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1. To obtain the appropriate empirical equation governing the constant pressure operation of a
filter, assuming that a cake is incompressible and filter medium resistance is negligible.
2. To obtain an empirical equation of the specific cake resistance as a function of operating
pressure drop.

Filtration is a process of separating dispersed particles from a fluid by passing the fluid through a
porous media which the particles are deposited. Filtration process is widely used in the industry. They
are primarily used in pharmaceutical filtration, beverage manufacturing, petroleum and other industries

There are three main components of filtration equipment: the dispersed particle, fluid and porous
media. The dispersed particle is characterized by its diameter or size distribution, shape of the particles,
mass, density, electric charge, dielectric constant, chemical composition, and concentration. The fluid is
characterized by the velocity, density, absolute temperature, pressure, dynamic viscosity, kinematic
viscosity and humidity. The porous media or filter is characterized by its geometric dimension; the filter
surface area and thickness, size of structural units, porosity, specific surface, electric charge, dielectric
constant and composition.

Filtration is an operation in which the solid particles found in a mixture are separated from the
liquid. This may be done by passing the mixture through a filter or a porous material. The flow of mixture
is affected by various factors such as gravity, pressure, vacuum or centrifugal force. Filtration produces
fluid stream of clear liquid called as filtrate and solid phase with some liquid.

Plate and frame press is one of the other types of filter presses. The plate and frame press
consists of vertical plates held in a frame and are pressed together between fixed and moving end. On
the face of each individual plate a cloth filter is placed. A centrifuge pump is used to ensure the
remaining solid particles do not settle in the system. A pump also functions to deliver the suspension into
each of the separating chambers in the plate and frame filter press.

Plate and frame filter press works by feeding a fluid or slurry to the filter. The slurry is passed
through corresponding plates in array. As it passed each frame it entered the chamber and filled it with
slurry. The fluid pressure in the slurry caused filtrate to flow through the filter medium into the drainage
channels on the surface of the plate. Then after it passed through the channels, the filtrate exits to the
exit port, which is found at the bottom of the plate. The cake space is filled with the solid particles which
accumulated during the process. As the cake space is nearly full the filtrate rate starts to decrease giving
the signal to stop the filtration process.

Tien, Chi (2012). Principles of Filtration. Retrieved from

Matteson, Micahel J., Orr, Clyde (1987). Filtration: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, Revised and
Expanded. Retrieved from

Sutherland, Kenneth S., Chase, George (2005). Filters and Filtration Handbook. Retrieved from