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Pit Viper Control System

Training document

Revision 0.34

Created on: 2004-09-16 07:34


Last Save: 2005-01-18 12:42
Printed on: 2005-02-10 16:20

NOTICE: The recipient of this document will not reproduce or distribute it, in whole or in part
without the prior written consent of Aquila Mining Systems Ltd., and will permanently keep
confidential all information contained herein.
Pit Viper Control System Training document

1 OVERVIEW OF THE CONTROL SYSTEM 4

1.1 OVERVIEW OF THE SYSTEM: COMPUTER/DCU/CAN 4


1.1.1 DCU/COMPUTER COMMUNICATION: 5
1.1.2 WATCHDOG 5
1.1.3 FLASHING 5
1.2 SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE 6
1.2.1 PIT VIPER SIDE: 6
1.2.2 AQUILA SOFTWARE: 7
1.2.3 INTERACTION 7
1.3 STARTUP/SHUTDOWN SEQUENCE 8
1.3.1 STARTUP: 8
1.3.2 SHUTDOWN: 8

2 CALIBRATION/CONFIGURATION 10

2.1 CALIBRATION OF I/OS 10


2.1.1 INTRODUCTION 10
2.1.2 INPUT CALIBRATION SCREEN: 11
2.1.3 OUTPUT CALIBRATION SCREEN: 11
2.2 ADVANCED CONTROLLER CONFIGURATION 14
2.2.1 HOURMETER ADJUSTMENT 14
2.2.2 FAN CONTROL 14
2.2.3 AUTOLUBE 15
2.2.4 UPPER DECELERATION 15
2.2.5 NO BUMP 15
2.2.6 AIR PRESSURE CONTROLLER SETPOINTS 16
2.2.7 WASH-DOWN WAND 16
2.2.8 SCREEN REFRESH RATE 16
2.2.9 TORQUE/WEIGHT ON BIT CALCULATION FACTORS: 16
2.2.10 CABLE TENSION 16

3 CONTROLLERS/INTERLOCKS 17

3.1 SOFTWARE INTERLOCKS 17


3.1.1 FEED / HEAD MOVEMENT: 17
3.1.2 TOWER RAISE AND LOWER INTERLOCKS: 17
3.1.3 PIPE IN HOLE INTERLOCKS: 18
3.1.4 OTHER INTERLOCKS: 18
3.2 HARD WIRED INTERLOCKS 18
3.2.1 JACKS: 18
3.2.2 MAIN PUMPS FOR ROTATION, FEED, AND PROPEL: 18

4 TROUBLESHOOTING USING SCREENS 19

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4.1 VISUAL FEEDBACK ON COMMAND SCREENS 19


4.2 FAULT SCREEN 19
4.3 DIGITAL SIGNAL SCREEN 20
4.4 ANALOG SIGNAL SCREEN 20
4.5 NETWORK DIAGNOSTIC SCREEN 21
4.5.1 DCUS 21
4.5.2 ECM/369 RELAY 21
4.5.3 NETWORK TRAFFIC 22
4.6 ENGINE SCREEN 22
4.6.1 ELECTRIC MOTOR 22
4.6.2 DIESEL ENGINE 23
4.7 COMPUTER INFORMATION SCREEN 24
4.8 GUIDESKCOM 25
4.9 SOFTWARE COMMISSIONING INFORMATION SCREENS 26

5 EXTRACTING TROUBLESHOOTING INFORMATION 27

5.1 USING THE MINE MENU COMPACT FLASH 27


5.2 EXTRACTING CONFIGURATIONS 27
5.3 EXTRACTING LOGS 28

6 REPLACING THE COMPUTER: 29

7 OVERVIEW OF AQUILA MODULES 29

7.1 DM1 29
7.2 DM2 29
7.3 DM3 29
7.4 DM5 29
7.5 REPORTS 29

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1 Overview of the control system


1.1 Overview of the system: computer/DCU/CAN
The control of the Pit Viper is done through the computer: the commands are sent by the touch-
screen or the operator controls via the Distributed Control Units (DCUs), they are interpreted by
the software, then the output is sent to the actuators, again via the DCUs.
The central computer is like the brain of the system, but the DCUs have an equally important role
since they relay the information from the sensors and the command to the valves.

OPERATOR

SCREEN ETH IP RADIO MINE


OFFICE
SERIAL COMM RADIO

SERIAL GPS RECEIVER 1


COMPUTER

SERIAL GPS RECEIVER 2


CENTRAL

SERIAL LAPTOP
ELECTRIC
MOTOR
SERIAL 369 RELAY

CAN 2 ECM DIESEL


ENGINE
CAN 1

OPERATOR CAB
CONTROLS DCU

TOWER
PROXY TOWER
SWITCHES DCU

VALVE BAY 3
DCU

VALVE BAY 2
SENSORS DCU HYDRAULIC
SYSTEM

VALVE BAY 1
DCU

POWER PACK
DCU

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1.1.1 DCU/Computer communication:


The DCUs are connected to the computer through a CAN network, which is a standard used for
instance in the automotive industry.

The DCUs convert the electrical input signal into numerical values, then group these values
in messages they send on the CAN, with a fixed period.
Each DCU keeps its own configuration describing which inputs are used, how to group them,
and the frequency to send the messages.
Because the traffic on the CAN is limited, priority information is sent at a higher rate than
less critical signals. For instance, the emergency stop is sent at the highest rate, 20Hz
Upon receiving a message, the computer decodes it using a matching configuration, gives a
name to each signal it contains, applies the calibration, and - if the value has changed from
the previous sample notifies the relevant part of the program. For instance, if the water
injection button is pressed, the program which manages the injection motor gets notified.
The program then decides how to react to the new information, and adjusts the value of some
output signals (in the previous example, the voltage to the injection motor)
The output signals are similarly grouped into messages, based on their priority and the
destination DCU, then sent back
Each DCU picks the messages it needs to read, and translates them into the output electrical
signals

1.1.2 Watchdog
Because all command is travelling though the DCUs, operation must stop if the communication to
one DCU is lost. To this effect, each DCU is sending a watchdog message to the computer twice
a second: if the computer stops receiving it, it flags a critical fault and stops all operation.

1.1.3 Flashing
Each DCU keeps its own configuration defining how the IOs are used. If a DCU is replaced, the
computer will detect it and flash it by sending the proper configuration.
A fault will be flagged instructing the operator to wait, the network diagnostic screen will show
the DCU yellow and blinking, and since the DCU is not yet functional, the computer still stop all
operation of the drill.
It is not recommended to turn power off during a flashing operation, the cc is booting or shutting
down.

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1.2 Software architecture

The application running on the Pit Viper is composed of modules corresponding each to a part of
the machine or one functionality.
This means that the most important part in troubleshooting is to locate the module causing the
problem.
Also, the screens are just an interface between the operator and the programs running behind, just
the way the joysticks are not moving the parts themselves, but sending the request to move to the
computer which decides what to do.

The program on the Pit Viper is divided in two mostly independent parts:
- the control system, specific to the model of drill
- the Aquila system, which is a product also used on other types of drills: production
monitoring, rock type recognition, auto drilling, positioning.
The images below reflect the separation with each side having a main menu screen giving access
to the sub-screens; switching between the Aquila side and the Pit Viper side is done using the
second button from the right in the button bar at the bottom. The first button from the right calls
the main menu screen.

Drill or Pit Viper main menu screen Aquila or Reports main menu screen

1.2.1 Pit Viper side:


It groups everything necessary for the manual operation of the drill: screens, device drivers,
controllers.
As a rule, there is one controller for each part of the drill or functionality, for example:
- water injection motor: command from the joystick button or the screen
- cooling fan: command from the temperature sensors to the fan control module in
software.
The advantages of breaking down the program in small specialized modules are:
adaptation to the hardware: if an option is added or one part redesigned, only the
corresponding controllers have to be added/modified
troubleshooting: each controller remains specialized and simple, so solving the problems is
easier once the offending controller is located.

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1.2.2 Aquila Software:


Several modules are available to suit the needs of the operation:
production monitoring (DM1)
rock type recognition (DM2)
auto drilling (DM3)
GPS positioning. (DM5)
Inclined drilling. (DM6)

1.2.3 Interaction
The two sides are largely independent but share some information:
the machine state (drilling/propelling/leveling) is decided by the Pit Viper side based on
requests from the operator
the drilling parameters (torque, feed speed...) are displayed on the Pit Viper drilling screen,
and also used by DM2/3
DM3 can drive the controllers, replacing the direct operator command
The good operation of the Aquila modules require the sensors of the Pit Viper to be functional
and properly calibrated.

All the information shared between modules and exchanged with the DCUs is stored in a
common data storage repository (called Desk), and several screens help troubleshooting by
displaying some of those signals.

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1.3 Startup/Shutdown sequence


Just like any complex system storing information, the computer on the Pit Viper goes though a
well defined sequence of actions at startup and at shutdown.

1.3.1 Startup:
1. power on to the computer and the DCUs
2. the DCUs boot (in about 15 seconds)
3. the computer boots: BIOS, text mode with messages indicating the progress of the disk
integrity check, graphical mode (gray screen)
4. the Aquila and Pit Viper software starts: while the green bar shows the progress, the different
layers of the application are started:
- device drivers (DCU, GPS)
- various core Aquila modules
- Pit Viper controllers
- Reporting modules
- Graphical interface
5. the computer forces the DCUs to restart, and communication between computer and DCUs
initiates

Many parts of the program have to read at startup, information that was saved at the previous
shutdown, indicating the situation at that time.
For example:
- reporting modules reload the time the computer was last running
- drilling monitoring checks if a hole was being drilled, and asks the operator if it should
be resumed
- the engine hour counter reload the old value

Because modules are being started and may be in an unstable state, it is not advised to turn power
off during startup when it can be avoided.

1.3.2 Shutdown:
1. the computer detect the key turned off
2. DCUs lose power and stop driving the outputs
3. the shutdown progress bar appears, with 4 color zones
- green: the shutdown procedure has not started yet, if the power comes back, the system
can resume operation
- yellow: the shutdown procedure has now started and will continue until all programs are
stopped and it turns the computer off. The different parts of the program are stopped in
sequence. Many save information about their current state, to be reloaded when the
computer restarts (see above)
- orange: all programs should now be stopped, the computer is about to be turned off
- red: a problem happened during shutdown, or parts of the program could not be stopped.
You will have to wait until the backup batteries are depleted, or you may disconnect the
batteries located in the Aquila panel of the cab.

If the batteries are damaged and cannot sustain power to the computer for enough time after the
main key has been switched off, some modules may not have the time to close correctly. This can
result in:

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broken reports: some time periods are missing, because the information covering them could
not be written to the disk
corrupt file system: the computer lost power in the middle of a writing operation. The
software has been designed to recover as much as possible, but some information may be
damaged: hole maps, reports, shift and delay history, engine hours, head position at start time
(before it is automatically recalibrated when the correct switch is activated)
if the corruption is to severe, the system may not b able to restart. A last chance procedure
called P3 fix is available using the Mine Menu compact flash. See its documentation for
more information.

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2 Calibration/configuration
2.1 Calibration of I/Os

2.1.1 Introduction
This covers the calibration of the standard inputs and outputs for the Pit Viper.
Depending on the Aquila modules installed, some extra sensors may need to be calibrated
separately (vibration sensors for the DM3 option); refer to the Aquila documentation for this
purpose.

To show the Pit Viper IO calibration screen, press the following buttons:

You are asked for a password: by default it is CATAQ, but it can be changed by the person doing
the calibration (by typing the old password and pressing the key button).

A screen offering a list of signals appears:

There are 3 inputs (inclinations), it is assumed that all other sensors are working within the
specification tolerance, so a standard calibration can be used for all machines.
All signals starting with O_ are outputs.

Select the signal to calibrate and press the Calibrate button.

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2.1.2 Input calibration screen:

Note: The unit category selection list is used for the calibration of other types of sensors on
other Aquila systems, but can be ignored for the calibration of the inclinometers on the Pit Viper.

Procedure:
Make the physical value of the device go to a low value.
Enter the actual value in the calibration tool.
Make the physical value of the device to a high value.
Enter the actual value in the calibration tool.

Press to save the new settings.

2.1.3 Output calibration screen:


Overview
The Calibration program allows output functions to be calibrated for threshold, max-out, ramp-up
time, and ramp-down time.

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Exit
Program
Button

Maxout
Cursor
Signal
Activate
Button

Nudge
Up/Down
Ramp
On/Off
Button
Threshold
Cursor
Calibration
Accept
Button
Set-point
Cursor

Ramp Up Ramp Down


Time Time

The program will load in the saved calibration settings for the selected signal. These values will
be listed under Old Min, Old Max, Old Time Up, and Old Time Down.
Old Min is the saved setting for threshold.
Old Max is the saved setting for max-out.
Old Time Up is the saved setting for the Ramp Up Time.
Old Time Down is the saved setting for the Ramp Down Time.

The old values allow the user to compare any adjustments to the saved calibration settings.

Ramp on/off and Signal activation buttons:


The Ramp On/Off Button toggles ramping on/off for testing.
The Signal Activation button activates the output.
When ramping is off, pressing the Signal Activation button will set the output to the level defined
by the Setpoint Cursor. This is used to determine the threshold and maxout levels.
When ramping is off, pressing the Signal Activation button will ramp up and stay at the Maxout
level, then ramp down when the button is released. This is used to determine the proper ramp
times.

Threshold Adjustment
Press the Ramp On/Off Button to turn ramping off.

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Touch the Setpoint Cursor and drag it to a desired threshold value.


Press the Signal Activate Button to physically test the function at the setpoint. The function
will only stay on as long as the Signal Activate Button is pressed.
The Setpoint Cursor should be adjusted such that the function just starts to move when the
Signal Activate Button is pressed.
Adjust the Threshold Cursor to match the Setpoint Cursor.

Maxout Adjustment
Press the Ramp On/Off Button to turn ramping off.
Touch the Setpoint Cursor and drag it to a desired maxout value.
Press the Signal Activate Button to physically test the function at the setpoint. The function
will only stay on as long as the Signal Activate Button is pressed.
The Setpoint Cursor should be adjusted such that the function is at maximum desired speed
when the Signal Activate Button is pressed.
Adjust the Maxout Cursor to match the Setpoint Cursor.

Ramp Adjustment
Ramp Up Time is defined as the amount of time to ramp from threshold to maxout.
Ramp Down Time is defined as the amount of time to ramp from maxout to threshold. Ramps
allow for smooth transitions of function speed. Most functions do not need ramping.
Press the Ramp On/Off Button to turn ramping on.
Touch the Ramp Up Time Box. The nudge buttons will appear next the Ramp Up Time Box.
Using the up/down arrows, select the desired ramp up time
Repeat for the Ramp Down Time Box.

Important: When testing a signal with a ramp down time, the function will continue to physically
move after the Signal Activate Button is released. During the ramp down period, the Signal
Activate Button will display STOP in the middle of the button. Pressing this button during the
ramp down period will instantly stop the function.

Save Settings
Once the signal has been calibrated, it must be saved.
Press the <OK> button to save the current settings.
A popup screen will appear asking for verification. Press Yes to accept the changes.

Program Exit
Press the <back arrow> to exit the program. If the Exit Program is pressed and the
calibrations have not been saved, a pop-up screen will ask the user if the current
settings should be saved. Press Yes to save or No to exit without saving.

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2.2 Advanced controller configuration

The advanced configuration screen allows the modification of several important parameters
which are expected to differ between machines.
As with the IO calibration, these parameters should be set and tested at commissioning time.
The access to the advanced screen is protected by its own password.

Note: Some of the parameters depend on a proper calibration of the outputs, which should be
performed before.

Procedure for configuration:


1- use the slider to show the parameter to modify
2- press on the white area to go to the keyboard screen and enter the new value, then
<enter>
3- the previous value is displayed on the side for reference
4- when all the desired parameters have been changed, press the green button to save those
settings.
5- To discard all the changes, press the back arrow button
6- After the changes are saved, they will only become effective after the computer is shut
down and restarted (except the engine hours)

2.2.1 Hourmeter Adjustment


After re-flashing or replacing a central computer, it may be necessary to reset the hourmeter to its
previous state. Enter the value in hours, with a decimal is needed (as the engine screen displays
it: 10.5 for 10 hours 30 minutes).

2.2.2 Fan Control


The software controller for the cooling fan has 4 inputs:

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1. hydraulic oil temperature (via RTD by valve bay),


2. compressor oil temperature (via RTD on CS compressor),
3. engine coolant temperature (via J1939 engine link, if applicable)
4. intake manifold temperature (via J1939 engine link, if applicable)

The software controller has 1 output: Fan speed (via Denison P07 pump, 9A stroker)

Note:
The fan output must first be calibrated using the calibration tool. The variable name is
O_FanSpeed.
Typical setting for electric machine is 70% PWM threshold to 78% PWM maxout. Typical
setting for diesel machine is 70% PWM threshold to 86% PWM maxout. Diesel machines have
twice the operable range of electric machines because diesel machines require twice the hydraulic
flow with two fans.

When the system is cool, the fan(s) will be running at a minimum fan speed (Min Fan Speed).
When an input temperature reaches its associated setpoint, the controller will start increasing the
fan speed. The increase in fan speed is directly proportional to the difference between actual
input temperature and setpoint temperature. The speed increase is defined by the gain variables.
If a bigger increase in fan speed per degree Celcius is required, then the gain must be increased,
and vice-versa.

The controller simultaneously monitors all 4 inputs. The temperature parameter which, alone,
would produce the greatest output will drive the fan.

Thresholds and gains can be set in the Fan controller Gains/Setpoints section.
All threshold temperatures are in Celcius.
The min. fan speed is in % of the calibated output, not direct PWM %.

2.2.3 Autolube
The control system has a program that runs the central lubrication system on the drill. The
system has two controlling factors: (1) the lube pump solenoid, and (2) the ball valve. When the
solenoid is activated, the system will begin greasing various points on the drill. When the ball
valve is activated, additional grease lines are pressurized for grease points in the tower. The ball
valve is only activated when the vertical pins are not locked.

Autolube cycle in the Misc Settings section, sets the time between auto lube cycles (in
minutes).

2.2.4 Upper Deceleration


The control system will limit the feed rate going up when the upper decel. Switches (SW1/SW2)
are triggered.
Max Hoist Speed Up in the Misc Settings section, sets that limit.

Note:
The main pump outputs have to be calibrated first, since this max. feed is given as percentage of
the calibrated range, not of the full range.

2.2.5 No Bump
The control system will limit the feed pressure going down when the carousel is not stowed.

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Max Pulldown Press. in the Misc Settings section, sets that limit.

Note:
The feed pressure output has to be calibrated first, since this parameter is given as percentage of
the calibrated range, not of the full range.

2.2.6 Air pressure controller setpoints


The bailing air controller has 3 setpoints for the 3 positions of the air switch in the cab
(low/medium/high).
The 3 values in the Air pressure section are those setpoints.

Note:
The setpoints are given as percentages of the calibrated range, which implies that:
the O_AirFlowVolume output first needs to be calibrated
the high setpoint should always be 100% (ie: the max calibrated level, not 100% PWM)

2.2.7 Wash-down wand


The water injection controller can be used in a special mode, for the wash-down wand function.
In that situation, the water pump will operate at a higher rate than the normal water injection
controlled by the sliding cursor.
The Wash-down wand fl. setting in the Misc Settings section defines that level, in percentage
of the calibrated water injection max.
Note:
O_WaterInjection first needs to be calibrated
Since the wash-down function must run at a higher rate than the regular water injection, this
setting should always be above 100%.

2.2.8 Screen refresh rate


This parameter sets the refresh rate of the numerical values displayed on the drilling screen, in
order to make them easier to read.

2.2.9 Torque/Weight on bit calculation factors:


The control system reads pressures from the hydraulic system, and computes the corresponding
forces based on different variables.
Some of these factors are related to the characteristics of the machine: motor displacement for the
torque, and rod weight for the weight on bit.
They can be set in the Misc Settings section:
Motor Displ. in cubic inch/revolution
Drill Rod W. in lbf

2.2.10 Cable tension


The lower tension can be adjusted using the +/- buttons at the top of the Advanced Calibration
Screen. The two buttons on the left correspond to the non-cab side, those on the right to the cab-
side cables.
The fifth button activates the upper tension unloader.

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3 Controllers/interlocks
3.1 Software interlocks
There are different types of interlocks enforced by the software:
some are related to the state of the machine: for instance, the water injection cannot be turned
on in propelling mode. Those interlocks typically do not trigger a fault, because common
sense should be enough to explain why the action is blocked
some are related to a temporary situation: for instance, the rod support cannot be moved is the
head is in the way. A fault is triggered to indicate how to solve the situation (move the
head)
some show a by-passable fault: the action should normally not be pursued, but it may be OK
in specific situations (maintenance, for instance). Since the operator is then taking
responsibility to bypass the security interlock, the bypass is logged on the system.
Bypassing faults should not be a way to save on maintenance: if a fault keeps showing up
because a sensor is broken, fix the sensor.

The detailed description of the controllers contains all the conditions which must be met and all
the interlocks; the following list covers the main safety interlocks built in the controllers.

3.1.1 Feed / head movement:


If breakout wrench is not stowed, disable feed.
If head is below rod support and support is manually closed, where arm open switch is false,
disable feed.
If carousel stowed switch is false and rotary head is above the top of carousel, zone 1 switch
is true, limit feed force to 1000 psig.
If carousel stowed switch is false and rotary head is below the top of carousel, disable feed.
If rotary head is in carousel zone, below top of carousel, disable carousel swing out and index
functions.
When feed up decel is true, limit feed up to X%.
When feed up limit (stop) is true, disable feed up.
When feed down decel is true, limit feed down to X%.
When feed down limit (stop) is true, disable feed down.
When carousel zone 1 then zone 2 become true, open rod support.
When carousel zone 2 then zone 1 become true, close rod support.

3.1.2 Tower raise and lower interlocks:


Only one set of tower locking pins can be retracted at a time. If vertical pin lock is false,
disable angle unlock function. If angle pin lock is false, disable vertical unlock function.
If vertical pin lock is true, angle pin lock is true, and struts unlock is true, disable tower raise
and lower function.
If vertical pin lock is true, angle pin lock is true, and struts unlock is false, disable tower raise
and lower function.
If vertical pin lock is false, angle pin lock is true, and struts unlock is false, disable tower
raise and lower function.
If vertical pin lock is true, angle pin lock is false, and struts unlock is false, disable tower
raise and lower function.

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If vertical pin lock is false, angle pin lock is true, and struts unlock is true, allow tower raise
and lower function.
If vertical pin lock is true, angle pin lock is false, and struts unlock is true, allow tower raise
and lower function.

3.1.3 Pipe in hole interlocks:


While in propel state, if Aquila rod in hole interlock if true, disable propel.
If Aquila rod in hole interlock if true, disable jack operation.
If Aquila rod in hole interlock if true, disable tower un-pinning operation.

3.1.4 Other interlocks:


Disable propel if all jack-up switches are not true.
Unplug hydraulic tank level switch harness, top of tank, verify fault is logged and engine
shuts off.

3.2 Hard wired interlocks


The hard wired interlocks were created to protect the drill in the event of software or distributed
control system malfunction, to stop unplanned movement of the jacks, rotation, feed, and propel.

3.2.1 Jacks:
Relays R22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29. Sheet 7 and 18 of schematic 57676280

When the jack control handles are in the neutral (off) position, a micro switch is open, the
corresponding relay is de-energized (off), and the contact in series with the jack valve coil will be
open, no power.

3.2.2 Main pumps for rotation, feed, and propel:


Relays R18, 19, 20, 21, 39, 40. Sheet 14 and 22 of schematic 57676280

When the main control handles are in the neutral (off) position, a micro switch is open, the
corresponding relay is de-energized (off), and the contact in series with the pump 9A coil will be
open, no power. To protect the rod catcher/support from impact from the rotary head: If tower
switch sw5 is activated (open), R39 de-energized, and the rod catcher/support arm open switch is
NOT activated, R40 de-energized. This creates an open circuit to R18 and 19, therefore no power
to the cab-side (feed) pump and no head movement. Sheet 1 of 57676280 for tower switch
locations.

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4 Troubleshooting using screens


Several screens provide information which may help in troubleshooting.

4.1 Visual feedback on command screens


When a function is activated using a push button on the screen, the color of the button is usually
providing information on the internal state of the controller:
gray: function is off, output is 0
blue: the button was pressed, the action requested, but there is no output. This happens in
several situations:
- the function has an activation delay, the button will soon turn green. Example: water
injection has a 5 seconds delay-on
- an software interlock is blocking the function. In some cases, a fault will be triggered to
explain the reason (interlock related to a temporary situation for example: the head is in
the way, the rod support cannot move). In other cases, no feedback is given (typically,
when the drill is not in the right state for instance, the operator tries to operate the rod
support in propel state.
- The button only turns green when the action is finished. Thats the case of the tower pins,
for example.
- The sensor providing the feedback signal is not working
green: function is active, output is not 0

4.2 Fault screen


The first thing to do in case of problems is probably to check the fault screen.
Some sensor failures can be detected by the software (redundancy, inconsistency, limited range)
and will cause a fault to be displayed.
Other faults, in their description, hint to where the problem is located or what it is associated
with.

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4.3 Digital signal screen

The digital screen shows the real-time state of selected on/off signals, as they are reported by the
DCU. The descriptions attempt to be explicit.
Digital signals are mainly cab buttons and proximity switches.

This is the screen to check if pressing a button does not seem to cause in reaction, or if an
interlock is on when it should not (switch malfunction).

There may be a 1 second delay before the screen updates.

4.4 Analog signal screen

The analog signal screen shows the real-time value of a selection of continuous signals: inputs
such as pressures, angles, joystick position, and outputs, mainly to valves.

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For the inputs, most of the signals also appear in other screens (drilling screen for pressures)
but the analog screen show the raw values as sent by the DCUs, with no processing, filtering or
unit conversion.
For the outputs, it shows the values just before they are sent to the DCUs.
Note that many outputs functioning in an on/off manner are driving valves and are treated as
continuous values (even if take actually take only two values: the calibrated threshold and
maxout).

The first column is the calibrated value in international system units (metric).
The last column is the numerical value as the DCU expects it, and is only relevant to diagnose a
calibration problem.

4.5 Network diagnostic screen

The network screen show the state of the CAN communication, of the DCUs, and of the ECM
(diesel engine) or 369 relay (electric motor).

4.5.1 DCUs
The color indicates the state of each DCU:
gray: undetermined. At boot time, the computer is waiting for the DCU to start and send its
initiate message
green: working
red: not sending the watchdog message. Either the DCU is damaged, or unplugged, or
severely mis-configured
yellow: the unit is being flashed. DO NOT TURN THE KEY OFF!

Note that while one DCU is being flashed, the others are put in stand-by and displayed in gray.

4.5.2 ECM/369 Relay


The color indicates the state of the communication:
green: communicating
red: no communication or bad communication

The red state will be associated with faults detailing the problem.
Check the engine/motor screens for more information.

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4.5.3 Network traffic


The right hand part of the screen displays more information on the traffic on the CAN network
(networks for diesel machine, where the ECM is connected on CAN2).
Starting from the top:
time the computer has been running
incoming messages flow (per second). Should stay stable in normal operation
outgoing messages flow (per second). Should stay stable in normal operation
incoming messages total count
outgoing messages total count
total number of discarded outgoing messages: this means the computer tried to send a
message on the CAN, but the driver reported a failure after several retries. In other words, the
DCU may not have received the message. If the message instructed the DCU to stop the
propelling, it may have severe consequences.
Total number of timeouts: a send operation had to be retried. A couple of timeouts after a few
hours operating is acceptable.

4.6 Engine screen


The engine screen is different for the diesel machines and the electric machines.

4.6.1 Electric motor

The electric motor screen displays several motor related parameters


(voltages/currents/temperatures) read through the 369 relay.
It also provides the commands for the cable reel and the pressurization system of the machinery
house.
Finally, it displays the count of hours the motor has been running.

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4.6.2 Diesel engine

4.6.2.1 Basic engine screen

The engine screen displays several engine related parameters read from the DCUs or the ECM:
Engine speed
fuel tank level
battery voltage
oil pressure
oil temperature
It also displays the count of hours the engine has been running.

The button on the right is a link to the advanced screen.

4.6.2.2 Advanced engine information

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The advanced screen shows more parameters read from the ECM through CAN 2, with the
corresponding unit.

It also displays the list of current engine faults as reported by the ECM module.
The ECM has its own fault level, and the Aquila system will trigger a fault based on this level:
Minor/Major/Critical Engine Fault. In that case, it will be necessary to go to the engine screen
to have more information about the engine fault.

Note:
Faults 209 Engine Shutdown Complete and 210 Engine Shutdown Imminent only display
what the ECM is reporting. They do not imply that the central computer ordered the engine to
shutdown.
The ECM can decide to shut the engine down on its own, based on its own sensors, and will
usually report an ECM fault such as temperature too high.
The only conditions where the central computer will order the engine to stop are:
emergency stop has been pressed or the key turned off: the power line to the engine is also
cut anyway
the hydraulic tank level is too low (digital input 0 on the Power Pack DCU)
the air compressor module reports a temperature too high (digital input 12 on the Power Pack
DCU)

4.7 Computer information screen


The computer information screen gives information about the computer itself, and ressource
availability.

On the left, a list of the busiest software modules is updated every second, with the percentage of
processing power they used in the past second. The idle line simply displays the amount of time
the processor was not in use: in normal operation, idle should be on top most of the time
(meaning the computer is powerful enough to run the program).
It has happened in the past that a communication module was choking on bad data, using too
much computing power and making the system unresponsive: this screen would show the
offending module at the top of the list.

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On the right side, a number of values are monitored:


serial number: the computers may have their serial number written in persistent memory
CPU: the type of processor
Altera: the firmware revision of the IO chip
Memory: the amount of memory used/total
Process: the number of separate programs running/maximum
Timer: the number of software timers used/maximum
Temperature: of the computer
Disc space: for each of the three partitions. The third box indicates the space left on the
partition which contains all the log files, production reports A partition nearly full can be
the sign of a problem (reports not being offloaded, too many system faults filling a log file)
Voltages.

4.8 GUIDeskCom
This tool can be used to monitor the real-time value of any variable of the system.
The names of the variables intend to be descriptive, but many are internal variables meaningful
only to specialists of the Aquila system.

Procedure:
select the desired variables in the left-hand side list
press the green arrow button pointing right to include the variables in the list of signals to
monitor
the checkboxes at the top can be used to filter only specific types of variables and limit the
list accordingly
the sort button can be used to sort alphabetically the left-hand list and find known variables
faster
when all desired variables are selected in the right-hand list, press view to switch to the
monitoring screen. The values are updated every second.

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4.9 Software commissioning information screens

The first software commissioning information screen lists all the software packages installed on
the system, including software updates. It can be used to determine if a bug fix was indeed
installed, and when. This can be useful to understand why a problem has gone away, or why it is
occurring on one machine but not another.
The second screen indicates the options activated at commissioning time.

Those two screens only show the information, but cannot be used to change the configuration.

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5 Extracting troubleshooting information


5.1 Using the Mine Menu compact flash
See the Aquila Mine Menu tool documentation.

5.2 Extracting configurations


The configuration backups created with the Mine Menu tool are zip files containing a tar file,
which can be opened on a PC using for instance WinZip. The program may open the tar file
automatically, or you may need to click on it again to see the contents.

The configuration backups contain a copy of the configuration files on the system: the
configuration files cover everything that can be changed for one system to another.
Some are common across all Pit Vipers (definition of which sensors to read the information
from, which screens to display), some are specific to each mine site (list of operational delays
in Delay.cfg, operators in Operator.cfg), others are specific to each machine (IO calibration in
DCULink.cfg)

Most configuration files just contain text, with specific keyword that the software can interpret.
Because of the way QNX and Windows mark the end of the lines in the files, they are not shown
correctly when using basic text editors such as Notepad. Wordpad or Word will display them
without any problem, though.
As a rule, lines beginning with # are comments that the program doesnt interpret, but can be
interesting for people looking at the files.
The files contain useful information for specialists, but since they are designed for the computer
to read, the meaning may not always be obvious.

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5.3 Extracting logs


The diagnostic backups created with the Mine Menu tool are zip files containing a tar file, which
can be opened on a PC using for instance WinZip. The program may open the tar file
automatically, or you may need to click on it again to see the contents.

They contain all the files useful for diagnostic, including the configurations, and the log files
which collect information about faults, problems or unusual events happening on the system..

Useful log files:


ProcessCtrl.log: one line every time the computer starts (with keywords
Start,ProcessCtrl), one line at every shutdown (Stop,ProcessCtrl), and one line every
time a software module stops unexpectedly (CRASH). This can be used after a system
crash, looking at the last few lines, to determine which is the offending module.
LastEvent.log: while the system is running, programs may log messages when something
unexpected or abnormal happens. Each line contains the date and time, the name of the
module writing the message, and a description of the cause of the message. Most messages
are benign, but in case of a crash, looking at the last messages may reveal the cause of the
problem. The LastEvent.log file is erased and replaced at every startup, so it only contains the
events since the previous startup.
Event_(date).log: if the system detects the last shutdown was caused by a crash, it keeps a
copy of the corresponding event log under a name containing the date for forensic analysis.
Fault.log: logs a line for every fault triggered or bypassed. Repeated faults can reveal
operational problems: a sensor intermittently malfunctioning intermittently, bad operator
sequence of actions
specific custom logs: for example the rock geology logger, the GPS logger , the DM3
logger They are designed on request to study a specific aspect of the operation. Since they
can produce large files and occupy large amounts of disk space, they should be offloaded
regularly and turned off when the study is complete.

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Notes:
creating the diagnostic backup removes the log files from the system, preventing any further
analysis.
most logs write the date in unix time: one single number representing the number of
seconds since Jan. 1st 1970. It is possible to convert it into a more human friendly format
using a spreadsheet program.

6 Replacing the computer:


Make sure a known working image is available on a mine menu compact flash module
(MMCF).
Make sure key is off, remove large rectangle plug on the back of the cc, use allen wrench
Remove old cc, be careful to protect the cc from damage, and return to Atlas Copco for
possible repair, provide report indicating condition of cc.
Install the replacement cc, reconnect the plug, be care to align the plug with the socket and
allow the screw to pull the plug into place, do not force the plug into the socket.
If the cc does have a current working image, simple turn the key on, go to maintenance utility
screen to set hourmeter to match drill hours.
If the cc does not have a current working image, insert MMCF into pcmcia adapter slot, turn
key on, follow procedures to copy the image from the MMCF to the cc. See the Aquila Mine
Menu tool documentation.

7 Overview of Aquila modules


7.1 DM1

7.2 DM2

7.3 DM3

7.4 DM5

7.5 Reports

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