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# Crassr 3rdcrass

U niversity of Al-Qadissiya
S b iec Fluid Mechanics
College of Engineering Exammer D bdursada
Mechanical Engineering Department rimer f% Our
Second Course ExaminariOn 20f3 20f4 Darer f5/4/2014

## Qr/a-Define the turbomachine (5 4arks)

b- List three types of turbomahine with a clear diagram of each type. (15 Marks)

## = And prove that

-11

-11

Where:

h: enthalpy(kJ/kg)
is: isentropic state
P: Pressure (kPa)
y: Specific heat ratio (for air is 1.4)

## 4. : Compression process efficiency.

Use diagram for the process for more explanation. (20 larks)

B- An axial flow air compressor is designed to provide an overall total to total pressure ratio of 8 to 1. At
inlet and outlet the stagnation temperatures are 300K and 586.4K, respectively. Determine the overall total
to total efficiency and polyropic efficiency for the compressor. (20 Marks)
Q3/A multi- stage high pressure steam turbine is supplied with steam at a stagnation pressure of 7 MPa abs.
and a stagnation temperature of 500oC. The corresponding specific enthalpy is 3410 kJlkg. The steam
exhausts from the turbine at a stagnation pressure of 0.7 MPa abs. The steam has a superheated condition
throughout the expansion. It can be assumed that the steam behaves like a perfect gas over the range of the
expansion and that Y = 1.3. Given that the turbine flow process has a small stage efficiency of 0.82
determine:
1- The temperature and specific volume at the end of the expansion.
2- The reheat factor

## The specific volume of superheated steam is represented by Pv:0.231(h-1943) where P is in kPa, v in

m3lkg and h is in kJ/kg. (40 Marks)

Q+/ For the adiabatic expansion of a perfect gas through a turbine, show that the overall efficiency r11 and

Q' - cno)
4t= )
(1-
Where

## And r is the expansion pressure ratio, y is the specific heat ratio.

An axial flow turbine has a small stage efficiency 0.86, an overall pressure ratio of 4.5 to I and mean value
of y - 1.333 . Calculate the overall turbine efficiency. (40 Marks)

Notes:

Assume the data that you need which conesponding with your solution.

Good Luck
Crassr 3rd crass
University of Al-Qadissiya
Sub iec Fluid Iechanics II
College of Engineering Exammer D dursada
Mechanical Engineering Department rimer f% Our
Second Co rse ExaminariOn 2013 20 Daler f5/4/2014

## Qr/a-Define the turbomachine (5 Marks)

b- List three types of turbomahine with a clear diagram of each type. (15 Marks)

## == And prove that

-11

c=

-11

Where:

h: enthalpy(kJ/kg)
is: isentropic state
P: Pressure (kPa)

## 4, : Compression process efficiency.

Use diagram for the process for more explanation. (20 Marks)

B- An axial flow air compressor is designed to provide an overall total to total pressure ratio of 8 to l. At
inlet and outlet the stagnation temperatures are 300K and 586.4K, respectively. Determine the overall total
to total efficiency and polyropic efficiency for the compressor. (20 Marks)
Q3/A multi- stage high pressure steam turbine is supplied with steam at a stagnation pressure of 7 MPa abs.
and a stagnation temperature of 500oC. The corresponding specific enthalpy is 3410 kJ/kg. The steam

exhausts from the turbine at a stagnation pressure of 0.7 MPa abs. The steam has a superheated condition
throughout the expansion. It can be assumed that the steam behaves like a perfect gas over the range of the
expansion and that T : L.3. Given that the turbine flow process has a small stage efficiency of 0.82
determine:
1- The temperature and specific volume at the end of the expansion.

## The specific volume of superheated steam is represented by Pv:0.231(h-1943) where P is in kPa , v in

m3/kg and h is in kJ/kg. (40 Marks)

Q+/ For the adiabatic expansion of a perfect gas through a turbine, show that the overall efficiency q1 and
the small stage efficieficy tlp are related by

4t=
Q' - enol

(1 )

Where

## And r is the expansion pressure ratio, y is the specific heat ratio.

An axial flow turbine has a small stage efficiency 0.86, an overall pressure ratio of 4.5 to I and mean value

## of y - 1.333 . Calculate the overall turbine efficiency. (40 Marks)

Notes:

Assume the data that you need which corresponding with your solution.

Good Luck
U niversity Of Al-Qadisiya Stage: 3'd

Engineering College
Subject: Fluid Mechanics ll
Time:90 Minutes
Mechanical Department
Date:LSl4l20t4
Examiner: Dr. M. Abdulsada Note: Answer two of Q2,Q 3 andQ 4

## QUa-Define the turbomachine (5 Marks)

b- List three types of turbomahine with a clear diagram of each type. (L5 Marks)

## Q2/Start from the definition of the polytropic efficiency

dhis
4p = And Prove that

( -1)

Where:

h: enthalpy(kllke)

## is: isentropic state

P: Pressure (kPa)

## 4r: Compression process efficiency.

Use diagram for the process for more explanation. (20 Marks)

B- An axial flow air compressor is designed to provide an overall total to total pressure ratio of 8 to 1. At
inlet and outlet the stagnation temperatures are 300K and 586.4K, respectively. Determine the overall
total to total efficiency and polytropic efficiency for the compressor. (20 Marks).

Q3/A multi- stage high pressure steam turbine is supplied with steam at a stagnation pressure of 7 MPa
abs. and a stagnation temperature of 500oC. The corresponding specific enthalpy is 3410 kJ/kS. The steam

exhausts from the turbine at a stagnation pressure of 0.7 MPa abs. The steam has a superheated condition

throughout the expansion. lt can be assumed that the steam behaves like a perfect gas over the range of
the expansion and that y = L.3. Given that the turbine flow process has a small stage efficiency of 0.82
determine:

## The specific volume of superheated steam is represented by Pv=0.231(h-1943) where P is in kPa , v in

m3/kg and
H is in kJ/ke. (40 Marks)

Q4/ For the adiabatic expansion of a perfect gas through a turbine, show that the overall efficiency r7. and
the small stage efficiencv qp are related by

(1 - eno)
4t=
t- (1-s)
Where
7-y
t:r y

## And r is the expansion pressure ratio,y is the specific heat ratio.

An axial flow turbine has a small stage efficiency 0.86, an overall pressure ratio of 4.5 to 1 and mean value

## of = 1.333 . Calculate the overall turbine efficiency. (40 Marks)

Notes:

1. Assume the data that you need which corresponding with your solution.

Good Luck
Q1/a

DerittitiOtt of a turbomachine
Wc cI
sil as lo b maclliFiC
1l tho e dc iccs in hicil cllctty i transirE
cit: rt , r fYo
, conti:1 ousIF ll will l11litl by tlic( w rr ' r
I f
.
O or :

## nlor lc,vi bl(lt: r

.Thc rd ttri /pr,o:. is Of Latitt ori ill and illlplics tl at
f

viti
llill r vl ir (lrOt11 Es
clelltinily a rotatilttt 13r ,or all P
l l(ltle l o

'
.in
cll llttc lllC St : : (11:(} elllll throllgh it citllcr doin ,0 iti ,c
lpy t11'tilc 1lid:1lo
or ilcttativc vork, Cpcnding til)o l
hc cntct itqllircd of thc lllacllinc.1 1lc c cnthalpy
chall c= :`C intiin3 :y li k ti vitll tilc Prcssl:rc chan cs Occt::Till :111111tallcotisly in
l:le tttlid.

Q1/b

Hotsr blades

Flow

## (a)Sing stage axia1 1lolv

conttpressor or pump )MiXed flow Purnp

low direclon
Guide vanes blades
03 Oiffuser

Vaneless diffuser
Flow

V Ittte
Draught tube
lmpeller

## (C)Centrifugal compttssor or pump (d}Francis turbine

(miXed 10W )

Guide vanes

IDroug tube
or difluser
(e)Kalplatt turbine

inlet p:pe
Flow - *

Jet
(I) Pelton wheel

F:G.
Q2/a

## T :, lyt pic t icll r tilc s11lali stttgc ls

drf dP
=
F=c d7 ' (2.3

sittc n isetttroP:Cl)rttCCSS IU =t)=d
tll,.

R rd/r
p=

## Fl .2.7. Increttental change of s

te in a compression process,

dF ( 1)d
r ) r
as CP= /( ,1). {2.1 2}

## intc 1 tillg ctln,(2.32,3CrO th

holc conlllrcs5or alttl takitt cqllal crlicicttcy lor cacl
iI li :tcsilllol lag ivc

= O
)
Now thc iscllll PiC ellicicilcy
r tilc wilolc colllprttsslo 11
OCe 1

=(F2

rl)/(72 71} (1.34)
if it is a lintctl that thc velocitics at illict antl otitlct are qllal.
F r thc, lllPrcsS1011,IcsS l)lit =l in ctln.(2.32)antl S0 0btatll

.

=( )
(2.35)

whicil is a15o obtai:1,bic itsln =COnStallt alld 1'=R71 Stib tittltill eq
(2.33)ttiltl
(2.35,1111 Ctln (2.34): cStilts itl thc c prcssion

(2.36}
Q2/b

pL FI
1.1. A xi ! 0 v air coll,prcssoF iS tlCsi 1lcd tO ttrovi il vttFall tOt "
to t t I !00f81o l,
Pressutt F t iltlct allt1 0utlct thc stagilatlon tclllperattttrcs arc
300K atid ,4K lcspcctivcly.
Detcllll: tl c v rall total lo tOtll cttcicttcy and t po
PiC Cicttcy le
C0111pttsso Assutte tl t l)r air is l.4.

,

:71.Fi"ol 1 1 ,(
28),stibStittlt 1 =C tllC Cttcicncv call bc w ttcn tts

==
Oi r02/70: 1 1 0.85,

FrolI)
we t
11.12 33) tak: Ioss oF botil si(les attd re arangi

i ln( ):, 1 8
=Fl (r02/r01)=3.3X
1
"/ =
8865
hl.954
Q3/

## lpl)li )i Witl1 8t m ata

pr SStFC Stea:1l turbine iS S
1 1 ,A lllditi ago 1
tel perattte or lo c.The
. res (7
Pa ttS,and 3 ia On

## ustt Frott tlle

y is 3410 J/kg '11lC Steanl11
l_. e.Fondttg spetti iC e
e st 1 ltaVing be S
l. i as tittn pre3S e FO.7 MPa abS ,

## t the StOant tDel12VCS

0 t the oxpallSioln. lt Catt be tSSumed
hetttOd Ondtti l t tll
a tllat v =1.3" GiVen t
OVer tlle range of tlle oXpansio
ii reNf ct g llle
ali Stago t ifiCiellcy Of O,82, dettF
lrbme o F proceStt l Sa il

e
l at tlle elld f the eXPanSttni
( t t perattre
and speciFic V01

(li)the reheat ttCtO

lttt by pr

i l llilil ::ll:II:lili[IIIifl1lFili
i11
llilI:lillibine,
tlle t
I tiOn
Of Q.2.
Solutl (

; (2
37),lS
1)/Y
T 1/, 2)7p(Y
1/To2 =
10
1)/ =0 2
2xO.3/1.3=0.18'2 and p 1
ere
ll

1892 = 1 5461
T 1 T
3 = 1

## 500 4 273 ' 77: Kl l10nCe tliC OtitlCt

Tl e 1lCt StngllsttiOn tCmperaturC rrol

## stag t10n temp

Fatttre iS

773/1.5461 = 60'K
()2
utlet iS
rreSPOnclmg to Sta3 ation COllditiOllS at(
Tle specifiC VOltlme V 2C
-1943)and the perfect
determined Vith the superheated steam relatiOn pv=0.2310
VO equatiOnS,
gaS la pv=RTo COlnbinlng tllese
1943)
T
2/Tol = e 2 1943)/ l
1943)500/773
h02 1943 = 1 1943)T 2/T 1 =(3410

= 948 9

`
l
/kg
02 2891.9
l o2 0
231X948.9/700

= 0.3131m3/ g
(2.39), as
(11)The reheat faCtOr iS defined, eqn
RH 7t/ p

tOttl t0 1
ttl efiCttncy

1 2)/ 1 T
'

t= 28)

T /T 1)
(1 T02 ol)/(1
T r

2s/ 1)=(1

Y 1)/Y
[1 (p.2/P 1)(

'231)8)
(1 1/1.54 )/(1-1/10

## 0.5461 k l.7013/(1.5461 x O,701

0 8568

fe RH = 0.8663/0 82 14011
Q4/

tttr e 3h tttt t
pe t ttS
iti l e ad =
y
Rtt S 11
SittCy 7,are r 1
1 1 iC y
ll

) 1_6)

t=(1 iS r
.1 ) , rC rat
F(1 r is the c Sl
:

l t tS
=
3m S e 136 t e PttesSOItt rati0
1 n fl rbitte
l

i turbme
l 333.CttlCttate
1 n 1 e ttf T
111 to l and

14' ittn. T

tO e l tO
e over ll dI I y Of tltrbtt iS ass
1 ,
1 11ti.o y de in ,
(2.21),by

I Tt = 61' 1
r
1
1)3s)

=CPT' tt
t .

=li.
o2)/ 01-Ttts

l T

11 T,

.(1 .1)/(4

:F 1)

(1)

## 'i-'le *r'*::all ttr:al pressure r&ti* i\$

1)

r s srrl lF*: * (
l
F

)

) (1'
r(1-

.1 =

"'1

S 1
p= 1 f tte nSiOtt prOC
1 T tt S

1()it iS beSt i
11 e SXetcll,
Tllitt eXpattS
i CttrT Spendin
tlrcp tth() \$rr
s 11 n ttrltllpr
.

ll Sttge elll i l

F 3 re drttp dp .
Th
1

a ed

7p o/ o

1
: rT C c ln 3pOCl c ttntropF ttan he rel ing lav3 o
"

t FItx , tlle elettCl ry c s OF prOP4Ftie
FI q .9

= dP/,

: lt i p. lic`btte to bOttt tever o ltl rreversillie proces\$ a s :b.s
=

IF Ctty pr e3s it foliowS tttt

p /p

=RT &na dh cp To
S 3ttt 1 th r 8 it and perf ,3 s rolati , p9 /F
:

(lil)

CP dT V 1)dL/dp
dp
VR

?F

re ttP VR V 1).A rttrr ttt above 0

T = [ p(V 1) v]dp

## ver 11, occSS,

: ntt p 1 s in thC tiI11lts f r th

=
1)/V
l=

/pol}7p(

* *

6?F {lr}
"htl'rllx

b 111,11111g t t ('I)3 (lV)=ttO trrill.(:), 114 rcti1111lc`: F)1ltil, 1 o ti 1 ,

?r, =
(l* ,?o'tl\$-Al

ilt r=4,1, 1``
I
P= 6,
'

?4,3 = 1/1_45

r(1 7)/V . 1/4.5 = ()46 68,

## =0. 30'36 9,723,

7t a(1
7239)/(1 ( .6348)

=
16 Per,, t