " (John 19:10, nary lengths to follow him. But if they (Matt. 20:25, 26, N.I.V.). Evaluate
N.I.V.). This was the display of "posi feel that they are being manipulated, fed your leadership today and ask yourself
tion" power. The source of this power partial information, or ignored, they will whether you approach others with a
comes from the title the position find many subtle ways to sabotage the servant or kingly attitude. Servant power
held and is given to us by others, plans of the leader. People react in is based only on personal integrity and
usually by some formal decision. negative ways if they feel that they must unselfishness. J.D.N.
Jesus demonstrated another form of
power, "personal" power. "When Jesus
had finished saying these things, the
crowds were amazed at his teaching,
because he taught as one who had
How good must it get?
authority, and not as their teachers of
the law" (Matt. 7:28, 29, N.I.V.). The Does timing of the Second Coming Far East. Not only are these stories
source of this power lies in the individ depend more on what God does or what compelling evidence of God's working,
ual's ability and character. Jesus' power Satan does? Is the world's end foreshad but they also paint a picture of what a
came not so much from the fact that He owed more by increase of evil or increase person who believes in the soon return of
was the Son of God but from living what of good? How bad (or how good) must it Jesus should be doing.
He preached. The obvious goodness of get before Jesus comes back? But God's Spirit is not confined to
His life, His purity and trustworthiness, We noted in last month's editorial working in only a few places. There is
set Him apart from all others. that Jesus spoke of various signs of much more that we can say. As we view
The soldiers of Pilate obeyed out of imminence, but that the one He consid the world scene today, several major
fear, the disciples of Jesus obeyed out of ered most significant was the preaching trends and situations are opening doors
love. Pilate commanded, Jesus of the gospel to all the world (Matt. that have long been shut against the
requested. As a leader in the church, 24:14). In emphasizing this sign, He spread of the gospel. Among these I
what is your power base? Do you rely on challenges us to focus our attention on would list:
the power inherent in your position as His triumphs instead of Satan's. If we
pastor, president, chairman of the board, will focus our eschatological preaching 1. The increasing awareness in the
or on the power built upon your own on God's work instead of Satan's, we will world of the bankruptcy of the atheistic
personal integrity? escape the label of doomsayers and political system that only a decade ago
The exercise of the two forms of power regain our proper standing as bearers of seemed to many intellectuals to be the
depends on the maturity of the group good news. most viable hope for the future. Related
being led. A father disciplining a Admittedly it is sometimes easier to to this is the new freedom granted to
1-year-old will be forced to use coercion notice the gaudy workmanship of the Christians in China.
more than reason. The right to use archdeceiver than to ferret out the quiet 2. The desire of the elite of almost
coercion comes from his position as working of the Holy Spirit. But there are every developing nation to learn En
parent. By the time that child becomes a evidences, positive points worth dwell glish, the very language in which our
teenager the father, to be effective, ing on, that can give courage to our souls church is best equipped to produce
needs to rely on personal power, the and point our listeners to God's power workers, opens the door for contact with
relationship he has built with that child. instead of Satan's. thought leaders worldwide.
If coercion is still his style, it means his A great place to start telling of God's 3. The progress we are making in
personal power is bankrupt. triumphs today would be to point to the spreading the gospel where we don't
The same principles apply in the success of combined lay/pastor evangel even have missionaries or members
church today. The wise leader does not ism in fields like Latin America and the through Adventist World Radio and
other media outreach. Our new radio dwelling on as we seek to point people to purpose of proclaiming the Word of God
station on Guam will count over half the God's work instead of Satan's. Dwelling and supporting public worship.
world's people in its potential audience. on Satan's work makes us want to hunker 8. Some of the freewill offerings that we
4. The success of the One Thousand down in our own safe little homes, give to God may be distributed to specific
Days of Reaping. sheltered away from evil's marauding projects and areas of personal interest or
5. The famine and refugee situations menace. Dwelling on the positive signs special need. There are many Biblical
that have disrupted millions from their will challenge us to reach out and win illustrations of project giving for
human security and put them where the the day for the Lord. example, the building of the sanctuary
church could minister to them. While it It's time to catch and share a vision of and Solomon's Temple (Ex. 25:2, 8; 1
may seem harsh to view disaster as what God can do in this hour of Chron. 29:6-9; 1 Kings 5 and 6). Today's
opportunity, surely those who find eter opportunity. It will take courage and special projects might also include spe
nal life because disaster disrupted their myriads more of dedicated workers to cial funds for paving the church parking
temporal life will praise God eternally. march through the doors that have lot, Bibles for a citywide crusade, special
Related to this in the United States is swung open. But isn't it time for God's requests for disaster relief, and funding
"Reaganomics," which looks to private people to inarch to the drumbeat of faith for simple houses of worship in Third
groups and churches to pick up the slack instead of fear? How much better must World countries.
left by cutting back on government aid to the opportunities be before we seize them 9. Both planned giving and project giving
those in need. and do the work God has given us? How should spring from the principle of grateful
All of these are positive signs worth good must it get? K.R. W. love to God. There should be no sense of
coercion or compulsion. The Scriptures
clearly indicate that a willing heart is to
be preferred over a sense of duty.
PLANNED GIVING "Whosoever is of a willing heart, let him
bring it, an offering of the Lord" (Ex.
From page 6 35:5). "Every man according as he
purposeth in his heart, so let him give;
3:10). "The first of the firstfruits of thy churches hold to the belief that the tithe not grudgingly, or of necessity: for God
land thou shalt bring into the house of should be used exclusively for those who loveth a cheerful giver" (2 Cor. 9:7).
the Lord thy God" (Ex. 23:19). The minister the Word. "Do ye not know With these basic giving principles in
firstfruits were made up of both tithes and that they which minister about holy mind, let us evaluate the advantages and
offerings. The tithe, which was a part of things live of the things of the temple? disadvantages of planned and project
firstfruit giving, was considered sacred. . . . Even so hath the Lord ordained that giving.
"And all the tithe of the land, whether of they which preach the gospel should live It is plain that planned and project
the seed of the land, or the fruit of the of the gospel" (1 Cor. 9:13, 14). The giving both have advantages and disad
tree, is the Lord's: it is holy unto the tithes and offerings given to God and vantages. It seems obvious, for example,
Lord" (Lev. 27:30). Many Christian placed in His storehouse are for the that planned giving is a Biblically sound
principle. In planned giving, members
are educated to return to God their tithe
and a set amount or a percentage of
income as offerings. Within this amount
of offerings they are then encouraged to
i ii i_sn YOU CAN SAY A LOT distribute to specific needs, such as to the
' local church budget, regional church
IN A MINUTE OR LESS development, world missions, and spe
cial projects. In this way planned giving
supports a proportionate distribution of
funds. Every area can receive its fair
share. The inequality that frequently
And TRANSDA can tell you results from one special project receiving
WHERE disproportionate publicity is eliminated.
Planned giving also makes possible the
WHEN and church budget plan, which has proved to
be a successful and businesslike method
HOW to say it. of funding church activities.
On the other hand, project giving is
also a Biblically supported method,
For information on how TRANSDA having the advantage of personally
can deliver more audience for involving church members in a given
less money, call (805)373-7606. project, and raising the level of member
Or write: TRANSDA Box 307 interest. Project giving may also reach
ADVERTISING Newbury Park, California 91320 J segments of church membership who are
not committed to or willing to follow the
planned-giving method. It may also be commitment^ and follow-up reporting. Joe especially enjoys this giving plan
the preferred method for funding capital Your goal must be to make church because it includes a percentage for
improvements and church construction. members help claim "ownership" of special projects of personal interest. This
There are, however, some drawbacks church plans and projects through per can include funds sent to an underprivi
to project giving. Some churches have sonal involvement as you match the leged child in India, an anonymous
launched a whole series of special proj method to your local church needs. payment on a student's parochial school
ects and still asked church members to A combination of the two giving bill, a bag of groceries to the unemployed
support the church budget through modes has proved effective and satisfying single parent down the street, gift
planned giving. The result was reduced to many givers. The following illustrates subscriptions to Christian magazines
group support for planned giving. such a plan. sent to friends and relatives or any
In project giving, the motivation Joe Church Member likes planned and other special need that comes to his at
behind both the project and the giving project giving. He has covenanted with tention.
must be carefully monitored, for in the God to return the tithe (10 percent) and This plan allows Joe to give to special
hands of the unconverted the wrong type to give an additional 6 percent of his projects in a systematic way. It places a
of motivation may strengthen selfishness income as offerings. Joe divides the budgeted amount at his disposal for
instead of benevolence. To help deter giving from his income as follows: fulfilling special needs out of his regular
mine the motivation behind a given planned giving to God.
project, ask yourself: Who is being $2,000 INCOME In planning stewardship educa
honored in this special gift or project? 10% = $200 tithe, for gospel tion in your church, first consider the
Am I supporting this special project proclamation basic Biblical principles suggested in this
because of some personal benefit? (For a 6%.== $120 offerings, divided article. Returning regularly to God an
fuller discussion of this topic, see as follows: honest tithe, and giving generous
"Church Fund-raising" in next month's 2% = $40 local church budget freewill offerings, "as God hath pros
issue of MINISTRY. ) 1% = $20 regional church pered," makes it possible to underwrite
Whichever method you follow, you development financially the great gospel enterprise
must develop plans for fully involving 2% = $40 world missions in your local church and around the
church members through education, 1% = $20 special projects world.

Church leaders have been asking for a
concise, easy-to-present study guide to
p*^i W * Tjflki' 'if <*!< f. W. W
help prepare youth for baptism. And now
it's here. Formatted in an easy-to-use
packet of removable lessons, the Youth
Baptismal Celebration Guide is for use by
all those who work with Adventist youth.
Each of the 27 studies begins with a short
illustration to set the mood and keep the
interest of the baptismal candidate. and the
For a limited time the Youth Baptismal
Celebration Guide can be yours for only
$3.50 U.S. Sorry, only one copy per or
der. Write to Youth Baptismal Celebration
Guide, Box 7000, Boise, Idaho 83707.
Brought to you by Pacific Press Publishing

Shepherdess _Maria Loren
The joy of friendship
We often hear it said that a pastor's wife cannot have close friends. But is it
possible that there are other women like the author who need a kindred spirit
to help them through life's hard times.7

She came into my life one day just ship had taught me much about what it write. We thought alike. We felt alike.
shortly after I had penned a poem of means to have Jesus as a friend. We responded alike to life's experiences
loneliness. Because we were both reserved, it took and challenges. We had the same basic
Whoever you are some testing of the waters before we were temperament, the same ideals, and many
wherever you are able to converse easily. But in time I of the same goals. We even shared some
come quickly realized how accepting and responsive dislikes.
because I need a friend she was. I easily could have misinter When I pondered these things I shook
different from all the rest. preted her reserve as unfriendliness, my head in wonder. We were so differ
I need a friend whose soul aloofness, or cold conceit. But beneath ent, and yet so much alike, this quiet,
is kin to mine; that exterior I discovered a humble, kind lady and I. For the first time in my
a friend who can reach out warm, loving, and gentle nature. She life I felt myself really a part of the
and heal my heart was a sincere and gracious lady, sensitive planet, no longer an alien, alone. I had a
with a gentle touch. to the needs and hurts of others, but not number of wonderful friends whom I
I need a friend intrusive. I recognized that she was not loved dearly, but I had always felt
whose heart keeps time with mine, the type to impose her friendship on somewhat different from them. Now
for mine is out of step anyone, but neither would she reject here was someone like me, someone in
with all the rest. friendship that was offered sincerely. She whose soul I saw a reflection of mine. 1
My Drummer is far up ahead. was a pastor's wife, a shepherdess. had never before experienced the type of
His beat is clear,
but I must listen well
to march in step with Him.
Come, march with me

so I need not march alone!
The day she started working in our
easily could have misinterpreted her reserve as
building another secretary brought her unfriendliness, aloofness, or cold conceit. But
into the workroom and introduced us.
She was tall, strikingly attractive, with a beneath that exterior I discovered a humble,
quiet dignity and what I recognized as an
air of reserve and shyness. Each of us
warm, loving, and gentle nature.
briefly acknowledged the introduction,
but I don't remember with what words. I
hope I welcomed her to our "team."
I don't recall what we said; what made First I learned to respect her intelli friendship I had now embarked upon
the deepest impression on me was her gence and quiet spirituality. Next I friendship with a kindred spirit. It
clean, natural beauty, her noble bearing, learned to admire her creativity and her seemed almost mystical.
and the trace of quiet suffering in her many skills and talents. And then I We spoke about many things, but we
eyes. I don't remember that either of us learned to appreciate her keen interest in never discussed our friendship. I don't
smiled. Perhaps we didn't. An introduc all aspects of life. She was a compas know if she felt about it as I did. Perhaps
tion is uncomfortable for two reserved sionate, caring listener, one who lis she didn't take the time to think about it
people. tened with her heart and offered encour and analyze it. She had a family to
As she turned to walk down the agement without judging. I felt that occupy her thoughts and surround with
hallway to her office I was not aware that whatever I told her in confidence was her love. Perhaps she accepted our
the Lord had just brought a precious safe in her keeping. friendship as a matter of course. But my
jewel into my life, one in whom I soon Our developing friendship was an analytical mind pondered, evaluated,
would see a resemblance to the Pearl of adventure for me, because nearly every and savored it. It was something pre
Great Price. After I came to know her time we conversed I became aware of cious, something to be treated with the
better I would recognize that her friend' something we had in common. We greatest care, something to be enjoyed
shared an interest in books and art, an and cherished and nurtured.
Maria Loren is a pseudonym. intense love of nature, a longing to We could discuss serious matters, and
we could tease each other and laugh And I marvel Why should I when I can see the beauty
together. When I referred to her as "a at the beauty of your soul. of Jesus in her? She has been such a
delightful study in contrasts," she And I, who love all beauty so, blessing to me and has enriched my life
quipped, "You mean I'm schizo Thank God for tulips and for you. so much. A kind heavenly Father sent
phrenic?" But she knew I didn't mean her into my life just when I needed her,
that. I just found her personality For more than three years we worked at a time when I was attempting to piece
delightfully refreshing. on the same floor and sat side by side at my shattered life together into some
Because she had the courage to admit morning worship. For more than three thing meaningful and useful. My friend's
that she was emotional, I learned not to years we shared memories, concepts, understanding and encouragement sup
be embarrassed if she saw the tears in my ideas, concerns, sorrows, joys. plied the balm I needed, the "gentle
touch." I learned to love her as deeply as
my own sister.
Now we write often, and she is never
out of my thoughts for long. So many

things bring her to mind a song, a
erhaps she accepted our friendship as a phrase, a poem, a picture, a flower, a
matter of course, but my analytical mind bird, a book, a landscape, a characteris
tic in someone else. It is easy to speak
pondered, evaluated, and savored it. It was about her to others. How I wish everyone
could know and appreciate and love her
something precious to be enjoyed and cherished as I do!
and nourished. Once, in pondering my deep love for
my friend, I thought, This is how we
should feel about Jesus!
Indeed, Jesus is our greatest blessing. If
our friendship with Him is strong and
eyes when something touched my heart. And then she moved away. When she beautiful and brings us joy, we shall be
She had better surface control than I did, told me she was leaving I closed the door able to speak about Him enthusiastically
but a time or two we wept together. And of my office and wept in private. That and joyfully. We shall want everyone to
we often prayed for each other and each time I could not let her see my tears. I know and appreciate and love Him as we
other's concerns. had to be alone with my grief. do! And isn't that the ultimate goal of
I wrote a poem for her one day: I suppose my friend has faults, for she Christian friendship to reveal the
is human, but I don't know what they beauty of Jesus and make Him attractive
A tulip pierced through the sod, are. She has so many delightful traits to others? My friend, a gentle shep
Summoned by some mysterious that I have no desire to look for flaws. herdess, has done it well.
It grew and grew, until at last
It formed a bud that
promised to be red.
But the spring was cold and wet,
And the bud stayed closed
Prayers from the
In self-protection from the elements
Lest it be ruthlessly destroyed.
I'm tired of long commutes, rush-hour Escape . . . Yes, that is what it would
At last a warm day came, traffic, and exhaust pollution. My eyes be. Here I am in the thick of people and
And the bud, are weary of billboards and neon signs. activities. Do plants and animals need
with newfound confidence, My ears ring with the sounds of cursing my witness? Will trees and flowers be
Parted its petals to display men, shouting women, and squalling better because I have lived among them?
Unrivaled beauty and, oh, the joy! babies. "Then the Lord said, '. . .And why
You are like that tulip, Friend. This city neighborhood makes me shouldn't I feel sorry for a great city like
Reserved and quiet, cautious claustrophobic. Hemmed in, I cannot Nineveh with its 120,000 people in utter
Lest your heart be broken, avoid intrusion even inside my home. I spiritual darkness?' " (Jonah 4:10, 11,
You protect your secret self. can still hear the loud discussions and T.L.B.).
But when warmth and love parties. A steady stream of salesmen Silence my complaints, Lord. May I
Are offered you, phone or appear at my door. walk in peace among the rushing crowds.
You learn to trust, If only I could live where I'd have May my ears be tuned to people's needs
And you part the petals of reserve privacy and serenity! I want to escape to in the midst of noise. May my eyes focus
To reveal an inner beauty a barren beach, a sun-dappled woods, or on beauty in spite of prevailing ugliness.
That is precious, unsurpassed. a lofty mountain. You have called me to this city. Make
me a light in the darkness. I will not run
I marvel at the beauty of the tulip Cherry B. Habenicht away.
-. ^-T%*. VI fin<
better education
LOOK at these courses from $3.00 to $23.95 and choose your continuing
education course today!

PREACHING YOUR WAY TO BETTER investigated the historicist method. Here are COURSES FOR WIVES OF MINISTERS
PREACHING seven principles that will help keep your study
Course No. HCM-7012 of prophecy on track and make it exciting. You TRANSITIONS
This course, written by Dr. Floyd Bresee and will discover answers to such questions as, Is the Course No. HGS-7028
others, is based on the principle that practice is modem nation of Israel a fulfillment of Bible
Designed especially for ministers' spouses, this
the best way to learn the art of preaching. Each prophecy? How can Christ be found in Old
course was written by Dr. Donna Webb, of
lesson expounds one preaching principle and Testament prophecy? Can the New Testament
Walla Walla College. Needs change as we go
then gives an assignment designed to help the be used to interpret the prophecies of the Old?
through different stages of life. Failure to under
participant apply the principle and test the Cost: $20.95 includes textbook, study guide, stand this changing process can lead to feelings
success of application. This course originally loose-leaf notebook. of failure, depression, mid-life crisis, wanting
appeared in MINISTRY magazine during 1984 and Earns: Two continuing education units (20 out of a relationship, or even a desire to escape
is now available as a unit. clock hours). from the ministry. To understand these changes
and resolve them through Christ is to keep
Cost: $7.50 includes twelve articles, study
growing and to stay happy.
guide, loose-leaf notebook.
Earns: Two continuing education units (20 Cost: $5.00 includes textbook, study guide.
clock hours). Earns: Two continuing education units (20
Course No. HCM-7029
clock hours).
DECISIONS Written by Mel Rees, popular lecturer specializ
Course No. HCM-7013 ing in Christian stewardship, and others. Each CARE-FRONTING
This course was written by Mark Finley, a
month during 1985 a continuing education arti Course No. HGS-7086
cle will appear in MINISTRY. These articles give
highly successful evangelist and teacher of evan Is the minister's wife most like Jesus when she's
practical principles for the pastor who must see
gelism. It presents solid spiritual and psychologi passive or assertive? How can she serve without
to the financing of his church program. Those
cal principles for getting decisions. Ministers are feeling imposed upon? Can she be assertive
wishing to take the course must send for the
using this course to train their laypeople as soul without being overly aggressive? This course on
study guide.
winners. The course is designed especially for appropriate Christian assertiveness was prepared
Seventh-day Adventist ministers. Cost: $ 3.00 includes study guide especially for wives of ministers by Betty Lou
only, or Hartlein, of Andrews University.
Cost: $3.50 includes textbook and study guide.
Earns: One continuing education unit (10 clock $12.00 includes study guide plus Cost: $14,95 includes two textbooks, study
hours). alternate issues of MIN guide, and loose-leaf notebook.
ISTRY (for those receiving the Earns: Two continuing education units (20
COPING WITH GRIEF magazine only every other clock hours).
Course No. HCM-7014 month).
The church, above all organizations, should care Earns: Two continuing education units (20 Special discounts apply if you order more than one
about helping those who hurt. But how? This is clock hours). course. Clip and mail the order form today .1
not just a course about grief. It is about how
Christ can use you as a healing pastor, and your
congregation as a healing community, to help
those who suffer any kind of loss. The course
was written by Larry Yeagley, a hospital chap ORDER Qty
HCM-701 2 Preaching Your Way to Better Preaching
$ 750

lain and frequent presenter at MINISTRY Profes

sional Growth Seminars. FORM HCM-7013 Decisions
HCM-7014 Coping With Grief

Cost: $23.95 includes two textbooks, study HTH-701 5 Principles of Prophetic Interpretation 20.95

guide, and loose-leaf notebook. Send to: HCM-7029 Keeping Church Finance Christian 3.00
Continuing Education
Earns: Two continuing education units (20 for Ministry, c/o CDS, (with magazine) 12.00
clock hours). 6840 Eastern Avenue NW., HGS-7028 Transitions 500
Washington, D.C. 20012
HGS-7086 Care-Fronting 1495
INTERPRETATION Adrtrfiss Less: 10% if ordering 2 ____
Course No. HTH-7015 c,,y/statfi 7ip 15%ifordenng3 .
Written by Hans K. LaRondelle, Th.D., this
course is a must for anyone who has never !______________________________ Total Enclosed (U S. funds only)

Shop talk

Let's Talk tion useful in meeting sub nett Avenue, Orangeburg, Bible studies to use in lead
Let's Talk, the Voice of stance abuse problems. South Carolina 29115. ing Witnesses in their search
Prophecy's newest program, For information contact Enclose a 22< stamp for for further truth. If you or
has been drawing good audi Dr. Patricia Mutch, Institute postage. your members are working
ence response. The program of Alcoholism and Drug with Witnesses, you will
consists of a twenty-minute Dependency, Andrews Uni find the resource material
interview followed by forty versity, Berrien Springs, Booklet on charismatic invaluable. The author has
minutes of call-in time. This Michigan 49104. movement had excellent success in
attempt to reach another A fifty-page booklet called winning Witnesses and has
unique segment of radio's "I Care" center The Charismatic Movement recently returned to the pas
listener potential first aired The Orangeburg, South was prepared by a group of toral ministry to have more
in January of this year. It Carolina, Seventh-day SDA scholars in 1973. It time for this work.
originates on Saturdays at Adventist church trans includes chapters on the his Books are available for
7:00 P.M. Pacific time and is formed its fellowship build tory of the gift of tongues US$4 postpaid in the
heard on twenty stations ing into a multipurpose prior to the eighteenth cen United States. Outside the
coast to coast. room and opened an "I tury and during the eigh United States add $1 for
Among the first guests on Care" center in 1982. In teenth and nineteenth cen postage. Order from
the program were Jack Pro- 1983 the church received a turies, plus excerpts from a MINISTRY Services, Box 217,
vonsha, Kay Kuzma, and commendation from the confidential report to the Burtonsville, Maryland
Ariel Roth. Harold county council for distribut General Conference on 20866.
Richards, Jr., serves as pro ing 20,000 items of cloth theological considerations, a
charismatic case study, and
gram host, assisted by his ing, shoes, and other per NIV Bible on cassette
brother Kenneth. sonal items in its first year of counsels and practical helps
Hear the New Testament,
Those interested in hav operation. In 1984 it distrib for pastors. Contributors to
Psalms, and Proverbs in a
ing the program broadcast in uted more than 50,000 the booklet include V.
beautifully produced multi-
their area should contact items and had contact with Norskov Olsen, Jan Paulsen,
voice production of the New
Franklin Hudgins, The an average of 100 people per N. R. Dower, G. M. Hyde,
International Version that
Voice of Prophecy, P.O. week. The center is open Morris Venden, and Roland
will make you feel as though
Box 2525, Newbury Park, only two hours (one eve Hegstad. MINISTRY has a
you were right there when
California 91320. Phone ning) per week. small supply of these books.
the events happened. Using
(805) 499-1911. The Voice Pastor Marvin Hunt says They are available at U.S.
the actual text of the Bible
can supply a demonstration this is not just another $1 for individual copies, $3
for their script, actors por
tape and information for you for twelve, or $10 for fifty.
Dorcas center, because "I tray events with narration
to take to your local stations. Care" operates on an Write to us at 6840 Eastern
and musical background.
exchange basis. People who Avenue NW., Washington,
MINISTRY has a limited quan
D.C. .10012. Include your
come are asked to bring tity of tapes available at sav
Intervention In check or muney order,
something usable to ings of 50 percent for our
substance abuse exchange for anything they readers. Regular price is
"Pastoral Intervention in take, and although those Witnessing to $59.95 for the New Testa
Substance Abuse," a confer with nothing to exchange Witnesses ment, $29.95 for the Psalms
ence for ministers on roles are not turned away, the E. B. Price, who was and Proverbs. MINISTRY
and action steps to take to exchange basis helps pre communication secretary of readers' prices are US$29.95
intervene in problems of serve dignity. The program the Greater Sydney Confer for the New Testament and
alcoholism and drug usage has greatly increased com ence, Australia, for fourteen US$14.95 for Psalms and
and dependency among fam munity awareness of this years, has just updated an Proverbs.
ilies, youth, and the com small rural church, and excellent tool for use in Also available: Narrated
munity, will be conducted many non-Adventists make working with Jehovah's Wit KJV New Testament
by the Institute of Alcohol donations. The center also nesses. His sixty-page book, US$25.00; Narrated KJV
ism and Drug Dependency hosts community service Our Friends: The Jehovah's Psalms and Proverbs
and the Andrews University programs and seminars. Witnesses, contains many US$14.95. Add $3 postage
Theological Seminary from For further information helpful items including a and handling per order.
July 8 to 11, 1985. The write to Elder Marvin Hunt, history of the Watchtower Order from MINISTRY Serv
conference will present help Orangeburg Seventh-day Society, photocopies of ices, Box 217, Burtonsville,
ful strategies and informa Adventist Church, 780 Ben- Watchtower materials, and Maryland 20866.
Recommended leading

The Person of Christ Lord of the Impossible tects what it does not feel." Illustra
David F. Wells, Crossway Books, West- Llo^d John Ogilvie, Abingdon Press, tions from Dr. Brand's work among
chester, Illinois, 1984, 224 pages, Nashvitte, 1984, 224 pages, $9.95. lepers give impressive explanations of
$7.95, paper. Reviewed by Jack Blanco, Reviewed by ]ack Blanco. the value of pain.
professor, division of religion, Southern As the title suggests, Lloyd Ogilvie I have six pages of notes in the
College, Colkgedak, Tennessee. has lifted his Hollywood congregation flyleaves of this book suggesting ser
This volume is intended primarily and his TV viewers to new heights of mon illustrations. It is more than a
for college students, laymen, and positive Biblical thinking. This is an book; it is a masterpiece of new and
teachers. But studious pastors will find excellent little volume for creative creative ideas.
David Wells's work helpful in explain preaching.
ing the doctrine of the nature of The book consists of twenty experi
Christ from scriptural, historical, and ence sketches from a fresh viewpoint. Scripture quotations marked N.A.S.B. are from
theological perspectives. Ogilvie has related the experiences of the New American Standard Bible, The Lockman
The author places the current dis yesterday's men and women to the Foundation 1960, 1962, 1963, 1968, 1971, 1972,
1973, 1975, 1977. Texts credited to N.E.B. are
cussion of the nature of Christ in hurts and hopes of men and women from The New Engfo/i Bible. The Delegates of the
proper perspective. He takes a wholis- today. Oxford University Press and the Syndics of the
tic view and examines how the The content is familiar and so pro Cambridge University Press 1961, 1970.
Reprinted by permission. Texts credited to N. I. V.
church's understanding of Scripture vides easy reading, but the challenge are from The Holy Bible: New International Version.
has affected the doctrine through the 'this little volume provides is to cus Copyright 1973, 1978, International Bible
centuries. tomize the experiences of Scripture to Society. Used by permission of Zondervan Bible
Publishers. Texts credited to N.K.J.V. are from
An additional benefit this little vol meet the needs of people in congrega The New King James Version. Copyright 1979,
ume provides is insight into the inter' tions everywhere and to inspire them 1980, 1982, Thomas Nelson, Inc., Publishers.
Scripture quotations marked R.S.V. are from the
relatedness of Christian doctrines and to read more Scripture. This volume Revised Standard Version of the Bible,
of how philosophical forces and theo should not be used as a book of copyrighted 1946, 1952 1971, 1973. Texts
logical preferences have contributed to ready-made sermons, but as a seedbed credited to T.L.B. are from The Living Bible 1971
by Tyndale House Publishers.
our present fragmented understanding of ideas, outlines, and insights that
of the person of Christ. can be repackaged and ignited. As a
In his final chapter Wells takes sermon workbook this little volume
soundings of the Christologies of peppered with applicable illustrations
Earth, Pittenger, and Schillebeeckx. will bring rich dividends.
For Barth, the author points out,
Christ was the Wholly Other and In His Image
"Christ in you" needed to be under Paul Brand and Philip Yancy, Zander'
stood not as a reality experienced, but van, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1984,
only as an objective reality in history. 291 pages, $11.75. Reviewed by Jerry
Pittenger's view, Wells says, is a Lastine, director of stewardship and com
shift from the antiliberalism in Barth munication, Indiana Conference of
to a repristination based on White- Seventh-day Adventists.
head's process theology. Here Christ is The authors of Fearfully and Won
merely the forerunner of other men derfully Made (1981) have produced
who each in their own way are imita another best-seller. They use the latest
tions of God. information available on the human
According to Wells, Schillebeeckx, body to give the reader a practical
a Dominican priest prominent in shap understanding of the body of Christ.
ing the New Catholicism, holds that Sections dealing with one's images,
Christ is whatever He means to each blood, head, spirit, and pain make the
of us as we experience the life He book a valuable pastoral asset for illus
experienced. Thus Jesus differs in trating gospel truth.
degree but not in kind from religious Since the advent of the Caring
people everywhere. Church concept, the final section on
Although the reader may find a few pain is especially appropriate. Lepers
"dry" places in the volume, the and Laodicea have similar problems.
insights gained make it worthwhile The spiritual application of pain
reading. teaches us that "the body poorly pro