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PRACT ICE T EST 1 5
May 2 0 0 0
Que st ion 1 - 9
The canopy ,t he upper level of t he t rees in t he rain f orest , holds a plet hora of climbing
mammals of moderat ely large size, which may include monkeys, cat s, civet s, and
porcupines. Smaller species, including such rodent s as mice and small squirrels ,are not
Line as prevalent overall in high t ropical canopies as t hey are in most habit at s globally.
(5) Small mammals, being warm blooded, suf f er hardship in t he exposed and t urbulent
environment of t he uppermost t rees. Because a small body has more surf ace area per unit
of weight t han a large one of similar shape, it gains or loses heat more swif t ly. Thus, in
t he t rees, where shelt er f rom heat and cold may be scarce and condit ions may f luct uat e, a
small mammal may have t rouble maint aining it s body t emperat ure.

(10) Small size makes it easy t o scramble among t wigs and branches in t he canopy f or
insect s, f lowers, or f ruit , but small mammals are surpassed, in t he compet it ion f or f ood,
by large ones t hat have t heir own t act ics f or browsing among f ood-rich t wigs. The weight
of a gibbon ( a small ape) hanging below a branch arches t he t erminal leaves down so t hat
f ruit -bearing f oliage drops t oward t he gibbons f ace. Walking or leaping species of a
( 1 5 ) similar or even larger size access t he out er t wigs eit her by snapping of f and ret rieving t he
whole branch or by clut ching st if f branches wit h t he f eet or t ail and plucking f ood wit h
t heir hands.

Small climbing animals may reach t wigs readily, but it is harder f or t hem t han f or large
climbing animals t o cross t he wide gaps f rom on t ree crown t o t he next t hat t ypif y t he
( 2 0 ) high canopy. A macaque or gibbon can hurl it self f art her t han a mouse can: it can achieve
a running st art , and it can more ef f ect ively use a branch as a springboard, even bouncing
on a climb several t imes bef ore jumping. The f orward movement of a small animal is
seriously reduced by t he air f rict ion against t he relat ively large surf ace area of it s body.
Finally, f or t he many small mammals t hat supplement t heir insect diet wit h f ruit s or seeds
( 2 5 ) an inabilit y t o span open gaps bet ween t ree crowns may be problemat ic, since t rees t hat
yield t hese f oods can be sparse.

1 . The passage answers which of t he f ollowing quest ions?


( A) How is t he rain f orest dif f erent f rom ot her habit at s?
( B) How does an animals body size inf luence an animals need f or f ood?
( C) Why does t he rain f orest provide an unusual variet y of f ood f or animals?
( D) Why do large animals t end t o dominat e t he upper canopy of t he rain f orest ?

2 . Which of t he f ollowing animals is less common in t he upper canopy t han in ot her


environment s?
( A) Monkeys ( B) Cat s ( C) Porcupines ( D) Mice

3 . The word t hey in line 4 ref ers t o


( A) t rees ( B) climbing mammals of moderat ely large size
( C) smaller species ( D) high t ropical canopies

4 . According t o paragraph 2 , which of t he f ollowing is t rue about t he small mammals in t he rain


f orest ?
( A) They have body shapes t hat are adapt ed t o lif e in t he canopy.
( B) They pref er t he t emperat ure and climat e of t he canopy t o t hat of ot her environment s.
( C) They have dif f icult y wit h t he changing condit ions in t he canopy.
( D) They use t he t rees of t he canopy f or shelt er f rom heat and cold.

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PRA CT ICE T EST 1 5 May 2 0 0 0

5 . In discussing animal size in paragraph 3 , t he aut hor indicat es t hat


( A) small animals require proport ionat ely more f ood t han larger animals do
( B) a large animals size is an advant age in obt aining f ood in t he canopy
( C) small animals are of t en at t acked by large animals in t he rain f orest
( D) small animals and large animals are equally adept at obt aining f ood in t he canopy

6 . The word t ypif y in line 1 9 is closest in meaning t o


( A) resemble ( B) prot ect ( C) charact erize ( D) divide

7 . According t o paragraph 4 , what makes jumping f rom one t ree crown t o anot her dif f icult f or
small mammals?
( A) Air f rict ion against t he body surf ace ( B) The t hickness of t he branches
( C) The dense leaves of t he t ree crown ( D) The inabilit y t o use t he f ront f eet as hands

8 . The word supplement in line 2 4 is closest in meaning t o


( A) cont rol ( B) replace ( C) look f or ( D) add t o

9 . Which of t he f ollowing t erms is def ined in t he passage?


( A) canopy( line 1 ) ( B) warm blooded( line 5 )
( C) t erminal leaves( line1 3 ) ( D) springboard( line 2 1 )

Que st ion 1 0 - 1 9
During t he sevent eent h and eight eent h cent uries, almost not hing was writ t en about
t he
cont ribut ions of women during t he colonial period and t he early hist ory of t he newly
f ormed Unit ed St at es. Lacking t he right t o vot e and absent f rom t he seat s of power, women
Line were not considered an import ant f orce in hist ory. Anne Bradst reet wrot e some signif icant
(5) poet ry in t he sevent eent h cent ury, Mercy Ot is Warren produced t he best cont emporary
hist ory of t he American Revolut ion, and Abigail Adams penned import ant let t ers showing
she exercised great polit ical inf luence over her husband, John, t he second President of t he
Unit ed St at es. But lit t le or no not ice was t aken of t hese cont ribut ions. During t hese
cent uries, women remained invisible in hist ory books.

(10) Throughout t he ninet eent h cent ury, t his lack of visibilit y cont inued, despit e t he
ef f ort s
of f emale aut hors writ ing about women. These writ ers, like most of t heir male count erpart s,
were amat eur hist orians. Their writ ings were celebrat ory in nat ure, and t hey were uncrit ical
in t heir select ion and use of sources.

During t he ninet eent h cent ury, however, cert ain f eminist s showed a keen sense of
(15) hist ory by keeping records of act ivit ies in which women were engaged. Nat ional, regional,
and local womens organizat ions compiled account s of t heir doings. Personal
correspondence, newspaper clippings, and souvenirs were saved and st ored. These sources
f rom t he core of t he t wo great est collect ions of womens hist ory in t he Unit ed St at es one at
t he Elizabet h and Art hur Schlesinger Library at Radclif f e College, and t he ot her t he Sophia
( 2 0 ) Smit h Collect ion at Smit h College. Such sources have provided valuable mat erials f or lat er
Generat ions of hist orians.

Despit e t he gat hering of more inf ormat ion about ordinary women during t he
ninet eent h
Cent ury, most of t he writ ing about women conf ormed t o t he great women t heory of
Hist ory, just as much of mainst ream American hist ory concent rat ed on great men. To
( 2 5 ) demonst rat e t hat women were making signif icant cont ribut ions t o American lif e, f emale

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T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

aut hors singled out women leaders and wrot e biographies, or else import ant women
produced t heir aut obiographies. Most of t hese leaders were involved in public lif e as
ref ormers, act ivist s working f or womens right t o vot e, or aut hors, and were not
represent at ive at all of t he great of ordinary woman. The lives of ordinary people
( 3 0 ) cont inued, generally, t o be unt old in t he American hist ories being published.
1 0 . What does t he passage mainly discuss?
( A) The role of lit erat ure in early American hist ories
( B) The place of American women in writ t en hist ories
( C) The keen sense of hist ory shown by American women
( D) The great women approach t o hist ory used by American hist orians

1 1 . The word cont emporary in line 5 means t hat t he hist ory was
( A) inf ormat ive ( B) writ t en at t hat t ime
( C) t hought f ul ( D) f ault f inding

1 2 . In t he f irst paragraph, Bradst reet , Warren, and Adams are ment ioned t o show t hat
( A) a womans st at us was changed by marriage
( B) even t he cont ribut ions of out st anding women were ignored
( C) only t hree women were able t o get t heir writ ing published
( D) poet ry produced by women was more readily accept ed t han ot her writ ing by women

1 3 . The word celebrat ory in line 1 2 means t hat t he writ ings ref erred t o were
( A) relat ed t o part ies ( B) religious ( C) serious ( D) f ull of praise

1 4 . The word t hey in line 1 2 ref ers t o


( A) ef f ort s ( B) aut hors ( C) count erpart s ( D) sources

1 5 . In t he second paragraph, what weakness in ninet eent h-cent ury hist ories does t he aut hor point
out ?
( A) They put t oo much emphasis on daily act ivit ies
( B) They lef t out discussion of t he inf luence of money on polit ics.
( C) The sources of t he inf ormat ion t hey were based on were not necessarily accurat e.
( D) They were print ed on poor-qualit y paper.

1 6 . On t he basis of inf ormat ion in t he t hird paragraph, which of t he f ollowing would most likely
have been collect ed by ninet eent h-cent ury f eminist organizat ions?
( A) Newspaper account s of president ial elect ion result s
( B) Biographies of John Adams
( C) Let t ers f rom a mot her t o a daught er advising her how t o handle a f amily problem
( D) Books about f amous graduat es of t he count rys f irst college

1 7 . What use was made of t he ninet eent h-cent ury womens hist ory mat erials in t he Schlesinger
Library and t he Sophia Smit h Collect ion?
( A) They were combined and published in a mult ivolume encyclopedia
( B) They f ormed t he basis of college courses in t he ninet eent h cent ury.
( C) They provided valuable inf ormat ion f or t went iet hcent ury hist orical researchers.
( D) They were shared among womens colleges t hroughout t he Unit ed St at es.

1 8 . In t he last paragraph, t he aut hor ment ions all of t he f ollowing as possible roles of ninet eent h-
cent ury great women EXCEPT
( A) aut hors ( B) ref ormers
( C) act ivist s f or womens right s ( D) polit icians

1 9 . The word represent at ive in line 2 9 is closest in meaning t o


( A) t ypical ( B) sat isf ied ( C) support ive ( D) dist inct ive

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PRA CT ICE T EST 1 5 May 2 0 0 0

Que st ion 2 0 - 2 9
The end of t he ninet eent h cent ury and t he early years of t he t went iet h cent ury were
marked by t he development of an int ernat ional Art Nouveau st yle, charact erized by sinuous
lines, f loral and veget able mot if s, and sof t evanescent colorat ion. The Art Nouveau st yle
Line was an eclect ic one, bringing t oget her element s of Japanese art , mot if s of ancient cult ures,
(5) and nat ural f orms. The glass object s of t his st yle were elegant in out line, alt hough of t en
deliberat ely dist ort ed, wit h pale or iridescent surf aces. A f avored device of t he st yle was t o
imit at e t he iridescent surf ace seen on ancient glass t hat had been buried. Much of t he Art
Nouveau glass produced during t he years of it s great est popularit y had been generically
t ermed art glass. Art glass was int ended f or decorat ive purposes and relied f or it s ef f ect
( 1 0 ) on caref ully chosen color combinat ions and innovat ive t echniques.

France produced a number of out st anding exponent s of t he Art Nouveau st yle; among
t he most celebrat ed was Emile Galle ( 1 8 4 6 -1 9 0 4 ) . In t he Unit ed St at es, Louis Comf ort
Tif f any ( 1 8 4 3 -1 9 3 3 ) was t he most not ed exponent of t his st yle, producing a great variet y
of
glass f orms and surf aces, which were widely copied in t heir t ime and are highly prized
( 1 5 ) t oday. Tif f any was a brilliant designer, successf ully combining ancient Egypt ian, Japanese,
and Persian mot if s.

The Art Nouveau st yle was a major f orce in t he decorat ive art s f rom 1 8 9 5 unt il 1 9 1 5 ,
alt hough it s inf luence cont inued t hroughout t he mid-1 9 2 0 s. It was event ually t o be
overt aken by a new school of t hought known as Funct ionalism t hat had been present since
( 2 0 ) t he t urn of t he cent ury. At f irst rest rict ed t o a small avant -garde group of archit ect s and
designers, Funct ionalism emerged as t he dominant inf luence upon designers af t er t he First
World War. The basic t enet of t he movement -t hat f unct ion should det ermine f rom-was
not a new concept . Soon a dist inct aest het ic code evolved: f rom should be simple, surf aces
plain, and any ornament should be based on geomet ric relat ionships. This new design
( 2 5 ) concept , coupled wit h t he sharp post war react ions t o t he st yles and convent ions of t he
preceding decades, creat ed an ent irely new public t ast e which caused Art Nouveau t ypes of
glass t o f all out of f avor. The new t ast e demanded dramat ic ef f ect s of cont rast , st ark out line
and complex t ext ural surf aces.

2 0 . What does paragraph 1 mainly discuss?


( A) Design element s in t he Art Nouveau st yle
( B) The popularit y of t he Art Nouveau st yle
( C) Product ion t echniques f or art glass
( D) Color combinat ions t ypical of t he Art Nouveau st yle

2 1 . The word one in line 4 ref ers t o


( A) cent ury ( B) development ( C) st yle ( D) colorat ion

2 2 . Para.1 ment ions t hat Art Nouveau glass was somet imes similar t o which aspect of ancient
buried glass
( A) The dist ort ion of t he glass ( B) The appearance of t he glass surf ace

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T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

( C) The shapes of t he glass object s ( D) The size of t he glass object s

2 3 . What is t he main purpose of paragraph 2 ?


( A) To compare dif f erent Art Nouveau st yles
( B) To give examples of f amous Art Nouveau art ist s
( C) To explain why Art Nouveau glass was so popular in t he Unit ed St at es
( D) To show t he impact Art Nouveau had on ot her cult ures around t he world

2 4 . The word prized in line 1 4 is closest in meaning t o


( A) valued ( B) universal ( C) uncommon ( D) preserved

2 5 . The word overt aken in line 1 9 is closest in meaning t o


( A) surpassed ( B) inclined ( C) expressed ( D) applied

2 6 . What does t he aut hor mean by st at ing t hat f unct ion should det ermine f orm ( line 2 2 ) ?
( A) A usef ul object should not be at t ract ive.
( B) The purpose of an object should inf luence it s f orm.
( C) The design of an object is considered more signif icant t han it s f unct ion.
( D) The f orm of an object should not include decorat ive element s.

2 7 . It can be inf erred f rom t he passage t hat one reason Funct ionalism became popular was t hat it
( A) clearly dist inguished bet ween art and design
( B) appealed t o people who liked complex paint ed designs
( C) ref lect ed a common desire t o break f rom t he past
( D) was easily int erpret ed by t he general public

2 8 . Paragraph 3 support s which of t he f ollowing st at ement s about Funct ionalism?


( A) It s design concept avoided geomet ric shapes.
( B) It st art ed on a small scale and t hen spread gradually.
( C) It was a major f orce in t he decorat ive art s bef ore t he First World War.
( D) It was not at t ract ive t o archit ect s all designers.

2 9 . According t o t he passage, an object made in t he Art Nouveau st yle would most likely include
( A) a f lowered design ( B) bright colors
( C) modern symbols ( D) a t ext ured surf ace

Que st ion 3 0 - 4 0
During most of t heir lives, surge glaciers behave like normal glaciers, t raveling perhaps
only a couple of inches per day. However, at int ervals of 1 0 t o 1 0 0 years, t hese glaciers
move f orward up t o 1 0 0 t imes f ast er t han usual. The surge of t en progresses along a glacier
line like a great wave, proceeding f rom one sect ion t o anot her. Subglacial st reams of melt wat er
(5) wat er pressure under t he glacier might lif t it of f it s bed, overcoming t he f rict ion bet ween
ice
and rock, t hus f reeing t he glacier, which rapidly sliders downhill Surge glaciers also might
be inf luenced by t he climat e, volcanic heat , or eart hquakes. However, many of t hese
glaciers exist in t he same area as normal glaciers, of t en almost side by side.

(10) Some 8 0 0 years ago, Alaskas Hubbard Glacier advanced t oward t he sea, ret reat ed,
and
advanced again 5 0 0 years lat er. Since 1 8 9 5 , t his sevent y-mile-long river of ice has been
f lowing st eadily t oward t he Gulf of Alaska at a rat e of approximat ely 2 0 0 f eet per year. In

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PRA CT ICE T EST 1 5 May 2 0 0 0

June 1 9 8 6 , however, t he glacier surged ahead as much as 4 7 f eet a day. Meanwhile, a


west ern t ribut ary, called Valerie Glacier, advanced up t o 1 1 2 f eet a day. Hubbards surge
( 1 5 ) closed of f Russell Fiord wit h a f ormidable ice dam, some 2 ,5 0 0 f eet wide and up t o 8 0 0
f eet high, whose caged wat ers t hreat ened t he t own of Yakut at t o t he sout h.

About 2 0 similar glaciers around t he Gulf of Alaska are heading t oward t he sea. If
enough surge glaciers reach t he ocean and raise sea levels, West Ant arct ic ice shelves could
rise of f t he seaf loor and become adrif t . A f lood of ice would t hen surge int o t he Sout hern
( 2 0 ) Sea. Wit h t he cont inued rise in sea level, more ice would plunge int o t he ocean, causing sea
levels t o rise even higher, which in t urn would release more ice and set in mot ion a vicious
cycle. The addit ional sea ice f loat ing t oward t he t ropics would increase Eart hs Albedo and
lower global t emperat ures, perhaps enough t o init iat e a new ice age. This sit uat ion appears
t o have occurred at t he end of t he last warm int erglacial ( t he t ime bet ween glacat ions) ,
( 2 5 ) called t he Sangamon, when sea ice cooled t he ocean dramat ically, spawning t he beginning
of t he Ice Age.

3 0 . What is t he main t opic of t he passage?


( A) The classif icat ion of dif f erent t ypes of surge glaciers
( B) The causes and consequences of surge glaciers
( C) The def init ion of a surge glacier
( D) The hist ory of a part icular surge glacier

3 1 . The word int ervals in line 2 is closest in meaning t o


( A) records ( B) speeds ( C) dist ances ( D) periods

3 2 . The aut hor compares t he surging mot ion of a surge glacier t o t he movement of a
( A) f ish ( B) wave ( C) machine ( D) boat

3 3 . Which of t he f ollowing does t he aut hor ment ion as a possible cause of surging glaciers?
( A) The decline in sea levels
( B) The occurrence of unusually large ocean waves
( C) The shif t ing Ant arct ic ice shelves
( D) The pressure of melt wat er underneat h t he glacier

3 4 . The word f reeing in line 7 is closest in meaning t o


( A) pushing ( B) releasing ( C) st rengt hening ( D) draining

3 5 . According t o t he passage, t he Hubbard Glacier


( A) moves more of t en t han t he Valerie Glacier
( B) began movement t oward t he sea in 1 8 9 5
( C) is 8 0 0 f eet wide
( D) has moved as f ast as 4 7 f eet per day

3 6 . Yakut at is t he name of
( A) an Alaskan t own ( B) t he last ice age
( C) a surge glacier ( D) an Ant arct ic ice shelf

3 7 . The word plunge in line 2 0 is closest in meaning t o


( A) drop ( B) ext end ( C) melt ( D) drif t

3 8 . The t erm vicious cycle in lines 2 1 -2 2 ref ers t o t he


( A) movement pat t ern of surge glaciers
( B) ef f ect surge glaciers could have on t he t emperat ure of t ropical areas
( C) ef f ect t hat repeat ed rising sea levels might have on glacial ice
( D) const ant t hreat surge glaciers could pose t o t he Gulf of Alaska

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T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

3 9 . The aut hor provides a def init ion f or which of t he f ollowing t erms?
( A) Tribut ary ( line 1 4 ) ( B) Ice dam ( line 1 5 )
( C) Albedo ( line 2 2 ) ( D) Int erglacial ( line 2 4 )

4 0 . Which of t he f ollowing st at ement s is support ed by t he passage?


( A) The movement of surge glaciers can be prevent ed.
( B) The next ice age could be caused by surge glaciers.
( C) Surge glaciers help t o support Ant arct ic ice shelves.
( D) Normal glaciers have lit t le ef f ect on Eart hs climat e.

Que st ion 4 1 - 5 0
According t o sociologist s, t here are several dif f erent ways in which a person may
become recognized as t he leader of a social group in t he Unit ed St at es. In t he f amily,
t radit ional cult ural pat t erns conf er leadership on one or bot h of t he parent s. In ot her cases,
Line such as f riendship groups, one or more persons may gradually emerge as leaders, alt hough
(5) t here is no f ormal process of select ion. In larger groups, leaders are usually chosen f ormally
t hrough elect ion or recruit ment .

Alt hough leaders are of t en t hought t o be people wit h unusual personal abilit y,
decades
of research have f ailed t o produce consist ent evidence t hat t here is any cat egory of nat ural
leaders. It seems t hat t here is no set of personal qualit ies t hat all leaders have in common;
( 1 0 ) rat her, virt ually any person may be recognized as a leader if t he person has qualit ies t hat
meet t he needs of t hat part icular group.

Furt hermore, alt hough it is commonly supposed t hat social groups have a single
leader,
research suggest s t hat t here are t ypically t wo dif f erent leadership roles t hat are held by
dif f erent individuals. Inst rument al leadership is leadership t hat emphasizes t he complet ion
( 1 5 ) of t asks by a social group. Group members look t o inst rument al leaders t o get t hings
done. Expressive leadership, on t he ot her hand, is leadership t hat emphasizes t he
collect ive well-being of a social groups member. Expressive leader are less concerned
wit h t he overall goals of t he group t han wit h providing emot ional support t o group
members and at t empt ing t o minimize t ension and conf lict among t hem. Group members
( 2 0 ) expect expressive leaders t o maint ain st able relat ionships wit hin t he group and provide
support t o individual members.

Inst rument al leaders are likely t o have a rat her secondary relat ionship t o ot her group
members. They give orders and may discipline group members who inhibit at t ainment of
t he groups goals. Expressive leaders cult ivat e a more personal or primary relat ionship t o
( 2 5 ) ot hers in t he group. They of f er sympat hy when someone experiences dif f icult ies or is
subject ed t o discipline, are quick t o light en a serious moment wit h humor ,and t ry t o
resolve issues t hat t hreat en t o divide t he group. As t he dif f erences in t hese t wo roles
suggest , expressive leaders generally receive more personal af f ect ion f rom group members;
inst rument al leaders, if t hey are successf ul in promot ing group goals, may enjoy a mot e
dist ant respect

4 1 . What does t he passage mainly discuss?


( A) The problems f aced by leaders
( B) How leadership dif f ers in small and large groups
( C) How social groups det ermine who will lead t hem
( D) The role of leaders in social groups

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PRA CT ICE T EST 1 5 May 2 0 0 0

4 2 . The passage ment ions all of t he f ollowing ways by which people can become leaders EXCEPT
( A) recruit ment ( B) f ormal elect ion process
( C) specif ic leadership t raining ( D) t radit ional cult ural pat t erns

4 3 . In ment ioning nat ural leaders in lines 8 -9 , t he aut hor is making t he point t hat
( A) f ew people qualif y as nat ural leaders
( B) t here is no proof t hat nat ural leaders exist
( C) nat ural leaders are easily accept ed by t he members of a social group
( D) nat ural leaders share a similar set of charact erist ics

4 4 . Which of t he f ollowing st at ement s about leadership can be inf erred f rom paragraph 2 ?
( A) A person who is an ef f ect ive leader of a part icular group may not be an ef f ect ive leader
in anot her group.
( B) Few people succeed in sharing a leadership role wit h anot her person.
( C) A person can best learn how t o be an ef f ect ive leader by st udying research on leadership.
( D) Most people desire t o be leaders but can produce lit t le evidence of t heir qualif icat ions.

4 5 . The passage indicat es t hat inst rument al leaders generally f ocus on


( A) ensuring harmonious relat ionships ( B) sharing responsibilit y wit h group members
( C) ident if ying new leaders ( D) achieving a goal

4 6 . The word collect ive in line 1 7 is closest in meaning t o


( A) necessary ( B) t ypical ( C) group ( D) part icular

4 7 . The word t hem in line 1 9 ref ers t o


( A) expressive leaders ( B) goals of t he group
( C) group members ( D) t ension and conf lict

4 8 . A secondary relat ionship ment ioned in line 2 2 bet ween a leader and t he members of a group
could best be charact erized as
( A) dist ant ( B) ent husiast ic ( C) unreliable ( D) personal

4 9 . The word resolve in line 2 7 is closest in meaning t o


( A) avoid repeat ing ( B) t alk about
( C) avoid t hinking about ( D) f ind a solut ion f or

5 0 . Paragraphs 3 and 4 organize t he discussion of leadership primarily in t erm of


( A) examples t hat illust rat e a problem ( B) cause and ef f ect analysis
( C) narrat ion of event s ( D) comparison and cont rast

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PRACT ICE T EST 1 6
August 2 0 0 0
Que st ions 1 - 8
Prehist oric mammot hs have been preserved in t he f amous t ar pit s of Rancho La Brea
( Brea is t he Spanish word f or t ar) in what now t he heart of Los Angeles, Calif ornia.
These t ar pit s have been known f or cent uries and were f ormerly mined f or t heir nat ural
Line asphalt , a black or brown pet roleum-like subst ance. Thousands of t ons were ext ract ed
(5) bef ore 1 8 7 5 , when it was f irst not iced t hat t he t ar cont ained f ossil remains. Major
excavat ions were undert aken t hat est ablished t he signif icance of t his remarkable sit e.
The t ar pit s were f ound t o cont ain t he remains of scores of species of animals f rom t he last
3 0 ,0 0 0 years of t he Ice Age.

Since t hen, over 1 0 0 t ons of f ossils, 1 .5 million f rom vert ebrat es, 2 .5 million f rom
(10) invert ebrat es, have been recovered, of t en in densely concent rat ed t angled masses. The
creat ures f ound range f orm insect s and birds t o giant ground slot hs, but a t ot al of 1 7
proboscides ( animal wit h a proboscis or long nose) - including mast odons and
Columbian mammot hs- have been recovered, most of t hem f rom Pit 9 , t he deepest
bone-bearing deposit , which was excavat ed in 1 9 1 4 . Most of t he f ossils dat e t o bet ween
( 1 5 ) 4 0 ,0 0 0 and 1 0 ,0 0 0 years ago.

The asphalt at La Brea seeps t o t he surf ace, especially in t he summer, and f orms
shallow puddles t hat would of t en have been concealed by leaves and dust . Unwary
animals would become t rapped on t hese t hin sheet s of liquid asphalt , which are ext remely
st icky in warm weat her. St uck, t he unf ort unat e beast s would die of exhaust ion and
( 2 0 ) hunger or f all prey t o predat ors t hat of t en also became st uck.

As t he animals decayed, more scavengers would be at t ract ed and caught in t heir t urn.
Carnivores great ly out number herbivores in t he collect ion: f or every large herbivore,
t here is one saber-t oot h cat , a coyot e, and f our wolves. The f act t hat some bones are
heavily weat hered shows t hat some bodies remained above t he surf ace f or weeks or
( 2 5 ) mont hs. Bact eria in t he asphalt would have consumed some of t he t issues ot her t han
bones, and t he asphalt it self would dissolve what was lef t , at t he same t ime impregnat ing
and beaut if ully preserving t he sat urat ed bones, rendering t hen dark brown and shiny.

1 . What aspect of t he La Brea t ar pit s does t he passage mainly discuss?


( A) The amount of asphalt t hat was mined t here
( B) The chemical and biological int eract ions bet ween asphalt and animals
( C) The f ossil remains t hat have been f ound t here
( D) Scient if ic met hods of det ermining t he age of t ar pit s

2 . In using t he phrase t he heart of Los Angeles in line 2 , t he aut hor is t alking about t he cit ys
( A) beaut if ul design ( B) cent ral area
( C) basic needs ( D) supplies of nat ural asphalt

3 . The word not iced in line 5 closest in meaning t o


( A) predict ed ( B) announced ( C) correct ed ( D) observed

4 . The word t angled in line 1 0 is closest in meaning t o


( A) buried beneat h ( B) t wist ed t oget her
( C) quickly f ormed ( D) easily dat ed

5 . The word t hem in line 1 3 ref ers t o


( A) insect s ( B) birds ( C) clot hs ( D) proboscideans

11
PRA CT ICE T EST 1 6 A ugust 2 0 0 0

6 . How many probosicdeans have been f ound at t he La Brea t ar pit s?


( A) 9 ( B) 1 7 ( C) 1 .5 million ( D) 2 .5 million
7 . The word concealed in line 1 7 is closest in meaning t o
( A) highlight ed ( B) covered ( C) t ransf ormed ( D) cont aminat ed

8 . Why does t he aut hor ment ion animals such as coyot es and wolves in paragraph 4 ?
( A) To give examples of animals t hat are classif ied as carnivores
( B) To specif y t he animals f ound least commonly at La Brea
( C) To argue t hat t hese animals were especially likely t o avoid ext inct ion.
( D) To def ine t he t erm scavengers

Que st ions 9 - 1 9
The principal dif f erence bet ween urban growt h in Europe and in t he American
colonies was t he slow evolut ion of cit ies in t he f ormer and t heir rapid growt h in t he lat t er.
In Europe t hey grew over a period of cent uries f rom t own economies t o t heir present ]
Line urban st ruct ure. In Nort h America, t hey st art ed as wilderness communit ies and developed
(5) t o mat ure urbanisms in lit t le more t han a cent ury.

In t he early colonial day in Nort h America, small cit ies sprang up along t he At lant ic
Coast line, most ly in what are now New America, small cit ies sprang up along t he At lant ic
Unit ed St at es and in t he lower Saint Lawrence valley in Canada. This was nat ural
because t hese areas were nearest England and France, part icularly England, f rom which
( 1 0 ) most capit al goods ( asset s such as equipment ) and many consumer goods were import ed
Merchandising est ablishment s were, accordingly, advant ageously locat ed in port cit ies
f rom which goods could be readily dist ribut ed t o int erior set t lement s. Here, t oo, were t he
f avored locat ions f or processing raw mat erials prior t o export . Bost on, Philadelphia, New
York, Mont real, and ot her cit ies f lourished, and, as t he colonies grew, t hese cit ies
( 1 5 ) increased in import ance.

This was less t rue in t he colonial Sout h, where lif e cent ered around large f arms, known
as plant at ions, rat her t han around t owns, as was t he case in t he areas f urt her nort h along
t he At lant ic coast line. The local isolat ion and t he economic self -suf f iciency of t he
plant at ions were ant agonist ic t o t he development of t he t owns. The plant at ions
( 2 0 ) maint ained t heir independence because t hey were locat ed on navigable st reams and each
had a wharf accessible t o t he small shipping of t hat day. In f ace, one of t he st rongest
f act ors in t he select ion of plant at ion land was t he desire t o have it f ront on a wat er
highway.

When t he Unit ed St at es became an independent nat ion in 1 7 7 6 , it did not have a


single
( 2 5 ) cit y as large as 5 0 ,0 0 0 inhabit ant s, but by 1 8 2 0 it had a cit y of more t han 1 0 ,0 0 0 people,
and by 1 8 8 0 it had recorded a cit y of over one million. It was not unt il af t er 1 8 2 3 , af t er
t he mechanizat ion of t he spinning had weaving indust ries, t hat cit ies st art ed drawing
young people away f rom f arms. Such migrat ion was part icularly rapid f ollowing t he Civil
War ( 1 8 6 1 -1 8 6 5 ) .

9 . What does t he passage mainly discuss?


( A) Fact ors t hat slowed t he growt h of cit ies in Europe.
( B) The evolut ion of cit ies in Nort h America
( C) Trade bet ween Nort h American and European cit ies
( D) The ef f ect s of t he Unit ed Sat es independence on urban growt h in New England.

1 0 . The word t hey in line 4 ref ers t o


( A) Nort h American colonies ( B) cit ies

12
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

( C) cent uries ( D) t own economies


1 1 . The passage compares early European and Nort h American cit ies on t he basis of which of t he
f ollowing?
( A) Their economic success
( B) The t ype of merchandise t hey export ed
( C) Their abilit y t o dist ribut e goods t o int erior set t lement s
( D) The pace of t heir development

1 2 . The Word accordingly in line 1 1 is closest in meaning t o


( A) as usual ( B) in cont rast ( C) t o some degree ( D) f or t hat reason

1 3 . According t o t he passage, early colonial cit ies were est ablished along t he At lant ic coast line of
Nort h America due t o
( A) an abundance of nat ural resources ( B) f inancial support f rom colonial
government s
( C) proximit y t o part s of Europe ( D) a f avorable climat e

1 4 . The passage indicat es t hat during colonial t imes, t he At lant ic coast line cit ies prepared which
of t he f ollowing f or shipment t o Europe?
( A) Manuf act uring equipment ( B) Capit al goods
( C) Consumer goods ( D) Raw mat erials

1 5 . According t o t he passage, all of t he f ollowing aspect s of t he plant at ion syst em inf luenced t he
growt h of sout hern cit ies EXCEPT t he
( A) locat ion of t he plant at ions
( B) access of plant at ion owners t o shipping
( C) relat ionships bet ween plant at ion resident s and cit y resident s
( D) economic self -suf f iciency of t he plant at ion

1 6 . It can be inf erred f rom t he passage t hat , in comparison wit h nort hern, cit ies, most sout hern
cit ies were
( A) imagined ( B) discovered ( C) document ed ( D) planned

1 7 . The word recorded in line 2 6 is closest in meaning t o


( A) imagined ( B) discovered ( C) document ed ( D) planned

1 8 . The word drawing in line 2 7 is closest in meaning t o


( A) at t ract ing ( B) employing ( C) inst ruct ing ( D) represent ing

1 9 . The passage ment ions t he period f ollowing t he Civil War ( line2 8 -2 9 ) because it was a t ime of
( A) signif icant obst acles t o indust rial growt h
( B) decreased dependence on f oreign t rade
( C) increased numbers of people leaving employment on f arms
( D) increased migrat ion f rom nort hern st at es t o sout hern st at es

Que st ions 2 0 - 2 8
During t he second half of t he ninet eent h cent ury, t he product ion of f ood and f eed
crops
in t he Unit ed St at es rose at an ext raordinarily rapid rat e.Com product ion increased by f our
and a half t imes, hay by f ive t imes, oat s and wheat by seven t imes. The most crucial f act or
Line behind t his phenomenal upsurge in product ivit y was t he widespread adopt ion of
(5) labor-saving machinery by nort hern f armers. By 1 8 5 0 horse-drawn reaping machines t hat
cut grain were being int roduced int o t he major grain-growing regions of t he count ry.
Horse-powered t hreshing machines t o separat e t he seeds f rom t he plant s were already in

13
PRA CT ICE T EST 1 6 A ugust 2 0 0 0

general use. However, it was t he onset of t he Civil War in 1 8 6 1 t hat provided t he great
st imulus f or t he mechanizat ion of nort hern agricult ure. Wit h much of t he labor f orce
( 1 0 ) induct ed int o t he army and wit h grain prices on t he rise, nort hern f armers rushed t o avail
t hemselves of t he new labor-saving equipment . In 1 8 6 0 t here were approximat ely 8 0 ,0 0 0
reapers in t he count ry; f ive years lat er t here were 3 5 0 ,0 0 0 .

Af t er t he close of t he war in 1 8 6 5 , machinery became ever more import ant in


nort hern
agricult ure, and improved equipment was cont inually int roduced. By 1 8 8 0 a self -binding
( 1 5 ) reaper had been perf ect ed t hat not only cut t he grain, but also gat hered t he st alks and
bound t hem wit h t wine. Threshing machines were also being improved and enlarged, and
af t er 1 8 7 0 t hey were increasingly powered by st eam engines rat her t han by horses. Since
st eam-powered t hreshing machines were cost ly it ems-running f rom $ 1 ,0 0 0 t o $ 4 ,0 0 0
t hey were usually owned by cust om t hresher owners who t hen worked t heir way f rom
( 2 0 ) f arm t o f arm during t he harvest season. Combines were also coming int o use on t he
great wheat ranches in Calif ornia and t he Pacif ic Nort hwest . These ponderous machines
somet imes pulled by as many as 4 0 horses reaped t he grain, t hreshed it , and bagged
it , all in one simult aneous operat ion.

The adopt ion of labor-saving machinery had a prof ound ef f ect upon t he sale of
(25) agricult ural operat ions in t he nort hern st at es-allowing f armers t o increase vast ly
t heir crop acreage. By t he end of cent ury, a f armer employing t he new machinery
could plant and harvest t wo and half t imes as much corn as a f armer had using hand
met hods 5 0 years bef ore.

2 0 . What aspect of f arming in t he Unit ed St at es in t he ninet eent h cent ury does t he Passage
mainly discuss?
( A) How labor-saving machinery increased crop Product ion
( B) Why sout hern f arms were not as successf ul as Successf ul as nort hern f arms
( C) Farming pract ices bef ore t he Civil War
( D) The increase in t he number of people f arming

2 1 . The word crucial in line 3 is closest in meaning t o


( A) obvious ( B) unbelievable ( C) import ant ( D) desirable

2 2 . The phrase avail t hemselves in lines 1 0 -1 1 is closest in meaning t o


( A) t ake care ( B) make use ( C) get rid ( D) do more

2 3 . According t o t he passage, why was t he Civil War a st imulus f or mechanizat ion?


( A) The army needed more grain in order t o f eed t he soldiers.
( B) Technology developed f or t he war could also t he used by f armers.
( C) It was hoped t hat harvest ing more grain would lower t he price of grain.
( D) Machines were needed t o replace a disappearing labor f orce.

2 4 . The passage support s which of t he f ollowing st at ement s about machinery af t er t he Civil War?
( A) Many f armers pref erred not t o use t he new machinery.
( B) Ret urning laborers replaced t he use of machinery.
( C) The use of f arm machinery cont inued t o increase.
( D) Poor-qualit y machinery slowed t he pace of crop product ion.
2 5 . Combines and self -binding reapers were similar because each
( A) could perf orm more t han one f unct ion ( B) required relat ively lit t le power t o operat e
( C) was ut ilized mainly in Calif ornia ( D) required t wo people t o operat e

2 6 . The word t hey in line 1 7 ref ers t o


( A) grain st alks ( B) horses ( C) st eam engines ( D) t hreshing machines

14
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

2 7 . It can be inf erred f rom t he passage t hat most f armers did not own t hreshing machines
because.
( A) f armers did not know how t o use t he new machines
( B) f armers had no space t o keep t he machines
( C) t hresher owner had chance t o buy t he machines bef ore f armers did
( D) t he machines were t oo expensive f or every f armer t o own

2 8 . The word ponderous in line 2 1 is closest in meaning t o


( A) advanced ( B) heavy ( C) complex ( D) rapid

Que st ions 2 9 - 3 9
The Nat ive American peoples of t he nort h Pacif ic Coast creat ed a highly complex
marit ime cult ure as t hey invent ed modes of product ion unique t o t heir special
environment . In addit ion t o t heir sophist icat ed t echnical cult ure, t hey also at t ained one of
t he most complex social organizat ions of any nonagricult ural people in t he world.

(5) In a division of labor similar t o t hat of t he hunt ing peoples in t he int erior and among
f oraging peoples t hroughout t he world, t he men did most of t he f ishing, and t he women
processed t he cat ch. Women also specialized in t he gat hering of t he abundant shellf ish
t hat lived closer t o shore. They collect ed oyst ers, crabs, sea urchins, mussels, abalone,
and clams, which t hey could gat her while remaining close t o t heir children. The marit ime
( 1 0 ) lif e harvest ed by t he women not only provided f ood, but also supplied more of t he raw
mat erials f or making t ools t han did f ish gat hered by t he men. Of part icular
import ance f or t he nat ive t ool t han did t he f ish gat hered by t he men. Of part icular
made f rom t he larger mussel shells, and a variet y of cut t ing edges t hat could be made
f rom ot her marine shells.

(15) The women used t heir t ools t o process all of t he f ish and marine mammals brought
in
by t he men. They cleaned t he f ish, and dried vast quant it ies of t hem f or t he wint er. They
sun-dried f ish when pract ical, but in t he rainy climat e of t he coast al area t hey also used
smokehouses t o preserve t ons of f ish and ot her seaf ood annually. Each product had it s
own peculiar charact erist ics t hat demanded a part icular way of cut t ing or drying t he meat ,
( 2 0 ) and each t ask required it s own cut t ing blades and ot her ut ensils.

Af t er drying t he f ish, t he women pounded some of t hem int o f ish meal, which was an
easily t ransport ed f ood used in soups, st ews, or ot her dishes t o provide prot ein and
t hickening in t he absence of f resh f ish or while on long t rips. The women also made a
cheese-like subst ance f rom a mixt ure of f ish and roe by aging it in st orehouses or by
burying it in wooden boxes or pit s lined wit h rocks and t ree leaves.

2 9 . Which aspect of t he lives of t he Nat ive Americans of t he nort h Pacif ic Coast does t he passage
mainly discuss?
( A) Met hods of f ood preservat ion
( B) How diet was rest rict ed by t he environment
( C) The cont ribut ions of women t o t he f ood supply
( D) Dif f icult ies in est ablishing successf ul f arms

3 0 . The word unique in line 2 is closest in meaning t o


( A) comprehensible ( B) product ive ( C) int ent ional ( D) part icular

3 1 . The word at t ained in line 3 is closest in meaning t o


( A) achieved ( B) modif ied ( C) demanded ( D) spread

15
PRA CT ICE T EST 1 6 A ugust 2 0 0 0

3 2 . It can be inf erred f rom paragraph 1 t hat t he social organizat ion of many agricult ural peoples is
( A) more complex t han t hat of hunt ers and f oragers
( B) less ef f icient t han t hat of hunt ers and f oragers
( C) more widespread t han t hat of hunt ers and f oragers
( D) bet t er document ed t han t hat of hunt ers and f oragers

3 3 . According t o t he passage, what is t rue of t he division of labor ment ioned in line 5 ?


( A) It was f irst developed by Nat ive Americans of t he nort h Pacif ic Coast .
( B) It rarely exist ed among hunt ing
( C) It was a st ruct ure t hat t he Nat ive Americans of t he nort h Pacif ic Coast shared wit h many
ot her peoples.
( D) It provided a f orm of social organizat ion t hat was f ound mainly among coast al peoples.
3 4 . The word abundant in line 7 is closest in meaning t o
( A) prosperous ( B) plent if ul ( C) accept able ( D) f undament al

3 5 . All of t he f ollowing are t rue of t he nort h Pacif ic coast women EXCEPT t hat t hey
( A) were more likely t o cat ch shellf ish t han ot her kinds of f ish
( B) cont ribut ed more mat erials f or t ool making t han t he men did
( C) somet imes searched f or f ood f ar inland f rom t he coast
( D) prepared and preserved t he f ish

3 6 . The word They in line 1 6 ref ers t o


( A) women ( B) t ools ( C) mammals ( D) men

3 7 . The Nat ive Americans of t he nort h Pacif ic Coast used smokehouses in order t o
( A) st ore ut ensils used in f ood preparat ion ( B) prevent f ish and shellf ish f rom spoiling
( C) have a place t o st ore f ish and shellf ish ( D) prepare elaborat e meals

3 8 . The wore peculiar in line 1 9 is closest in meaning t o


( A) st range ( B) dist inct ive ( C) appealing ( D) biological

3 9 . All of f ollowing are t rue of t he cheese-like subst ance ment ioned in paragraph 4 EXCEPT
t hat it was
( A) made f rom f ish ( B) not act ually cheese
( C) usef ul on long journeys ( D) made in a short period of t ime

Que st ion 4 0 - 5 0
Archaeological lit erat ure is rich in descript ions of pot making. Unlike modern indust rial
pot t ers, prehist oric art isans creat ed each of t heir pieces individually, using t he simplest
t echnology but demonst rat ing remarkable skill in making and adorning t heir vessels.

Line The clay used in prehist oric pot making was invariably select ed wit h t he ut most care:
(5) of t en it was t raded over considerable dist ances. The consist ency of t he clay was crucial:
it was pounded met iculously and mixed wit h wat er t o make it ent irely even in t ext ure. By
caref ul kneading, t he pot t er removed t he air bubbles and made t he clay as plast ic as
possible, allowing it t o be molded int o shape as t he pot was built up, When a pot is f ired.
It loses it s wat er and can crack, so t he pot t er added a t emper t o t he clay, a subst ance t hat
( 1 0 ) helped reduce shrinkage and cracking.

Since surf ace f inishes provided a pleasing appearance and also improved t he durabilit y
in day-t o-day use, t he pot t er smoot hed t he ext erior surf ace of t he pot wit h wet hands. Of t en
a wet clay solut ion, known as a slip, was applied t o t he smoot h surf ace. Bright ly colored
slips were of t en used and f ormed paint ed decorat ions on t he vessel. In lat er t imes. glazes
( 1 5 ) came int o use in some areas. A glaze is a f orm of slip t hat t urns t o a glasslike f inish during

16
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

high-t emperat ure f iring. When a slip was not applied, t he vessel was allowed t o dry slowly
unt il t he ext ernal surf ace was almost like leat her in t ext ure. It was t hen rubbed wit h a
round st one or similar object t o give it a shiny, hard surf ace. Some pot s were adorned wit h
incised or st amped decorat ions.

(20) Most early pot t ery was t hen f ired over open heart hs. The vessels were covered wit h
f ast -burning wood; as it burned, t he ashes would all around t he pot s and bake t hem
evenly over a f ew hours. Far higher t emperat ures were at t ained in special ovens, known
as kilns, which would not only bake t he clay and remove it s plast icit y, but also dissolve
carbons and iron compounds. Kilns were also used f or glazing, when t wo f irings were
needed, Once f ired, t he pot s were allowed t o cool slowly, and small cracks were repaired
bef ore t hey were ready f or use.

4 0 . What does t he passage mainly discuss?


( A) Why archaeologist s st udy prehist oric pot making
( B) How early pot t ery was made and decorat ed
( C) The development of kilns used by early pot t ers
( D) The variet y of decorat ions on Prehist oric pot t ery

4 1 . The word met iculously in line 6 is closest in meaning t o


( A) heavily ( B) init ially ( C) caref ully ( D) complet ely

4 2 . Which of t he f ollowing was a process used by prehist oric pot t ers t o improve t he t ext ure of
t he clay?
( A) Adding t emper ( B) Removing t he wat er
( C) Beat ing on t he clay ( D) Mixing t he clay wit h plast ic subst ances

4 3 . The word durabilit y in line 1 1 is closest in meaning t o


( A) qualit y ( B) endurance ( C) adapt abilit y ( D) applicabilit y

4 4 . Prehist oric pot t ers applied slips and glazes t o t heir vessels in order t o do which of t he
f ollowing?
( A) Improve t he appearance of t he vessels ( B) prevent t he vessels f rom leaking
( C) Help t he vessels a leat her like qualit y ( D) Give t he vessels a leat her like qualit y

4 5 . Which of t he f ollowing was a met hod used by some pot t ers t o give vessels a glossy f inish?
( A) Smoot hing t hem wit h wet hands ( B) Mixing t he clay wit h colored solut ions
( C) Baking t hem at a very high t emperat ure ( D) Rubbing t hem wit h a smoot h hard object

4 6 . The word incised in line 1 9 is closest in meaning t o


( A) designed ( B) carved ( C) det ailed ( D) paint ed

4 7 . The word t hey in ling 2 6 ref ers t o


( A) kilns ( B) f irings ( C) pot s ( D) cracks

4 8 . According t o t he passage, t he advant age of kilns over open f ires was t hat t he kilns
( A) required less wood f or burning ( B) reached higher t emperat ures
( C) kept ashes away f rom t he pot s ( D) baked vessels wit hout cracking t hem

4 9 . Look at t he t erms t emper ( line 9 ) , glazes ( line 1 4 ) , kilns ( line 2 3 ) , and compounds
( line 2 4 ) . Which of t hese t erms is NOT def ined in t he passage?
( A) t emper ( B) glazes ( C) kilns ( D) compounds

5 0 . The passage ment ions t hat when pot t ery is f ired under burning wood ,t he ashes help
( A) prevent t he clay f rom cracking ( B) produce a more consist ent ly baked pot
( C) at t ain a very high t emperat ure ( D) give t he vessel a glasslike f inish

17
PRA CT ICE T EST 1 6 A ugust 2 0 0 0

18
PRACT ICE T EST 1 7
Oct obe r 2 0 0 0
Que st ions 1 - 1 0
One area of paleoant hropological st udy involves t he eat ing and diet ary habit s of
hominids, erect
bipedal primat esincluding early humans. It is clear t hat at some st age of hist ory, humans
began
t o carry t heir f ood t o cent ral places, called home bases, where it
Line was shared and consumed wit h t he young and ot her adult s. The use of home bases is a
(5) f undament al component of human social behavior; t he common meal served at a common
heart h is a powerf ul symbol, a mark of social unit y. Home base behavior does not occur
among nonhuman primat es and is rare among mammals. It is unclear when humans began t o
use home bases, what kind of communicat ions and social relat ions were involved, and what
t he ecological and f ood-choice cont ext s of t he shif t were. Work on early t ools,
( 1 0 ) surveys of paleoant hropological sit es, development and t est ing of broad ecological
t heories, and advances in comparat ive primat ology are cont ribut ing t o knowledge about t his
cent ral chapt er in human prehist ory.

One innovat ive approach t o t hese issues involves st udying damage and wear on st one
t ools. Researchers make t ools t hat replicat e excavat ed specimens as closely as possible
( 1 5 ) and t hen t ry t o use t hem as t he originals might have been used, in woodcut t ing, hunt ing, or
cult ivat ion. Depending on how t he t ool is used, charact erist ic chippage pat t erns and
microscopically dist inguishable polishes develop near t he edges. The f irst applicat ion of t his
met hod of analysis t o st one t ools t hat are 1 .5 million t o 2 million years old indicat es t hat ,
f rom t he st art , an import ant f unct ion of early st one t ools was t o ext ract highly
( 2 0 ) nut rit ious f oodmeat and marrow-f rom large animal carcasses. Fossil bones wit h cut marks
caused by st one t ools have been discovered lying in t he same 2 -million-year-old layers t hat
yielded t he oldest such t ools and t he oldest hominid specimens ( including humans) wit h
larger t han ape-sized brains. This discovery increases scient ist s' cert aint y about when human
ancest ors began t o eat more meat t han present -day nonhuman
( 2 5 ) primat es. But several quest ions remain unanswered: how f requent ly meat eat ing occurred;
what t he social implicat ions of meat eat ing were; and whet her t he increased use of meat
coincides wit h t he beginnings of t he use of home bases.

1 . The passage mainly discusses which of t he f ollowing aspect s of hominid behavior?


( A) Changes in eat ing and diet ary pract ices
( B) The creat ion of st one hunt ing t ools
( C) Social int eract ions at home bases
( D) Met hods of ext ract ing nut rit ious f ood f rom carcasses

2 . According t o t he passage, bringing a meal t o a locat ion t o be shared by many individuals is


( A) an act ivit y t ypical of nonhuman primat es
( B) a common pract ice among animals t hat eat meat
( C) an indicat ion of social unit y.
( D) a behavior t hat encourages bet t er diet ary habit s

3 . The word " consumed" in line 4 is closest in meaning t o


( A) prepared ( B) st ored ( C) dist ribut ed ( D) eat en

4 . According t o paragraph 2 , researchers make copies of old st one t ools in order t o


( A) prot ect t he old t ools f rom being worn out
( B) display examples of t he old t ools in museums

19
PRA CT ICE T EST 1 7 Oct obe r 2 0 0 0

( C) t est t heories about how old t ools were used


( D) learn how t o improve t he design of modern t ools
5 . In paragraph 2 , t he aut hor ment ions all of t he f ollowing as examples of ways in which early
st one t ools were used EXCEPT t o
( A) build home bases ( B) obt ain f ood ( C) make weapons ( D) shape wood

6 . The word " innovat ive" in line 1 3 is closest in meaning t o


( A) good ( B) new ( C) simple ( D) cost ly

7 . The word " t hem" in line 1 5 ref ers t o


( A) issues ( B) researchers ( C) t ools ( D) specimens

8 . The aut hor ment ions " charact erist ic chippage pat t erns" in line 1 6 as an example of
( A) decorat ions cut int o wooden object s
( B) dif f erences among t ools made of various subst ances
( C) impressions lef t on prehist oric animal bones
( D) indicat ions of wear on st one t ools

9 . The word " ext ract " in line 1 9 is closest in meaning t o


( A) ident if y ( B) remove ( C) dest roy ( D) compare

1 0 . The word " whet her" in line 2 6 is closest in meaning t o


( A) if ( B) how ( C) why ( D) when

Que st ions 1 1 - 2 0
In sevent eent h-cent ury colonial Nort h America, all day-t o-day cooking was done in t he
f ireplace. Generally large, f ireplaces were planned f or cooking as well as f or warmt h. Those in
t he Nort heast were usually f our or f ive f eet high, and in t he Sout h, t hey were
Line of t en high enough f or a person t o walk int o. A heavy t imber called t he mant el t ree was
(5) used as a lint el t o support t he st onework above t he f ireplace opening. This t imber might be
scorched occasionally, but it was f ar enough in f ront of t he rising column of heat t o be saf e
f rom cat ching f ire.

Two ledges were built across f rom each ot her on t he inside of t he chimney. On t hese
rest ed t he ends of a " lug pole" f rom which pot s were suspended when cooking. Wood
( 1 0 ) f rom a f reshly cut t ree was used f or t he lug pole, so it would resist heat , but it had t o be
replaced f requent ly because it dried out and charred, and was t hus weakened. Somet imes t he
pole broke and t he dinner f ell int o t he f ire. When iron became easier t o obt ain, it was used
inst ead of wood f or lug poles, and lat er f ireplaces had pivot ing met al rods t o hang pot s f rom.

Beside t he f ireplace and built as part of it was t he oven. It was made like a small,
(15) secondary f ireplace wit h a f lue leading int o t he main chimney t o draw out smoke.
Somet imes t he door of t he oven f aced t he room, but most ovens were built wit h t he opening
f acing int o t he f ireplace. On baking days ( usually once or t wice a week) a roaring f ire of
" oven wood," consist ing of brown maple st icks, was maint ained in t he oven unt il it s walls
were ext remely hot . The embers were lat er removed, bread dough was put int o t he oven,
and t he oven was sealed shut unt il t he bread was f ully baked.

Not all baking was done in a big oven, however. Also used was an iron " bake ket t le,"
which looked like a st ewpot on legs and which had an iron lid. This is said t o have worked well
when it was placed in t he f ireplace, surrounded by glowing wood embers, wit h more embers
piled on it s lid.

20
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

1 1 . Which of t he f ollowing aspect s of domest ic lif e in colonial Nort h America does t he passage
mainly discuss?
( A) Met hods of baking bread
( B) Fireplace cooking
( C) The use of iron ket t les in a t ypical kit chen
( D) The t ypes of wood used in preparing meals
1 2 . The aut hor ment ions t he f ireplaces built in t he Sout h t o illust rat e
( A) how t he mat erials used were similar t o t he mat erials used in nort heast ern f ireplaces
( B) t hat t hey served diverse f unct ions
( C) t hat t hey were usually larger t han nort heast ern f ireplaces
( D) how t hey were saf er t han nort heast ern f ireplaces

1 3 . The word " scorched" in line 6 is closest in meaning t o


( A) burned ( B) cut ( C) enlarged ( D) bent

1 4 . The word " it " in line 6 ref ers t o


( A) t he st onework ( B) t he f ireplace opening
( C) t he mant el t ree ( D) t he rising column of heat

1 5 . According t o t he passage, how was f ood usually cooked in a pot in t he sevent eent h cent ury?
( A) By placing t he pot direct ly int o t he f ire ( B) By put t ing t he pot in t he oven
( C) By f illing t he pot wit h hot wat er ( D) By hanging t he pot on a pole over t he f ire

1 6 . The word " obt ain" in line 1 2 is closest in meaning t o


( A) maint ain ( B) reinf orce ( C) manuf act ure ( D) acquire

1 7 . Which of t he f ollowing is ment ioned in paragraph 2 as a disadvant age of using a wooden lug
pole?
( A) It was made of wood not readily available. ( B) It was dif f icult t o move or rot at e.
( C) It occasionally broke. ( D) It became t oo hot
t o t ouch.

1 8 . It can be inf erred f rom paragraph 3 t hat , compared t o ot her f irewood, " oven wood" produced
( A) less smoke ( B) more heat ( C) f ewer embers ( D) lower f lames

1 9 . According t o paragraph 3 , all of t he f ollowing were t rue of a colonial oven EXCEPT:


( A) It was used t o heat t he kit chen every day.
( B) It was built as part of t he main f ireplace.
( C) The smoke it generat ed went out t hrough t he main chimney.
( D) It was heat ed wit h maple st icks.

2 0 . According t o t he passage, which of t he f ollowing was an advant age of a " bake ket t le" ?
( A) It did not t ake up a lot of space in t he f ireplace.
( B) It did not need t o be t ight ly closed.
( C) It could be used in addit ion t o or inst ead of t he oven.
( D) It could be used t o cook several f oods at one t ime.

Que st ions 2 1 - 2 9
But t erf lies are among t he most ext ensively st udied insect san est imat ed 9 0 percent
of t he
world' s species have scient if ic names. As a consequence, t hey are perhaps t he best group of
insect s f or examining pat t erns of t errest rial biot ic diversit y and dist ribut ion. But t erf lies also
have a f avorable image wit h t he general public. Hence, t hey are an excellent group f or
(5) communicat ing inf ormat ion on science and conservat ion issues such as diversit y.

21
PRA CT ICE T EST 1 7 Oct obe r 2 0 0 0

Perhaps t he aspect of but t erf ly diversit y t hat has received t he most at t ent ion over
t he past
cent ury is t he st riking dif f erence in species richness bet ween t ropical and t emperat e regions.
For example, in 1 8 7 5 one biologist point ed out t he diversit y of but t erf lies in t he Amazon
when
he ment ioned t hat about 7 0 0 species were f ound wit hin an hour' s walk, whereas t he t ot al
( 1 0 ) number f ound on t he Brit ish islands did not exceed 6 6 , and t he whole of Europe support ed
only
3 2 1 . This early comparison of t ropical and t emperat e but t erf ly richness has been well
conf irmed.

A general t heory of diversit y would have t o predict not only t his dif f erence bet ween
t emperat e and t ropical zones, but also pat t erns wit hin each region, and how t hese pat t erns
vary
( 1 5 ) among dif f erent animal and plant groups. However, f or but t erf lies, variat ion of species
richness
wit hin t emperat e or t ropical regions, rat her man bet ween t hem, is poorly underst ood. Indeed,
comparisons of numbers of species among t he Amazon basin, t ropical Asia, and Af rica are
st ill
most ly " personal communicat ion" cit at ions, even f or vert ebrat es, In ot her words, unlike
comparison bet ween t emperat e and t ropical areas, t hese pat t erns are st ill in t he
document at ion
( 2 0 ) phase.

In document ing geographical variat ion in but t erf ly diversit y, some arbit rary, pract ical
decisions are made. Diversit y, number of species, and species richness are used
synonymously;
lit t le is known about t he evenness of but t erf ly dist ribut ion. The New World but t erf lies make
up t he preponderance of examples because t hey are t he most f amiliar species. It is hoped
t hat
( 2 5 ) by f ocusing on t hem, t he errors generat ed by imperf ect and incomplet e t axonomy will be
minimized.

2 1 . Which aspect of but t erf lies does t he passage mainly discuss?


( A) Their physical charact erist ics ( B) Their names
( C) Their adapt at ion t o dif f erent habit at s ( D) Their variet y

2 2 . The word " consequence" in line 2 is closest in meaning t o


( A) result ( B) explanat ion ( C) analysis ( D) requirement

2 3 . But t erf lies are a good example f or communicat ing inf ormat ion about conservat ion issues
because t hey
( A) are simple in st ruct ure ( B) are viewed posit ively by people
( C) have been given scient if ic names ( D) are f ound mainly in t emperat e climat es

2 4 . The word " st riking" in line 7 is closest in meaning t o


( A) physical ( B) conf using ( C) not iceable ( D) successf ul

2 5 . The word " exceed" in line 1 0 is closest in meaning t o


( A) locat e ( B) allow ( C) go beyond ( D) come close t o

2 6 . All of t he f ollowing are ment ioned as being import ant part s of a general t heory of diversit y
EXCEPT
( A) dif f erences bet ween t emperat e and t ropical zones

22
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

( B) pat t erns of dist ribut ion of species in each region


( C) migrat ion among t emperat e and t ropical zones
( D) variat ion of pat t erns of dist ribut ion of species among dif f erent animals and plant s

2 7 . The aut hor ment ions t ropical Asia in lines 1 7 -1 8 as an example of a locat ion where
( A) but t erf ly behavior varies wit h climat e
( B) a general t heory of but t erf ly diversit y has not yet been f irmly est ablished
( C) but t erf lies are af f ect ed by human populat ions
( D) document ing plant species is more dif f icult t han document ing but t erf ly species

2 8 . Which of t he f ollowing is NOT well underst ood by biologist s?


( A) European but t erf ly habit at s
( B) Dif f erences in species richness bet ween t emperat e and t ropical regions
( C) Dif f erences in species richness wit hin a t emperat e or a t ropical region
( D) Comparisons of behavior pat t erns of but t erf lies and cert ain animal groups

2 9 . The word " generat ed" in line 2 5 is closest in meaning t o


( A) request ed ( B) caused ( C) assist ed ( D) est imat ed

Que st ions 3 0 - 4 0
According t o ant hropologist s, people in preindust rial societ ies spent 3 t o 4 hours per
day or about 2 0 hours per week doing t he work necessary f or lif e. Modern comparisons of
t he amount of work perf ormed per week, however, begin wit h t he Indust rial Revolut ion
Line ( 1 7 6 0 -1 8 4 0 ) when 1 0 - t o 1 2 -hour workdays wit h six workdays per week were t he norm.
(5) Even wit h ext ensive t ime devot ed t o work, however, bot h incomes and st andards of living
were low. As incomes rose near t he end of t he Indust rial Revolut ion, it became increasingly
common t o t reat Sat urday af t ernoons as a half -day holiday. The half holiday had become
st andard pract ice in Brit ain by t he 1 8 7 0 ' s, but did not become common in t he Unit ed St at es
unt il t he 1 9 2 0 ' s.

(10) In t he Unit ed St at es, t he f irst t hird of t he t went iet h cent ury saw t he workweek move
f rom 6 0 hours per week t o just under 5 0 hours by t he st art of t he 1 9 3 0 ' s. In 1 9 1 4 Henry
Ford
reduced daily work hours at his aut omobile plant s f rom 9 t o 8 . In 1 9 2 6 he announced t hat
hencef ort h his f act ories would close f or t he ent ire day on Sat urday. At t he t ime, Ford
received
crit icism f rom ot her f irms such as Unit ed St at es St eel and West inghouse, but t he
( 1 5 ) idea was popular wit h workers.

The Depression years of t he 1 9 3 0 ' s brought wit h t hem t he not ion of job sharing t o
spread available work around; t he workweek dropped t o a modem low f or t he Unit ed St at es
of 3 5 hours. In 1 9 3 8 t he Fair Labor St andards Act mandat ed a weekly maximum of 4 0 hours
t o begin in 1 9 4 0 , and since t hat t ime t he 8 -hour day, 5 -day workweek has been t he st andard
in
( 2 0 ) t he Unit ed St at es. Adjust ment s in various places, however, show t hat t his st andard is not
immut able. In 1 9 8 7 , f or example, German met alworkers st ruck f or and received a 3 7 .5 -hour
workweek; and in 1 9 9 0 many workers in Brit ain won a 3 7 -hour week. Since 1 9 8 9 , t he

23
PRA CT ICE T EST 1 7 Oct obe r 2 0 0 0

Japanese government has moved f rom a 6 - t o a 5 -day workweek and has set a nat ional
t arget of 1 ,8 0 0 work hours per year f or t he average worker. The average amount of work
( 2 5 ) per year in Japan in 1 9 8 9 was 2 ,0 8 8 hours per worker, compared t o 1 ,9 5 7 f or t he Unit ed
St at es and 1 ,6 4 6 f or France.

3 0 . What does t he passage mainly discuss?


( A) Why people in preindust rial societ ies worked f ew hours per week
( B) Changes t hat have occurred in t he number of hours t hat people work per week
( C) A comparison of t he number of hours worked per year in several indust ries
( D) Working condit ions during t he Indust rial Revolut ion

3 1 . Compared t o preiudust rial t imes, t he number of hours in t he workweek in t he ninet eent h


cent ury
( A) remained const ant ( B) decreased slight ly
( C) decreased signif icant ly ( D) increased signif icant ly

3 2 . The word " norm" in line 4 is closest in meaning t o


( A) minimum. ( B) example ( C) possibilit y ( D) st andard

3 3 . The word " hencef ort h" in line 1 3 is closest in meaning t o


( A) in t he end ( B) f or a brief period ( C) f rom t hat t ime on ( D) on occasion

3 4 . The " idea" ment ioned in line 1 5 ref ers t o


( A) t he 6 0 -hour workweek
( B) t he reduct ion in t he cost of aut omobiles
( C) t he reduct ion in t he workweek at some aut omobile f act ories
( D) t he crit icism of Ford by Unit ed St at es St eel and West inghouse

3 5 . What is one reason f or t he change in t he lengt h of t he workweek f or t he average worker in


t he Unit ed St at es during t he 1 9 3 0 ' s?
( A) Several people somet imes shared a single job.
( B) Labor st rikes in several count ries inf luenced labor policy in t he Unit ed St at es.
( C) Several corporat ions increased t he lengt h of t he workweek.
( D) The Unit ed St at es government inst it ut ed a 3 5 -hour workweek.

3 6 . Which of t he f ollowing is ment ioned as one of t he purposes of t he Fair Labor St andards Act of
1938 ?
( A) To discourage workers f rom asking f or increased wages
( B) To est ablish a limit on t he number of hours in t he workweek
( C) To allow employers t o set t he lengt h of t he workweek f or t heir workers
( D) To rest rict t rade wit h count ries t hat had a long workweek

3 7 . The word " mandat ed" in line 1 8 is closest in meaning t o


( A) required ( B) recommended ( C) eliminat ed ( D) considered

3 8 . The word " immut able" in line 2 1 is closest in meaning t o


( A) unmat ched ( B) irregular ( C) unnecessary ( D) unchangeable

3 9 . Which of t he f ollowing is NOT ment ioned as evidence t hat t he lengt h of t he workweek has
been declining since t he ninet eent h cent ury?
( A) The half -day holiday ( line 7 )

24
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

( B) Henry Ford ( lines 1 1 -1 2 )


( C) Unit ed St at es St eel and West inghouse ( line 1 4 )
( D) German met alworkers ( line 2 1 )

4 0 . According t o t he passage, one goal of t he Japanese government is t o reduce t he average


annual amount of work t o
( A) 1 ,6 4 6 hours ( B) 1 ,8 0 0 hours ( C) 1 ,9 5 7 hours ( D) 2 ,0 8 8 hours

Que st ions 4 1 - 5 0
The Art s and Craf t s Movement in t he Unit ed St at es was responsible f or sweeping
changes in at t it udes t oward t he decorat ive art s, t hen considered t he minor or household
art s. It s f ocus on decorat ive art s helped t o induce Unit ed Slat es museums and privat e
collect ors t o begin collect ing
Line f urnit ure, glass, ceramics, met alwork, and t ext iles in t he lat e ninet eent h and early t went iet h
(5) cent uries. The f act t hat art isans, who were looked on as mechanics or skilled workers in t he
eight eent h cent ury, are f requent ly considered art ist s t oday is direct ly at t ribut able t o t he
Art s and Craf t s Movement of t he ninet eent h cent ury. The import ance now placed on
at t ract ive and harmonious home decorat ion can also be t raced t o t his period, when Vict orian
int erior arrangement s were revised t o admit great er light and more f reely f lowing spaces.

(10) The Art s and Craf t s Movement react ed against mechanized processes t hat
t hreat ened
handcraf t s and result ed in cheapened, monot onous merchandise. Founded in t he lat e
ninet eent h
cent ury by Brit ish social crit ics John Ruskin and William Morris, t he movement revered craf t
as a f orm
of art . In a rapidly indust rializing societ y, most Vict orians agreed t hat art was an essent ial
moral
ingredient in t he home environment , and in many middle- and working-class homes craf t was
t he only
( 1 5 ) f orm of art , Ruskin and his f ollowers crit icized not only t he degradat ion of art isans reduced
t o machine
operat ors, but also t he impending loss of daily cont act wit h handcraf t ed object s, f ashioned
wit h pride,
int egrit y, and at t ent ion t o beaut y.

In t he Unit ed St at es as well as in Great Brit ain, ref ormers ext olled t he virt ues of
handcraf t ed object s: simple, st raight f orward design; solid mat erials of good qualit y; and
sound, enduring
( 2 0 ) const ruct ion t echniques. These crit eria were int erpret ed in a variet y of st yles, ranging f rom
rat ional
and geomet ric t o romant ic or nat uralist ic. Whet her abst ract , st ylized, or realist ically t reat ed,
t he
consist ent t heme in virt ually all Art s and Craf t s design is nat ure.
The Art s and Craf t s Movement was much more t han a part icular st yle; it was a
philosophy of domest ic lif e. Proponent s believed t hat if simple design, high-qualit y mat erials,
and honest const ruct ion were realized in t he home and it s appoint ment s, t hen t he occupant s
would enjoy moral and t herapeut ic ef f ect s. For bot h art isan and consumer,
( 3 0 ) t he Art s and Craf t s doct rine was seen as a magical f orce against t he undesirable ef f ect s of
indust rializat ion.

25
PRA CT ICE T EST 1 7 Oct obe r 2 0 0 0

4 1 . The passage primarily f ocuses on ninet eent h-cent ury art s and craf t s in t erms of which of t he
f ollowing?
( A) Their nat uralist ic t hemes ( B) Their import ance in museum collect ions
( C) Their Brit ish origin ( D) Their role in an indust rialized societ y

4 2 . According t o t he passage, bef ore t he ninet eent h cent ury, art isans were t hought t o be
( A) def enders of moral st andards ( B) creat ors of cheap merchandise
( C) skilled workers ( D) art ist s

4 3 . It can be inf erred f rom t he passage t hat t he Art s and Craf t s Movement would have considered
ail of t he f ollowing t o be art ist s EXCEPT
( A) creat ors of t ext ile designs
( B) people who produce handmade glass object s
( C) operat ors of machines t hat aut omat ically cut legs, f or f urnit ure
( D) met alworkers who creat e unique pieces of jewelry

4 4 . The word " revered" in line 1 2 is closest in meaning t o


( A) respect ed ( B) described ( C) avoided ( D) creat ed

4 5 . According t o paragraph 2 , t he handcraf t ed object s in t he homes of middle- and working-class


f amilies
usually were
( A) made by members of t he f amily ( B) t he least expensive object s in t heir homes
( C) regarded as being morally uplif t ing ( D) t hought t o symbolize progress

4 6 . The word " ext olled" in line 1 8 is closest in meaning t o


( A) exposed ( B) praised ( C) believed ( D) accept ed

4 7 . The aut hor ment ions all of t he f ollowing as at t ribut es of handcraf t ed object s EXCEPT
( A) t he pride wit h which t hey were craf t ed ( B) t he complexit y of t heir design
( C) t he long t ime t hat t hey last ed ( D) t he qualit y of t heir mat erials

4 8 . The word " consist ent " in line 2 2 is closest in meaning t o


( A) conservat ive ( B) considerable ( C) const ant ( D) concret e

4 9 . According t o t he passage, which of t he f ollowing changes occurred at t he same t ime as t he


Art s and Craf t s Movement ?
( A) The creat ion of bright er and more airy spaces inside homes
( B) The reject ion of art t hat depict ed nat ure in a realist ic manner
( C) A decline of int erest in art museum collect ions
( D) An increase in t he buying of import ed art object s

5 0 . Which of t he f ollowing st at ement s is support ed by t he passage?


( A) Privat e collect ors in t he ninet eent h cent ury concent rat ed on acquiring paint ings.
( B) The Art s and Craf t s Movement in t he Unit ed St at es, unlike t he one in Brit ain, did not
react st rongly against mechanized processes.
( C) Handcraf t ed object s in t he Unit ed St at es and Brit ain in t he ninet eent h cent ury did not
use geomet ric designs.
( D) The Art s and Craf t s Movement believed in t he benef icial ef f ect f or people f rom being
surrounded by beaut if ul object s.

26
PRACT ICE T EST 1 8
January 1 9 9 9
Que st ion 1 - 1 2
The Nat ive Americans of nort hern Calif ornia were highly skilled at basket ry, using
t he reeds, grasses, bards, and root s t hey f ound around t hem t o f ashion art icles of all
sort s and sizes - not only t rays, cont ainers, and cooking pot s, but hat s, boat s, f ish
Line t raps, baby carriers, and ceremonial object s.

(5) Of all t hese expert s, none excelled t he Pomo - a group who lived on or near t he
coast during t he 1 8 0 0 ' s, and whose descendant s cont inue t o live in part s of t he same
region t o t his day. They made basket s t hree f eet in diamet er and ot hers no bigger t han a
t himble. The Pomo people were mast ers of decorat ion. Some of t heir basket s were
complet ely covered wit h shell pendant s; ot hers wit h f eat hers t hat made t he basket s'
( 1 0 ) surf aces as sof t as t he breast s of birds. Moreover, t he Pomo people made use of more
weaving t echniques t han did t heir neighbors. Most groups made all t heir basket work
by t wining - t he t wist ing of a f lexible horizont al mat erial, called a wef t , around st if f er
vert ical st rands of mat erial, t he warp. Ot hers depended primarily on coiling - a
process in which a cont inuous coil of st if f mat erial is held in t he desired shaped by a
( 1 5 ) t ight wrapping of f lexible st rands. Only t he Pomo people used bot h processes wit h
equal case and f requency. In addit ion, t hey made use of f our dist inct variat ions on t he
basic t wining process, of t en employing more t han one of t hem in a single art icle.

Alt hough a wide variet y of mat erials was available, t he Pomo people used only a
f ew. The warp was always made of willow, and t he most commonly used welt was
( 2 0 ) sedge root , a woody f iber t hat could easily be separat ed int o st rands no t hicker t han a
t hread. For color, t he Pomo people used t he bark of redbud f or t heir t wined work and
dyed bullrush root f or black in coiled work. Though ot her mat erials were somet imes
used, t hese f our were t he st aples in t heir f inest basket ry.

If t he basket ry mat erials used by t he Pomo people were limit ed, t he designs were
(25) amazingly varied. Every Pomo basket maker knew how t o produce f rom f if t een t o
t went y dist inct pat t erns t hat could be combined in a number of dif f erent ways.

1 . What best dist inguished Pomo basket s f rom basket s of ot her groups?
( A) The range of sizes, shapes, and designs ( B) The unusual geomet ric
( C) The absence of decorat ion ( D) The rare mat erials used

2 . The word " f ashion" in line 2 is closest in meaning t o


( A) maint ain ( B) organize ( C) t rade ( D) creat e

3 . The Pomo people used each of t he f ollowing mat erials t o decorat e basket s EXCEPT
( A) shells ( B) f eat hers ( C) leaves ( D) bark

4 . What is t he aut hor' s main point in t he second paragraph?


( A) The neighbors of t he Pomo people t ried t o improve on t he Pomo basket weaving
t echniques.
( B) The Pomo people were t he most skilled basket weavers in t heir region.
( C) The Pomo people learned t heir basket weaving t echniques f rom ot her Nat ive Americans.
( D) The Pomo basket s have been handed down f or generat ions.

5 . The word " ot hers " in line 9 ref ers t o


( A) mast ers ( B) basket s ( C) pendant s ( D) surf aces

27
PRA CT ICE T EST 1 8 January 1 9 9 9

6 . According t o t he passage is a
( A) t ool f or separat ing sedge root ( B) process used f or coloring basket s
( C) pliable mat ernal woven around t he warp ( D) pat t ern used t o decorat e basket s

7 . According t o t he passage, what did t he Pomo people use as t he warp in t heir basket s?
( A) Bullrush ( B) willow ( C) Sedge ( D) Redbud

8 . The word " art icle" in line 1 7 is close in meaning t o


( A) decorat ion ( B) shape ( C) design ( D) object

9 . According t o t he passage. The relat ionship bet ween redbud and t wining is most similar t o t he
relat ionship bet ween
( A) bullrush and coiling ( B) wef t and warp
( C) willow and f eat hers ( D) sedge and weaving

1 0 . The word " st aples" in line 2 3 is closest in meaning t o


( A) combinat ions ( B) limit at ions ( C) accessories ( D) basic element s

1 1 . The word " dist inct " in lime 2 6 is closest in meaning t o


( A) syst emat ic ( B) beaut if ul ( C) dif f erent ( D) compat ible

1 2 . Which of t he f ollowing st at ement s about Pomo basket s can be best inf erred f rom t he
passage?
( A) Basket s produced by ot her Nat ive Americans were less varied in design t han t hose of t he
Pomo people.
( B) Basket s produced by Pomo weavers were primarily f or ceremonial purposes.
( C) There was a very limit ed number of basket making mat erials available t o t he Pomo people.
( D) The basket making product ion of t he Pomo people has increased over t he years.

Que st ions 1 3 - 2 0
Any rock t hat has cooled and solidif ied f rom a molt en st at e is an igneous rock.
Theref ore, if t he Eart h began as a superheat ed sphere in space, all t he rocks making up
it s crust may well have been igneous and t hus t he ancest ors of all ot her rocks. Even
Line t oday, approximat ely 9 5 percent of t he ent ire crust is igneous. Periodically, molt en
(5) mat erial wells out of t he Eart h' s int erior t o invade t he surf ace layers or t o f low ont o t he
surf ace it self . This mat erial cools int o a wide variet y of igneous rocks. In t he molt en
st at e, it is called magma as it pushes int o t he crust and lava when it runs out ont o t he
surf ace.

All magma consist s basically of a variet y of silicat e minerals ( high in siliconoxygen


( 1 0 ) compounds) , but t he chemical composit ion of any given f low may dif f er
radically f rom t hat of any ot her. The result ing igneous rocks will ref lect t hese
dif f erences. Igneous rocks also vary in t ext ure as well as chemist ry. Granit e, f or
inst ance, is a coarse-grained igneous rock whose individual mineral cryst als have
f ormed t o a size easily seen by t he naked eye. A slow rat e of cooling has allowed t he
( 1 5 ) cryst als t o reach t his size. Normally, slow cooling occurs when t he crust is invaded by
magma t hat remains buried well below t he surf ace. Granit e may be f ound on t he
surf ace of t he cont emporary landscape, but f rom it s coarse t ext ure we know t hat it must
have f ormed t hrough slow cooling at a great dept h and lat er been laid bare by erosion.
Igneous rocks wit h t his coarse-grained t ext ure t hat f ormed at dept h are called plut onic.

(20) On t he ot her hand, if t he same magma f lows ont o t he surf ace and is quickly cooled

28
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

by t he at mosphere, t he result ing rock will be f ine-grained and appear quit e dif f erent
f rom granit e, alt hough t he chemical composit ion will be ident ical. This kind of rock is
called rhyolit e. The most f inely grained igneous rock is volcanic glass or obsidian,
which has no cryst als. Some researchers believe t his is because of rapid cooling; ot hers
( 2 5 ) believe it is because of a lack of wat er vapor and ot her gases in t he lava. The black
obsidian clif f s of Yellowst one Nat ional Park are t he result of a lava f low of basalt
running head on int o a glacier. Some of t he glacier melt ed on cont act , but suddenly
t here also appeared a huge black mass of glassy st one.

1 3 . In t he f irst paragraph, t he aut hor ment ions t hat


( A) t he Eart h began as a molt en mass
( B) a t hin layer of magma f lows beneat h t he Eart h' s crust
( C) t he minerals f ound in igneous rock are very common
( D) igneous rock is cont inually being f ormed

1 4 . The word " invade" in line 5 is closest in meaning t o


( A) move int o ( B) neut ralize ( C) cover ( D) deposit

1 5 . The word " cont emporary" in line 1 7 is closest in meaning t o


( A) vast ( B) nat ural ( C) exist ing ( D) uneven

1 6 . The word " it " in line 1 7 ref ers t o


( A) granit e ( B) surf ace ( C) landscape ( D) t ext ure

1 7 . Granit e t hat has been f ound above ground has been


( A) pushed up f rom below t he crust by magma ( B) produced during a
volcanic explosion
( C) gradually exposed due t o erosion ( D) pushed up by t he nat ural shif t ing of t he
Eart h

1 8 . Which of t he f ollowing is produced when magma cools rapidly?


( A) Granit e ( B) Plut onic rock ( C) Rhyolit e ( D) Mineral cryst als

1 9 . The word " f inely" in line 2 3 is closest in meaning t o


( A) minut ely ( B) loosely ( C) sensit ively ( D) purely

2 0 . Which of t he f ollowing is anot her name f or volcanic glass?


( A) Plut onic rock ( B) Cryst al ( C) Lava ( D) Obsidian

Que st ions 2 1 - 3 3
Alt hough only 1 person in 2 0 in t he Colonial period lived in a cit y, t he cit ies had a
disproport ionat e inf luence on t he development of Nort h America. They were at t he
cut t ing edge of social change. It was in t he cit ies t hat t he element s t hat can be
Line associat ed wit h modern capit alism f irst appeared - t he use of money and commercial
(5) paper in place of bart er, open compet it ion in place of social def erence and hierarchy,
wit h an at t endant rise in social disorder, and t he appearance of f act ories using coat or
wat er power in place of independent craf t speople working wit h hand t ools. " The cit ies
predict ed t he f ut ure," wrot e hist orian Gary. B. Nash, " even t hough t hey were but
overgrown villages compared t o t he great urban cent ers of Europe, t he Middle East
( 1 0 ) and China."

Except f or Bost on, whose populat ion st abilized at about 1 6 ,0 0 0 in 1 7 6 0 , cit ies grew
by exponent ial leaps t hrough t he eight eent h cent ury. In t he f if t een years prior t o t he

29
PRA CT ICE T EST 1 8 January 1 9 9 9

out break of t he War f or independence in 1 7 7 5 , more t han 2 0 0 ,0 0 0 immigrant s arrived


on Nort h American shores. This meant t hat a populat ion t he size of Bost on was
( 1 5 ) arriving every year, and most of it f lowed int o t he port cit ies in t he Nort heast .
Philadelphia' s populat ion nearly doubt ed in t hose years, reaching about 3 0 ,0 0 0 in
1 7 7 4 , New York grew at almost t he same rat e, reaching about 2 5 ,0 0 0 by 1 7 7 5 .

The qualit y of t he hint erland dict at ed t he pace of growt h of t he cit ies. The land
surrounding Bost on had always been poor f arm count ry, and by t he mid-eight eent h
( 2 0 ) cent ury it was virt ually st ripped of it s t imber. The available f armland was occupied,
t here was lit t le in t he region beyond t he cit y t o at t ract immigrant s. New York and
Philadelphia, by cont rast , served a rich and f ert ile hint erland laced wit h navigable
wat ercourses. Scot s, Irish, and Germans landed in t hese cit ies and f ollowed t he rivers
inland. The regions around t he cit ies of New York and Philadelphia became t he
( 2 5 ) breadbasket s of Nort h America, sending grain not only t o ot her colonies but also t o
England and sout hern Europe, where crippling drought s in t he lat e 1 7 6 0 ' s creat ed a
whole new market .

2 1 . Which of t he f ollowing aspect s of Nort h America in t he eight eent h cent ury does t he passage
mainly discuss?
( A) The ef f ect s of war on t he growt h of cit ies
( B) The growt h and inf luence of cit ies
( C) The decline of f arming in areas surrounding cit ies
( D) The causes of immigrat ion t o cit ies

2 2 . Why does t he aut hor say t hat " t he cit ies had a disproport ionat e inf luence on t he development
of Nort h America ( lines1 -2 ) ?
( A) The inf luence of t he cit ies was most ly negat ive
( B) The populat ions of t he cit ies were small, but t heir inf luence was great .
( C) The cit ies were growing at a great rat e.
( D) Most people pret ended t o live in cit ies

2 3 . The phrase " in place of " in line 5 is closest in meaning t o


( A) connect ed t o ( B) in addit ion t o ( C) because of ( D) inst ead of

2 4 . The word " at t endant " in line 6 is closest in meaning t o


( A) avoidable ( B) accompanying ( C) unwelcome ( D) unexpect ed

2 5 . Which of t he f ollowing is ment ioned as an element of modern capit alism?


( A) Open compet it ion ( B) Social def erence
( C) Social hierarchy ( D) Independent craf t speople

2 6 . It can be inf erred t hat in comparison wit h Nort h American cit ies, cit ies in Europe, t he Middle
East , and China had
( A) large populat ions ( B) lit t le independence
( C) f requent social disorder ( D) f ew power sources

2 7 . The phrase " exponent ial leaps" in line 1 2 is closest in meaning t o


( A) long wars ( B) new laws
( C) rapid increases ( D) excit ing changes

2 8 . The word " it " in line 1 5 ref ers t o


( A) populat ion ( B) size ( C) Bost on ( D) Year

2 9 . How many immigrant s arrived in Nort h America bet ween 1 7 6 0 and 1 7 7 5 ?


( A) About 1 6 ,0 0 0 ( B) About 2 5 ,0 0 0

30
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

( C) About 3 0 ,0 0 0 ( D) More t han 2 0 0 ,0 0 0

3 0 . The word " dict at ed" in line 1 8 is closest in meaning t o


( A) spoiled ( B) reduced ( C) det ermined ( D) divided

3 1 . The word " virt ually" in line2 0 is closest in meaning t o


( A) usually ( B) hardly
( C) very quickly ( D) almost complet ely

3 2 . The region surrounding New York and Philadelphia is cont rast ed wit h t he region surrounding
Bost on in t erms of
( A) qualit y of f armland ( B) origin of immigrant s
( C) opport unit ies f or f ishing ( D) t ype of grain grown

3 3 . Why does t he aut hor describe t he regions around t he cit ies of New York and Philadelphia as
" breadbasket s" ?
( A) They produced grain especially f or making bread.
( B) They st ored large quant it ies of grain during periods of drought
( C) They supplied grain t o ot her part s of Nort h America and ot her count ries.
( D) They consumed more grain t han all t he ot her regions of Nort h America.

Que st ions 3 4 - 4 4
Researchers in t he f ield of psychology have f ound t hat one of t he best ways t o make
an import ant decision, such as choosing a universit y t o at t end or a business t o invest in,
involves t he ut ilizat ion of a decision worksheet . Psychologist s who st udy opt imizat ion
Line compare t he act ual decisions made by people t o t heoret ical ideal decisions t o see how
(5) similar t hey are. Proponent s of t he worksheet procedure believe t hat it will yield
opt imal, t hat is, t he best decisions. Alt hough t here are several variat ions on t he exact
f ormat t hat worksheet s can t ake, t hey are all similar in t heir essent ial aspect s.
Worksheet s require def ining t he problem in a clear and concise way and t hen list ing all
possible solut ions t o t he problem. Next , t he pert inent considerat ions t hat will be
( 1 0 ) af f ect ed by each decision are list ed, and t he relat ive import ance of each considerat ion
or consequence is det ermined. Each considerat ion is assigned a numerical value t o
ref lect it s relat ive import ance. A decision is mat hemat ically calculat ed by adding t hese
values t oget her. The alt ernat ive wit h t he highest number of point s emerges as t he best
decision.

(15) Since most import ant problems are mult if acet ed, t here are several alt ernat ives t o
choose f rom, each wit h unique advant ages and disadvant ages. One of t he benef it s of a
pencil and paper decision-making procedure is t hat it permit s people t o deal wit h more
variables t han t heir minds can generally comprehend and remember. On t he average,
people can keep about seven ideas in t heir minds at once. A worksheet can be
( 2 0 ) especially usef ul when t he decision involves a large number of variables wit h complex
relat ionships. A realist ic example f or many college st udent s is t he quest ion " What will
I do af t er graduat ion?" A graduat e might seek a posit ion t hat of f ers specialized
t raining, pursue an advanced degree, or t ravel abroad f or a year.

A decision-making worksheet begins wit h a succinct st at ement of t he problem t hat


( 2 5 ) will also help t o narrow it . It is import ant t o be clear about t he dist inct ion bet ween
long-range and immediat e goals because long-range goals of t en involve a dif f erent
decision t han short -range ones. Focusing on long-range goals, a graduat ing st udent

31
PRA CT ICE T EST 1 8 January 1 9 9 9

might revise t he quest ion above t o " What will I do af t er graduat ion t hat will lead t o a
successf ul career?"

3 4 . What does t he passage mainly discuss?


( A) A t ool t o assist in making complex decisions.
( B) A comparison of act ual decisions and ideal decisions
( C) Research on how people make decisions
( D) Dif f erences bet ween long-range and short -range decision making

3 5 . The word " essent ial" in line 7 is closest in meaning t o


( A) int roduct ory ( B) changeable ( C) benef icial ( D) f undament al
3 6 . The word " pert inent " in line 9 is closest in meaning t o
( A) relevant ( B) preceding ( C) insight f ul ( D) responsive

3 7 . Of t he f ollowing st eps, which occurs bef ore t he ot hers in making a decision worksheet ?
( A) List ing t he consequences of each solut ion
( B) Calculat ing a numerical summary of each solut ion
( C) Deciding which consequences are most import ant
( D) Writ ing down all possible solut ions

3 8 . According t o decision-worksheet t heory, an opt imal decision is def ined as one t hat
( A) has t he f ewest variables t o consider ( B) uses t he most decision worksheet s
( C) has t he most point s assigned t o it ( D) is agreed t o by t he great est number of
people

3 9 . The aut hor develops t he discussion in paragraph I by means of


( A) describing a process ( B) classif ying t ypes of
worksheet s
( C) providing hist orical background ( D) explaining a t heory

4 0 . The aut hor st at es t hat " On t he average, people can keep about seven ideas in t heir minds at
once ( lines 1 8 -1 9 ) t o explain t hat
( A) most decisions involve seven st eps
( B) human ment al capacit y has limit at ions
( C) some people have dif f icult y making minor as well as major decisions
( D) people can learn t o keep more t han seven ideas in t heir minds wit h pract ice

4 1 . The word " succinct " in line 2 4 is closest in meaning t o


( A) creat ive ( B) sat isf act ory ( C) personal ( D) concise

4 2 . Which of t he f ollowing t erms is def ined in t he passage?


( A) Proponent s ( line 5 ) ( B) Opt imal ( line 6 )
( C) Variables ( line 1 8 ) ( D) Long-range goals ( line 2 6 )

4 3 . The word " it " in line 2 5 ref ers t o


( A) worksheet ( B) problem ( C) dist inct ion ( D) decision

4 4 . The word " revise" in line 2 8 is closest in meaning t o


( A) ask ( B) explain ( C) change ( D) predict

Que st ions 4 5 - 5 0
Elizabet h Hazen and Rachel Brown copat ent ed one of t he most widely acclaimed
wonder drugs of t he post -Second World War years. Hazen and Brown' s work was
st imulat ed by t he wart ime need t o f ind a cure f or t he f ungus inf ect ions t hat af f lict ed

32
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

Line many milit ary personnel. Scient ist s had been f everishly searching f or an ant ibiot ic
(5) t oxic enough t o kill t he f ungi but saf e enough f or human use, since, unf ort unat ely, t he
new " wonder drugs" such as penicillin and st rept omycin killed t he very bact eria in t he
body t hat cont rolled t he f ungi. It was t o discover a f ungicide wit hout t hat double ef f ect
t hat Brown, of New York St at e' s Depart ment of Healt h Laborat ories at Albany, and
Hazen, senior microbiologist at t he Depart ment of Healt h in New York, began t heir
( 1 0 ) long-dist ance collaborat ion. Based upon Hazen' s previous research at Columbia
Universit y, where she had built an impressive collect ion of f ungus cult ures, bot h were
convinced t hat an ant if ungal organism already exist ed in cert ain soils.

They divided t he work. Hazen met hodically screened and cult ured scores of soil
samples, which she t hen sent t o her part ner, who prepared ext ract s, isolat ed and
( 1 5 ) purif ied act ive agent s, and shipped t hem back t o New York, where Hazen could st udy
t heir biological propert ies. On a 1 9 4 8 vacat ion, Hazen f ort uit ously collect ed a clump of
soil f rom t he edge of W.B. Nourse' s cow past ure in Fauquier Count y, Virginia, t hat ,
when t est ed, revealed t he presence of t he microorganisms. In f arm owner Nourse' s
honor. Hazen named it St rept omyces noursei, and wit hin a year t he t wo scient ist s knew
( 2 0 ) t hat t he propert ies of t heir subst ance dist inguished it f rom previously described
ant ibiot ics. Af t er f urt her research t hey event ually reduced t heir subst ance t o a f ine,
yellow powder, which t hey f irst named " f ungiciden." Then renamed " nyst at in"
( t o honor t he New York St at e laborat ory) when t hey learned t he previous name was
already in use. Of t heir major discovery, Brown said light ly t hat it simply illust rat ed
( 2 5 ) " how unpredict able consequences can come f rom rat her modest beginnings."

4 5 . What is t he main t opic of t he passage?


( A) The lives of Hazen and Brown. ( B) The development of a saf e f ungicide.
( C) The New York St at e Depart ment of Healt h. ( D) The development of penicillin.

4 6 . What can be inf erred f rom t he passage about penicillin?


( A) It ef f ect ively t reat s f ungus inf ect ions.
( B) It was developed bef ore nyst at in.
( C) It was developed bef ore t he Second World War.
( D) One of it s by-product s is nyst at in.

4 7 . Why does t he aut hor ment ion Columbia Universit y in lines 1 0 and 1 1 ?
( A) Hazen and Brown developed nyst at in t here.
( B) Brown was educat ed t here.
( C) Hazen did research t here.
( D) It awarded a prize t o Hazen and Brown.

4 8 . The word " bot h" in line 1 1 ref ers t o


( A) Hazen and Brown
( B) penicillin and st rept omycin
( C) t he Depart ment of Healt h laborat ories at Albany and New York
( D) double ef f ect

4 9 . What subst ance did Brown and Hazen analyze?


( A) Dirt ( B) St rept omycin ( C) Bact eria D. ???

5 0 . Who was W. B. Nourse?


( A) A microbiologist ( B) A t eacher of Hazen' s
( C) A collect or of f ungi ( D) A f armer

33
PRACT ICE T EST 1 9
May 1 9 9 9
Que st ions 1 - 9
The t erm " Hudson River school" was applied t o t he f oremost represent at ives of
ninet eent h-cent ury Nort h American landscape paint ing. Apparent ly unknown during
t he golden days of t he American landscape movement , which began around 1 8 5 0 and
Line last ed unt il t he lat e 1 8 6 0 ' s, t he Hudson River school seems t o have emerged in t he
(5) 1 8 7 0 ' s as a direct result of t he st ruggle bet ween t he old and t he new generat ions of
art ist s, each t o assert it s own st yle as t he represent at ive American art . The older
paint ers, most of whom were born bef ore 1 8 3 5 , pract iced in a mode of t en self -t aught
and monopolized by landscape subject mat t er and were securely est ablished in and
f ost ered by t he reigning American art organizat ion, t he Nat ional Academy of Design.
( 1 0 ) The younger paint ers ret urning home f rom t raining in Europe worked more wit h f igural
subject mat t er and in a bold and impressionist ic t echnique; t heir prospect s f or
pat ronage in t heir own count ry were uncert ain, and t hey sought t o at t ract it by at t aining
academic recognit ion in New York. One of t he result s of t he conf lict bet ween t he t wo
f act ions was t hat what in previous years had been ref erred t o as t he " American" ,
( 1 5 ) " nat ive" , or, occasionally, " New York" school t he most represent at ive school of
American art in any genre had by 1 8 9 0 become f irmly est ablished in t he minds of
crit ics and public alike as t he Hudson River school.

The sobriquet was f irst applied around 1 8 7 9 . While it was not int ended as f lat t ering,
it was hardly inappropriat e. The Academicians at whom it was aimed had worked and
( 2 0 ) socialized in New York, t he Hudson' s port cit y, and had paint ed t he river and it s shores
wit h varying f requency. Most import ant , perhaps, was t hat t hey had all maint ained wit h
a cert ain f idelit y a manner of t echnique and composit ion consist ent wit h t hose of
America' s f irst popular landscape art ist , Thomas Cole, who built a career paint ing t he
Cat skill Mount ain scenery bordering t he Hudson River. A possible implicat ion in t he
( 2 5 ) t erm applied t o t he group of landscapist s was t hat many of t hem had, like Cole, lived
on or near t he banks of t he Hudson. Furt her, t he river had long served as t he principal
rout e t o ot her sket ching grounds f avored by t he Academicians, part icularly t he
Adirondacks and t he mount ains of Vermont and New Hampshire.

1 . What does t he passage mainly discuss?


( A) The Nat ional Academy of Design
( B) Paint ings t hat f eat ured t he Hudson River
( C) Nort h American landscape paint ings
( D) The t raining of American art ist s in European academies

2 . Bef ore 1 8 7 0 , what was considered t he most represent at ive kind of American paint ing?
( A) Figural paint ing ( B) Landscape paint ing
( C) Impressionist ic paint ing ( D) Hist orical paint ing

3 . The word " st ruggle" in line 5 is closest in meaning t o


( A) connect ion ( B) dist ance ( C) communicat ion ( D) compet it ion

4 . The word " monopolized" in line 8 is closest in meaning t o


( A) alarmed ( B) dominat ed ( C) repelled ( D) pursued

34
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

5 . According t o t he passage, what was t he f unct ion of t he Nat ional Academy of Design f or t he
paint ers born bef ore 1 8 3 5 ?
( A) It mediat ed conf lict s bet ween art ist s.
( B) It supervised t he incorporat ion of new art ist ic t echniques.
( C) It det ermined which subject s were appropriat e.
( D) It support ed t heir growt h and development .

6 . The word " it " in line 1 2 ref ers t o


( A) mat t er ( B) t echnique ( C) pat ronage ( D) count ry

7 . The word " f act ions" in line 1 4 is closest in meaning t o


( A) sides ( B) people ( C) cit ies ( D) images

8 . The word " f lat t ering" in line 1 8 is closest in meaning t o


( A) expressive ( B) serious ( C) compliment ary ( D) f lashy

9 . Where did t he younger generat ion of paint ers receive it s art ist ic t raining?
( A) In Europe ( B) In t he Adirondacks
( C) In Vermont ( D) In New Hampshire

Que st ions 1 0 - 2 2
Television has t ransf ormed polit ics in t he Unit ed St at es by changing t he way in
which inf ormat ion is disseminat ed, by alt ering polit ical campaigns, and by changing
cit izen' s pat t erns of response t o polit ics. By giving cit izens independent access t o t he
Line candidat es, t elevision diminished t he role of t he polit ical part y in t he select ion of t he
(5) major part y candidat es. By cent ering polit ics on t he person of t he candidat e, t elevision
accelerat ed t he cit izen' s f ocus on charact er rat her t han issues.

Television has alt ered t he f orms of polit ical communicat ion as well. The messages
on which most of us rely are brief er t han t hey once were. The st ump speech, a polit ical
speech given by t raveling polit icians and last ing 3 / 2 t o 2 hours, which charact erized
( 1 0 ) ninet eent h-cent ury polit ical discourse, has given way t o t he 3 0 -second advert isement
and t he 1 0 second " sound bit e" in broadcast news. Increasingly t he audience f or
speeches is not t hat st anding in f ront of t he polit ician but rat her t he viewing audience
who will hear and see a snippet of t he speech on t he news.

In t hese abbreviat ed f orms, much of what const it ut ed t he t radit ional polit ical
( 1 5 ) discourse of earlier ages has been lost . In 1 5 or 3 0 seconds, a speaker cannot est ablish
t he hist orical cont ext t hat shaped t he issue in quest ion, cannot det ail t he probable
causes of t he problem, and cannot examine alt ernat ive proposals t o argue t hat one is
pref erable t o ot hers. In snippet s, polit icians assert but do not argue.

Because t elevision is an int imat e medium, speaking t hrough it require a changed


(20) polit ical st yle t hat was more conversat ional, personal, and visual t han t hat of t he oldst yle
st ump speech. Reliance on t elevision means t hat increasingly our polit ical world
cont ains memorable pict ures rat her t han memorable words. Schools t each us t o analyze
words and print . However, in a word in which polit ics is increasingly visual, inf ormed
cit izenship requires a new set of skills.

(25) Recognizing t he power of t elevision' s pict ures, polit icians craf t t elevisual, st aged
event s, called pseudo-event , designed t o at t ract media coverage. Much of t he polit ical
act ivit y we see on t elevision news has been craf t ed by polit icians, t heir speechwrit ers,
and t heir public relat ions advisers f or t elevised consumpt ion. Sound bit es in news and
answers t o quest ions in debat es increasingly sound like advert isement s.

35
PRA CT ICE T EST 1 9 May 1 9 9 9

1 0 . What is t he main point of t he passage?


( A) Cit izens in t he Unit ed St at es are now more inf ormed about polit ical issues because of
t elevision coverage.
( B) Cit izens in t he Unit ed St at es pref er t o see polit icians on t elevision inst ead of in person.
( C) Polit ics in t he Unit ed St at es has become subst ant ially more cont roversial since t he
int roduct ion of t elevision.
( D) Polit ics in t he Unit ed St at es has been signif icant ly changed by t elevision.

1 1 . The word " disseminat ed" in line 2 is closest in meaning t o


( A) analyzed ( B) discussed ( C) spread ( D) st ored

1 2 . It can be inf erred t hat bef ore t he int roduct ion of t elevision, polit ical part ies
( A) had more inf luence over t he select ion of polit ical candidat es
( B) spent more money t o promot e t heir polit ical candidat es
( C) at t ract ed more members
( D) received more money

1 3 . The word " accelerat ed" in line 6 is closest in meaning t o


( A) allowed ( B) increased ( C) required ( D) st art ed

1 4 . The aut hor ment ions t he " st ump speech" in line 8 as an example of
( A) an event creat ed by polit icians t o at t ract media at t ent ion
( B) an int eract ive discussion bet ween t wo polit icians
( C) a kind of polit ical present at ion t ypical of t he ninet eent h cent ury
( D) a st yle of speech common t o t elevised polit ical event s

1 5 . The phrase " given way t o" in line 1 0 is closest in meaning t o


( A) added int erest t o ( B) modif ied
( C) imit at ed ( D) been replaced by

1 6 . The word " t hat " in line 1 2 ref ers t o


( A) audience ( B) broadcast news
( C) polit ician ( D) advert isement

1 7 . According t o t he passage, as compared wit h t elevised speeches, t radit ional polit ical discourse
was more successf ul at
( A) allowing news coverage of polit ical candidat es
( B) placing polit ical issues wit hin a hist orical cont ext
( C) making polit ics seem more int imat e t o cit izens
( D) providing det ailed inf ormat ion about a candidat es privat e behavior

1 8 . The aut hor st at es t hat " polit icians assert but do not argue" ( line 1 8 ) in order t o suggest t hat
polit icians
( A) make claims wit hout providing reasons f or t he claims
( B) t ake st ronger posit ions on issues t han in t he past
( C) enjoy explaining t he issue t o broadcast ers
( D) dislike having t o explain t heir own posit ions on issues t o cit izens

1 9 . The word " Reliance" in line 2 1 is closest in meaning t o


( A) abundance ( B) clarif icat ion ( C) dependence ( D) inf ormat ion

2 0 . The purpose of paragraph 4 is t o suggest t hat


( A) polit icians will need t o learn t o become more personal when meet ing cit izens
( B) polit icians who are considered very at t ract ive are f avored by cit izens over polit icians who
are less at t ract ive

36
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

( C) cit izens t end t o f avor a polit ician who analyzed t he issue over one who does not
( D) cit izens will need t o learn how t o evaluat e visual polit ical images in order t o become
bet t er inf ormed

2 1 . According t o paragraph 5 , st aged polit ical event s are creat ed so t hat polit icians can
( A) creat e more t ime t o discuss polit ical issues
( B) obt ain more t elevision coverage f or t hemselves
( C) spend more t ime t alking t o cit izens in person
( D) engages in debat es wit h t heir opponent s

2 2 . Which of t he f ollowing st at ement s is support ed by t he passage?


( A) Polit ical present at ions t oday are more like advert isement s t han in t he past .
( B) Polit icians t oday t end t o be more f amiliar wit h t he views of cit izens t han in t he past .
( C) Cit izens t oday are less inf ormed about a polit ician' s charact er t han in t he past .
( D) Polit ical speeches t oday f ocus more on det ails about issues t han in t he past .

Que st ions 2 3 - 3 3
The spect acular aurora light displays t hat appear in Eart h' s at mosphere around t he
nort h and sout h magnet ic poles were once myst erious phenomena. Now, scient ist s have
dat a f rom sat ellit es and ground-based observat ions f rom which we know t hat t he
Line aurora brilliance is an immense elect rical discharge similar t o t hat occurring in a
(5) neon sign.

To underst and t he cause of auroras, f irst pict ure t he Eart h enclosed by it s


magnet osphere, a huge region creat ed by t he Eart h' s magnet ic f ield. Out side t he
magnet osphere, blast ing t oward t he eart h is t he solar wind, a swif t ly moving plasma of
ionized gases wit h it s own magnet ic f iled. Charged part icles in t his solar wind speed
( 1 0 ) eart hward along t he solar wind' s magnet ic lines of f orce wit h a spiraling mot ion. The
Eart h' s magnet osphere is a barrier t o t he solar winds, and f orces t he charged part icles of
t he solar wind t o f low around t he magnet osphere it self . But in t he polar regions, t he
magnet ic lines of f orce of t he Eart h and of t he solar wind bunch t oget her. Here many of t he
solar wind' s charged part icles break t hrough t he magnet osphere and ent er Eart h' s
( 1 5 ) magnet ic f ield. They t hen spiral back and f ort h bet ween t he Eart h' s magnet ic poles
very rapidly. In t he polar regions, elect rons f rom t he solar wind ionize and excit e t he
at oms and molecules of t he upper at mosphere, causing t hem t o emit aurora radiat ions
of visible light .

The colors of an aurora depend on t he at oms emit t ing t hem. The dominant greenish
(20) whit e light comes f rom low energy excit at ion of oxygen at oms. During huge magnet ic
st orms oxygen at oms also undergo high energy excit at ion and emit a crimson light .
Excit ed nit rogen at oms cont ribut e bands of color varying f rom blue t o violet .

Viewed f rom out er space, auroras can be seen as dimly glowing belt s wrapped
around each of t he Eart h' s magnet ic poles. Each aurora hangs like a curt ain of light
( 2 5 ) st ret ching over t he polar regions and int o t he higher lat it udes. When t he solar f lares
t hat result in magnet ic st orms and aurora act ivit y are very int ense, aurora displays
may ext end as f ar as t he sout hern regions of t he Unit ed St at es.

St udies of auroras have given physicist s new inf ormat ion about t he behavior of
plasmas, which has helped t o explain t he nat ure of out er space and is being applied in
( 3 0 ) at t empt s t o harness energy f rom t he f usion of at oms.

37
PRA CT ICE T EST 1 9 May 1 9 9 9

2 3 . What does t he passage mainly discuss?


( A) The met hods used t o observe auroras f rom out er space
( B) The f ormat ion and appearance of auroras around t he Eart h' s poles
( C) The f act ors t hat cause t he variet y of colors in auroras
( D) The periodic variat ion in t he display of auroras

2 4 . The word " phenomena" in line 2 is closest in meaning t o


( A) ideas ( B) st ars ( C) event s ( D) colors

2 5 . The word " pict ure" in line 6 is closest in meaning t o


( A) f rame ( B) imagine ( C) describe ( D) explain

2 6 . The passage describes t he magnet osphere as a barrier ( line 1 1 ) because


( A) it s posit ion makes it dif f icult t o be observed f rom Eart h
( B) it prevent s part icles f rom t he solar wind f rom easily ent ering Eart h' s at mosphere
( C) it increases t he speed of part icles f rom t he solar wind
( D) it is st rongest in t he polar regions

2 7 . The word " t hem" in line 1 7 ref ers t o


( A) polar regions ( B) elect rons
( C) at oms and molecules ( D) aurora radiat ions

2 8 . According t o t he passage, which color appears most f requent ly in an aurora display?


( A) Greenish-whit e ( B) Crimson ( C) Blue ( D) Violet

2 9 . The word " emit " in line 2 1 is closest in meaning t o


( A) change f rom ( B) connect wit h ( C) add t o ( D) give of f

3 0 . The word " glowing" in line 2 3 is closest in meaning t o


( A) shining ( B) moving ( C) charging ( D) hanging

3 1 . Auroras may be seen in t he sout hern regions of t he Unit ed Sat es when


( A) magnet ic st orms do not af f ect Eart h
( B) solar f lares are very int ense
( C) t he speed of t he solar wind is reduced
( D) t he excit at ion of at oms is low

3 2 . The passage support s which of t he f ollowing st at ement s about scient ist s' underst anding of
auroras?
( A) Bef ore advances in t echnology, including sat ellit es, scient ist s knew lit t le about auroras.
( B) New knowledge about t he f usion of at oms allowed scient ist s t o learn more about auroras.
( C) Scient ist s cannot explain t he cause of t he dif f erent colors in auroras.
( D) Unt il scient ist s learn more about plasma physics, lit t le knowledge about auroras will be
available.

3 3 . Which of t he f ollowing t erms is def ined in t he passage?


( A) " magnet osphere" ( line 7 ) ( B) " elect rons" ( line 1 6 )
( C) " ionize" ( line 1 6 ) ( D) " f usion" ( line 3 0 )

38
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

Que st ions 3 4 - 4 4
Mat ching t he inf lux of f oreign immigrant s int o t he larger cit ies of t he Unit ed St at es
during t he lat e ninet eent h cent ury was a domest ic migrat ion, f rom t own and f arm t o
cit y, wit hin t he Unit ed St at es. The count ry had been overwhelmingly rural at t he
Line beginning of t he cent ury, wit h less t han 5 percent of Americans living in large t owns
(5) or cit ies. The proport ion of urban populat ion began t o grow remarkably af t er 1 8 4 0 ,
increasing f rom 1 1 percent t hat year t o 2 8 percent by 1 8 8 0 and t o 4 6 percent by 1 9 0 0 .
A count ry wit h only 6 cit ies boast ing a populat ion of more t han 8 ,0 0 0 in 1 8 0 0 had
become one wit h 5 4 5 such cit ies in 1 9 0 0 . of t hese, 2 6 had a populat ion of more t han
1 0 0 ,0 0 0 including 3 t hat held more t han a million people. Much of t he migrat ion
( 1 0 ) producing an urban societ y came f rom smaller t owns wit hin t he Unit ed St at es, but t he
combinat ion of new immigrant s and old American " set t lers" on America' s " urban
f ront ier" in t he lat e ninet eent h cent ury proved ext raordinary.

The growt h of cit ies and t he process of indust rializat ion f ed on each ot her. The
agricult ural revolut ion st imulat ed many in t he count ryside t o seek a new lif e in t he cit y
( 1 5 ) and made it possible f or f ewer f armers t o f eed t he large concent rat ions of people
needed t o provide a workf orce f or growing numbers of f act ories. Cit ies also provided
ready and convenient market s f or t he product s of indust ry, and huge cont ract s in
t ransport at ion and const ruct ion-as well as t he expanded market in consumer
goods-allowed cont inued growt h of t he urban sect or of t he overall economy of t he
( 2 0 ) Unt ied St at es.

Technological development s f urt her st imulat ed t he process of urbanizat ion. One


example is t he Bessemer convert er ( an indust rial process f or manuf act uring st eel) ,
which provided st eel girders f or t he const ruct ion of skyscrapers. The ref ining of crude
oil int o kerosene, and lat er t he development of elect ric light ing as well as of t he
( 2 5 ) t elephone, brought addit ional comf ort s t o urban areas t hat were unavailable t o rural
Americans and helped at t ract many of t hem f rom t he f arms int o t he cit ies. In every era
t he lure of t he cit y included a major psychological element f or count ry people; t he
bust le and social int eract ion of urban lif e seemed part icularly int riguing t o t hose raised
in rural isolat ion.

3 4 . What aspect s of t he Unit ed St at es in t he ninet eent h cent ury does t he passage mainly
discuss?
( A) Technological development s
( B) The impact of f oreign immigrant s on cit ies
( C) St andards of living
( D) The relat ionship bet ween indust rializat ion and urbanizat ion

3 5 . The word " inf lux" in line 1 is closest in meaning t o


( A) working ( B) processing ( C) arrival ( D) at t ract ion

3 6 . The paragraph preceding t he passage most probably discuss


( A) f oreign immigrat ion ( B) rural lif e

39
PRA CT ICE T EST 1 9 May 1 9 9 9

( C) t he agricult ural revolut ion ( D) f amous cit ies of t he t went iet h cent ury

3 7 . What proport ion of populat ion of t he Unit ed St at es was urban in 1 9 0 0 ?


( A) Five percent ( B) Eleven percent
( C) Twent y-eight percent ( D) Fort y-six percent

3 8 . The word " ext raordinary" in line 1 2 is closet in meaning t o


( A) expensive ( B) except ional ( C) supreme ( D) necessary

3 9 . The phrase " each ot her" in line 1 3 ref ers t o


( A) f oreign immigrant s and domest ic migrant s ( B) f arms and small t owns
( C) growt h of cit ies and indust rializat ion ( D) indust ry and t ransport at ion

4 0 . The word " st imulat ed" in line 1 4 is closest in meaning t o


( A) f orced ( B) prepared ( C) limit ed ( D) mot ivat ed

4 1 . Why does t he aut hor ment ion " elect ric light ing" and " t he t elephone" in lines 2 4 -2 5 ?
( A) They cont ribut ed t o t he agricult ural revolut ion
( B) They are examples of t he conveniences of cit y lif e
( C) They were developed by t he same individual.
( D) They were product s of t he Bessemer convert er.

4 2 . The word " t hem" in line 2 6 ref ers t o


( A) urban areas ( B) rural Americans ( C) f arms ( D) cit ies

4 3 . The word " era" in line 2 6 is closest in meaning t o


( A) period of t ime ( B) locat ion ( C) act ion ( D) unique sit uat ion

4 4 . The word " int riguing" in line 2 8 is closest in meaning t o


( A) prof it able ( B) at t ract ive ( C) comf ort able ( D) challenging

Que st ions 4 5 - 5 0
The nervous syst em of vert ebrat es is charact erized by a hollow, dorsal nerve cord
t hat ends in t he head region as an enlargement , t he brain. Even in it s most primit ive
f orm t his cord and it s at t ached nerves are t he result of evolut ionary specializat ion,
Line and t heir f urt her evolut ion f rom lower t o higher vert ebrat e classes is a process t hat
(5) is f ar f rom f ully underst ood. Nevert heless, t he basic arrangement s are similar in all
vert ebrat es, and t he st udy of lower animals gives insight int o t he f orm and st ruct ure
of t he nervous syst em of higher animals. Moreover, f or any species, t he st udy of t he
embryological development of t he nervous syst em is indispensable f or an underst anding
of adult morphology.

(10) In any vert ebrat e t wo chief part s of t he nervous syst em may be dist inguished. These
are t he cent ral nervous syst em ( t he nerve cord ment ions above) , consist ing of t he
brain and spinal cord, and t he peripheral nervous syst em, consist ing of t he cranial,
spinal, and peripheral nerves, t oget her wit h t heir mot or and sensory endings. The t erm
" aut onomic nervous syst em" ref ers t o t he part s of t he cent ral and peripheral syst ems
( 1 5 ) t hat supply and regulat e t he act ivit y of cardiac muscle, smoot h muscle, and many
glands.

The nervous syst em is composed of many millions of nerve and glial cells, t oget her
wit h blood vessels and a small amount of connect ive t issue. The nerve cells, or

40
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

" neurons" , are charact erized by many processes and are specialized in t hat t hey exhibit
(20) t o a great degree t he phenomena of irrit abilit y and conduct ivit y. The glial cells of t he
cent ral nervous syst em are support ing cells collect ively t ermed " neuroglia" . They are
charact erized by short processes t hat have special relat ionships t o neurons, blood
vessels, and connect ive t issue. The comparable cells in t he peripheral nervous syst em
are t ermed " neurilemmal" cells.

4 5 . What does t he passage mainly discuss?


( A) The part s of a neuron ( B) The st ruct ure of
animals' nerve
( C) The nervous syst em of vert ebrat es ( D) The development of t he brain

4 6 . According t o t he passage, t he nerve cord of vert ebrat es is


( A) large ( B) hollow ( C) primit ive ( D) embryological

4 7 . The aut hor implies t hat a caref ul invest igat ion of a biological st ruct ure in an embryo may
( A) Improved research of t he same st ruct ure in ot her species
( B) A bet t er underst anding of t he f ully developed st ruct ure
( C) Discovering ways in which poor development can be correct ed
( D) A met hod by which scient ist s can document t he various st ages of development

4 8 . The t wo main part s of t he cent ral nervous syst em are t he brain and t he
( A) sensory endings ( B) cranial nerve ( C) spinal cord ( D) peripheral nerves

4 9 . All of t he f ollowing are described as being cont rolled by t he aut onomic nervous syst em
EXCEPT
( A) connect ive t issue ( B) cardiac muscle ( C) glandular act ivit y ( D) smoot h muscle

5 0 . In what lines does t he aut hor ident if y cert ain charact erist ic of nerve cells?
( A) 1 -2 ( B) 1 0 -1 3 ( C) 1 3 -1 6 ( D) 1 8 -2 0

41
PRACT ICE T EST 2 0
August 1 9 9 9
Que st ions 1 - 1 0
Perhaps t he most obvious way art ist ic creat ion ref lect how people live is by
mirroring t he environment -t he mat erials and t echnologies available t o a cult ure.
St one, wood, t ree bark, clay, and sand are generally available mat erials. In addit ion,
Line depending on t he localit y, ot her resources may be accessible: shells, horns, gold,
(5) copper, and silver. The dif f erent uses t o which societ ies put t hese mat erials are of
int erest t o ant hropologist s who may ask, f or example, why a people chooses t o use
clay and not copper when bot h it ems are available. Alt hough t here are no conclusive
answers yet , t he way in which a societ y views it s environment is somet imes apparent
in it s choice and use of art ist ic mat erials. The use of cert ain met als, f or example, may
( 1 0 ) be reserved f or ceremonial object s of special import ance. Or t he belief in t he
supernat ural powers of a st one or t ree may cause a sculpt or t o be sensit ive t o t hat
mat erial.

What is part icularly meaningf ul t o ant hropologist is t he realizat ion t hat alt hough
t he mat erials available t o a societ y may t o some ext ent limit or inf luence what it can do
( 1 5 ) art ist ically, t he mat erials by no means det ermine what is done. Why does t he art ist in
Japanese societ y rake sand int o pat t erns; and t he art ist in Roman societ y melt sand t o
f orm glass? Moreover, even when t he same mat erial is used in t he same way by
members of dif f erent societ ies, t he f orm or st yle of t he work varies enormously f rom
cult ure t o cult ure. A societ y may simply choose t o represent object s or phenomena t hat
( 2 0 ) are import ant t o it s populat ion. An examinat ion of t he art of t he Middle Ages t ells us
somet hing about t he medieval preoccupat ion wit h t heological doct rine. In addit ion t o
revealing t he primary concerns of a societ y, t he cont ent of t hat societ y' s art may also
ref lect t he cult ure' s social st rat if icat ion.

1 . According t o t he passage, gold, copper, and silver are


( A) more dif f icult t o handle t han wood and st one
( B) commonly used by art ist s in all societ ies
( C) essent ial t o creat e ceremonial object s
( D) available only in specif ic locat ions

2 . The word " conclusive" in line 7 is closest in meaning t o


( A) def init ive ( B) cont roversial ( C) concurrent ( D) realist ic

3 . The word " apparent " in line 8 is closest in meaning t o


( A) at t ract ive ( B) logical ( C) evident ( D) dist inct

4 . Why does t he aut hor ment ion t he " supernat ural powers of a st one or t ree" in line 1 1 ?
( A) To show t hat some sculpt ors avoid working wit h specif ic mat erials
( B) To emphasize t he unusual propert ies of cert ain mat erials
( C) As an example of how art can be inf luenced by cult ural belief s
( D) As an illust rat ion of t he impact of t he environment on religious belief s

5 . The word " it " in line 1 4 ref ers t o


( A) realizat ion ( B) societ y ( C) ext ent ( D) inf luence

42
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

6 . It can be inf erred t hat t he aut hor ment ions t he Japanese and Roman societ ies because
( A) t hey inf luenced each ot her
( B) of t heir st able social condit ions
( C) of t he unique st ylist ic f eat ures of t heir art
( D) t hey used t he same art ist ic mat erial in very dif f erent ways

7 . According t o t he passage, all of t he f ollowing st at ement s about sand are t rue EXCEPT
( A) It is used t o creat e glass.
( B) Roman art ist s mix it int o t heir paint s.
( C) It s use varies f rom cult ure t o cult ure.
( D) Japanese art ist s use it t o creat e art ist ic pat t erns.

8 . The word " Moreover" in line 1 7 is closest in meaning t o


( A) similarly ( B) in addit ion ( C) in cont rast ( D) f requent ly

9 . The word " preoccupat ion" in line 2 1 is closest in meaning t o


( A) involvement ( B) separat ion ( C) relat ionship ( D) argument

1 0 . The word " primary" in line 2 2 is closest in meaning t o


( A) discret e ( B) preliminary ( C) ideal ( D) f undament al

Que st ions 1 1 - 2 2
Fungi, of which t here are over 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 species, including yeast s and ot her
single-celled organisms as well as t he common molds and mushrooms, were
f ormerly classif ied as members of t he plant kingdom. However, in realit y t hey are
Line very dif f erent f rom plant s and t oday t hey are placed in a separat e group alt oget her.
(5) The principal reason f or t his is t hat none of t hem possesses chlorophyll, and since
t hey cannot synt hesize t heir own carbohydrat es, t hey obt ain t heir supplies eit her
f rom t he breakdown of dead organic mat t er or f rom ot her living organisms.
Furt hermore t he walls of f ungal cells are not made of cellulose, as t hose of plant s
are, but of anot her complex sugarlike polymer called chit in, t he mat erial f rom which
( 1 0 ) t he hard out er skelet ons of shrimps, spiders, and insect s are made. The dif f erence
bet ween t he chemical composit ion of t he cell walls of f ungi and t hose of plant s
is of enormous import ance because it enables t he t ips of t he growing hyphae, t he
t hreadlike cells of t he f ungus, t o secret e enzymes t hat break down t he walls of plant
cells wit hout having any ef f ect on t hose of t he f ungus it self . It is t hese cellulose
( 1 5 ) dest roying enzymes t hat enable f ungi t o at t ack anyt hing made f rom wood, wood
pulp, cot t on, f lax, or ot her plant mat erial.

The dest ruct ive power of f ungi is impressive. They are a major cause of st ruct ural
damage t o building t imbers, a cause of disease in animals and humans, and one of
t he great est causes of agricult ural losses. Ent ire crops can be wiped out by f ungal
( 2 0 ) at t acks bot h bef ore and af t er harvest ing. Some f ungi can grow at + 5 0 OC, while
ot hers can grow at -5 C, so even f ood in cold st orage may not be complet ely saf e
f rom t hem. On t he ot her hand, f ungi bring about t he decomposit ion of dead organic
mat t er, t hus enriching t he soil and ret urning carbon dioxide t o t he at mosphere. They
also ent er int o a number of mut ually benef icial relat ionships wit h plant s and ot her
( 2 5 ) organisms. In addit ion, f ungi are t he source of many of t he most pot ent ant ibiot ics
used in clinical medicine, including penicillin.

43
PRA CT ICE T EST 2 0 A ugust 1 9 9 9

1 1 . What does paragraph 1 mainly discuss?


( A) Dif f erences bet ween simply and complex f ungi
( B) Funct ions of chlorophyll in plant s
( C) Funct ions of sugar in t he walls of f ungal cells
( D) Dif f erences bet ween f ungi and plant s

1 2 . Which of t he f ollowing is ment ioned as a major change in how scient ist s approach t he st udy of
f ungi?
( A) Fungi are no longer classif ied as plant s
( B) Some single-cell organisms are no longer classif ied as f ungi.
( C) New met hods of species ident if icat ion have been int roduced
( D) Theories about t he chemical composit ion of f ungi have been revised.
1 3 . The word " principal" in line 5 is closest in meaning t o
( A) t rue ( B) main ( C) logical ( D) obvious

1 4 . According t o t he passage, how do f ungi obt ain carbohydrat es?


( A) The absorb carbohydrat es f rom t heir own cell walls.
( B) They synt hesize chlorophyll t o produce carbohydrat es.
( C) They produce carbohydrat es by breaking down chit in.
( D) They acquire carbohydrat es f rom ot her organic mat t er, bot h living and dead.

1 5 . The passage ment ions shrimps, spiders, and insect s in line 1 0 because t heir skelet ons
( A) can be dest royed by f ungi
( B) have unusual chemical composit ions
( C) cont ain a mat erial f ound in t he walls of f ungal cells
( D) secret e t he same enzymes as t he walls of f ungal cells do

1 6 . Which of t he f ollowing t erms is def ined in t he passage?


( A) " chlorophyll" ( line 5 ) ( B) " polymer" ( line 9 )
( C) " hyphae" ( line 1 2 ) ( D) " enzymes" ( line 1 3 )

1 7 . The word " t hose" in line 1 4 ref ers t o


( A) t ips ( B) hyphae ( C) enzymes ( D) walls

1 8 . Fungi have all of t he f ollowing charact erist ics EXCEPT


( A) They grow hyphae. ( B) They secret e enzymes.
( C) They synt hesize cellulose. ( D) They dest roy crops.

1 9 . The word " Ent ire" in line 1 9 is closest in meaning t o


( A) cert ain ( B) whole ( C) mat ure ( D) diseased

2 0 . The passage describes t he negat ive ef f ect s of f ungi on all t he f ollowing EXCEPT
( A) buildings ( B) animals ( C) f ood ( D) soil

2 1 . The phrase " bring about " in line 2 2 is closest in meaning t o


( A) cause ( B) join ( C) t ake ( D) include

2 2 . The passage ment ions " penicillin" in line 2 6 as an example of


( A) a medicine derived f rom plant s
( B) a benef icial use of f ungi
( C) a product of t he relat ionship bet ween plant s and f ungi
( D) a t ype of f ungi t hat grows at ext reme t emperat ures.

44
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

Que st ions 2 3 - 3 3
The hist ory of clinical nut rit ion, or t he st udy of t he relat ionship bet ween healt h
and how t he body t akes in and ut ilizes f ood subst ances, can be divided int o f our
dist inct eras: t he f irst began in t he ninet eent h cent ury and ext ended int o t he early
Line t went iet h cent ury when it was recognized f or t he f irst t ime t hat f ood cont ained
(5) const it uent s t hat were essent ial f or human f unct ion and t hat dif f erent f oods provided
dif f erent amount s of t hese essent ial agent s. Near t he end of t his era, research st udies
demonst rat ed t hat rapid weight loss was associat ed wit h nit rogen imbalance and
could only be rect if ied by providing adequat e diet ary prot ein associat ed wit h cert ain
f oods.

(10) The second era was init iat ed in t he early decades of t he t went iet h cent ury and
might be called " t he vit amin period." Vit amins came t o be recognized in f oods, and
def iciency syndromes were described. As vit amins became recognized as essent ial
f ood const it uent s necessary f or healt h, it became t empt ing t o suggest t hat every
disease and condit ion f or which t here had been no previous ef f ect ive t reat ment might
( 1 5 ) be responsive t o vit amin t herapy. At t hat point in t ime, medical schools st art ed t o
become more int erest ed in having t heir curricula int egrat e nut rit ional concept s int o
t he basic sciences. Much of t he f ocus of t his educat ion was on t he recognit ion of
vit amin def iciency sympt oms. Herein lay t he beginning of what ult imat ely t urned f rom
ignorance t o denial of t he value of nut rit ional t herapies in medicine. Reckless
( 2 0 ) claims were made f or ef f ect s of vit amins t hat went f ar beyond what could act ually
be achieved f rom t he use of t hem.

In t he t hird era of nut rit ional hist ory in t he early 1 9 5 0 ' s t o mid-1 9 6 0 ' s, vit amin
t herapy began t o f all int o disreput e. Concomit ant wit h t his, nut rit ion educat ion in
medical schools also became less popular. It was just a decade bef ore t his t hat many
( 2 5 ) drug companies had f ound t heir vit amin sales skyrocket ing and were quick t o supply
pract icing physicians wit h generous samples of vit amins and lit erat ure ext olling t he
virt ue of supplement at ion f or a variet y of healt h-relat ed condit ions. Expect at ions
as t o t he success of vit amins in disease cont rol were exaggerat ed. As is known in
ret rospect , vit amin and mineral t herapies are much less ef f ect ive when applied t o
( 3 0 ) healt h-crisis condit ions t han when applied t o long-t erm problems of under nut rit ion
t hat lead t o chronic healt h problems.

2 3 . What does t he passage mainly discuss?


( A) The ef f ect s of vit amins on t he human body
( B) The hist ory of f ood pref erences f rom t he ninet eent h cent ury t o t he present
( C) The st ages of development of clinical nut rit ion as a f ield of st udy
( D) Nut rit ional pract ices of t he ninet eent h cent ury

2 4 . It can be inf erred f rom t he passage t hat which of t he f ollowing discoveries was made during
t he f irst era in t he hist ory of nut rit ion?
( A) Prot ein was recognized as an essent ial component of diet .
( B) Vit amins were synt hesized f rom f oods.
( C) Ef f ect ive t echniques of weight loss were det ermined.
( D) Cert ain f oods were f ound t o be harmf ul t o good healt h.

2 5 . The word " t empt ing" in line 1 3 is closest in meaning t o

45
PRA CT ICE T EST 2 0 A ugust 1 9 9 9

( A) necessary ( B) at t ract ive ( C) realist ic ( D) correct

2 6 . It can be inf erred f rom t he passage t hat medical schools began t o t each concept s of nut rit ion
in order t o
( A) convince medical doct ors t o part icipat e in research st udies on nut rit ion
( B) encourage medical doct ors t o apply concept s of nut rit ion in t he t reat ment of disease
( C) convince doct ors t o conduct experiment al vit amin t herapies on t heir pat ient s
( D) support t he creat ion of art if icial vit amins

2 7 . The word " Reckless" in line 1 9 is closest in meaning t o


( A) recorded ( B) irresponsible ( C) inf ormat ive ( D) urgent

2 8 . The word ' t hem" in line 2 1 ref ers t o


( A) t herapies ( B) claims ( C) ef f ect s ( D) vit amins

2 9 . Why did vit amin t herapy begin losing f avor in t he 1 9 5 0 ' s


( A) The public lost int erest in vit amins.
( B) Medical schools st opped t eaching nut rit ional concept s.
( C) Nut rit ional research was of poor qualit y
( D) Claims f or t he ef f ect iveness of vit amin t herapy were seen t o be exaggerat ed.

3 0 . The phrase " concomit ant wit h" in line 2 3 is closest in meaning t o
( A) in conjunct ion wit h ( B) prior t o ( C) in disput e wit h ( D) in regard t o

3 1 . The word " skyrocket ing" in line 2 5 is closest in meaning t o


( A) int ernat ionally popular ( B) increasing rapidly
( C) accept able ( D) surprising

3 2 . The word " ext olling" in line 2 6 is closest in meaning t o


( A) analyzing ( B) quest ioning ( C) praising ( D) promising

3 3 . The paragraph f ollowing t he passage most probably discusses


( A) t he f ourt h era of nut rit ion hist ory ( B) problems associat ed wit h undernut rit ion
( C) how drug companies became successf ul ( D) why nut rit ion educat ion lost it s appeal

Que st ions 3 4 - 4 3
The observat ion of t he skies has played a special part in t he lives and cult ures of
peoples since t he earliest of t imes. Evidence obt ained f rom a sit e known as t he Hole
in t he Rock, in Papago Park in Phoenix, Arizona, indicat es t hat it might have been
Line used as an observat ory by a prehist oric people known as t he Hohokam.

(5) The physical at t ribut es of t he sit e allow it s use as a nat ural calendar/ clock. The
" hole" at Hole in t he Rock is f ormed by t wo large overhanging rocks coming
t oget her at a point , creat ing a shelt er wit h an opening large enough f or several
persons t o pass t hrough. The nort heast -f acing overhang has a smaller opening in it s
roof . It is t his smaller hole t hat produces t he at t ribut es t hat may have been used as a
( 1 0 ) calendar clock.

Because of it s locat ion in t he shelt er' s roof , a beam of sunlight can pass t hrough
t his second hole and cast a spot ont o t he shelt er' s wall and f loor. This spot of light
t ravels f rom west t o east as t he sun moves across t he sky. It also moves f rom nort h

46
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

t o sout h and back again as t he Eart h t ravels around t he Sun. t he west -t o-east
(15) movement could have been used t o est ablish a daily clock, much like a sundial,
while t he nort h-t o-sout h movement could have been used t o est ablish a seasonal
calendar.

The spot f irst appears and st art s down t he surf ace of t he wall of t he shelt er at
dif f erent t imes of t he morning depending on t he t ime of t he year. The spot grows in
( 2 0 ) size f rom it s f irst appearance unt il it s maximum size is achieved roughly at midday.
It t hen cont inues it s downward movement unt il it reaches a point where it jumps t o
t he f loor of t he shelt er. As t he Sun cont inues t o move t o t he west , t he spot cont inues
t o move across t he shelt er f loor and down t he but t e, or hill, t oward a group of small
boulders. If a person is seat ed on a cert ain one of t hese rocks as t he spot reaches it ,
( 2 5 ) t he Sun can be viewed t hrough t he calendar hole. This occurs at dif f erent t imes in
t he af t ernoon depending on t he t ime of year.

3 4 . What does t he passage mainly discuss?


( A) Observat ions of t he st ars by ancient people
( B) Rock f ormat ions of Arizona
( C) A sit e used by ancient people t o measure t ime
( D) The movement of t he Eart h around t he Sun

3 5 . The word " obt ained" in line 2 is closest in meaning t o


( A) acquired ( B) t ransport ed ( C) covered ( D) removed

3 6 . The word " at t ribut es" in line 5 is closest in meaning t o


( A) changes ( B) charact erist ics ( C) locat ions ( D) dimensions

3 7 . The word " it s" in line 1 1 ref ers t o


( A) roof ( B) beam ( C) hole ( D) spot

3 8 . The word " est ablish" in line 1 5 is closest in meaning t o


( A) creat e ( B) locat e ( C) consult ( D) choose

3 9 . Which of t he f ollowing is NOT t rue of t he spot of light ?


( A) It is caused by sunlight passing t hrough a hole.
( B) It t ravels across t he roof of t he shelt er.
( C) It s movement is af f ect ed by t he posit ion of t he Sun.
( D) It movement could have been used t o est imat e t he t ime of day.

4 0 . From which of t he f ollowing can be t he t ime of year be det ermined?


( A) The movement of t he spot of light f rom west t o east
( B) The speed wit h which t he spot of light moves
( C) The movement of t he spot of light f rom nort h t o sout h
( D) The size of t he sport of light at midday

4 1 . The word " roughly" in line 2 0 is closest in meaning t o


( A) f inally ( B) harshly ( C) uneasily ( D) approximat ely

4 2 . The passage ment ions t hat t he Hole in t he Rock was used as all of t he f ollowing EXCEPT
( A) a calendar ( B) a home ( C) a clock ( D) an observat ory

4 3 . Which of t he f ollowing can be inf erred f rom t he f ourt h paragraph?


( A) The boulders are locat ed below t he rock shelt er.
( B) The person seat ed on t he rock cannot see t he shelt er.
( C) Af t er it passes t he boulders, t he spot of light disappears.
( D) The spot of light is largest when it f irst appears.

47
PRA CT ICE T EST 2 0 A ugust 1 9 9 9

Que st ions 4 4 - 5 0
By t he t urn of t he cent ury, t he middle-class home in Nort h American had been
t ransf ormed. " The f low of indust ry has passed and lef t idle t he loom in t he at t ic, t he
soap ket t le in t he shed," Ellen Richards wrot e in 1 9 0 8 . The urban middle class was
Line now able t o buy a wide array of f ood product s and clot hing-baked goods, canned
(5) goods, suit s, shirt s, shoes, and dresses. Not only had household product ion waned,
but t echnological improvement s were rapidly changing t he rest of domest ic work.
Middle-class homes had indoor running wat er and f urnaces, run on oil, coal, or gas,
t hat produced hot wat er. St oves were f ueled by gas, and delivery services provided
ice f or ref rigerat ors. Elect ric power was available f or lamps, sewing machines, irons,
( 1 0 ) and even vacuum cleaners. No domest ic t ask was unaf f ect ed. Commercial laundries,
f or inst ance, had been doing t he wash f or urban f amilies f or decades; by t he early
1 9 0 0 ' s t he f irst elect ric washing machines were on t he market .

On impact of t he new household t echnology was t o raw sharp dividing lines


bet ween women of dif f erent classes and regions. Technological advances always
( 1 5 ) af f ect ed t he homes of t he wealt hy f irst , f ilt ering downward int o t he urban middle
class. But women who lived on f arms were not yet af f ect ed by household
improvement s. Throughout t he ninet eent h cent ury and well int o t he t went iet h, rural
homes lacked running wat er and elect ric power. Farm women had t o haul large
quant it ies of wat er int o t he house f rom wells or pumps f or every purpose. Doing t he
( 2 0 ) f amily laundry, in large vat s heat ed over st oves, cont inued t o be a f ull day' s work,
just as canning and preserving cont inued t o be seasonal necessit ies. Heat was
provided by wood or coal st oves. In addit ion, rural women cont inued t o produce
most of t heir f amilies' clot hing. The urban poor, similarly, reaped f ew benef it s f rom
household improvement s. Urban slums such as Chicago' s ninet eent h ward of t en had
( 2 5 ) no sewers, garbage collect ion, or gas or elect ric lines; and t enement s lacked bot h
running wat er and cent ral heat ing. At t he t urn of t he cent ury, variat ions in t he nat ure
of women' s domest ic work were probably more marked t han at any t ime bef ore.

4 4 . What is t he main t opic of t he passage?


( A) The creat ion of t he urban middle class
( B) Domest ic work at t he t urn of t he cent ury
( C) The spread of elect rical power in t he Unit ed St at es
( D) Overcrowding in American cit ies.

4 5 . According t o t he passage, what kind of f uel was used in a st ove in a t ypical middle-class
household?
( A) oil ( B) coat ( C) gas ( D) wood

4 6 . Which of t he f ollowing is NOT ment ioned as a household convenience in t he passage?


( A) t he elect ric f an ( B) t he ref rigerat or
( C) t he elect ric light ( D) t he washing machine

48
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

4 7 . According t o t he passage, who were t he f irst benef iciaries of t echnological advances?


( A) Farm women ( B) The urban poor
( C) The urban middle class ( D) The wealt hy

4 8 . The word " reaped" in line 2 3 is closest in meaning t o


( A) gained ( B) af f ect ed ( C) want ed ( D) accept ed

4 9 . Which of t he f ollowing best charact erizes t he passage' s organizat ion?


( A) analysis of a quot at ion ( B) chronological narrat ive
( C) ext ended def init ion ( D) comparison and cont rast

5 0 . Where in t he passage does t he aut hor discuss condit ions in poor urban neighborhoods?
( A) lines 3 -5 ( B) lines 7 -8 ( C) lines 9 -1 0 ( D) lines 2 4 -2 6

49
PRACT ICE T EST 2 1
Oct obe r 1 9 9 9
Que st ions 1 - 1 0
Pot ash ( t he old name f or pot assium carbonat e) is one of t he t wo alkalis ( t he ot her
being soda, sodium carbonat e) t hat were used f rom remot e ant iquit y in t he making of
glass, and f rom t he early Middle Ages in t he making of soap: t he f ormer being t he
Line product of heat ing a mixt ure of alkali and sand, t he lat t er a product of alkali and
(5) veget able oil. Their import ance in t he communit ies of colonial Nort h America need
hardly be st ressed.

Pot ash and soda are not int erchangeable f or all purposes, but f or glass-or soapmaking
eit her would do. Soda was obt ained largely f rom t he ashes of cert ain
Medit erranean sea plant s, pot ash f rom t hose of inland veget at ion. Hence pot ash was
( 1 0 ) more f amiliar t o t he early European set t lers of t he Nort h American cont inent .
The set t lement at Jamest own in Virginia was in many ways a microcosm of t he
economy of colonial Nort h America, and pot ash was one of it s f irst concerns. It was
required f or t he glassworks, t he f irst f act ory in t he Brit ish colonies, and was produced
in suf f icient quant it y t o permit t he inclusion of pot ash in t he f irst cargo shipped out of
( 1 5 ) Jamest own. The second ship t o arrive in t he set t lement f rom England included among
it s passengers expert s in pot ash making.

The met hod of making pot ash was simple enough. Logs was piled up and burned
in t he open, and t he ashes collect ed. The ashes were placed in a barrel wit h holes in t he
bot t om, and wat er was poured over t hem. The solut ion draining f rom t he barrel was
( 2 0 ) boiled down in iron ket t les. The result ing mass was f urt her heat ed t o f use t he mass
int o what was called pot ash.

In Nort h America, pot ash making quickly became an adjunct t o t he clearing of land
f or agricult ure, f or it was est imat ed t hat as much as half t he cost of clearing land could
be recovered by t he sale of pot ash. Some pot ash was export ed f rom Maine and New
( 2 5 ) Hampshire in t he sevent eent h cent ury, but t he market t urned out t o be mainly domest ic,
consist ing most ly of shipment s f rom t he nort hern t o t he sout hern colonies. For despit e
t he beginning of t he t rade at Jamest own and such encouragement s as a series of act s
" t o encourage t he making of pot ash," beginning in 1 7 0 7 in Sout h Carolina, t he
sof t woods in t he Sout h proved t o be poor sources of t he subst ance.

1 . What aspect of pot ash does t he passage mainly discuss?


( A) How it was made ( B) It s value as a product f or export
( C) How it dif f ers f rom ot her alkalis ( D) It s import ance in colonial Nort h America

2 . All of t he f ollowing st at ement s are t rue of bot h pot ash and soda EXPECT:
( A) They are alkalis. ( B) They are made f rom sea plant s.
( C) They are used in making soap. ( D) They are used in making glass.

3 . They phrase " t he lat t er" in line 4 ref ers t o


( A) alkali ( B) glass ( C) sand ( D) soap

4 . The word " st ressed" in line 6 is closest in meaning t o


( A) def ined ( B) emphasized ( C) adjust ed ( D) ment ioned

5 . The word " int erchangeable" in line 7 is closest in meaning t o


( A) convenient ( B) ident if iable ( C) equivalent ( D) advant ageous

50
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

6 . It can be inf erred f rom t he passage t hat pot ash was more common t han soda in colonial Nort h
America because
( A) t he mat erials needed f or making soda were not readily available
( B) making pot ash required less t ime t han making soda
( C) pot ash was bet t er t han soda f or making glass and soap
( D) t he colonial glassworks f ound soda more dif f icult t o use

7 . According t o paragraph 4 , all of t he f ollowing were needed f or making pot ash EXCEPT
( A) wood ( B) f ire ( C) sand ( D) wat er

8 . The word " adjunct " in line 2 2 is closest in meaning t o


( A) addit ion ( B) answer ( C) problem ( D) possibilit y

9 . According t o t he passage, a major benef it of making pot ash was t hat


( A) it could be export ed t o Europe in exchange f or ot her goods
( B) it helped f inance t he creat ion of f arms
( C) it could be made wit h a variet y of mat erials
( D) st imulat ed t he development of new ways of glassmaking

1 0 . According t o paragraph 5 , t he sof t woods in t he Sout h posed which of t he f ollowing problems


f or sout hern set t les?
( A) The sof t woods were not very plent if ul.
( B) The sof t woods could not be used t o build houses.
( C) The sof t woods were not very market able.
( D) The sof t woods were not very usef ul f or making pot ash.

Que st ions 1 1 - 2 1
The f irst f lying vert ebrat es were t rue rept iles in which one of t he f ingers of t he
f ront limbs became very elongat ed, providing support f or a f lap of st ret ched skin
t hat served as a wing. These were t he pt erosaurs, lit erally t he " winged lizards." The
Line earliest pt erosaurs arose near t he end of t he Triassic period of t he Mesozoic Era, some
(5) 7 0 million years bef ore t he f irst known f ossils of t rue birds occur, and t hey presumably
dominat ed t he skies unt il t hey were event ually displaced by birds. Like t he dinosaurs,
some t he pt erosaurs became gigant ic; t he largest f ossil discovered is of an individual
t hat had a wingspan of 5 0 f eet or more, larger t han many airplanes. These f lying
rept iles had large, t oot h-f illed jaws, but t heir bodies were small and probably wit hout
( 1 0 ) t he necessary powerf ul muscles f or sust ained wing movement . They must have been
expert gliders, not skillf ul f liers, relying on wind power f or t heir locomot ion.

Birds, despit e sharing common rept ilian ancest ors wit h pt erosaurs, evolved quit e
separat ely and have been much more successf ul in t heir dominance of t he air. They
are an example of a common t heme in evolut ion, t he more or less parallel development
( 1 5 ) of dif f erent t ypes of body st ruct ure and f unct ion f or t he same reason-in t his case,
f or f light . Alt hough t he f ossil record, as always, is not complet e enough t o det ermine
def init ively t he evolut ionary lineage of t he birds or in as much det ail as one would
like, it is bet t er in t his case t han f or many ot her animal groups. That is because of t he
unusual preservat ion in a limest one quarry in sout hern Germany of Archaeopt eryx, a
( 2 0 ) f ossil t hat many have called t he link bet ween dinosaurs and birds. Indeed, had it not
been f or t he superb preservat ion of t hese f ossils, t hey might well have been classif ied
as dinosaurs. They have t he skull and t eet h of a rept ile as well as a bony t ail, but in t he
line-grained limest one in which t hese f ossils occur t here are delicat e impressions of
f eat hers and f ine det ails of bone st ruct ure t hat make it clear t hat Archaeopt eryx was a

51
PRA CT ICE T EST 2 1 Oct obe r 1 9 9 9

(25) bird. All birds living t oday, f rom t he great condors of t he Andes t o t he t iniest wrens,
race t heir origin back t o t he Mesozoic dinosaurs.
1 1 . What does t he passage mainly discuss?
( A) Charact erist ics of pt erosaur wings
( B) The discovery of f ossil remains of Archaeopt eryx
( C) Reasons f or t he ext inct ion of early f lying vert ebrat es
( D) The development of f light in rept iles and birds

1 2 . Which of t he f ollowing is t rue of early rept ile wings?


( A) They evolved f rom st rong limb muscles. ( B) They consist ed of an ext ension of skin.
( C) They connect ed t he f ront and back limbs. ( D) They required f ingers of equal lengt h.

1 3 . The word " lit erally" in line 3 is closest in meaning t o


( A) creat ing ( B) meaning ( C) relat ed t o ( D) simplif ied

1 4 . It can be inf erred f rom t he passage t hat birds were probably dominant in t he skies
( A) in t he early Triassic period ( B) bef ore t he appearance of pt erosaurs
( C) af t er t he decline of pt erosaurs ( D) bef ore dinosaurs could be f ound on land.

1 5 . The aut hor ment ions airplanes in line 8 in order t o


( A) illust rat e t he size of wingspans in some pt erosaurs
( B) compare t he energy needs of dinosaurs wit h t hose of modern machines
( C) demonst rat e t he dif f erences bet ween mechanized f light and animal f light
( D) est ablish t he pract ical applicat ions of t he st udy of f ossils

1 6 . The word " They" in line 1 0 ref ers t o


( A) powerf ul muscles ( B) bodies ( C) jaws ( D) f lying rept iles

1 7 . According t o t he passage, pt erosaurs were probably " not skillf ul f liers" ( line 1 1 ) because
( A) of t heir limit ed wingspan
( B) of t heir disproport ionat ely large bodies
( C) t hey lacked muscles needed f or ext ended f light
( D) climat e condit ions of t he t ime provided insuf f icient wind power

1 8 . In paragraph 2 , t he aut hor discusses t he development of f light in birds as result ing f rom
( A) a similarit y in body st ruct ure t o pt erosaurs
( B) an evolut ion f rom pt erosaurs
( C) t he dominance of birds and pt erosaurs over land animals
( D) a separat e but parallel development process t o t hat of pt erosaurs

1 9 . The word " classif ied" in line 2 1 is closest in meaning t o


( A) perf ect ed ( B) replaced ( C) cat egorized ( D) prot ect ed

2 0 . Which of t he f ollowing helped researchers det ermine t hat Archaeopt eryx was not a dinosaurs?
( A) It s t ail ( B) It s t eet h
( C) The shape of it s skull ( D) Det ails of it s bone
st ruct ure

2 1 . What is t he signif icance of t he discovery t hat was made in sout hern Germany?
( A) It is t hought t o demonst rat e t hat birds evolved f rom dinosaurs.
( B) It is proof t hat t he climat e and soils of Europe have changed over t ime.
( C) It suggest s t hat dinosaurs were dominant in areas rich in limest one.
( D) It support s t he t heory t hat Archaeopt eryx was a powerf ul dinosaur.

52
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

Que st ions 2 2 - 3 1
In July of 1 9 9 4 , an ast ounding series of event s t ook place. The world anxiously
wat ched as, every f ew hours, a hurt ling chunk of comet plunged int o t he at mosphere
of Jupit er. All of t he t went y-odd f ragment s, collect ively called comet Shoemaker-
Line Levy 9 af t er it s discoverers, were once part of t he same object , now dismembered and
(5) st rung out along t he same orbit . This comet ary t rain, glist ening like a st ring of pearls,
had been f irst glimpsed only a f ew mont hs bef ore it s f at ef ul impact wit h Jupit er, and
rat her quickly scient ist s had predict ed t hat t he f ragment s were on a collision course
wit h t he giant planet . The impact caused an explosion clearly visible f rom Eart h, a
bright f laming f ire t hat quickly expanded as each icy mass incinerat ed it self . When
( 1 0 ) each f ragment slammed at 6 0 kilomet ers per second int o t he dense at mosphere, it s
immense kinet ic energy was t ransf ormed int o heat , producing a superheat ed f ireball
t hat was eject ed back t hrough t he t unnel t he f ragment had made a f ew seconds earlier.
The residues f rom t hese explosions lef t huge black marks on t he f ace of Jupit er, some
of which have st ret ched out t o f orm dark ribbons.

(15) Alt hough t his impact event was of considerable scient if ic import , it especially
piqued public curiosit y and int erest . Phot ographs of each collision made t he evening
t elevision newscast and were post ed on t he Int ernet . This was possibly t he most open
scient if ic endeavor in hist ory. The f ace of t he largest planet in t he solar syst em was
changed bef ore our very eyes. And f or t he very f irst t ime, most of humanit y came t o
( 2 0 ) f ully appreciat e t he f act t hat we ourselves live on a similar t arget , a world subject t o
cat ast rophe by random assault s f rom celest ial bodies. That realizat ion was a surprise
t o many, but it should not have been. One of t he great t rut hs revealed by t he last f ew
decades of planet ary explorat ion is t hat collisions bet ween bodies of all sizes are
relat ively commonplace, at least in geologic t erms, and were even more f requent in
( 2 5 ) t he early solar syst em.

2 2 . The passage ment ions which of t he f ollowing wit h respect t o t he f ragment s of comet
Shoemaker-Levy 9 ?
( A) They were once combine in a larger body.
( B) Some of t hem burned up bef ore ent ering t he at mosphere of Jupit er.
( C) Some of t hem are st ill orbit ing Jupit er.
( D) They have an unusual orbit .

2 3 . The word " collect ively" in line 3 is closest in meaning t o


( A) respect ively ( B) popularly ( C) also ( D) t oget her

2 4 . The aut hor compares t he f ragment s of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 t o all of t he f ollowing


EXCEPT
( A) a dismembered body ( B) a t rain
( C) a pearl necklace ( D) a giant planet

2 5 . Bef ore comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 hit Jupit er in July 1 9 9 4 , scient ist s


( A) had been unaware of it s exist ence
( B) had been t racking it f or only a f ew mont hs
( C) had observed it s breakup int o t went y-odd f ragment s
( D) had decided it would not collide wit h t he planet

53
PRA CT ICE T EST 2 1 Oct obe r 1 9 9 9

2 6 . Bef ore t he comet f ragment s ent ered t he at mosphere of Jupit er, t hey were most likely
( A) invisible ( B) black ( C) f rozen ( D) exploding

2 7 . Superheat ed f ireballs were produced as soon as t he f ragment s of comet shoemaker-Levy 9


( A) hit t he surf ace of Jupit er ( B) were pulled int o Jupit er' s orbit
( C) were eject ed back t hrough t he t unnel ( D) ent ered t he at mosphere of Jupit er

2 8 . The phrase " incinerat ed it self " in line 9 is closest in meaning t o


( A) burned up ( B) broke int o smaller pieces
( C) increased it s speed ( D) grew in size

2 9 . Which of t he f ollowing is ment ioned as evidence of t he explosions t hat is st ill visible on


Jupit er?
( A) f ireballs ( B) ice masses ( C) black marks ( D) t unnels

3 0 . Paragraph 2 discusses t he impact of t he comet Shoemaker-levy 9 primarily in t erms of


( A) it s import ance as an event of -great scient if ic signif icance
( B) it s ef f ect on public awareness of t he possibilit y of damage t o Eart h
( C) t he changes it made t o t he surf ace of Jupit er
( D) t he ef f ect it had on t elevision broadcast ing

3 1 . The " t arget " in line 2 0 most probably ref erred t o


( A) Eart h ( B) Jupit er ( C) t he solar syst em ( D) a comet

Que st ions 3 2 - 4 2
The year 1 8 5 0 may be considered t he beginning of a new epoch in America art ,
wit h respect t o t he development of wat ercolor paint ing. In December of t hat year, a
group of t hirt y art ist s gat hered in t he st udio of John Falconer in New York Cit y and
Line draf t ed bot h a const it ut ion and bylaws, est ablishing The Societ y f or t he Promot ion
(5) of Paint ing in Wat er Color. In addit ion t o securing an exhibit ion space in t he Library
Societ y building in lower Manhat t an, t he societ y f ounded a small school f or t he
inst ruct ion of wat ercolor paint ing Periodic exhibit ions of t he members' paint ings
also included works by not ed English art ist s of t he day, borrowed f rom embryonic
privat e collect ions in t he cit y. The societ y' s act ivit ies also included organized
( 1 0 ) sket ching excursions along he Hudson River. It s major public exposure came in 1 8 5 3 ,
when t he societ y present ed works by it s members in t he " Indust ry of All Nat ions"
sect ion of t he Cryst al Palace Exposit ion in New York.

The societ y did not prosper, however, and by t he t ime of it s annual meet ing in
1 8 5 4 membership had f allen t o t went y-one. The group gave up it s quart ers in t he
( 1 5 ) Library Societ y building and ret urned t o Falconer' s st udio, where it broke up amid
dissension. No f urt her at t empt t o f ormally organize t he growing numbers of wat ercolor
paint ers in New York Cit y was made f or more t han a decade. During t hat decade,
t hough, Henry Warren' s Paint ing in Wat er Color was published in New York Cit y
in 1 8 5 6 -t he book was a considerable improvement over t he only ot her manual of
( 2 0 ) inst ruct ion exist ing at t he t ime, Element s of Graphic Art , by Archibald Roberson,
published in 1 8 0 2 and by t he 1 8 5 0 ' s long out of print .

In 1 8 6 6 t he Nat ional Academy of Design was host t o an exhibit ion of wat ercolor
paint ing in it s elaborat e neo-Venet ian Got hic building on Twent y-Third St reet in
New York Cit y. The exhibit was sponsored by an independent group called The Art ist s
( 2 5 ) Fund Societ y. Wit hin a f ew mont hs of t his event , f ort y-t wo prominent art ist s living in

54
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

and near New York Cit y f ounded The American Societ y of Paint ers in Wat er Colors.

3 2 . This passage is mainly about


( A) t he most inf luent ial wat ercolor paint ers in t he mid-1 8 0 0 ' s
( B) ef f ort s t o organize wat ercolor paint ers in New York Cit y during t he mid-1 8 0 0 ' s
( C) a f amous exhibit ion of wat ercolor paint ings in New York Cit y in t he mid-1 8 0 0 ' s
( D) st yles of wat ercolor paint ing in New York Cit y during t he mid-1 8 0 0 ' s

3 3 . The year 1 8 5 0 was signif icant in t he hist ory of wat ercolor paint ing mainly because
( A) a group of art ist s est ablished a wat ercolor-paint ing societ y
( B) wat ercolor paint ing was f irst int roduced t o New York Cit y
( C) John Falconer est ablished his st udio f or wat ercolor paint ers
( D) The f irst book on wat ercolor paint ing was published

3 4 . The word " securing" in line 5 is closest in meaning t o


( A) locking ( B) creat ing ( C) const ruct ing ( D) acquiring

3 5 . All of t he f ollowing can be inf erred about t he Societ y f or t he promot ion of Paint ing in Wat er
Color EXCEPT:
( A) The societ y exhibit ed paint ings in lower Manhat t an.
( B) Inst ruct ion in wat ercolor paint ing was of f ered by members of t he societ y
( C) The societ y exhibit ed only t he paint ings of it s members.
( D) Scenes of t he Hudson River appeared of t en in t he work of societ y members.

3 6 . The exhibit ion at t he Cryst al Palace of t he works of t he Societ y f or t he Promot ion of Paint ing
in Wat er Color was signif icant f or which of t he f ollowing reasons?
( A) It result ed in a dramat ic increase in t he popularit y of paint ing wit h wat ercolor.
( B) It was t he f irst t ime an exhibit ion was f unded by a privat e source.
( C) It was t he f irst import ant exhibit ion of t he societ y' s work.
( D) It result ed in a large increase in t he membership of t he societ y.

3 7 . The word " it " in line 1 5 ref ers t o


( A) t ime ( B) group ( C) building ( D) st udio

3 8 . Which of t he f ollowing is t rue of wat ercolor paint ers in New York Cit y in t he lat e 1 8 5 0 ' s?
( A) They increased in number despit e a lack of f ormal organizat ion.
( B) They were unable t o exhibit t heir paint ings because of t he lack of exhibit ion space.
( C) The Art ist s Fund Societ y helped t hem t o f orm The American Societ y of Paint ers in Wat er
Colors.
( D) They f ormed a new societ y because t hey were not allowed t o join groups run by ot her
kinds of art ist s.

3 9 . Henry Warren' s Paint ing in Wat er Color was import ant t o art ist s because it
( A) received an import ant reward
( B) was t he only t ext book published t hat t aught paint ing
( C) was much bet t er t han an earlier published
( D) at t ract ed t he int erest of art collect ors

4 0 . The word " considerable" in line 1 9 is closest in meaning t o


( A) sensit ive ( B) great ( C) t hought f ul ( D) planned

4 1 . The year 1 8 6 6 was signif icant f or wat ercolor paint ing f or which of t he f ollowing reasons?
( A) Element s of Graphic Art was republished.
( B) Privat e collect ions of wat ercolors were f irst publicly exhibit ed.

55
PRA CT ICE T EST 2 1 Oct obe r 1 9 9 9

( C) The neo-Venet ian Got hic building on Twent y-Third St reet in New York Cit y was built .
( D) The Nat ional Academy of Design held an exhibit ion of wat ercolor paint ings.

4 2 . The word " prominent " in line 2 5 is closest in meaning t o


( A) wealt hy ( B) local ( C) f amous ( D) organized

Que st ions 4 3 - 5 0
Pennsylvania' s colonial ironmast ers f orged iron and a revolut ion t hat had bot h
indust rial and polit ical implicat ions. The colonist s in Nort h America want ed t he right
t o t he prof it s gained f rom t heir manuf act uring. However, England want ed all of t he
Line colonies' rich ores and raw mat erials t o f eed it s own f act ories, and also want ed t he
(5) colonies t o be a market f or it s f inished goods. England passed legislat ion in 1 7 5 0 t o
prohibit colonist s f rom making f inished iron product s, but by 1 7 7 1 , when ent repreneur
Mark Bird est ablished t he Hopewell blast f urnace in Pennsylvania, iron making had
become t he backbone of American indust ry. It also had become one of t he major issues
t hat f oment ed t he revolut ionary break bet ween England and t he Brit ish colonies. By
( 1 0 ) t he t ime t he War of Independence broke out in 1 7 7 6 , Bird, angered and det ermined,
was manuf act uring cannons and shot at Hopewell t o be used by t he Cont inent al Army.

Af t er t he war, Hopewell, along wit h hundreds of ot her " iron plant at ions," cont inued
t o f orm t he new nat ion' s indust rial f oundat ion well int o t he ninet eent h cent ury. The
rural landscape became dot t ed wit h t all st one pyramids t hat breat hed f lames and
( 1 5 ) smoke, charcoal-f ueled iron f urnaces t hat produced t he versat ile met al so crucial t o
t he nat ion' s growt h. Generat ions of ironmast ers, craf t speople, and workers produced
goods during war and peace-ranging f rom cannons and shot t o domest ic it ems such
as cast -iron st oves, pot s, and sash weight s f or windows.

The region around Hopewell had everyt hing needed f or iron product ion: a wealt h
( 2 0 ) of iron ore near t he surf ace, limest one f or removing impurit ies f rom t he iron, hardwood
f orest s t o supply t he charcoal used f or f uel, rushing wat er t o power t he bellows t hat
pumped blast s of air int o t he f urnace f ires, and workers t o supply t he labor. By t he
1 8 3 0 ' s, Hopewell had developed a reput at ion f or producing high qualit y cast -iron
st oves, f or which t here was a st eady market . As Pennsylvania added more links t o it s
( 2 5 ) t ransport at ion syst em of roads, canals, and railroads, it became easier t o ship part s
made by Hopewell workers t o sit es all over t he east coast . There t hey were assembled
int o st oves and sold f rom Rhode Island t o Maryland as t he " Hopewell st ove" . By t he
t ime t he last f ires burned out at Hopewell ironworks in 1 8 8 3 , t he communit y had
produced some 8 0 ,0 0 0 cast -iron st oves.

4 3 . The word " implicat ions" in line 2 is closest in meaning t o


( A) signif icance ( B) mot ives ( C) f oundat ions ( D) progress

4 4 . It can be inf erred t hat t he purpose of t he legislat ion passed by England in 1 7 5 0 was t o
( A) reduce t he price of English-made iron goods sold in t he colonies
( B) prevent t he out break of t he War of Independence
( C) require colonist s t o buy manuf act ured

56
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

( D) keep t he colonies f rom est ablishing new market s f or t heir raw mat erials.

4 5 . The aut hor compares iron f urnaces t o which of t he f ollowing?


( A) Cannons ( B) Pyramids ( C) Pot s ( D) Windows

4 6 . The word " rushing" in line 2 1 is closest in meaning t o


( A) reliable ( B) f resh ( C) appealing ( D) rapid

4 7 . Pennsylvania was an ideal locat ion f or t he Hopewell ironworks f or all of t he f ollowing reasons
EXCEPT
( A) Many workers were available in t he area.
( B) The cent er of operat ions of t he army was nearby.
( C) The met al ore was easy t o acquire
( D) There was an abundance of wood.

4 8 . The passage ment ions " roads, canals, and railroads" in line 2 5 in order t o explain t hat
( A) improvement s in t ransport at ion benef it ed t he Hopewell ironworks
( B) iron was used in t he const ruct ion of various t ypes of t ransport at ion
( C) t he t ransport at ion syst em of Pennsylvania was superior t o t hat of ot her st at es.
( D) Hopewell never became a major t ransport at ion cent er
4 9 . The word " t hey" in line 2 6 ref ers t o
( A) links ( B) part s ( C) workers ( D) sit es
5 0 . The word " some" in line 2 9 is closest in meaning t o
( A) only ( B) a maximum of ( C) approximat ely ( D) a variet y of

57
PRACT ICE T EST 2 2
January 1 9 9 8
Que st ion 1 - 9
Alt hough social changes in t he Unit ed St at es were being wrought t hroughout most
of t he ninet eent h-cent ury, public awareness of t he changes increased t o new levels in
t he 1 8 9 0 ' s. The acut e, growing public awareness of t he social changes t hat had been
Line t aking place f or some t ime was t ied t o t remendous growt h in popular journalism in t he
(5) lat e ninet eent h cent ury, including growt h in quant it y and circulat ion of bot h magazines
and newspapers. These development s, in addit ion t o t he cont inued growt h of cit ies,
were signif icant f act ors in t he t ransf ormat ion of societ y f rom one charact erized by
relat ively isolat ed self -cont ained communit ies int o an urban, indust rial nat ion. The
decade of t he 1 8 7 0 ' s, f or example, was a period in which t he sheer number of
( 1 0 ) newspapers doubled, and by 1 8 8 0 t he New York Graphic had published t he f irst
phot ographic reproduct ion in a newspaper, port ending a dramat ic rise in newspaper
readership. Bet ween 1 8 8 2 and 1 8 8 6 alone, t he price of daily newspapers dropped f rom
f our cent s a copy t o one cent , made possible in part by a great increase in demand.
Furt hermore, t he int roduct ion in 1 8 9 0 of t he f irst successf ul linot ype machine promised
( 1 5 ) even f urt her growt h. In 1 8 7 2 only t wo daily newspapers could claim a circulat ion of
over 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,but by 1 8 9 2 seven more newspapers exceeded t hat f igure. A world
beyond t he immediat e communit y was rapidly becoming visible.

But it was not newspapers alone t hat were bringing t he new awareness t o people in
t he Unit ed St at es in t he lat e ninet eent h cent ury. Magazines as t hey are known t oday
( 2 0 ) began publicat ion around 1 8 8 2 , and, in f act , t he circulat ion of weekly magazines
exceeded t hat of newspapers in t he period which f ollowed. By 1 8 9 2 , f or example, t he
circulat ion of t he Ladies' Home Journal had reached an ast ounding 7 0 0 ,0 0 0 . An increase
in book readership also played a signif icant part in t his general t rend. For example,
Edward Bellamy' s ut opian novel, Looking Backward, sold over a million copies in
( 2 5 ) 1 8 8 8 , giving rise t o t he growt h of organizat ions dedicat ed t o t he realizat ion of Bellamy' s
vision of t he f ut ure. The print ed word, unquest ionably, was int ruding on t he insulat ion
t hat had charact erized Unit ed Slat es societ y in an earlier period.

1 . The word " acut e" in line 3 is closest in meaning t o


( A) usef ul ( B) int ense ( C) genuine ( D) cont roversial

2 . According t o t he passage, t he expansion of popular journalism was linked t o


( A) changes in t he dist ribut ion syst em
( B) a larger supply of paper
( C) an increase in people' s awareness of social changes
( D) great er numbers of journalist s

3 . According t o t he passage, t he New York Graphic' s inclusion of phot ographs cont ribut ed t o
( A) t he closing of newspapers t hat did not use phot ographs
( B) newspapers becoming more expensive
( C) an increase in t he number of people reading newspapers
( D) a reduct ion in t he cost of advert ising

4 . Why was t here a drop in t he price of daily newspapers bet ween 1 8 8 2 and 1 8 8 6 ?
( A) There was a rise in demand.
( B) Newspapers had f ewer pages.
( C) Newspapers cont ained phot ographic reproduct ions.
( D) Magazines began t o compet e wit h newspapers.

58
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

5 . The word " exceeded" in line 1 6 is closest in meaning t o


( A) cont rolled ( B) surpassed ( C) af f ect ed ( D) equaled

6 . What does t he aut hor mean by t he st at ement " A world beyond t he immediat e communit y was
rapidly becoming visible" in lilies 1 6 -1 1 ?
( A) Phot ographs made newspapers more int erest ing.
( B) The Unit ed Slat es export ed newspapers t o ot her count ries.
( C) People were becoming increasingly aware of nat ional and int ernat ional issues.
( D) Communit ies remained isolat ed despit e t he growt h of popular journalism

7 . The word " t hat " in line 2 1 ref ers t o


( A) cent ury ( B) publicat ion ( C) circulat ion ( D) period

8 . The word " ast ounding" in line 2 2 is closest in meaning t o


( A) surprising ( B) est imat ed ( C) encouraging ( D) sudden

9 . Why does t he aut hor ment ion Edward Bellamy' s novel Looking Backward?
( A) To illust rat e how advanced t he t echnology of print ing had become
( B) To emphasize t he inf luence of t he print ed word on a societ y undergoing rapid change
( C) To document it s predict ion about t he popularit y of newspapers
( D) To demonst rat e t hat hooks had replaced newspapers and magazines as t he leading
source of inf ormat ion

Que st ion 1 0 - 1 9
Glass is a remarkable subst ance made f rom t he simplest raw mat erials. It can be
colored or colorless, monochrome or polychrome, t ransparent , t ranslucent , or opaque.
It is light weight impermeable t o liquids, readily cleaned and reused, durable yet
Line f ragile, and of t en very beaut if ul Glass can be decorat ed in mult iple ways and it s
(5) opt ical propert ies are except ional. In all it s myriad f orms - as t able ware, cont ainers,
in archit ect ure and design - glass represent s a major achievement in t he hist ory of
t echnological development s.

Since t he Bronze Age about 3 ,0 0 0 B.C., glass lias been used f or making various
kinds of object s. It was f irst made f rom a mixt ure of silica, line and an alkali such as
( 1 0 ) soda or pot ash, and t hese remained t he basic ingredient s of glass unt il t he development
of lead glass in t he sevent eent h cent ury. When heat ed, t he mixt ure becomes sof t and
malleable and can be f ormed by various t echniques int o a vast array of shapes and
sizes. The homogeneous mass t hus f ormed by melt ing t hen cools t o creat e glass, but in
cont rast t o most mat erials f ormed in t his way ( met als, f or inst ance) , glass lacks t he
( 1 5 ) cryst alline st ruct ure normally associat ed wit h solids, and inst ead ret ains t he random
molecular st ruct ure of a liquid. In ef f ect , as molt en glass cools, it progressively st if f ens
unt il rigid, but does so wit hout set t ing up a net work of int erlocking cryst als cust omarily
associat ed wit h t hat process. This is why glass shat t ers so easily when
dealt a blow. Why glass det eriorat es over t ime, especially when exposed t o moist ure,
( 2 0 ) and why glassware must be slowly reheat ed and unif ormly cooled af t er manuf act ure t o
release int ernal st resses induced by uneven cooling.

Anot her unusual f eat ure of glass is t he manner in which it s viscosit y changes as it
t urns f rom a cold subst ance int o a hot , duct ile liquid. Unlike met als t hat f low or
" f reeze" at specif ic t emperat ures glass progressively sof t ens as t he t emperat ure rises,
( 2 5 ) going t hrough varying st ages of malleabilit y unt il it f lows like a t hick syrup. Each st age
of malleabilit y allows t he glass t o be manipulat ed int o various f orms, by dif f erent
t echniques, and if suddenly cooled t he object ret ains t he shape achieved at t hat point .

59
PRA CT ICE T EST 2 2 January 1 9 9 8

Glass is t hus amenable t o a great er number of heat -f orming t echniques t han most ot her
mat erials.
1 0 . Why does t he aut hor list t he charact erist ics of glass in lines 1 -5 ?
( A) To demonst rat e how glass evolved
( B) To show t he versat ilit y of glass
( C) To explain glassmaking t echnology
( D) To explain t he purpose of each component of glass

1 1 . The word " durable" ' in line 3 is closest in meaning t o


( A) last ing ( B) delicat e ( C) heavy ( D) Plain

1 2 . What does t he aut hor imply about t he raw mat erials used t o make glass?
( A) They were t he same f or cent uries. ( B) They are liquid
( C) They are t ransparent ( D) They are very
heavy.

1 3 . According t o t he passage, how is glass t hat has cooled and become rigid dif f erent f rom most
ot her rigid subst ances?
( A) It has an int erlocking cryst al net work. ( B) It has an unusually low melt ing
t emperat ure.
( C) It has varying physical propert ies. ( D) It has a random molecular st ruct ure.

1 4 . The word " cust omarily" in line 1 7 is closest in meaning t o


( A) nat urally ( B) necessarily ( C) usually ( D) cert ainly

1 5 . The words " exposed t o" in line 1 9 are closest in meaning t o


( A) hardened by ( B) chilled wit h ( C) subject ed t o ( D) deprived of

1 6 . What must be done t o release t he int ernal st resses t hat build up in glass product s during
manuf act ure?
( A) t he glass must be reheat ed and evenly cooled.
( B) t he glass must be cooled quickly.
( C) The glass must be kept moist unt il cooled.
( D) The glass must be shaped t o it s desired f orm immediat ely

1 7 . The word " induced" in line 2 1 is closest in meaning t o


( A) joined ( B) missed ( C) caused ( D) lost

1 8 . The word " it " in line 2 2 ref ers t o


( A) f eat ure ( B) glass ( C) manner ( D) viscosit y

1 9 . According t o t he passage, why can glass be more easily shaped int o specif ic f orms t han can
met als
( A) It resist s breaking when heat ed
( B) It has bet t er opt ical propert ies.
( C) It ret ains heat while it s viscosit y changes.
( D) It gradually becomes sof t er as it s t emperat ure rises.

Que st ion 2 0 - 3 0
A great deal can be learned f rom t he act ual t races of ancient human locomot ion: t he
f oot print s of early hominids. The best -known specimens are t he remarkable t racks
discovered at Lact oli, Tanzania, by Mary Leaky. These were lef t by small hominids
Line around 3 .6 t o 3 .7 5 million years ago, according t o pot assium - argon dat es of t he volcanic
(5) rocks above and below t his level. These hominids walked across a st ret ch of moist

60
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

volcanic ash, which was subsequent ly t urned t o mud by rain, and which t hen set like
concret e.

Examinat ion of his shape of t he print s revealed t o Mary Leakey t hat t he f eet had a
raised arch, a rounded heel, a pronounced ball, and a big t oe t hat point ed f orward.
( 1 0 ) These f eat ures, t oget her wit h t he weight -bearing pressure pat t erns, resembled t he print s
of upright -walking modern humans. The pressures exert ed along t he f oot , t oget her wit h
t he lengt h of st ride, which averaged 8 7 cent imet ers, indicat ed t hat t he hominids had
been walking slowly. In short , all t he det ect able morphological f eat ures implied t hat
t he f eet t hat lef t t he f oot print s were very lit t le dif f erent f rom t hose of cont emporary
( 1 5 ) humans.
A det ailed st udy has been made of t he print s using phot ogrammet ry, a t echnique f or
obt aining measurement s t hrough phot ographs, which creat ed a drawing showing all t he
curves and cont ours of t he print s. The result emphasized t hat t here were at least seven
point s of similarit y wit h modern bipedal print s, such as t he dept h of t he heel impression,
( 2 0 ) and t he deep imprint of t he big t oe. M Day and E. Wickens also t ook st ereophot ographs
of t he Lact oli print s and compared t hem wit h modern print s make by men and women
in similar soil condit ions. Once again, t he result s f urnished possible evidence of
bipedalism. Foot print s t hus provide us not merely wit h rare impressions of t he sof t
t issue of early hominids, but also wit h evidence of upright walking t hat in many ways
( 2 5 ) is clearer t han can be obt ained f rom t he analysis of bones.
The st udy of f ossil f oot print s is not rest rict ed t o examples f rom such remot e periods.
Hundreds of print s are known, f or example, in French caves dat ing f rom t he end of t he
last ice age, approximat ely 1 0 ,0 0 0 years ago. Research by Leon Pales, using det ailed
silicon resin molds of f oot print s most ly made by bare f eet , has provided inf ormat ion
( 3 0 ) about t his period.

2 0 . What does t he passage mainly discuss?


( A) The analysis of f oot print f ossils ( B) Accurat e dat ing of hominid remains
( C) t he career of Mary Leakey ( D) Behavioral pat t erns of early humans

2 1 . The word " remarkable" in line 2 is closest in meaning t o


( A) ext raordinary ( B) enormous ( C) various ( D) orderly

2 2 . The age of t he Laet oli f oot print s was est imat ed by


( A) t est ing t he f ossilized bones of t he hominids ( B) st udying t he shape
of t he f oot print s
( C) analyzing nearly rock layers ( D) comparison wit h f oot print s f rom ot her
locat ions

2 3 . It can be inf erred t hat t he f oot print s in volcanic ash at Laet oli were well preserved because
( A) t hey were buried by a second volcanic erupt ion
( B) t he ash cont ained pot assium ant i argon
( C) t he ash was st ill warm f rom t he volcanic crupt ions
( D) suit able condit ions caused t he ash harden

2 4 . Which or t he f ollowing is NOT ment ioned as a charact erist ic of t he f eet in Mary Leakey' s f ossil
f ind?
( A) The shape or t he heel ( B) The number of
t oes
( C) A raised arch ( D) A pronounced ball

2 5 . The word " exert ed" in line 1 1 is closest in meaning t o

61
PRA CT ICE T EST 2 2 January 1 9 9 8

( A) inf luenced ( B) applied ( C) ret urned ( D) lessened

2 6 . The f igure of 8 7 cent imet ers ment ioned in line 1 2 ref ers t o t he size of t he
( A) object s carried by t he hominids ( B) st eps t aken by t he hominids
( C) hominids bodies ( D) hominids f eet

2 7 . Why does t he aut hor ment ion t he " heel impression" in line 1 9 ?
( A) To emphasize t he size of t he hominids f oot
( B) To speculat e on a possible injury t he hominid had suf f ered
( C) To give an example of similarit y t o modern human f oot print s
( D) To indicat e t he weight of early hominids

2 8 . The word " rest rict ed" in line 2 6 is closest in meaning t o


( A) limit ed ( B) improved ( C) cont inued ( D) succeeded

2 9 . What can be inf erred about t he f oot print s f ound in French caves ment ioned in t he last
paragraph?
( A) They show more det ail t han t he Laet oli print s.
( B) They are of more recent origin t han t he Laet oli print s.
( C) They are not as inf ormat ive as t he Laet oli print s.
( D) They are more dif f icult t o st udy t han t he Laet oli print s

3 0 . Which of t he f ollowing t erms is def ined in t he passage?


( A) " hominids" ( line 3 ) ( B) " arch" ( line 9 )
( C) " phot ogrammet ry" ( line 1 6 ) ( D) " silicon resin molds ( line 2 9 )

Que st ions 3 1 - 4 0
The livelihood of each species in t he vast and int ricat e assemblage of living t hings
depends on t he exist ences of ot her organisms. This int erdependence is somet imes
subt le, somet imes obvious. Perhaps t he most st raight f orward dependence of one
Line species on anot her occurs wit h parasit es, organisms t hat live on or in ot her living t hings
(5) and derive nut rient s direct ly f rom t hem. The parasit ic way of lif e is widespread. A
mult it ude of microorganisms( including viruses and bact eria) and an army of
invert ebrat es - or creat ures lacking a spinal column ( including crust aceans, insect s,
and many dif f erent t ypes of worms ) -make t heir livings direct ly at t he expense of
ot her creat ures. In t he f ace of t his onslaught , living t hings have evolved a variet y of
( 1 0 ) def ense mechanisms f or prot ect ing t heir bodies f rom invasion by ot her organisms.

Cert ain f ungi and even some kinds of bact eria secret e subst ances known as
ant ibiot ics int o t heir ext ernal environment . These subst ances are capable of killing or
inhibit ing t he growt h of various kinds of bact eria t hat also occupy t he area, t hereby
eliminat ing or reducing t he compet it ion f or nut rient s. The same principle is used in
( 1 5 ) def ense against invaders in ot her groups of organisms. For example, when at t acked by
disease-causing f ungi or bact eria, many kinds of plant s produce chemicals t hat help t o
ward of f t he invaders.

Members of t he animal kingdom have developed a variet y of def ense mechanisms


f or dealing wit h parasit es. Alt hough t hese mechanisms vary considerably, all major
( 2 0 ) groups of animals are capable of det ect ing and react ing t o t he presence of " f oreign"
cells. In f act , t hroughout t he animal kingdom, f rom sponges t o cert ain t ypes of worms,
shellf ish, and all vert ebrat es ( creat ures possessing a spinal column) , t here is evidence
t hat t ransplant s of cells or f ragment s of t issues int o an animal are accept ed only if t hey
come f rom genet ically compat ible or closely relat ed individuals.

62
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

(25) The abilit y t o dist inguish bet ween " self " and " nonself " , while present in all animals,
is most ef f icient among vert ebrat es, which have developed an immune syst em as t heir
def ense mechanism. The immune syst em recognizes and t akes act ion against f oreign
invaders and t ransplant ed t issues t hat are t reat ed as f oreign cells.

3 1 . What does t he passage mainly discuss?


( A) how parasit es reproduce
( B) how organisms react t o invaders
( C) how ant ibiot ics work t o cure disease
( D) how t he immune syst ems of vert ebrat es developed

3 2 . The word " int ricat e" in line 1 is closest in meaning t o


( A) dif f icult ( B) widespread ( C) crit ical ( D) complex

3 3 . The expression " an army" in line 6 is closest in meaning t o


( A) an illness ( B) an at t ack ( C) a large number ( D) a dist inct t ype
3 4 . According t o t he passage, some organisms produce ant ibiot ics in order t o
( A) prevent disease in humans ( B) aid digest ion
( C) f ight of f ot her organisms ( D) creat e new t ypes of nut rient s

3 5 . The word " vary" in line 1 9 is closest in meaning t o


( A) dif f er ( B) endure ( C) balance ( D) cont ribut e

3 6 . The word " t hey" in line 2 3 ref ers t o


( A) sponges, worms and shellf ish ( B) vert ebrat es
( C) individuals ( D) t ransplant s

3 7 . According t o t he passage, a t ransplant of t issue bet ween genet ically incompat ible organisms
will result in t he t ransplant ed t issue
( A) becoming a parasit e ( B) being t reat ed as an
invader
( C) alt ering it s genet ic makeup ( D) developing a new immune syst em

3 8 . According t o t he passage, t he abilit y t o dist inguish bet ween " self " and " nonself " enables
vert ebrat es t o
( A) accept t ransplant ed cells ( B) det ect and react t o invasion
( C) weaken t heir immune syst em ( D) get rid of ant ibiot ics

3 9 . All of t he f ollowing at e def ined in t he passage EXCEPT


( A) parasit es( line 4 ) ( B) invert ebrat es( line7 )
( C) nut rient s ( line1 4 ) ( D) vert ebrat es( line 2 2 )

4 0 . The paragraph f ollowing t he passage most probably discusses


( A) how t he immune syst em in vert ebrat es f ight s of f f oreign cells
( B) dif f erent t ypes of bact eria and lung
( C) how vert ebrat es and invert ebrat es dif f er
( D) examples of dif f erent groups of organisms

Que st ion 4 1 - 5 0
The development of jazz can be seen as part of t he larger cont inuum of American
popular music, especially dance music. In t he t went ies, jazz became t he hot t est new
t hing in dance music, much as ragt ime had at t he t urn of t he cent ury, and as would
Line rhyt hm and blues in t he f if t ies, rock in t he f if t ies, and disco in t he sevent ies.

63
PRA CT ICE T EST 2 2 January 1 9 9 8

(5) But t wo charact erist ics dist inguish jazz f rom ot her dance music. The f irst is
improvisat ion, t he changing of a musical phrase according t o t he player' s inspirat ion.
Like all art ist s, jazz musicians st rive f or an individual st yle, and t he improvise or
paraphrase is a jazz musician' s main opport unit y t o display his or her individualit y.
In early jazz, musicians of t en improvised melodies collect ively, t hus creat ing a kind of
( 1 0 ) polyphony. There was lit t le soloing as such, alt hough some New Orleans players,
part icularly cornet player Buddy Bolden, achieved local f ame f or t heir abilit y t o improvise
a solo. Lat er t he idea of t he chorus-long or mult ichorus solo t ook hold. Louis Armst rong' s
inst rument al brilliance, demonst rat ed t hrough ext ended solos, was a major inf luence in
t his development .

(15) Even in t he early t went ies, however, some jazz bands had f eat ured soloist s.
Similarly, show orchest ras and carnival bands of t en included one or t wo such " get -of f "
musicians. Unimproved, complet ely st ruct ured jazz does exist , but t he abilit y of t he
best jazz musicians t o creat e music of great cohesion and beaut y during perf ormance
has been a hallmark of t he music and it s major source of inspirat ion and change.

(20) The second dist inguishing charact erist ic of jazz is a rhyt hmic drive t hat was init ially
called " hot " and lat er " swing" . In playing hot , a musician consciously depart s f rom
st rict met er t o creat e a relaxed sense of phrasing t hat also emphasizes t he underlying
rhyt hms. ( " Rough" t one and use of moderat e vibrat o also cont ribut ed t o a hot sound.)
Not all jazz is hot , however, many early bands played unadorned published arrangement s
( 2 5 ) of popular songs. St ill, t he proclivit y t o play hot dist inguished t he jazz musician f rom
ot her inst rument alist s.

4 1 . The passage answers which of t he f ollowing quest ions?


( A) Which early jazz musicians most Inf luenced rhyt hm and blues music?
( B) What are t he dif f erences bet ween jazz and ot her f orms of music?
( C) Why Is dancing closely relat ed t o popular music in t he Unit ed St at es?
( D) What Inst rument s comprised a t ypical jazz band of t he 1 9 2 0 ' s?

4 2 . Which of t he f ollowing preceded jazz as a popular music f or dancing?


( A) Disco ( B) Rock ( C) Rhyt hm and blues ( D) Ragt ime

4 3 . According t o t he passage, jazz musicians are able t o demonst rat e t heir individual art ist ry
mainly by?
( A) creat ing musical variat ions while perf orming
( B) preparing musical arrangement s
( C) reading music wit h great skill
( D) being able t o play all t ypes of popular music

4 4 . Which of t he f ollowing was t he f unct ion of " get -of f " musicians ( line 1 6 ) ?
( A) Assist t he ot her band members in packing up af t er a perf ormance
( B) Teach dance rout ines creat ed f or new music
( C) Lead t he band
( D) Provide solo perf ormances in a band or orchest ra

4 5 . The word " cohesion" in line 1 8 is closest in meaning t o


( A) sorrow ( B) f ame ( C) unit y ( D) vibrat ion

4 6 . The word " init ially" in line 2 0 is closest in meaning t o


( A) at f irst ( B) short ly ( C) alphabet ically ( D) in f act

4 7 . The word " consciously" in line 2 1 is closest in meaning t o


( A) carelessly ( B) easily ( C) periodically ( D) purposely

64
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

4 8 . The word " unadorned" in line 2 4 is closest in meaning t o


( A) lovely ( B) plain ( C) disorganized ( D) inexpensive

4 9 . Which of t he f ollowing t erms is def ined in t he passage?


( A) " improvisat ion" ( line 6 ) ( B) " polyphony" ( line 1 0 )
( C) " cornet player ( line 1 1 ) ( D) " mult ichorus ( line 1 2 )

5 0 . The t opic of t he passage is developed primarily by means of


( A) dividing t he discussion int o t wo major areas
( B) present ing cont rast ing point s of view
( C) providing biographies of f amous musician
( D) describing hist orical event s in sequence

65
PRACT ICE T EST 2 3
May 1 9 9 8
Que st ions 1 - 1 1
Bef ore t he 1 5 0 0 ' s, t he west ern plains of Nort h America were dominat ed by f armers.
One group, t he Mandans, lived in t he upper Missouri River count ry, primarily in
present -day Nort h Dakot a. They had large villages of houses built close t oget her. The
Line t ight arrangement enabled t he Mandans t o prot ect t hemselves more easily f rom t he
(5) at t acks of ot hers who might seek t o obt ain some of t he f ood t hese highly capable
f armers st ored f rom one year t o t he next .

The women had primary responsibilit y f or t he f ields. They had t o exercise


considerable skill t o produce t he desired result s, f or t heir nort hern locat ion meant
f leet ing growing seasons. Wint er of t en lingered; aut umn could be ushered in by
( 1 0 ) severe f rost . For good measure, during t he spring and summer, drought , heat , hail,
grasshoppers, and ot her f rust rat ions might await t he wary grower.

Under such condit ions, Mandan women had t o grow maize capable of weat hering
adversit y. They began as early as it appeared f easible t o do so in t he spring, clearing
t he land, using f ire t o clear st ubble f rom t he f ields and t hen plant ing. From t his point
( 1 5 ) unt il t he f irst green corn could be harvest ed, t he crop required labor and vigilance.

Harvest ing proceeded in t wo st ages. In August t he Mandans picked a smaller


amount of t he crop bef ore it had mat ured f ully. This green corn was boiled, dried, and
shelled, wit h some of t he maize slat ed f or immediat e consumpt ion and t he rest st ored
in animal-skin bags. Lat er in t he f all, t he people picked t he rest of t he corn. They saved
( 2 0 ) t he best of t he harvest f or seeds or f or t rade, wit h t he remainder eat en right away or
st ored f or lat er use in underground reserves. Wit h appropriat e banking of t he ext ra
f ood, t he Mandans prot ect ed t hemselves against t he disast er of crop f ailure and
accompanying hunger.

The women plant ed anot her st aple, squash, about t he f irst of June, and harvest ed it
(25) near t he t ime of t he green corn harvest . Af t er t hey picked it , t hey sliced it , dried it , and
st rung t he slices bef ore t hey st ored t hem. Once again, t hey saved t he seed f rom t he best
of t he year' s crop. The Mandans also grew sunf lowers and t obacco; t he lat t er was t he
part icular t ask of t he old men.

1 . The Mandans built t heir houses close t oget her in order t o


( A) guard t heir supplies of f ood ( B) prot ect t hemselves against t he weat her
( C) allow more room f or growing corn ( D) share f arming implement s

2 . The word " enabled" in line 4 is closest in meaning t o


( A) covered ( B) reminded ( C) helped ( D) isolat ed

3 . The word " considerable" in line 8 is closest in meaning t o


( A) planning ( B) much ( C) physical ( D) f lew

4 . Why does t he aut hor believe t hat t he Mandans were skilled f armers?
( A) They developed ef f ect ive f ert ilizers.
( B) They developed new variet ies of corn.
( C) They could grow crops in most t ypes of soil.
( D) They could grow crops despit e adverse weat her.

5 . Tile word " consumpt ion" in line 1 8 is closest in meaning t o


( A) decay ( B) plant ing ( C) eat ing ( D) conversion

66
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

6 . Which of t he f ollowing processes does t he aut hor imply was done by bot h men and women?
( A) Clearing f ields ( B) Plant ing corn ( C) Harvest ing corn ( D) harvest ing squash.

7 . The word " disast er" in line 2 2 is closest in meaning t o


( A) cont rol ( B) cat ast rophe ( C) avoidance ( D) hist ory

8 . According t o t he passage, t he Mandans preserved t heir f ood by


( A) smoking ( B) drying ( C) f reezing ( D) salt ing

9 . The word " it " in line 2 5 ref ers t o


( A) June ( B) corn ( C) t ime ( D) squash

1 0 . Which of t he f ollowing crops was cult ivat ed primarily by men


( A) Corn ( B) Squash ( C) Sunf lower ( D) Tobacco

1 1 . Throughout t he passage, t he aut hor implies t hat t he Mandans


( A) planned f or t he f ut ure ( B) valued individualit y
( C) were open t o st rangers ( D) were very advent urous

Que st ions 1 2 - 2 0
The element s ot her t han hydrogen and helium exist in such small quant it ies t hat it is
accurat e t o say t hat t he universe somewhat more t han 2 5 percent helium by weight
and somewhat less t han 2 5 percent hydrogen.

Line Ast ronomers have measured t he abundance of helium t hroughout our galaxy and in
(5) ot her galaxies as well. Helium has been f ound in old st ars, in relat ively young ones, in
int erst ellar gas, and in t he dist ant object s known as quasars. Helium nuclei have also
been f ound t o be const it uent s of cosmic rays t hat f all on t he eart h ( cosmic " rays" are
not really a f orm of radiat ion; t hey consist of rapidly moving part icles of numerous
dif f erent kinds) . It doesn' t seem t o make very much dif f erence where t he helium is
( 1 0 ) f ound. It s relat ive abundance never seems t o vary much. In some places, t here may be
slight ly more of it ; In ot hers, slight ly less, but t he rat io of helium t o hydrogen nuclei
always remains about t he same.

Helium is creat ed in st ars. In f act , nuclear react ions t hat convert hydrogen t o helium
are responsible f or most of t he energy t hat st ars produce. However, t he amount of
( 1 5 ) helium t hat could have been produced in t his manner can be calculat ed, and it t urns out
t o be no more t han a f ew percent . The universe has not exist ed long enough f or t his
f igure t o he signif icant ly great er. Consequent ly, if t he universe is somewhat more t han
2 5 percent helium now, t hen it must have been about 2 5 percent helium at a t ime near
t he beginning.

(20) However, when t he universe was less t han one minut e old, no helium could have
exist ed. Calculat ions indicat e t hat bef ore t his t ime t emperat ures were t oo high and
part icles of mat t er were moving around much t oo rapidly. It was only af t er t he oneminut e
point t hat helium could exist . By t his t ime, t he universe had cooled suf f icient ly
t hat neut rons and prot ons could st ick t oget her. But t he nuclear react ions t hat led t o t he
( 2 5 ) f ormat ion of helium went on f or only a relat ively short t ime. By t he t ime t he universe
was a f ew minut es old, helium product ion had ef f ect ively ceased.

1 2 . What does t he passage mainly explain?


( A) How st ars produce energy
( B) The dif f erence bet ween helium and hydrogen

67
PRA CT ICE T EST 2 3 May 1 9 9 8

( C) When most of t he helium in t he universe was f ormed


( D) Why hydrogen is abundant
1 3 . According t o t he passage, helium is
( A) t he second-most abundant element in t he universe
( B) dif f icult t o det ect
( C) t he oldest element in t he universe
( D) t he most prevalent element in quasars

1 4 . The word " const it uent s" in line 7 is closest in meaning t o


( A) relat ives ( B) causes ( C) component s ( D) t arget s

1 5 . Why does t he aut hor ment ion " cosmic rays' ' in line 7 ?
( A) As part of a list of t hings cont aining helium
( B) As an example of an unsolved ast ronomical puzzle
( C) To explain how t he universe began
( D) To explain t he abundance of hydrogen in t he universe

1 6 . The word " vary" in line 1 0 is closest ill meaning t o


( A) mean ( B) st ret ch ( C) change ( D) include

1 7 . The creat ion of helium wit hin st ars


( A) cannot be measured
( B) produces energy
( C) produces hydrogen as a by-product
( D) causes helium t o be much more abundant In old st ars t han In young st ar.

1 8 . The word " calculat ed" in line 1 5 is closest in meaning t o


( A) ignored ( B) convert ed ( C) increased ( D) det ermined

1 9 . Most of t he helium in t he universe was f ormed


( A) in int erst ellar space
( B) in a very short t ime
( C) during t he f irst minut e of t he universe' s exist ence
( D) bef ore most of t he hydrogen

2 0 . The word " ceased" in line 2 6 is closest in meaning t o


( A) ext ended ( B) perf ormed ( C) t aken hold ( D) st opped

Que st ions 2 1 - 3 0
In colonial America, people generally covered t heir beds wit h decorat ive quilt s
resembling t hose of t he lands f rom which t he quit t ers had come. Wealt hy and socially
prominent set t lers made quilt s of t he English t ype, cut f rom large lengt hs of clot h of
Line t he same color and t ext ure rat her t han st it ched t oget her f rom smaller pieces. They made
(5) t hese unt il t he advent of t he Revolut ionary War in I 7 7 5 , when everyt hing English
came t o be f rowned upon.

Among t he whole-clot h quilt s made by t hese wealt hy set t lers during t he early period
are t hose now called linsey-woolseys. This t erm was usually applied t o a f abric of wool
and linen used in heavy clot hing and quilt ed pet t icoat s worn in t he wint ert ime. Despit e
( 1 0 ) t he name, linsey-woolsey bedcovers did not of t en cont ain linen. Rat her, t hey were
made of a t op layer of woolen or glazed worst ed wool f abric, consist ing of smoot h,
compact yarn f rom long wool f iber dyed dark blue, green, or brown wit h a bot t om
layer of a coarser woolen mat erial, eit her nat ural or a shade of yellow. The f illing was
a sof t layer of wool which had been cleaned and separat ed and t he t hree layers were

68
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

(15) held t oget her wit h decorat ive st it ching done wit h homespun linen t hread. Lat er, cot t on
t hread was used f or t his purpose. The design of t he st it ching was of t en a simple one
composed of int erlocking circles or crossed diagonal lines giving a diamond pat t ern.
This t ype of heavy, warm, quilt ed bedcover was so large t hat it hung t o t he f loor.
The corners are cut out at t he f oot of t he cover so t hat t he quilt f it snugly around t he t all
( 2 0 ) f our-post er, beds of t he 1 7 0 0 ' s, which dif f ered f rom t hose of t oday in t hat t hey were
short er and wider; t hey were short because people slept in a semi-sit t ing posit ion wit h
many bolst ers or pillows, and wide, because each bed of t en slept t hree or more. The
linsey-woolsey covering was f ound in t he colder regions of t he count ry because of t he
warmt h it af f orded. There was no cent ral heat ing and most bedrooms did not have
( 2 5 ) f ireplaces.

2 1 . What does t his passage mainly discuss?


( A) The processing of wool ( B) Linsey-woolsey bedcovers
( C) Sleeping habit s of colonial Americans ( D) Quilt s made in England

2 2 . The word " prominent " in line 3 is closest in meaning t o


( A) isolat ed ( B) concerned ( C) generous ( D) dist inguished

2 3 . The aut hor ment ion t he Revolut ionary War as a t ime period when
( A) quills were supplied t o t he army
( B) more immigrant s arrived f rom England
( C) quills import ed f rom England became harder t o f ind
( D) people' s at t it udes t oward England changed.

2 4 . The phrase " applied t o" in line 8 is closest in meaning 1 0


( A) sewn ont o ( B) compared t o ( C) used f or ( D) writ t en down on

2 5 . The t erm " linsey-woolsey" originally meant f abric used primarily in


( A) quilt s ( B) sheet s ( C) clot hing ( D) pillows

2 6 . The word " coarser" in line 1 3 is closest in meaning t o


( A) older ( B) less heavy ( C) more at t ract ive ( D) rougher

2 7 . The quilt s described in t he second and t hird paragraphs were made primarily of
( A) wool ( B) linen ( C) cot t on ( D) a mixt ure of f abrics

2 8 . It can be inf erred f rom t he t hird paragraph t hat t he sleeping habit s of most Americans have
changed since t he 1 7 0 0 ' s in all t he f ollowing ways EXCEPT
( A) t he posit ion in which people sleep
( B) t he numbers of bolst ers or pillows people sleep on
( C) t he lengt h of t ime people sleep
( D) t he number of people who sleep in one bed

2 9 . The word " af f orded" in line 2 4 is closest in meaning t o


( A) provided ( B) spent ( C) avoided ( D) absorbed

3 0 . Which of t he f ollowing was most likely t o be f ound in a bedroom in t he colder areas of t he


American colonies?
( A) A linsey-woolsey ( B) A vent f rom a cent ral healing syst em
( C) A f ireplace ( D) A wood st ove

69
PRA CT ICE T EST 2 3 May 1 9 9 8

Que st ions 3 1 - 4 0
Growing t ight ly packed t oget her and collect ively weaving a dense canopy of
branches, a st and of red alder t rees can t ot ally dominat e a sit e t o t he exclusion of
almost everyt hing else. Cert ain species such as salmonberry and sword f erns have
Line adapt ed t o t he limit ed sunlight dappling t hrough t he canopy, but f ew evergreen t rees
(5) will survive t here; st ill f ewer can compet e wit h t he early prodigious growt h of alders.
A Douglas f ir t ree reaches it s maximum rat e of growt h t en years lat er t han an alder,
and if t he t wo of t hem begin lif e at t he same t ime, t he alder quickly out grows and
dominat es t he Douglas f ir. Af t er an alder canopy has closed, t he Douglas f ir suf f ers a
marked decrease in growt h, of t en dying wit hin seven years. Even more shade-t olerant
( 1 0 ) species of t rees such as hemlock may remain badly suppressed beneat h aggressive
young alders.

Companies engaged in int ensive t imber cropping nat urally t ake a dim view of alders
suppressing more valuable evergreen t rees. But t imes are changing; a new generat ion
of f orest ers seems bet t er prepared t o include in t heir management plans considerat ion
( 1 5 ) of t he vit al ecological role alders, play.

Among t he alder' s valuable ecological cont ribut ions is it s capacit y t o f ix nit rogen in
nit rogen-def icient soils. Alder root s cont ain clust ers of nit rogen-f ixing nodules like
t hose f ound on legumes such as beans. in addit ion, newly developing soils exposed by
recent glacier ret reat and plant ed wit h alders show t hat t hese t rees are applying t he
( 2 0 ) equivalent of t en bags of high-nit rogen f ert ilizer t o each hect are per year. Ot her
chemical changes t o soil in which t hey are growing include a lowering of t he base
cont ent and rise in soil acidit y, as well as a subst ant ial addit ion of carbon and calcium
t o t he soil.

Anot her import ant role many alders play in t he wild, part icularly in mount ainous
( 2 5 ) areas, is t o check t he rush of wat er during spring melt . In Japan and elsewhere, t he
t rees are plant ed t o st abilize soil on st eep mount ain slopes. Similarly, alders have been
plant ed t o st abilize and rehabilit at e wast e mat erial lef t over f rom old mines, f lood
deposit s, and landslide areas in bot h Europe and Asia.

3 1 . What does t he passage mainly discuss?


( A) Dif f erences bet ween alder t rees and Douglas f ir t rees
( B) Alder t rees as a source of t imber
( C) Management plans f or using alder t rees t o improve soil
( D) The relat ion of alder t rees t o t heir f orest environment s

3 2 . The word " dense" in line I is closest in meaning t o


( A) dark ( B) t all ( C) t hick ( D) broad

3 3 . Alder t rees can suppress t he growt h of nearby t rees by depriving t hem of


( A) nit rogen ( B) sunlight ( C) soil nut rient s ( D) wat er

3 4 . The passage suggest s t hat Douglas f ir t rees are


( A) a t ype of alder ( B) a t ype of evergreen
( C) similar t o sword f erns ( D) f ast -growing t rees

3 5 . It can be inf erred f rom paragraph I t hat hemlock t rees

70
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

( A) are similar in size t o alder t rees.


( B) int erf ere wit h t he growt h of Douglas f ir t rees
( C) reduce t he number of alder t rees In t he f orest
( D) need less sunlight t han do Douglas f ir t rees

3 6 . It can be inf erred f rom paragraph 2 t hat previous generat ions of f orest ers
( A) did not st udy t he ef f ect s of alders on f orest s
( B) did not want alders In f orest s
( C) harvest ed alders f or lumber
( D) used alders t o cont rol t he growt h of evergreens

3 7 . The word " t hey" in line 2 1 ref ers t o


( A) newly developing soils ( B) alders
( C) bags ( D) chemical changes

3 8 . According t o t he passage t hat alders are used in mount ainous areas t o


( A) nit rogen ( B) calcium ( C) carbon ( D) oxygen

3 9 . It can be Inf erred f rom t he passage t hat alders are used in mount ainous areas t o
( A) prevent wat er f rom carrying away soil ( B) hold t he snow
( C) prot ect mines ( D) provide mat erial f or housing

4 0 . What is t he aut hor' s main purpose in t he passage?


( A) To argue t hat alder t rees are usef ul in f orest management
( B) To explain t he lif e cycle of alder t rees
( C) To crit icize t he way alders t ake over and eliminat e f orest s
( D) To illust rat e how alder t rees cont rol soil erosion

Que st ions 4 1 - 5 0
In t aking ups new lif e across t he At lant ic, t he early European set t lers of t he Unit ed
St at es did not abandon t he diversions wit h which t heir ancest ors had t radit ionally
relieved t he t edium of lif e. Neit her t he harshness of exist ence on t he new cont inent nor
Line t he scat t ered populat ion nor t he disapproval of t he clergy discouraged t he majorit y
(5) f rom t he pursuit of pleasure.

Cit y and count ry dwellers, of course, conduct ed t his pursuit in dif f erent ways. Farm
dwellers in t heir isolat ion not only f ound it harder t o locat e companions in play but
also t hanks t o t he unending demands and pressures of t heir work, f elt it necessary t o
combine f un wit h purpose. No ot her set of colonist s t oo so seriously one expression of
( 1 0 ) t he period. " Leisure is t ime f or doing somet hing usef ul." in t he count ryside f armers
t heref ore relieved t he burden of t he daily rout ine wit h such double-purpose relaxat ion
as hunt ing, f ishing, and t rapping. When a neighbor needed help, f amilies rallied f rom
miles around t o assist in building a house or barn, husking corn, shearing sheep or
chopping wood. Food, drink, and celebrat ion af t er t he group work provided relaxat ion
( 1 5 ) and soot hed weary muscles.

The most eagerly ant icipat ed social event s were t he rural f airs, Hundreds of men,
women, and children at t ended f rom f ar and near. The men bought or t raded f arm
animals and acquired needed merchandise while t he women displayed f ood prepared in
t heir kit chens, and everyone, including t he youngst ers, wat ched or part icipat ed in a
( 2 0 ) variet y of compet it ive sport s, wit h prizes awarded t o t he winners. These event s
t ypically included horse races, wrest ling mat ches, and f oot races, as well as some
nonat hlet ic event s such as whist ling compet it ions. No ot her occasions did so much t o

71
PRA CT ICE T EST 2 3 May 1 9 9 8

relieve t he isolat ion of f arm exist ence.

Wit h t he open count ryside everywhere at hand, cit y dwellers nat urally shared in
( 2 5 ) some of t he rural diversions. Favored recreat ions included f ishing, hunt ing, skat ing,
and swimming. But cit y dwellers also developed ot her pleasures, which only compact
communit ies made possible.

4 1 . What is t he passage mainly about ?


( A) Met hods of f arming used by early set t lers of t he Unit ed St at es
( B) Hardships f aced by t he early set t lers of t he Unit ed St at es
( C) Met hods of buying, selling, and t rading used by early set t lers of t he Unit ed St at es
( D) Ways in which early set t lers of t he Unit ed St at es relaxed

4 2 . What can be inf erred about t he diversions of t he early set t lers of t he Unit ed St at es?
( A) They f ollowed a pat t ern begun in Europe.
( B) They were enjoyed more f requent ly t han in Europe.
( C) The clergy organized t hem.
( D) Only t he wealt hy part icipat ed in t hem.

4 3 . Which of ' he f ollowing can be said about t he count ry dwellers' at t it ude t oward " t he pursuit of
pleasure" ?
( A) They f elt t hat it should help keep t heir minds on t heir work.
( B) They f elt t hat it was not necessary.
( C) They f elt t hat it should be product ive.
( D) They f elt t hat it should not involve eat ing and drinking.

4 4 . The phrase " t hanks t o" in line 8 is closest in meaning t o


( A) grat ef ul f or ( B) help wit h ( C) because of ( D) machines f or

4 5 . The word " t heir" in line 8 ref ers t o


( A) ways ( B) f arm dwellers ( C) demands ( D) pressures
4 6 . What is meant by t he phrase " double-purpose" in line 1 1 ?
( A) Very f requent ( B) Usef ul and enjoyable
( C) Ext remely necessary ( D) Posit ive and
negat ive

4 7 . The phrase " eagerly ant icipat ed" in line 1 6 is closest in meaning t o
( A) well organized ( B) old-f ashioned
( C) st rongly opposed ( D) looked f orward t o

4 8 . Which of t he f ollowing can be said about t he rural diversions ment ioned in t he last paragraph
in which cit y dwellers also part icipat ed?
( A) They were usef ul t o t he rural communit y.
( B) They involved t he purchase it ems usef ul in t he home.
( C) They were act ivit ies t hat could be done equally easily in t he t owns
( D) They were all out door act ivit ies.

4 9 . What will t he aut hor probably discuss in t he paragraph f ollowing t his passage?
( A) The rural diversions enjoyed by bot h urban and rural people
( B) Leisure act ivit ies of cit y dwellers
( C) Building met hods of t he early set t lers in rural areas
( D) Changes in t he lif est yles of set t lers' as t hey moved t o t he cit ies

5 0 . Where in t he passage does t he aut hor ment ion f act ors t hat might prevent people f rom
enjoying t hemselves?
( A) Lines 3 -5 ( B) Lines 1 2 -1 4 C) Lines 1 7 -2 0 ( D) Lines 2 5 -2 7

72
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

73
PRACT ICE T EST 2 4
August 1 9 9 8
Que st ions 1 - 1 0
A sevent eent h-cent ury t heory of burning proposed t hat anyt hing t hat burns must
cont ain mat erial t hat t he t heorist s called " phlogist on" . Burning was explained as t he
release of phlogist on f rom t he combust ible mat erial t o t he air. Air was t hought
Line essent ial, since it had t o provide a home f or t he released phlogist on. There would be a
(5) limit t o t he phlogist on t ransf er, since a given volume of air could absorb only so much
phlogist on. When t he air had become sat urat ed, no addit ional amount s of phlogist on
could leave t he combust ible subst ance, and t he burning would st op. Burning would
also st op when t he combust ible subst ance was empt ied of all it s phlogist on.

Alt hough t he phlogist on t heory was self -consist ent , it was awkward because it
(10) required t hat imaginat ive, even myst erious, propert ies be ascribed t o phlogist on.
Phlogist on was elusive. No one had ever isolat ed it and experiment ally det ermined it s
propert ies. At t imes it seemed t o show a negat ive weight : t he residue lef t af t er burning
weighed more t han t he mat erial bef ore burning. This was t rue, f or example, when
magnesium burned. Somet imes phlogist on seemed t o show a posit ive weight : when,
( 1 5 ) f or example, wood burned, t he ash weighed less t han t he st art ing mat erial. And since
so lit t le residue was lef t when alcohol, kerosene, or high-grade coal burned, t hese
obviously dif f erent mat erials were t hought t o be pure or nearly pure phlogist on.

In t he eight eent h cent ury, Ant oine Lavoisier, on t he basis of caref ul experiment at ion,
was led t o propose a dif f erent t heory of burning, one t hat required a const it uent of
( 2 0 ) air-lat er shown t o be oxygen-f or combust ion. Since t he weight of t he oxygen is
always added, t he weight of t he product s of combust ion, including t he evolved gases,
would always be great er t han t he weight of t he st art ing mat erial.

Lavoisier' s int erpret at ion was more reasonable and st raight f orward t han t hat of t he
phlogist on t heorist s. The phlogist on t heory, always clumsy, became suspect , event ually
( 2 5 ) f ell int o scient if ic disreput e, and was replaced by new ideas.

1 . What does t he passage mainly discuss?


( A) The chemical composit ion of phlogist on.
( B) At t empt s t o explain what happens when mat erials burn
( C) Limit at ions of sevent eent h-cent ury scient if ic t heories
( D) The charact erist ics of t he residue lef t af t er f ires

2 . The word " it " in line 4 ref ers t o


( A) burning ( B) phlogist on
( C) combust ible mat erial ( D) air

3 . The " phlogist on t ransf er" ment ioned in line 5 is a t erm used t o describe t he
( A) nat ural limit s on t he t ot al volume of phlogist on
( B) absence of phlogist on in combust ible mat erial
( C) abilit y of phlogist on t o slow combust ion
( D) release of phlogist on int o t he air f rom burning mat erial

4 . The word " propert ies" in line 1 0 is closest in meaning t o


( A) int erpret at ions ( B) locat ions ( C) charact erist ics ( D) virt ues

5 . The phrase " ascribed t o" in line 1 0 is closest in meaning t o


( A) analyzed and isolat ed in ( B) ret urned t o t heir original condit ion in
( C) assumed t o be t rue of ( D) diagrammed wit h

74
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

6 . The aut hor ment ions magnesium in line 1 4 as an example of a subst ance t hat
( A) seemed t o have phlogist on wit h a negat ive weight
( B) leaves no residue af t er burning
( C) was t hought t o be made of nearly pure phlogist on
( D) was t hought t o cont ain no phlogist on

7 . The " dif f erent mat erials" ment ioned in line 1 7 were considered dif f erent because t hey
( A) required more heat t o burn t han ot her subst ances did
( B) burned wit hout leaving much residue
( C) were more myst erious t han phlogist on
( D) cont ained limit ed amount s of phlogist on

8 . The word " const it uent " in line 1 9 is closest in meaning t o


( A) component ( B) opposit e ( C) principle ( D) t emperat ure

9 . The word " Since" in line 2 0 is closest in meaning t o


( A) lat er ( B) because ( C) during ( D) alt hough

1 0 . Which of t he f ollowing is t rue of bot h t he phlogist on t heory of burning and Lavoisier' s t heory
of burning?
( A) Bot h t heories propose t hat t ot al weight always increases during burning.
( B) Bot h t heories are considered t o be reasonable and st raight f orward.
( C) Bot h t heories have dif f icult y explaining why residue remains af t er burning.
( D) Bot h t heories recognize t hat air is import ant t o combust ion.

Que st ions 1 1 - 2 2
Iron product ion was revolut ionized in t he early eight eent h cent ury when coke was
f irst used inst ead of charcoal f or ref ining iron ore. Previously t he poor qualit y of t he
iron had rest rict ed it s use in archit ect ure t o it ems such as chains and t ie bars f or
Line support ing arches, vault s, and walls. Wit h t he improvement in ref ining ore, it was now
(5) possible t o make cast -iron beams, columns, and girders. During t he ninet eent h cent ury
f urt her advances were made, not ably Bessemer' s process f or convert ing iron int o st eel,
which made t he mat erial more commercially viable.

Iron was rapidly adopt ed f or t he const ruct ion of bridges, because it s st rengt h was f ar
great er t han t hat of st one or t imber, but it s use in t he archit ect ure of buildings developed
( 1 0 ) more slowly. By 1 8 0 0 a complet e int ernal iron skelet on f or buildings had been developed
in indust rial archit ect ure replacing t radit ional t imber beams, but it generally remained
concealed. Apart f rom it s low cost , t he appeal of iron as a building mat erial lay in it s
st rengt h, it s resist ance t o f ire, and it s pot ent ial t o span vast areas. As a result , iron
became increasingly popular as a st ruct ural mat erial f or more t radit ional st yles of
( 1 5 ) archit ect ure during t he ninet eent h cent ury, but it was invariably concealed.

Signif icant ly, t he use of exposed iron occurred mainly in t he new building t ypes
spawned by t he Indust rial Revolut ion: in f act ories, warehouses, commercial of f ices,
exhibit ion hall, and railroad st at ions, where it s pract ical advant ages f ar out weighed it s
lack of st at us. Designers of t he railroad st at ions of t he new age explored t he pot ent ial
( 2 0 ) of iron, covering huge areas wit h spans t hat surpassed t he great vault s of medieval
churches and cat hedrals. Paxt on' s Cryst al Palace, designed t o house t he Great
Exhibit ion of 1 8 5 1 , covered an area of 1 .8 4 8 f eet by 4 0 8 f eet in pref abricat ed unit s of
glass set in iron f rames. The Paris Exhibit ion of 1 8 8 9 included bot h t he widest span
and t he great est height achieved so f ar wit h t he Halle Des Machines, spanning 3 6 2 f eet ,
( 2 5 ) and t he Eif f el Tower 1 ,0 0 0 f eet high. However, t hese achievement s were mocked by

75
PRA CT ICE T EST 2 4 A ugust 1 9 9 8

t he art ist ic elit e of Paris as expensive and ugly f ollies. Iron, despit e it s st ruct ural
advant ages, had lit t le aest het ic st at us. The use of an exposed iron st ruct ure in t he
more t radit ional st yles of archit ect ure was slower t o develop.
1 1 . What does t he passage mainly discuss?
( A) Advances in iron processing in t he eight eent h and ninet eent h cent uries
( B) The ef f ect s of t he Indust rial Revolut ion on t radit ional archit ect ural st yles
( C) Advant ages of st one and t imber over st eel as a building mat erial
( D) The evolut ion of t he use of iron in archit ect ure during t he 1 8 0 0 ' s

1 2 . The word " revolut ionized" in line 1 is closest in meaning t o


( A) quickly st art ed ( B) gradually opened
( C) dramat ically changed ( D) caref ully examined

1 3 . According t o t he passage, iron was NOT used f or beams, columns, and girders prior t o t he
early eight eent h cent ury because
( A) all available iron was needed f or ot her purposes
( B) limit ed mining capabilit y made iron t oo expensive
( C) iron was considered t oo valuable f or use in public buildings
( D) t he use of charcoal f or ref ining ore produced poor qualit y iron

1 4 . Iron replaced st one and t imber in t he building of bridges because iron was considered
( A) more beaut if ul ( B) new and modern
( C) much st ronger ( D) easier t o t ransport

1 5 . The word " it " in line 1 1 ref ers t o


( A) indust rial archit ect ure ( B) int ernal iron
skelet on
( C) st one ( D) st rengt h

1 6 . The word " appeal" in line 1 2 is closest in meaning t o


( A) adjust ment ( B) assignment ( C) at t ract ion ( D) at t empt

1 7 . The word " spawned" in line 1 7 is closest in meaning t o


( A) creat ed ( B) maint ained ( C) reject ed ( D) exposed

1 8 . The word " surpassed" in line 2 0 is closest in meaning t o


( A) imit at ed ( B) exceeded ( C) approached ( D) included

1 9 . According t o paragraph 3 , t he archit ect ural signif icance of t he Halle Des Machines was it s
( A) wide span ( B) great height
( C) unequaled beaut y ( D) pref abricat ed unit es of glass

2 0 . How did t he art ist ic elit e ment ioned in t he passage react t o t he buildings at t he Paris
Exhibit ion?
( A) They t ried t o copy t hem. ( B) They ridiculed t hem.
( C) They praised t hem. ( D) They ref used t o pay t o see t hem.

2 1 . It can be inf erred t hat t he delayed use of exposed iron st ruct ures in t radit ional st yles of
archit ect ure is best explained by t he
( A) impract icalit y of using iron f or small, noncommercial buildings
( B) associat ion of iron archit ect ure wit h t he problems of t he Indust rial Revolut ion
( C) general belief t hat iron of f ered less resist ance t o f ire and harsh weat her t han t radit ional
mat erials
( D) general percept ion t hat iron st ruct ures were not aest het ically pleasing

2 2 . The paragraph f ollowing t he passage most probably discusses

76
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

( A) t he gradual inclusion of exposed iron in t radit ional st yles of archit ect ure
( B) f urt her improvement s in iron processing met hods
( C) t he ret urn t o t radit ional building mat erials f or use in commercial st ruct ures
( D) t he decreased use of st one and t imber as a building mat erial

Que st ions 2 3 - 3 2
The most easily recognizable met eorit es are t he iron variet y, alt hough t hey only
represent about 5 percent of all met eorit e f alls. They are composed of iron and nickel
along wit h sulf ur, carbon, and t races of ot her element s. Their composit ion is t hought t o
Line be similar t o t hat of Eart hs iron core, and indeed t hey might have once made up t he
(5) core of a large planet oid t hat disint egrat ed long ago. Due t o t heir dense st ruct ure, iron
met eorit es have t he best chance of surviving an impact , and most are f ound by f armers
plowing t heir f ields.

One of t he best hunt ing grounds f or met eorit es is on t he glaciers of Ant arct ica,
where t he dark st ones st and out in st ark cont rast t o t he whit e snow and ice. When
( 1 0 ) met eorit es f all on t he cont inent , t hey are embedded in t he moving ice sheet s. At places
where t he glaciers move upward against mount ain ranges, met eorit es are lef t exposed
on t he surf ace. Some of t he met eorit es t hat have landed in Ant arct ica are believed t o
have come f rom t he Moon and even as f ar away as Mars, when large impact s blast ed
out chunks of mat erial and hurled t hem t oward Eart h.

(15) Perhaps t he world' s largest source of met eorit es is t he Nullarbor Plain, an area of
limest one t hat st ret ches f or 4 0 0 miles along t he sout hern coast of West ern and Sout h
Aust ralia. The pale, smoot h desert plain provides a perf ect backdrop f or spot t ing
met eorit es, which are usually dark brown of black. Since very lit t le erosion t akes place,
t he met eorit es are well preserved and are f ound just where t hey landed. Over 1 ,0 0 0
( 2 0 ) f ragment s f rom 1 5 0 met eorit es t hat f ell during t he last 2 0 ,0 0 0 years have been
recovered. One large iron met eorit e, called t he Mundrabilla met eorit e, weighed more
t han 1 1 t ons.

St ony met eorit es, called chondrit es, are t he most common t ype and make up more
t han
9 0 percent of all f alls. But because t hey are similar t o Eart h mat erials and t heref ore
( 2 5 ) erode easily, t hey are of t en dif f icult t o f ind. Among t he most ancient bodies in t he solar
syst em are t he carbonaceous chondrit es t hat also cont ain carbon compounds t hat might
have been t he precursors of lif e on Eart h.

2 3 . What is t he passage mainly about ?


( A) Finding met eorit es on Eart h' s surf ace
( B) How t he composit ion of met eorit es is similar t o t hat of Eart h
( C) Why most met eorit es do not survive impact wit h Eart h
( D) The origins of met eorit es

2 4 . The word " core" in line 4 is closest in meaning t o


( A) cent er ( B) surf ace ( C) mineral ( D) f ield

2 5 . The aut hor ment ions " dark st ones" and " whit e snow" in line 9 t o illust rat e t hat
( A) met eorit es are f ound most of t en in Ant arct ica
( B) glaciers st op met eorit es f rom mixing wit h soil

77
PRA CT ICE T EST 2 4 A ugust 1 9 9 8

( C) met eorit es are easier t o f ind in glacial areas


( D) most of Ant arct ica is covered wit h met eorit es

2 6 . The word " embedded" in line 1 0 is closest in meaning t o


( A) isolat ed ( B) encased ( C) enhanced ( D) enlarged

2 7 . The word " spot t ing" in line 1 7 is closest in meaning t o


( A) removing ( B) ident if ying ( C) cooling ( D) f alling

2 8 . The passage suggest s t hat which of t he f ollowing is most commonly responsible f or t he poor
preservat ion of met eorit es t hat f all t o Eart h?
( A) The size of t he f ragment s ( B) Ice sheet s
( C) Erosion ( D) Desert heat

2 9 . Where was t he Mundrabilla met eorit e discovered?


( A) On t he Nullarbor Plain ( B) In a f ield
( C) On a mount ain ( D) In Ant arct ica

3 0 . The word " t hey" in line 2 5 ref ers t o


( A) st ony met eorit es ( B) f alls ( C) Eart h mat erials ( D) ancient bodies

3 1 . Why does t he aut hor ment ion carbonaceous chondrit es ( line 2 6 ) ?


( A) They are t he largest met eorit es f ound on Eart h
( B) They are most likely t o be f ound whole.
( C) They come f rom out side t he solar syst em.
( D) They may be relat ed t o t he origins of lif e on Eart h.

3 2 . According t o t he passage, st ony met eorit es are


( A) composed of f ragment ed mat erials ( B) less likely t o be discovered t han iron
met eorit es
( C) most ly lost in space ( D) f ound only on t he
Nubblarbor Plain

Que st ions 3 3 - 4 1
A pioneering set of experiment s has been import ant in t he revolut ion in our
underst anding of animal behavior-a revolut ion t hat eroded t he behaviorist
dogma t hat only humans have minds. These experiment s were designed t o det ect
Line consciousness-t hat is signs of self -awareness or self -recognit ion-in animals
(5) ot her t han humans.

The scient if ic invest igat ion of an experience as privat e as consciousness is


f rust rat ingly
beyond t he usual t ools of t he experiment al psychologist . This may be one reason t hat
many researchers have shield away f rom t he not ion of mind and consciousness in
nonhuman animals. In t he lat e 1 9 6 0 ' s, however, psychologist Gordon Gallup devised a t est
( 1 0 ) of t he sense of self : t he mirror t est . If an animal were able t o recognize it s ref lect ion in
a mirror as " self " , t hen it could be said t o possess an awareness of self , or consciousness.
It is known t hat a cat or a dog react s t o it s own image in a mirror, but of t en it t reat s it
as t hat of anot her individual whose behavior very soon becomes puzzling and boring.

The experiment called f or f amiliarizing t he animal wit h t he mirror and t hen marking
(15) t he animal' s f orehead wit h a red spot . If t he animal saw t he ref lect ion as just anot her

78
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

individual, it might wonder about t he curious red spot and might even t ouch t he mirror.
But if t he animal realized t hat t he ref lect ion was of it self , it would probably t ouch t he
spot on it s own body. The f irst t ime Gallup t ried t he experiment wit h a chimpanzee, t he
animal act ed as if it knew t hat t he ref lect ion was it s own; it t ouched t he red spot on it s
( 2 0 ) f orehead. Gallup' report of t he experiment , published in a 1 9 7 0 art icles, was a milest one
in our underst anding of animal minds, and psychologist s wondered how widespread
self -recognit ion would prove t o be.

3 3 . The word " dogma" in line 3 is closest in meaning t o


( A) evaluat ion ( B) proof ( C) int ent ion ( D) belief

3 4 . The word " det ect " in line 3 is closest in meaning t o


( A) imit at e t he behavior of ( B) provide a reason f or
( C) discover t he presence of ( D) report a need f or
3 5 . Which of t he f ollowing st at ement s best describes t he behaviorist s posit ion wit h regard t o
consciousness in nonhuman animals?
( A) Most nonhuman animals show signs of self -consciousness.
( B) Most nonhuman animals can be t aught self -consciousness.
( C) Chimpanzees are t he only nonhuman animals t hat have a human level of self -
consciousness.
( D) Nonhuman animals do not possess self -consciousness.

3 6 . The aut hor suggest s t hat researchers bef ore 1 9 6 0 probably avoided st udying nonhuman
animal consciousness because t hey
( A) did not wish t o experiment wit h live animal subject s
( B) were discouraged by earlier unsuccessf ul experiment s t hat st udied human consciousness
( C) had not yet devised adequat e research met hods f or animal consciousness experiment s
( D) lacked t he necessary laborat ory equipment

3 7 . The phrase " shied away f rom" in lien 8 is closest in meaning t o


( A) approached ( B) avoided ( C) respect ed ( D) allowed

3 8 . What does t he aut hor mean when st at ing in line 1 4 t hat " The experiment called f or
f amiliarizing t he animal wit h t he mirror" ?
( A) The experiment required t he use of a chimpanzee t hat had not part icipat ed in previous
mirror t est s.
( B) Gallup had t o allow t he chimpanzee t o become accust omed t o t he mirror bef ore he began
t he experiment .
( C) Gallup had t o t each t he chimpanzee t o recognize it s ref lect ion in t he mirror.
( D) The chimpanzee had t o f irst wat ch t he experiment being conduct ed wit h anot her
chimpanzee.

3 9 . The word " it " in line 1 6 ref ers t o


( A) red spot ( B) animal ( C) ref lect ion ( D) anot her individual

4 0 . The chimpanzee in Gallup' s f irst experiment responded t o t he mirror t est by t ouching


( A) it s own f orehead ( B) t he researcher' s f orehead
( C) t he red spot on t he mirror ( D) t he red spot on anot her chimpanzee

4 1 . The word " milest one" in line 2 0 is closest in meaning t o


( A) signif icant development ( B) init ial st ep
( C) universal concept ( D) obst ruct ion t o progress

Que st ions 4 2 - 5 0

79
PRA CT ICE T EST 2 4 A ugust 1 9 9 8

Biological diversit y has become widely recognized as a crit ical conservat ion issue only
in t he past t wo decades. The rapid dest ruct ion of t he t ropical rain f orest s, which are t he
ecosyst ems wit h t he highest known species diversit y on Eart h, has awakened people t o t he
Line import ance and f ragilit y of biological diversit y. The high rat e of species ext inct ions in
(5) t hese environment s is jolt ing, but it is import ant t o recognize t he signif icance of biological
diversit y in all ecosyst ems. As t he human populat ion cont inues t o expand, it will
negat ively af f ect one af t er anot her of Eart h' s ecosyst ems. In t errest rial ecosyst ems and
in f ringe marine ecosyst ems ( such as wet lands) , t he most common problem is habit at
dest ruct ion. In most sit uat ions, t he result is irreversible. Now humans are beginning t o
( 1 0 ) dest roy marine ecosyst ems t hrough ot her t ypes of act ivit ies, such as disposal and runof f of
poisonous wast e; in less t han t wo cent uries, by signif icant ly reducing t he variet y of
species on Eart h, t hey have unraveled cons of evolut ion and irrevocably redirect ed it s
course.

Cert ainly, t here have been periods in Eart h' s hist ory when mass ext inct ions have
(15) occurred. The ext inct ion of t he dinosaurs was caused by some physical event , eit her
climat ic or cosmic. There have also been less dramat ic ext inct ions, as when nat ural
compet it ion bet ween species reached an ext reme conclusion. Only 0 .0 1 percent of t he
species t hat have lived on Eart h have survived t o t he present , and it was largely chance
t hat det ermined which species survived and which died out .

(20) However, not hing has ever equaled t he magnit ude and speed wit h which t he human
species is alt ering t he physical and chemical world and demolishing t he environment . In
f act , t here is wide agreement t hat it is t he rat e of change humans are inf lict ing, even
more t han t he changes t hemselves, t hat will lead t o biological devast at ion. Lif e on Eart h
has cont inually been in f lux as slow physical and chemical changes have occurred on
( 2 5 ) Eart h, but lif e needs t ime t o adapt -t ime f or migrat ion and genet ic adapt at ion wit hin
exist ing species and t ime f or t he prolif erat ion of new genet ic mat erial and new species
t hat may be able t o survive in new environment s.

4 2 . What does t he passage mainly discuss?


( A) The cause of t he ext inct ion of t he dinosaurs
( B) The variet y of species f ound in t ropical rain f orest s
( C) The impact of human act ivit ies on Eart h' s ecosyst ems
( D) The t ime required f or species t o adapt t o new environment s

4 3 . The word " crit ical" in line 1 is closest in meaning t o


( A) negat ive ( B) essent ial ( C) int erest ing ( D) complicat ed
4 4 . The word " jolt ing" in line 5 is closest in meaning t o
( A) predict ed ( B) shocking ( C) unknown ( D) illuminat ing

4 5 . The aut hor ment ions t he reduct ion of t he variet y of species on Eart h in lines 1 1 -1 2 t o
suggest t hat
( A) new habit at s can be creat ed f or species
( B) humans are of t en made ill by pollut ed wat er
( C) some species have been made ext inct by human act ivit y
( D) an underst anding of evolut ion can prevent cert ain species f rom disappearing

4 6 . The aut hor ment ions all of t he f ollowing as examples of t he ef f ect of humans on t he world' s
ecosyst ems EXCEPT
( A) dest ruct ion of t he t ropical rain f orest s
( B) habit at dest ruct ion in wet lands
( C) damage t o marine ecosyst ems

80
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

( D) t he int roduct ion of new variet ies of plant species

4 7 . The aut hor ment ions t he ext inct ion of t he dinosaurs in t he second paragraph t o emphasize
t hat
( A) t he cause of t he dinosaurs' ext inct ion is unknown
( B) Eart h' s climat e has changed signif icant ly since t he dinosaurs' ext inct ion
( C) not all mass ext inct ions have been caused by human act ivit y
( D) act ions by humans could not st op t he irreversible process of a species' ext inct ion

4 8 . The word " magnit ude" in line 2 0 is closest in meaning t o


( A) concern ( B) det erminat ion ( C) carelessness ( D) ext ent

4 9 . According t o t he passage, nat ural evolut ionary change is dif f erent f rom changes caused by
humans in t hat changes caused by humans
( A) are occurring at a much f ast er rat e ( B) are less devast at ing t o most species
( C) af f ect f ewer ecosyst ems ( D) are reversible

5 0 . Wit h which of t he f ollowing st at ement s would t he aut hor be most likely t o agree?
( A) Human inf luence on ecosyst ems should not be a f act or in det ermining public policy.
( B) The ext inct ion of a f ew species is an accept able consequence of human progress.
( C) Technology will provide solut ions t o problems caused by t he dest ruct ion of ecosyst ems.
( D) Humans should be more conscious of t he inf luence t hey have on ecosyst ems.

81
PRACT ICE T EST 2 5
Oct obe r 1 9 9 8
Que st ions 1 - 1 0
The conservat ism of t he early English colonist s in Nort h American, t heir st rong
at t achment t o t he English way of doing t hings, would play a major part in t he f urnit ure
t hat was made in New England. The very t ools t hat t he f irst New England f urnit ure
Line makers used were, af t er all, not much dif f erent f rom t hose used f or cent uries-even
(5) millennia: basic hammers, saws, chisels, planes, augers, compasses, and measures.
These were t he t ools used more or less by all people who worked wit h wood:
carpent ers, barrel makers, and shipwright s. At most t he f urnit ure makers might have
had planes wit h special edges or more delicat e chisels, but t here could not have been
much specializat ion in t he early years of t he colonies.

(10) The f urnit ure makers in t hose early decades of t he 1 6 0 0 ' s were known as " joiners" ,
f or t he primary met hod of const ruct ing f urnit ure, at least among t he English of t his
t ime, was t hat of mort ise-and-t enon joinery. The mort ise is t he hole chiseled and cut
int o one piece of wood, while t he t enon is t he t ongue of prot ruding element shaped
f rom anot her piece of wood so t hat it f it s int o t he mort ise; and anot her small hole is
( 1 5 ) t hen drilled ( wit h t he auger) t hought t he mort ised end and t he t enon so t hat a whit t led
peg can secure t he joint -t hus t he t erm " joiner" . Panels were f it t ed int o slot s on t he
basic f rames. This kind of const ruct ion was used f or making everyt hing f rom houses t o
chest s.

Relat ively lit t le hardware was used during t his period. Some nails-f orged by
( 2 0 ) hand-were used, but no screws or glue, hinges were of t en made of leat her, but met al
hinges were also used. The cruder variet ies were made by blacksmit hs in t he colonies,
but t he f iner met al element s were import ed. Locks and escut cheon plat es-t he lat t er t o
shield t he wood f rom t he met al key-would of t en be import ed.

Above all, what t he early English colonist s import ed was t heir knowledge of
(25) f amiliarit y wit h, and dedicat ion t o t he t radit ional t ypes and designs of f urnit ure t hey
knew in England.

1 . The phrase " at t achment t o" in line 2 is closest in meaning t o


( A) cont rol of ( B) dist ance f rom ( C) curiosit y about ( D) pref erence f or

2 . The word " prot ruding" in line 1 3 is closest in meaning t o


( A) parallel ( B) simple ( C) project ing ( D) import ant

3 . The relat ionship of a mort ise and a t enon is most similar t o t hat of
( A) a lock and a key ( B) a book and it s cover
( C) a cup and a saucer ( D) a hammer and a nail

4 . For what purpose did woodworkers use an auger?


( A) t o whit t le a peg ( B) t o make a t enon
( C) t o drill a hole ( D) t o measure a panel

5 . Which of t he f ollowing were NOT used in t he const ruct ion of colonial f urnit ure?
( A) Mort ises ( B) Nails ( C) Hinges ( D) Screws

6 . The aut hor implies t hat colonial met alworkers were


( A) unable t o make elaborat e part s ( B) more skilled t han woodworkers
( C) more conservat ive t han ot her colonist s ( D) f requent ly employed by joiners

82
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

7 . The word " shield" in line 2 3 closest in meaning t o


( A) decorat e ( B) copy ( C) shape ( D) prot ect

8 . The word " t hey" in line 2 5 ref ers t o


( A) designs ( B) t ypes ( C) colonist s ( D) all

9 . The aut hor implies t hat t he colonial joiners


( A) were highly paid
( B) based t heir f urnit ure on English models
( C) used many specialized t ools
( D) had t o adjust t o using new kinds of wood in New England

1 0 . Which of t he f ollowing t erms does t he aut hor explain in t he passage?


( A) " millennia" ( line 5 ) ( B) " joiners" ( line 1 0 )
( C) " whit t led" ( line 1 5 ) ( D) " blacksmit hs" ( line 2 1 )

Que st ions 1 1 - 2 0
In addit ion t o t heir milit ary role, t he f ort s of t he ninet eent h cent ury provided
numerous
ot her benef it s f or t he American West . The est ablishment of t hese post s opened new
roads and provided f or t he prot ect ion of daring advent urers and expedit ions as well as
Line est ablished set t lers. Fort s also serve as bases where ent erprising ent repreneurs could
(5) bring commerce t o t he West , providing supplies and ref reshment s t o soldiers as well as
t o pioneers. Post s like f ort Laramie provided supplies f or wagon t rains t raveling t he
nat ural highways t oward new f ront iers. Some post s became st at ions f or t he pony
express; st ill ot hers, such as Fort Davis, were st agecoach st ops f or weary t ravelers. All
of t hese f unct ions, of course, suggest t hat t he cont ribut ions of t he f ort s t o t he
( 1 0 ) civilizat ion and development of t he West ext ended beyond pat rol dut y.

Through t he est ablishment of milit ary post s, yet ot her cont ribut ions were made t o
t he development of west ern cult ure, Many post s maint ained libraries or reading rooms,
and some-f or example, Fort Davis-had schools. Post chapels provided a set t ing
f or religious services and weddings. Throughout t he wilderness, post bands provided
( 1 5 ) ent ert ainment and boost ed morale. During t he last part of t he ninet eent h cent ury, t o
reduce expenses, gardening was encouraged at t he f ort s, t hus making experiment al
agricult ure anot her act ivit y of t he milit ary. The milit ary st at ioned at t he various f ort s
also played a role in civilian lif e by assist ing in maint aining order and civilian of f icials
of t en called on t he army f or prot ect ion.

(20) Cert ainly among ot her signif icant cont ribut ions t he army made t o t he improvement
of t he condit ions of lif e was t he invest igat ion of t he relat ionships among healt h,
climat e and archit ect ure. From t he earliest colonial t imes t hroughout t he ninet eent h
cent ury, disease ranked as t he f oremost problem in def ense. It slowed const ruct ion of
f ort s and inhibit ed t heir milit ary f unct ion. Of f icial document s f orm many regions
( 2 5 ) cont ained innumerable report s of sickness t hat virt ually incapacit at ed ent ire garrisons.
In response t o t he problems, det ailed observat ions of archit ect ure and climat e and t heir
relat ionships t o t he f requency of t he occurrence of various diseases were recorded at
various post s across t he nat ion by milit ary surgeons.

1 1 . Which of t he f ollowing st at ement s best expresses t he main idea of t he passage?


( A) By t he ninet eent h cent ury, f ort s were no longer used by t he milit ary.
( B) Surgeons at f ort s could not prevent out breaks of disease.

83
PRA CT ICE T EST 2 5 Oct obe r 1 9 9 8

( C) Fort s were import ant t o t he development of t he American West .


( D) Lif e in ninet eent h-cent ury f ort s was very rough.

1 2 . The word " daring" in line 3 is closest in meaning t o


( A) lost ( B) bold ( C) lively ( D) f oolish

1 3 . Which of t he f ollowing would a t raveler be LEAST likely t o obt ain at Fort Laramie?
( A) Fresh wat er ( B) Food ( C) Formal clot hing ( D) Lodging

1 4 . The word " ot hers" in line 8 ref ers t o


( A) post ( B) wagon t rains ( C) f ront iers ( D) highways

1 5 . The word " boost ed" in line 1 5 is closest in meaning t o


( A) inf luenced ( B) est ablished ( C) raised ( D) maint ained

1 6 . Which of t he f ollowing is t he most likely inf erence about t he decision t o promot e gardening at
f ort s?
( A) It was expensive t o import produce f rom f ar away
( B) Food brought in f ront out side was of t en spoiled.
( C) Gardening was a way t o occupy ot herwise idle soldiers.
( D) The soil near t he f ort s was very f ert ile.

1 7 . According t o t he passage, which of t he f ollowing posed t he biggest obst acle t o t he


development of milit ary f ort s?
( A) Insuf f icient shelt er ( B) Short age of mat erials
( C) At t acks by wild animals ( D) Illness

1 8 . The word " inhibit ed" in line 2 4 is closest in meaning t o


( A) involved ( B) exploit ed ( C) unit ed ( D) hindered

1 9 . How did t he milit ary assist in t he invest igat ion of healt h problems?
( A) By regist ering annual birt h and deat h rat es
( B) By experiment ing wit h dif f erent building mat erials
( C) By maint aining records of disease and pot ent ial causes
( D) By monit oring t he soldiers' diet s

2 0 . The aut hor organizes t he discussion of f ort s by


( A) describing t heir locat ions
( B) comparing t heir sizes.
( C) explaining t heir damage t o t he environment
( D) list ing t heir cont ribut ions t o west ern lif e

Que st ions 2 1 - 3 0
Anyone who has handled a f ossilized bone knows t hat it is usually not exact ly like
it s modern count erpart , t he most obvious dif f erence being t hat it is of t en much heavier.
Fossils of t en have t he qualit y of st one rat her t han of organic mat erials, and t his has led
Line t o t he use of t he t erm " pet rif act ion" ( t o bring about rock) . The implicat ion is t hat bone
(5) and ot her t issues have somehow been t urned int o st one, and t his is cert ainly t he
explanat ion given in some t ext s. But it is a wrong int erpret at ion; f ossils are f requent ly
so dense because t he pores and ot her spaces in t he bone have become f illed wit h
minerals t aken up f rom t he surrounding sediment s. Some f ossil bones have all t he
int erst it ial spaces f illed wit h f oreign minerals, including t he marrow cavit y, if t here is
( 1 0 ) one, while ot hers have t aken up but lit t le f rom t heir surrounding. Probably all of t he
minerals deposit ed wit hin t he bone have been recryst allized f rom solut ion by t he act ion

84
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

of wat er percolat ing t hrough t em. The degree of mineralizat ion appears t o be det ermined
by t he nat ure of t he environment in which t he bone was deposit ed and not by t he
ant iquit y of t he bone. For example, t he black f ossil bones t hat are so common in many
( 1 5 ) part s of Florida are heavily mineralized, but t hey are only about 2 0 ,0 0 0 years old,
whereas many of t he dinosaur bones f rom west ern Canada, which are about 7 5 million
years old, are only part ially f illed in. under opt imum condit ions t he process of
mineralizat ion probably t akes t housands rat her t han millions of years perhaps
considerably less.

(20) This amount of change t hat has occurred in f ossil bone, even in bone as old as t hat
of
dinosaurs, is of t en remarkably small. We are t heref ore usually able t o see t he
microscopic st ruct ure of t he bone, including such f ine det ails as t he lacunae where t he
living bone cells once resided. The nat ural bone mineral, t he hydroxyapat it e, is
virt ually unalt ered t oo-it has t he same cryst al st ruct ure as t hat of modern bone.
( 2 5 ) Alt hough not hing remains of t he original collagen, some of it s component amino acids
are usually st ill det ect able, t oget her wit h amino acids of t he noncollagen prot eins of
bone.

2 1 . What does t he passage mainly discuss?


( A) The locat ion of f ossils in Nort h America
( B) The composit ion of f ossils
( C) Det ermining t he size and weight of f ossils
( D) Procedures f or analyzing f ossils

2 2 . The word " count erpart " in line 2 is closest in meaning t o


( A) species ( B) version ( C) change ( D) mat erial

2 3 . Why is f ossilized bone heavier t han ordinary bone?


( A) Bone t issue solidif ies wit h age. ( B) The marrow cavit y gradually f ills wit h
wat er.
( C) The organic mat erials t urn t o st one. ( D) Spaces wit hin t he bone f ill wit h minerals.

2 4 . The word " pores" in line 7 is closest in meaning t o


( A) joint s ( B) t issues ( C) lines ( D) holes

2 5 . What can be inf erred about a f ossil wit h a high degree of mineralizat ion?
( A) It was exposed t o large amount s of mineral-laden wat er t hroughout t ime.
( B) Mineralizat ion was complet e wit hin one years of t he animal' s deat h.
( C) Many colorf ul cryst als can be f ound in such a f ossil.
( D) It was discovered in west ern Canada.

2 6 . Which of t he f ollowing f act ors is most import ant in det ermining t he ext ent of mineralizat ion
f ossil bones?
( A) The age of t he f ossil
( B) Environment al condit ions
( C) The locat ion of t he bone in t he animal' s body
( D) The t ype of animal t he bone came f rom

2 7 . Why does t he aut hor compare f ossils f ound in west ern Canada t o t hose f ound in Florida?
( A) To prove t hat a f ossil' s age cannot be det ermined by t he amount of mineralizat ion.
( B) To discuss t he large quant it y of f ossils f ound in bot h places.
( C) To suggest t hat f ossils f ound in bot h places were t he same age
( D) To explain why scient ist s are especially int erest ed in Canadian f ossils.

85
PRA CT ICE T EST 2 5 Oct obe r 1 9 9 8

2 8 . The word " it " in line 2 4 ref ers t o


( A) hydroxyapat it e ( B) microscopic st ruct ure
( C) cryst al st ruct ure ( D) modern bone

2 9 . The word " det ect able" in line 2 6 is closest in meaning t o


( A) sizable ( B) act ive ( C) moist ( D) apparent

3 0 . Which of t he f ollowing does NOT survive in f ossils?


( A) Noncollagen prot ein ( B) Hydroxyapat it e
( C) Collagen ( D) Amino acid
Que st ions 3 1 - 4 0
In t he last t hird of t he ninet eent h cent ury a new housing f orm was quiet ly being
developed. In 1 8 6 9 t he St uyvesant , considered New York' s f irst apart ment house, was
built on East Eight eent h St reet . The building was f inanced by t he developed Rut herf urd
Line St uyvesant and designed by Richard Morris Hunt , t he f irst American archit ect t o graduat e
(5) f rom t he Ecole des Beaux Art s in Paris. Each man had lived in Paris, and each underst ood
t he economic and social pot ent ial of t his Parisian housing f orm. But t he St uyvesant
was at best a limit ed success. In spit e of Hunt ' s invit ing f acade, t he living space was
awkwardly arranged. Those who could af f ord t hem were quit e cont ent t o reunion in t he
more sumpt uous, single-f amily homes, leaving t he St uyvesant t o young married couples
( 1 0 ) and bachelors.

The f undament al problem wit h t he St uyvesant and t he ot her early apart ment buildings
t hat quickly f ollowed, in t he lat e 1 8 7 0 ' s and early 1 8 8 0 ' s, was t hat t hey were conf ined
t o t he t ypical New York building lot . That lot was a rect angular area 2 5 f eet wide by 1 0 0
f eet deep-a shape perf ect ly suit ed f or a row house. The lot could also accommodat e
( 1 5 ) a rect angular t enement , t hough it could not yield t he square, well-light ed, and logically
arranged rooms t hat great apart ment buildings require. But even wit h t he awkward
int erior conf igurat ions of t he early apart ment buildings, t he idea caught on. It met t he
needs of a large and growing populat ion t hat want ed somet hing bet t er t han t enement s
but could not af f ord or did not want row houses.

(20) So while t he cit y' s newly emerging social leadership commissioned t heir mansions,
apart ment houses and hot els began t o sprout on mult iple lot s, t hus breaking t he init ial
space const raint s. In t he closing decades of t he ninet eent h cent ury, large apart ment
houses began dot t ing t he developed port ions of New York Cit y, and by t he opening
decades of t he t went iet h cent ury, spacious buildings, such as t he Dakot a and t he Ansonia,
( 2 5 ) f inally t ranscended t he light conf inement of row house building lot s. From t here it was
only a small st ep t o building luxury apart ment houses on t he newly creat ed Park Avenue,
right next t o t he f ashionable Fif t h avenue shopping area.

3 1 . The new housing f orm discussed in t he passage ref ers t o


( A) single-f amily homes ( B) apart ment
buildings
( C) row houses ( D) hot els

3 2 . The word " invit ing" in line 7 is closest in meaning t o


( A) open ( B) encouraging ( C) at t ract ive ( D) asking

3 3 . Why was t he St uyvesant a limit ed success?


( A) The arrangement of t he rooms was not convenient
( B) Most people could not af f ord t o live t here.
( C) There were no shopping areas nearby.

86
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

( D) It was in a crowded neighborhood.

3 4 . The word " sumpt uous" in line 9 is closest in meaning t o


( A) luxurious ( B) unique ( C) modern ( D) dist ant

3 5 . It can be inf erred t hat t he majorit y of people who live in New York' s f irst apart ment s were
( A) highly educat ed ( B) unemployed ( C) wealt hy ( D) young

3 6 . ???

3 7 . It can be inf erred t hat a New York apart ment building in t he 1 8 7 0 ' s and 1 8 8 0 ' s had all of t he
f ollowing charact erist ics EXCEPT:
( A) It s room arrangement was not logical. ( B) It was rect angular.
( C) It was spacious inside. ( D) It had limit ed light .

3 8 . The word " yield" in line 1 5 is closest in meaning t o


( A) harvest ( B) surrender ( C) amount ( D) provide

3 9 . Why did t he idea of living in an apart ment become popular in t he lat e 1 8 0 0 ' s?
( A) Large f amilies needed housing wit h suf f icient space.
( B) Apart ment s were pref erable t o t enement s and cheaper t han row houses.
( C) The cit y of f icial of New York want ed housing t hat was cent rally locat ed.
( D) The shape of early apart ment s could accommodat e a variet y of int erior designs.

4 0 . The aut hor ment ions t he Dakot a and t he Ansonia in line 2 4 because
( A) t hey are examples of large, well-designed apart ment buildings
( B) t heir design is similar t o t hat of row houses
( C) t hey were build on a single building lot
( D) t hey are f amous hot els

Que st ions 4 1 - 5 0
A snowf all consist s of myriads of minut e ice cryst als t hat f all t o t he ground in t he
f orm of f rozen precipit at ion. The f ormat ion of snow begins wit h t hese ice cryst als in
t he subf reezing st rat a of t he middle and upper at mosphere when t here is an adequat e
Line supply of moist ure present . At t he core of every ice cryst al is a minuscule nucleus, a
(5) solid part icle of mat t er around which moist ure condenses and f reezes. Liquid wat er
droplet s f lout ing in t he supermodel at mosphere and f ree ice cryst als cannot coexist
wit hin t he same cloud, since t he vapor pressure of ice is less t han t hat of wat er. This
enables t he ice cryst als t o rob t he liquid droplet s of t heir moist ure and grow cont inuously.

The process can be very rapid, quickly creat ing sizable ice cryst als, some of which
(10) adhere t o each ot her t o creat e a clust er of ice cryst als or a snowf lake. Simple f lakes
possess a variet y of beaut if ul f orms, usually hexagonal, t hough t he symmet rical shapes
reproduced in most microscope phot ography of snowf lakes are not usually f ound in
act ual snowf all. Typically, snowf lakes in act ual snowf alls consist of broken f ragment s
and clust ers of adhering ice cryst als.

(15) For a snowf all t o cont inue once it st art s, t here must be a const ant inf low of
moist ure
t o supply t he nuclei. This moist ure is supplied by t he passage of an airst ream over a

87
PRA CT ICE T EST 2 5 Oct obe r 1 9 9 8

wat er surf ace and it s subsequent lif t ing t o higher regions of t he at mosphere. The Pacif ic
Ocean is t he source of moist ure f or most snowf alls west of t he Rocky Mount ains, while
t he Gulf of Mexico and t he At lant ic Ocean f eed wat er vapor int o t he air current s over
( 2 0 ) t he cent ral and east ern sect ions of t he Unit ed St at es. Ot her geographical f eat ures also
can be t he source of moist ure f or some snowst orms. For example, areas adjacent t o t he
Great Lakes experience t heir own unique lake-ef f ect st orms, employing a variat ion of
t he process on a local scale. In addit ion, mount ainous sect ions or rising t errain can
init iat e snowf alls by t he geographical lif t ing of a moist airst ream.

4 1 . Which of t he f ollowing quest ions does t he aut hor answer in t he f irst paragraph?
( A) Why are snowf lakes hexagonal?
( B) What is t he opt imum t emperat ure f or snow?
( C) In which mont hs does most snow f all?
( D) How are snowf lakes f ormed?

4 2 . The word " minut e" in line 1 is closest in meaning t o


( A) t iny ( B) quick ( C) clear ( D) sharp

4 3 . What is at t he cent er of an ice cryst al?


( A) A small snowf lake ( B) A nucleus
( C) A drop of wat er ( D) A hexagon

4 4 . The word " adhere" in lien 1 0 is closest in meaning t o


( A) belong ( B) relat e ( C) st ick ( D) speed

4 5 . What is t he main t opic of t he second paragraph?


( A) How ice cryst als f orm
( B) How moist ure af f ect s t emperat ure
( C) What happens when ice cryst als melt
( D) Where t he moist ure t o supply t he nuclei comes f rom

4 6 . The word " it " in line 1 5 ref ers t o


( A) snowf all ( B) snowf lake ( C) clust er ( D) moist ure

4 7 . What is necessary f or a snowf all t o persist ?


( A) A decrease in t he number of snowf lakes
( B) Lowered vapor pressure in t he cryst als
( C) A cont inuous inf usion of moist ure
( D) A change in t he direct ion of t he airst ream

4 8 . How do lake-ef f ect snowst orms f orm?


( A) Wat er t emperat ures drop below f reezing
( B) Moist ure rises f rom a lake int o t he airst ream.
( C) Large quant it ies of wet air come of f a nearby mount ain
( D) Millions of ice cryst als f orm on t he surf ace of a large lake.

4 9 . The word " init iat e" in line 2 4 is closest in meaning t o


( A) enhance ( B) alt er ( C) increase ( D) begin

5 0 . Which of t he f ollowing could account f or t he lack of snowf all in a geographical locat ion close
t o mount ains and a major wat er source?
( A) ground t emperat ures below t he f reezing point
( B) t oo much moist ure in t he air
( C) t oo much wind of f t he mount ains
( D) at mospheric t emperat ures above t he f reezing point

88
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

89
PRACT ICE T EST 2 6
De ce mbe r 1 9 9 8
Que st ions 1 - 9
The geology of t he Eart h' s surf ace is dominat ed by t he part icular propert ies of
wat er. Present on Eart h in solid, liquid, and gaseous st at es, wat er is except ionally
react ive. It dissolves, t ransport s, and precipit at es many chemical compounds and is
Line const ant ly modif ying t he f ace of t he Eart h.

(5) Evaporat ed f rom t he oceans, wat er vapor f orms clouds, some of which are
t ransport ed by wind over t he cont inent s. Condensat ion f rom t he clouds provides t he
essent ial agent of cont inent al erosion: rain. Precipit at ed ont o t he ground, t he wat er
t rickles down t o f orm brooks, st reams, and rivers, const it ut ing what is called t he
hydrographic net work. This immense polarized net work channels t he wat er t oward a
( 1 0 ) single recept acle: an ocean. Gravit y dominat es t his ent ire st ep in t he cycle because
wat er t ends t o minimize it s pot ent ial energy by running f rom high alt it udes t oward t he
ref erence point t hat is sea level.

The rat e at which a molecule of wat er passes t hough t he cycle is not random but is
a measure of t he relat ive size of t he various reservoirs. If we def ine residence t ime as
( 1 5 ) t he average t ime f or a wat er molecule t o pass t hrough one of t he t hree
reservoirsat mosphere,
cont inent , and ocean-we see t hat t he t imes are very dif f erent . A wat er
molecule st ays, on average, eleven days in t he at mosphere, one hundred years on a
cont inent and f ort y t housand years in t he ocean. This last f igure shows t he import ance
of t he ocean as t he principal reservoir of t he hydrosphere but also t he rapidit y of wat er
( 2 0 ) t ransport on t he cont inent s.

A vast chemical separat ion process t akes places during t he f low of wat er over t he
cont inent s. Soluble ions such as calcium, sodium, pot assium, and some magnesium are
dissolved and t ransport ed. Insoluble ions such as aluminum, iron, and silicon st ay
where t hey are and f orm t he t hin, f ert ile skin of soil on which veget at ion can grow.
( 2 5 ) Somet imes soils are dest royed and t ransport ed mechanically during f looding. The
erosion of t he cont inent s t hus result s f rom t wo closely linked and int erdependent
processes, chemical erosion and mechanical erosion. Their respect ive int eract ions and
ef f iciency depend on dif f erent f act ors.

1 . The word " modif ying" in line 4 is closest in meaning t o


( A) changing ( B) t raveling ( C) describing ( D) dest roying

2 . The word " which" in line 5 ref ers t o


( A) clouds ( B) oceans ( C) cont inent s ( D) compounds

3 . According t o t he passage, clouds are primarily f ormed by wat er


( A) precipit at ing ont o t he ground ( B) changing f rom a solid t o a liquid st at e
( C) evaporat ing f rom t he oceans ( D) being carried by wind

4 . The passage suggest s t hat t he purpose of t he " hydrographic net work" ( line 9 ) is t o
( A) det ermine t he size of molecules of wat er
( B) prevent soil erosion caused by f looding
( C) move wat er f rom t he Eart h' s surf ace t o t he oceans
( D) regulat e t he rat e of wat er f low f rom st reams and rivers

90
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

5 . What det ermines t he rat e at which a molecule of wat er moves t hrough t he cycle, as discussed
in t he t hird paragraph?
( A) The pot ent ial energy cont ained in wat er
( B) The ef f ect s of at mospheric pressure on chemical compounds
( C) The amount s of rainf all t hat f all on t he cont inent s
( D) The relat ive size of t he wat er st orage areas

6 . The word " rapidit y" in line 1 9 is closest in meaning t o


( A) signif icance ( B) met hod ( C) swif t ness ( D) reliabilit y

7 . The word " t hey" in line 2 4 ref ers t o


( A) insoluble ions ( B) soluble ions ( C) soils ( D) cont inent s

8 . All of t he f ollowing are example of soluble ions EXCEPT


( A) magnesium ( B) iron ( C) pot assium ( D) calcium

9 . The word " ef f iciency" in line 2 8 is closest in meaning t o


( A) relat ionship ( B) growt h ( C) inf luence ( D) ef f ect iveness

Que st ions 1 0 - 1 9
Among t he species of seabirds t hat use t he windswept clif f s of t he At lant ic coast of
Canada in t he summer t o mat e, lay eggs, and rear t heir young are common murres,
At lant ic puf f ins, black-legged kit t iwakes, and nort hern gannet s. Of all t he birds on
Line t hese clif f s, t he black-legged kit t iwake gull is t he best suit ed f or nest ing on narrow
(5) ledges. Alt hough it s nest ing habit s are similar t o t hose of gulls t hat nest on f lat ground,
t here are a number of import ant dif f erences relat ed t o t he clif f -nest ing habit .

The advant age of nest ing on clif f s is t he immunit y it gives f rom f oxes, which
cannot scale t he sheer rocks, and f rom ravens and ot her species of gulls, which have
dif f icult y in landing on narrow ledges t o st eal eggs. This immunit y has been f ollowed
( 1 0 ) by a relaxat ion of t he def enses, and kit t iwakes do not react t o predat ors nearly as
f iercely as do ground-nest ing gulls. A colony of Bonapart e' s gulls responds t o t he
appearance of a predat ory herring gull by f lying up as a group wit h a clamor of alarm
calls, f ollowed by concert ed mobbing, but kit t iwakes dimply ignore herring gulls, since
t hey pose lit t le t hreat t o nest s on clif f s. Neit her do kit t iwakes at t empt t o conceal t heir
( 1 5 ) nest . Most gulls keep t he nest area clear of droppings, and remove empt y eggshells
af t er t he chicks have hat ched, so t hat t he locat ion of t he nest is not given away.
Kit t iwakes def eacat e over t he edge of t he nest , which keeps it clean, but t his pract ice, as
well as t heir t endency t o leave t he nest lit t ered wit h eggshells, makes it s locat ion very
conspicuous.

(20) On t he ot her hand, nest ing on a narrow ledge has it s own peculiar problems, and
kit t iwake behavior has become adapt ed t o overcome t hem. The f emale kit t iwake sit s
when mat ing, whereas ot her gulls st and, so t he pair will not overbalance and f all of f t he
ledge. The nest is a deep cup, made of mud or seaweed, t o hold t he eggs saf ely,
compared wit h t he shallow scrape of ot her gulls, and t he chicks are remarkably
( 2 5 ) immobile unt il f ully grown. They do not run f rom t heir nest s when approached, and if
t hey should come near t o t he clif f edge, t hey inst inct ively t urn back.

1 0 . What aspect of t he kit t iwake gull does t he passage mainly discuss?


( A) It s def ensive behavior

91
PRA CT ICE T EST 2 6 De ce m be r 1 9 9 8

( B) It int eract ions wit h ot her gull species


( C) It s nest ing habit s
( D) It s physical dif f erence f rom ot her gull species
1 1 . The word " rear" in line 2 is closest in meaning t o
( A) visit ( B) wat ch ( C) reverse ( D) raise

1 2 . The word " scale" in line 8 is closest in meaning t o


( A) climb ( B) avoid ( C) approach ( D) measure

1 3 . The word " immunit y" in line 9 is closest in meaning t o


( A) dist ance ( B) t ransit ion ( C) prot ect ion ( D) reminder

1 4 . Why is it dif f icult f or ravens t o st eal t he kit t iwakes' eggs?


( A) The kit t iwakes can see t he ravens approaching t he nest .
( B) The ravens cannot land on t he narrow ledges where kit t iwakes nest .
( C) The kit t iwakes' eggs are t oo big f or t he ravens t o carry.
( D) The f emale kit t iwakes rarely leave t he nest .

1 5 . The aut hor ment ions t hat eggshells lit t le t he nest s of kit t iwakes in order t o
( A) demonst rat e t hat kit t iwakes are not concerned about predat ors
( B) prove how busy kit t iwakes are in caring f or t heir of f spring
( C) show a similarit y t o ot her t ypes of gulls
( D) illust rat e kit t iwakes' lack of concern f or t heir chicks

1 6 . According t o t he passage, it can be inf erred t hat which of t he f ollowing birds conceal t heir
nest ?
( A) Bonapart e' s gulls ( B) At lant ic puf f ins
( C) Kit t iwake gulls ( D) Nort hern gannet s

1 7 . The word " it " in line 1 7 ref ers t o


( A) locat ion ( B) edge ( C) nest ( D) pract ice

1 8 . The word " conspicuous" in line 1 9 is closest in meaning t o


( A) disordered ( B) suspicious ( C) not iceable ( D) appealing

1 9 . The phrase " On t he ot her hand" in line 2 0 is closest in meaning t o


( A) t heref ore ( B) however ( C) f or example ( D) by no means

Que st ions 2 0 - 2 9
Throughout t he ninet eent h cent ury and int o t he t went iet h, cit izens of t he Unit ed
St at es maint ained a bias against big cit ies. Most lived on f arms and in small t owns and
believed cit ies t o be cent ers of corrupt ion, crime, povert y, and moral degradat ion. Their
Line dist rust was caused, in part , by a nat ional ideology t hat proclaimed f arming t he great est
(5) occupat ion and rural living superior t o urban living. This at t it ude prevailed even as t he
number of urban dwellers increased and cit ies became an essent ial f eat ure of t he
nat ional landscape. Gradually, economic realit y overcame ideology. Thousands
abandoned t he precarious lif e on t he f arm f or more secure and bet t er paying jobs in t he
cit y. But when t hese people migrat ed f rom t he count ryside, t hey carried t heir f ears and
( 1 0 ) suspicious wit h t hem. These new urbanit ies, already convinced t hat cit ies were
overwhelmed wit h great problems, eagerly embraced t he progressive ref orms t hat
promised t o bring order out of t he chaos of t he cit y.

One of many ref orms came in t he area of public ut ilit ies. Wat er and sewerage
syst ems were usually operat ed by municipal government s, but t he gas and elect ric

92
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

(15) net works were privat ely owned. Ref ormers f ared t hat t he privat ely owned ut ilit y
companies would charge exorbit ant rat es f or t hese essent ial services and deliver t hem
only t o people who could af f ord t hem. Some cit y and st at e government s responded by
regulat ing t he ut ilit y companies, but a number of cit ies began t o supply t hese services
t hemselves. Proponent s of t hese ref orms argued t hat public ownership and regulat ion
( 2 0 ) would insure widespread access t o t hese ut ilit ies and guarant ee a f air price.

While some ref orms f ocused on government and public behavior, ot hers looked at
t he cit ies as a whole. Civic leaders, convinced t hat physical environment inf luenced
human behavior, argued t hat cit ies should develop mast er plans t o guide t heir f ut ure
growt h and development . Cit y planning was not hing new, but t he rapid indust rializat ion
( 2 5 ) and urban growt h of t he lat e ninet eent h cent ury t ook place wit hout any considerat ion
f or order. Urban renewal in t he t went iet h cent ury f ollowed several courses. Some cit ies
int roduced plans t o complet ely rebuild t he cit y core. Most ot her cit ies cont ent ed
t hemselves wit h zoning plans f or regulat ing f ut ure growt h. Cert ain part s of t own were
rest rict ed t o resident ial use, while ot hers were set aside f or indust rial or commercial
( 3 0 ) development .

2 0 . What does t he passage mainly discuss?


( A) A comparison of urban and rural lif e in t he early t went iet h cent ury
( B) The role of government in t went iet h-cent ury urban renewal
( C) Ef f ort s t o improve urban lif e in t he early t went iet h cent ury
( D) Met hods of cont rolling urban growt h in t he t went iet h cent ury

2 1 . The word " bias" in line 2 is closest in meaning t o


( A) diagonal ( B) slope ( C) dist ort ion ( D) prejudice

2 2 . The f irst paragraph suggest s t hat most people who lived in rural areas
( A) were suspicious of t heir neighbors
( B) were very proud of t heir lif est yle
( C) believed cit y government had t oo much power
( D) want ed t o move t o t he cit ies

2 3 . In t he early t went iet h cent ury, many rural dwellers migrat ed t o t he cit y in order t o
( A) part icipat e in t he urban ref orm movement
( B) seek f inancial securit y
( C) comply wit h a government ordinance
( D) avoid crime and corrupt ion

2 4 . The word " embraced" in line 1 1 is closest in meaning t o


( A) suggest ed ( B) overest imat ed ( C) demanded ( D) welcomed

2 5 . What concern did ref ormers have about privat ely owned ut ilit y companies?
( A) They f eared t he services would not be made available t o all cit y dwellers.
( B) They believed privat e ownership would slow economic growt h
( C) They did not t rust t he companies t o obey t he government regulat ions.
( D) They want ed t o ensure t hat t he services would be provided t o rural areas.

2 6 . The word " exorbit ant " in line 1 6 is closest in meaning t o


( A) addit ional ( B) expensive ( C) various ( D) modif ied

2 7 . All of t he f ollowing were t he direct result of public ut ilit y ref orms EXCEPT
( A) local government s det ermined t he rat es charged by privat e ut ilit y companies
( B) some ut ilit y companies were owned and operat ed by local government s
( C) t he availabilit y of services was regulat ed by local government

93
PRA CT ICE T EST 2 6 De ce m be r 1 9 9 8

( D) privat e ut ilit y companies were required t o pay a f ee t o local government s

2 8 . The word " Proponent s" in line 1 9 is closest in meaning t o


( A) Expert s ( B) Pioneers ( C) Reviewers ( D) Support ers

2 9 . Why does t he aut hor ment ion " indust rializat ion" ( line 2 4 ) ?
( A) To explain how f ast urban growt h led t o poorly designed cit ies
( B) To emphasize t he economic import ance of urban areas
( C) To suggest t hat labor disput es had become an urban problem
( D) To illust rat e t he need f or const ruct ion of new f act ories

Que st ions 3 0 - 3 9
By 1 7 7 6 t he f ine art of paint ing as it had developed in west ern Europe up t o t his
t ime had been int roduced int o t he American colonies t hough books and print s,
European visit ors and immigrant s, and t raveling colonist s who brought back copies
Line ( and a f ew original) of old mast er paint ings and acquaint ance wit h European art
(5) inst it ut ions.

By t he out break of t he Revolut ion against Brit ish rule in 1 7 7 6 , t he st at us of t he


art ist s had already undergone change. In t he mid-eight eent h cent ury, paint ers had been
willing t o assume such art isan-relat ed t asks as varnishing, gilding t eaching, keeping
shops, and paint ing wheel carriages, houses, and signs. The t erminology by which
( 1 0 ) art ist s were described at t he t ime suggest s t heir st at us: " limner" was usually applied t o
t he anonymous port rait paint er up t o t he 1 7 6 0 ' s: " paint er" charact erized anyone who
could paint a f lat surf ace. By t he second half of t he cent ury, colonial art ist s who were
t rained in England or educat ed in t he classics reject ed t he st at us of laborer and t hought
of t hemselves as art ist s. Some colonial urban port rait ist s, such as John Singlet on Copley,
( 1 5 ) Benjamin West , and Charles Wilson Peale, consort ed wit h af f luent pat rons. Alt hough
subject t o f luct uat ions in t heir economic st at us, all t hree enjoyed suf f icient pat ronage t o
allow t hem t o maint ain an image of t hemselves as prof essional art ist s, an image
indicat ed by t heir cust om of signing t heir paint ings. A f ew art collect ors James
Bowdoin III of Bost on, William Byrd of Virginian, and t he Aliens and Hamilt ons of
( 2 0 ) Philadelphia int roduced European art t radit ions t o t hose colonist s privileged t o visit
t heir galleries, especially aspiring art ist s, and est ablished in t heir respect ive
communit ies t he idea of t he value of art and t he need f or inst it ut ions devot ed t o it s
encouragement .

Alt hough t he colonist s t ended t o f avor port rait s, t hey also accept ed landscapes,
(25) hist orical works, and polit ical engravings as appropriat e art ist ic subject s. Wit h t he
coming of independence f rom t he Brit ish Crown, a suf f icient number of art ist s and t heir
works were available t o serve nat ionalist ic purposes. The achievement s of t he colonial
art ist s, part icularly t hose of Copley, West , and Peale, lent credence t o t he boast t hat t he
new nat ion was capable of encouraging genius and t hat polit ical libert y was congenial
( 3 0 ) t o t he development of t ast e-a necessary st ep bef ore art could assume an import ant role
in t he new republic.

3 0 . What does t he passage mainly discuss?


( A) European inf luence on colonial American paint ing
( B) The import ance of pat ronage t o art ist

94
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

( C) The changing st at us of art ist s in t he American colonies in t he eight eent h cent ury
( D) Subject s pref erred by art ist s in t he American colonies in t he eight eent h cent ury.

3 1 . The word " out break" in line 6 is closest in meaning t o


( A) cause ( B) beginning ( C) posit ion ( D) explanat ion

3 2 . The word " undergone" in line 7 is closest in meaning t o


( A) led t o ( B) t ransf ormed ( C) pref erred ( D) experienced

3 3 . According t o t he passage, bef ore t he American Revolut ion t he main t ask of limners was t o
( A) paint wheel carriages ( B) paint port rait s
( C) varnish f urnit ure ( D) paint f lat surf aces

3 4 . It can be inf erred f rom t he passage t hat art ist s who were t rained in England
( A) considered art ist s t o be superior t o paint ers
( B) barely paint ed port rait ist s
( C) were of t en very wealt hy
( D) imit at ed English paint ers

3 5 . The word " consort ed" in line 1 5 is closest in meaning t o


( A) made decisions ( B) st udies ( C) agreed ( D) associat ed

3 6 . The word " suf f icient " in line 1 6 is closest in meaning t o


( A) adequat e ( B) t emporary ( C) f riendly ( D) expensive

3 7 . According t o t he passage, art ist s such as Copley, West and Peal signed t heir paint ings
because it
( A) increased t he monet ary value of t he paint ings
( B) made it more dif f icult f or ot her art ist s t o copy t he paint ings
( C) support ed t he art ist s' image of prof essionalism
( D) dist inguished colonial American art ist s f rom European art ist s

3 8 . The aut hor ment ions James Bowdoin III and William Byrd in line 1 9 as examples of which of t he
f ollowing?
( A) Art gallery owners who displayed only European art
( B) Art collect ors who had a prof ound inf luence on American at t it udes t oward art
( C) Art ist s who gave f inancial support t o ot her art ist s
( D) Pat rons whose helped t o encourage art isans t o become art ist s

3 9 . Wit h which of t he f ollowing would t he aut hor be most likely t o agree?


( A) Count ries t hat have not had a polit ical revolut ion are unlikely t o develop great art .
( B) The most successf ul art collect ors are usually art ist s t hemselves.
( C) The value of colonial American paint ings decreased af t er t he Revolut ion.
( D) Colonial art ist s made an import ant cont ribut ion t o t he evolving cult ure of t he new nat ion.

Que st ions 4 0 - 5 0
Railroads reshaped t he Nort h American environment and reorient ed Nort h
American behavior. " In a quart er of a cent ury" , claimed t he Omaha Daily Republican in
1 8 8 3 , " t hey have made t he people of t he Unit ed St at es homogeneous, breaking t hrough
Line t he peculiarit ies and provincialisms which marked separat e and unmingling sect ions."

(5) The railroad simult aneously st ripped t he landscape of t he nat ural resources, made
velocit y of t ransport and economy of scale necessary part s of indust rial product ion, and
carried consumer goods t o households; it dispat ched immigrant s t o unset t led places,

95
PRA CT ICE T EST 2 6 De ce m be r 1 9 9 8

drew emigrant s away f rom f arms and villages t o cit ies, and sent men and guns t o bat t le.
It st andardized t ime and t ravel, seeking t o annihilat e dist ance and space by allowing
( 1 0 ) movement at any t ime and in any season or t ype of weat her. In it s grand and impressive
t erminals and st at ions, archit ect s recreat ed hist oric Roman t emples and public bat hs,
French chat eaus and It alian bell t owers-edif ices t hat people used as st ages f or many of
everyday lif e' s high emot ions: meet ing and part ing, wait ing and worrying, planning
new st art s or coming home.

(15) Passenger t erminals, like t he luxury express t rains t hat hurled people over spot s,
spot light t he romance of railroading. ( The t went iet h-Cent ury Limit ed sped bet ween
Chicago and New York in t went y hours by 1 9 1 5 ) . Equally import ant t o everyday lif e
were t he slow f reight t rans chugging t hrough indust rial zones, t he morning and
evening commut er locals shut t ling back ions and urban t erminals, and t he incessant
( 2 0 ) comings and goings t hat occurred in t he classif icat ions, or swit ching, yards. Moreover,
in addit ion t o it s being a t ransport at ion pat hway equipped wit h a mammot h physical
plant of t racks signals, crossings, bridges, and junct ions, plus t elegraph and t elephone
lines t he railroad nurt ured f act ory complexes, coat piles, warehouses, and generat ing
st at ions, f orming along it s right -of -way what has apt ly been called " t he met ropolit an
( 2 5 ) corridor" of t he American landscape.

4 0 . What does t he passage mainly discuss?


( A) The inf luence of ancient archit ect ure on t he design of railroad t erminals
( B) The import ance of nat ural resources in t he development of railroads
( C) The railroad' s impact on daily lif e in t he Unit ed St at es in t he ninet eent h cent ury
( D) Technological improvement s in t he area of communicat ion in t he ninet eent h cent ury

4 1 . It can be inf erred f rom t he quot e f rom t he Omaha Daily Republican ( line 2 -5 ) t hat railroads
( A) made all sect ions of t he nat ion much wealt hier
( B) brought more unit y t o what had been a f ragment ed nat ion
( C) reduced dependence on nat ural resources
( D) had no ef f ect on t he environment of t he Unit ed St at es

4 2 . The word " it " in line 7 ref ers t o


( A) t ransport ( B) scale ( C) product ion ( D) railroad

4 3 . The word " drew" in line 8 is closest


( A) obliged ( B) designed ( C) helped ( D) at t ract ed

4 4 . The word " annihilat e" in line 9 is closest in meaning t o


( A) conquer ( B) ut ilize ( C) separat e ( D) mechanize

4 5 . The word " Moreover" in line 2 0 is closest in meaning t o


( A) consequent ly ( B) f urt hermore ( C) alt hough ( D) because

4 6 . All of t he f ollowing were t rue of impressive passenger t erminals EXCEPT:


( A) Their archit ect ure was inf luenced by t he archit ect ure of Europe.
( B) Luxury express t rains t raveled bet ween t hem.
( C) They were usually locat ed in small t owns.
( D) They were import ant t o many commut ers.

4 7 . According t o t he passage, which t ype of development lined t he area along t he met ropolit an
corridor?
( A) St ores and shopping areas ( B) Recreat ional areas
( C) Indust rial ( D) Agricult ural

96
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

4 8 . The word " apt ly" in line 2 4 is closest in meaning t o


( A) appropriat ely ( B) virt ually ( C) consist ent ly ( D) incessant ly

4 9 . The aut hor ment ions t he Twent iet h-Cent ury Limit ed as an example of
( A) a f reight t rain ( B) a commut er t rain
( C) a luxury t rain ( D) an underground t rain

5 0 . The aut hor gives a synonym f or which of t he f ollowing words?


( A) Homogeneous ( line 3 ) ( B) St andardized ( line 9 )
( C) Temples ( line 1 1 ) ( D) Classif icat ion ( line 2 0 )

97
PRACT ICE T EST 2 7
January 1 9 9 7
Que st ion 1 - 8
Bot h t he number and t he percent age of people in t he Unit ed St at es involved in
nonagricult ural pursuit s expanded rapidly during t he half cent ury f ollowing t he Civil War,
wit h some of t he most dramat ic increases occurring in t he domains of t ransport at ion,
Line manuf act uring, and t rade and dist ribut ion. The development of t he railroad and t elegraph
(5) syst ems during t he middle t hird of t he ninet eent h cent ury led t o signif icant improvement s
in t he speed, volume, and regularit y of shipment s and communicat ions, making possible
a f undament al t ransf ormat ion in t he product ion and dist ribut ion of goods.

In agricult ure, t he t ransf ormat ion was marked by t he emergence of t he grain


elevat ors,
t he cot t on presses, t he warehouses, and t he commodit y exchanges t hat seemed t o so many
( 1 0 ) of t he nat ion' s f armers t he visible sign of a vast conspiracy against t hem. In
manuf act uring, t he t ransf ormat ion was marked by t he emergence of a " new f act ory
syst em" in which plant s became larger, more complex, and more syst emat ically organized
and managed. And in dist ribut ion, t he t ransf ormat ion was marked by t he emergence of
t he jobber, t he wholesaler, and t he mass ret ailer. These changes radically alt ered t he
( 1 5 ) nat ure of work during t he half cent ury bet ween 1 8 7 0 and 1 9 2 0 .

To be sure, t here were st ill small workshops, where skilled craf t speople manuf act ured
product s ranging f rom newspapers t o cabinet s t o plumbing f ixt ures. There were t he
sweat shops in cit y t enement s, where groups of men and women in household set t ings
manuf act ured clot hing or cigars on a piecework basis. And t here were f act ories in
( 2 0 ) occupat ions such as met alwork where individual cont ract ors presided over what were
essent ially handicraf t propriet orships t hat coexist ed wit hin a single building. But as t he
number of wage earners in manuf act uring rose f rom 2 .7 million in 1 8 8 0 t o 4 .5 million
in 1 9 0 0 t o 8 .4 million in 1 9 2 0 , t he number of huge plant s like t he Baldwin Locomot ive
Works in Philadelphia burgeoned, as did t he size of t he average plant . ( The Baldwin
( 2 5 ) Works had 6 0 0 employees in 1 8 5 5 , 3 ,0 0 0 in 1 8 7 5 , and 8 ,0 0 0 in 1 9 0 0 .) By 1 9 2 0 , at
least in t he nort heast ern Unit ed St at es where most of t he nat ion' s manuf act uring wage
earners were concent rat ed, t hree-quart ers of t hose worked in f act ories wit h more t han
1 0 0 employees and 3 0 percent worked in f act ories wit h more t han 1 ,0 0 0 employees.

1 . The word " domains" in line 3 is closest in meaning t o


( A) f ields ( B) locat ions ( C) organizat ions ( D) occupat ions

2 . What can be inf erred f rom t he passage about t he agricult ural sect or of t he economy af t er t he
Civil War?
( A) New t echnological development s had lit t le ef f ect on f armers.
( B) The percent age of t he t ot al populat ion working in agricult ure declined.
( C) Many f arms dest royed in t he war were rebuilt af t er t he war.
( D) Farmers achieved new prosperit y because of bet t er rural t ransport at ion.

3 . The word " f undament al" in line 7 is closest in meaning t o


( A) possible ( B) basic ( C) gradual ( D) unique

4 . Which of t he f ollowing was NOT ment ioned as part of t he " new f act ory syst em?"
( A) A change in t he organizat ion of f act ories.
( B) A growt h in t he complexit y of f act ories.
( C) An increase in t he size of f act ories.

98
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

( D) An increase in t he cost of manuf act uring indust rial product s.

5 . Which of t he f ollowing st at ement s about manuf act uring bef ore 1 8 7 0 can be inf erred f rom t he
passage?
( A) Most manuf act uring act ivit y was highly organized.
( B) Most manuf act uring occurred in relat ively small plant s.
( C) The most commonly manuf act ured goods were cot t on presses.
( D) Manuf act uring and agricult ure each made up about half of t he nat ion' s economy.

6 . The word " skilled" in line 1 6 is closest in meaning t o


( A) hardworking ( B) expert ( C) well-paid ( D) indust rial

7 . The word " presided over" in line 2 0 are closest in meaning t o


( A) managed ( B) led t o ( C) worked in ( D) produced

8 . The aut hor ment ions t he Baldwin Locomot ive Works in lines 2 3 -2 4 because it was
( A) a well-known met al-works
( B) t he f irst plant of it s kind in Philadelphia
( C) t ypical of t he large f act ories t hat were becoming more common
( D) t ypical of f act ories t hat consist ed of a single building

Que st ion 9 - 1 9
St ars may be spheres, but not every celest ial object is spherical. Object s in t he
universe show a variet y of shapes: round planet s ( some wit h rings) , t ailed comet s,
wispy cosmic gas and dust clouds, ringed nebulae, pinwheel-shaped spiral galaxies,
Line and so on. But none of t he shapes on t his list describes t he largest single ent it ies in t he
(5) universe. These are t he double radio sources, galaxies wit h huge clouds of radio emission
t hat dwarf t he visible galaxies, somet imes by a f act or of a hundred or more. St ret ching
over dist ances great er t han a million light -years, t hese radio-emit t ing regions resemble
t win t urbulent gas clouds, t ypically f orming dumbbell-like shapes wit h t he visible
galaxy ( when it is visible) in t he cent er.

(10) These double radio sources present ast ronomers wit h a puzzle. Their radio emission
arises f rom t he synchrot ron process, in which elect rons accelerat ed t o nearly t he speed
of light move t hrough magnet ic f ields. However, in view of t he rat e at which t he radio
sources emit energy, t hey should disappear in a f ew million years as t heir elect rons slow
down and cease producing radiat ion. Somehow new elect rons must be cont inually
( 1 5 ) accelerat ed t o nearly t he speed of light , ot herwise, by now almost none of t he double
radio sources would be observed.

Wit h t he advent of high-resolut ion radio int erf eromet ers during t he lat e 1 9 7 0 ' s, part
of t he answer became clear: t he elect rons are produced in jet s t hat are shot out in
opposit e direct ions f rom t he cent er of galaxy. Remarkably narrow and highly direct ional,
( 2 0 ) t he jet s move out ward at speeds close t o t he speed of light . When t he jet s st rike t he
highly raref ied gas t hat permcales int ergalact ic space, t he f ast -moving elect rons lose
t heir highly direct ional mot ion and f orm vast clouds of radio-emit t ing gas.

Cosmic jet s have ranked among t he hot t est t opics of ast ronomical research in recent
years as ast ronomers st rive t o underst and where t hey come f rom. Why should a galaxy
( 2 5 ) eject mat t er at such t remendous speeds in t wo narrow jet s? And why are such jet s not
seen in t he Milky Way?

99
PRA CT ICE T EST 2 7 January 1 9 9 7

9 . The word " celest ial" in line 1 could best be replaced by


( A) visible ( B) ast ronomical ( C) glowing ( D) scient if ic

1 0 . The word " ent it ies" in line 4 is closest in meaning t o


( A) f act ors ( B) processes ( C) object s ( D) puzzles

1 1 . In t he f irst paragraph, t he aut hor describes object s in t he universe in t erms of t heir


( A) color ( B) origin ( C) locat ion ( D) shape

1 2 . ???

1 3 . According t o t he passage, scient ist s do not f ully underst and why double radio sources
( A) have not event ually disappeared ( B) cannot be observed wit h a t elescope
( C) are beginning t o slow down ( D) are not as big as some planet s and st ars

1 4 . The word " t heir" in line 2 2 ref ers t o


( A) speeds ( B) direct ions ( C) elect rons ( D) clouds

1 5 . According t o t he passage, what happens when elect rons and gas collide in space?
( A) The gas becomes more condensed ( B) The gas becomes less radiat ed
( C) The elect rons disperse ( D) The elect rons become negat ively charged

1 6 . The aut hor suggest s t hat ast ronomers consider t he st udy of cosmic jet s t o be
( A) an obsolet e scient if ic f ield ( B) an unprof it able vent ure
( C) an int riguing challenge ( D) a subject ive debat e

1 7 . In what lines does t he passage compare t he size of double radio sources wit h t hat of ot her
galaxies?
( A) Lines 4 -6 ( B) Lines 1 2 -1 4 ( C) Lines 1 9 -2 0 ( D) Lines 2 3 -2 4

1 8 . Where in t he passage does t he aut hor ment ion a t echnology t hat aided in t he underst anding
of double radio sources?
( A) Line 2 ( B) Line 7 ( C) Line 1 7 ( D) Line 2 1

1 9 . The paragraph f ollowing t he passage most likely discusses


( A) specif ic double radio sources
( B) an explanat ion of t he synchrot ron process
( C) possible reasons f or t he presence of cosmic jet s
( D) t he discovery of t he f irst double radio sources.

Que st ions 2 0 - 2 8
The sculpt ural legacy t hat t he new Unit ed St at es inherit ed f rom it s colonial
predecessors was f ar f rom a rich one, and in f act , in 1 7 7 6 sculpt ure as an art f orm was
st ill in t he hands of art isans and craf t speople. St one carvers engraved t heir mot if s of
Line skulls and crossbones and ot her religious icons of deat h int o t he gray slabs t hat we st ill
(5) see st anding t oday in old burial grounds. Some skilled craf t speople made int ricat ely
carved wooden ornament at ions f or f urnit ure or archit ect ural decorat ions, while ot hers
caved wooden shop signs and ships' f igureheads. Alt hough t hey of t en achieved
expression and f ormal excellence in t heir generally primit ive st yle, t hey remained
art isans skilled in t he craf t of carving and const it ut ed a group dist inct f rom what we
( 1 0 ) normally t hink of as " sculpt ors" in t oday' s use of t he word.

On t he rare occasion when a f ine piece of sculpt ure was desired, Americans t urned
t o f oreign sculpt ors, as in t he 1 7 7 0 ' s when t he cit ies of New York and Charlest on,
Sout h Carolina, commissioned t he Englishman Joseph Wilt on t o make marble st at ues

100
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

of William Pit t . Wilt on also made a lead equest rian image of King George III t hat was
(15) creat ed in New York in 1 7 7 0 and t orn down by zealous pat riot s six years lat er. A f ew
marble memorials wit h carved bust s, urns, or ot her decorat ions were produced in
England and brought t o t he colonies t o be set in t he walls of churches-as in King' s
Chapel in Bost on. But sculpt ure as a high art , pract iced by art ist s who knew bot h t he
art ist ic t heory of t heir Renaissance-Baroque-Rococo predecessors and t he various
( 2 0 ) t echnical procedures of modeling, cast ing, and carving rich t hree-dimensional f orms,
was not known among Americans in 1 7 7 6 . Indeed, f or many years t hereaf t er, t he
Unit ed St at es had t wo groups f rom which t o choose - eit her t he local craf t speople or
t he import ed t alent of European sculpt ors.

The eight eent h cent ury was not one in which powered sculpt ural concept ions were
( 2 5 ) developed. Add t o t his t he t imidit y wit h which unschooled art isans - originally t rained as
st onemasons, carpent ers, or cabinet makers - at t acked t he medium f rom which t hey
sculpt ure made in t he Unit ed St at es in t he lat e eight eent h cent ury.

2 0 . What is t he main idea of t he passage?


( A) There was great demand f or t he work of eight eent h-cent ury art isans.
( B) Skilled sculpt ors did not exist in t he Unit ed St at es in t he 1 7 7 0 ' s.
( C) Many f oreign sculpt ors worked in t he Unit ed St at es af t er 1 7 7 6 .
( D) American sculpt ors were hampered by a lack of t ools and mat erials.

2 1 . The word " mot if s" in line 3 is closest in meaning t o


( A) t ools ( B) print s ( C) signat ures ( D) designs

2 2 . The work of which of t he f ollowing could be seen in burial grounds?


( A) European sculpt ors ( B) Carpent ers
( C) St one carves ( D) Cabinet makers

2 3 . The word " ot her" in line 6 ref ers t o


( A) craf t speople ( B) decorat ions ( C) ornament at ions ( D) shop signs

2 4 . The word " dist inct " in line 9 is closest in meaning t o


( A) separat e ( B) assembled ( C) not able ( D) inf erior

2 5 . The word " rare" in line 1 1 is closest in meaning t o


( A) f est ive ( B) inf requent ( C) delight f ul ( D) unexpect ed

2 6 . Why does t he aut hor ment ion Joseph Wilt on in line 1 3 ?


( A) He was an English sculpt or who did work in t he Unit ed St at es.
( B) He was well known f or his wood carvings
( C) He produced sculpt ure f or churches.
( D) He set t led in t he Unit ed St at es in 1 7 7 6 .

2 7 . What can be inf erred about t he import at ion of marble memorials f rom England?
( A) Such sculpt ure was less expensive t o produce locally t han t o import
( B) Such sculpt ure was not available in t he Unit ed St at es.
( C) Such sculpt ure was as prest igious as t hose made locally.
( D) The mat erials f ound abroad were superior.

2 8 . How did t he work of American carvers in 1 7 7 6 dif f er f rom t hat of cont emporary sculpt ors?
( A) It was less t ime-consuming. ( B) It was more dangerous.
( C) It was more expensive. ( D) It was less ref ined.

101
PRA CT ICE T EST 2 7 January 1 9 9 7

Que st ion 2 9 - 3 9
Large animals t hat inhabit t he desert have evolved a number of adapt at ions f or
reducing t he ef f ect s of ext reme heat . One adapt at ion is t o be light in color, and t o
ref lect rat her t han absorb t he Sun' s rays. Desert mammals also depart f rom t he normal
Line mammalian pract ice of maint aining a const ant body t emperat ure. Inst ead of t rying t o
(5) keep down t he body t emperat ure deep inside t he body, which would involve t he
expendit ure of wat er and energy, desert mammals allow t heir t emperat ures t o rise t o
what would normally be f ever height , and t emperat ures as high as 4 6 degrees Celsius
have been measured in Grant ' s gazelles. The overheat ed body t hen cools down during
t he cold desert night , and indeed t he t emperat ure may f all unusually low by dawn, as
( 1 0 ) low as 3 4 degrees Celsius in t he camel. This is an advant age since t he heat of t he f irst
f ew hours of daylight is absorbed in warming up t he body, and an excessive buildup of
heat does not begin unt il well int o t he day.

Anot her st rat egy of large desert animals is t o t olerat e t he loss of body wat er t o a
point t hat would be f at al f or non-adapt ed animals. The camel can lose up t o 3 0 percent
( 1 5 ) of it s body weight as wat er wit hout harm t o it self , whereas human beings die af t er
losing only 1 2 t o 1 3 percent of t heir body weight . An equally import ant adapt at ion is
t he abilit y t o replenish t his wat er loss at one drink. Desert animals can drink prodigious
volumes in a short t ime, and camels have been known t o imbibe over 1 0 0 lit ers in a
f ew minut es. A very dehydrat ed person, on t he ot her hand, cannot drink enough wat er
( 2 0 ) t o rehydrat e at one session, because t he human st omach is not suf f icient ly big and
because a t oo rapid dilut ion of t he body f luids causes deat h f rom wat er int oxicat ion.
The t olerance of wat er loss is of obvious advant age in t he desert , as animals do not
have t o remain near a wat er hole but can obt ain f ood f rom grazing sparse and f ar-f lung
past ures. Desert -adapt ed mammals have t he f urt her abilit y t o f eed normally when
( 2 5 ) ext remely dehydrat ed, it is a common experience in people t hat appet it e is lost even under
condit ions of moderat e t hirst .

2 9 . What is t he main t opic of t he passage?


( A) Weat her variat ions in t he desert ( B) Adapt at ions of desert animals
( C) Diseased of desert animals ( D) Human use of desert animals.

3 0 . According t o t he passage, why is light coloring an advant age t o large desert animals?
( A) It helps t hem hide f rom predat ors.
( B) It does not absorb sunlight as much as dark colors.
( C) It helps t hem see t heir young at night
( D) It keeps t hem cool at night .

3 1 . The word " maint aining" in line 4 is closest in meaning t o


( A) measuring ( B) inherit ing ( C) preserving ( D) delaying

3 2 . The aut hor uses of Grant ' s gazelle as an example of


( A) an animal wit h a low average t emperat ure

102
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

( B) an animal t hat is not as well adapt ed as t he camel


( C) a desert animal t hat can wit hst and high body t emperat ures
( D) a desert animal wit h a const ant body t emperat ure

3 3 . When is t he int ernal t emperat ure of a large desert mammal lower?


( A) Just bef ore sunrise ( B) In t he middle of t he day
( C) Just af t er sunset ( D) Just af t er drinking

3 4 . The word " t olerat e" in line 1 3 is closest in meaning t o


( A) endure ( B) replace ( C) compensat e ( D) reduce

3 5 . What causes wat er int oxicat ion?


( A) Drinking t oo much wat er very quickly ( B) Drinking pollut ed wat er
( C) Bact eria in wat er ( D) Lack of wat er.

3 6 . What does t he aut hor imply about desert -adapt ed mammals?


( A) They do not need t o eat much f ood. ( B) They can eat large quant it ies quickly
( C) They easily lose t heir appet it es. ( D) They can t ravel long dist ances looking f or
f ood.

3 7 . Why does t he aut hor ment ion humans in t he second paragraph?


( A) To show how t hey use camels. ( B) To cont rast t hem t o desert mammals.
( C) To give inst ruct ions about desert survival. ( D) To show how t hey have adapt ed t o desert
lif e.

3 8 . The word " obt ain" in line 2 3 is closest in meaning t o


( A) digest ( B) carry ( C) save ( D) get

3 9 . Which of t he f ollowing is NOT ment ioned as an adapt at ion of large desert animals?
( A) Variat ion in body t emperat ures ( B) Eat ing while dehydrat ed
( C) Drinking wat er quickly ( D) Being act ive at night .

Que st ions 4 0 - 5 0
Rent cont rol is t he syst em whereby t he local government t ells building owners how
much t hey can charge t heir t enant s in rent . In t he Unit ed St at es, rent cont rols dat e back
t o at least World War II.

Line In 1 9 4 3 t he f ederal government imposed rent cont rols t o help solve t he problem of
(5) housing short ages during wart ime. The f ederal program ended af t er t he war, but in
some locat ions, including New York Cit y, cont rols cont inued. Under New York' s
cont rols, a landlord generally cannot raise rent s on apart ment s as long as t he t enant s
cont inue t o renew t heir leases. In places such as Sant a Monica, Calif ornia, rent cont rols
are more recent . They were spurred by t he inf lat ion of t he 1 9 7 0 ' s, which, combined
( 1 0 ) wit h Calif ornia' s rapid populat ion growt h, pushed housing prices, as well as rent s, t o
record levels. In 1 9 7 9 Sant a Monica' s municipal government ordered landlords t o roll
back t heir rent s t o t he levels charged in 1 9 7 8 . Fut ure rent s could only go up by t wo-t hirds
as much as any increase in t he overall price level.

In any housing market , rent al prices perf orm t hree f unct ions: ( 1 ) promot ing t he
(15) ef f icient maint enance of exist ing housing and st imulat ing t he const ruct ion of new
housing, ( 2 ) allocat ing exist ing scarce housing among compet ing claimant s, and ( 3 )
rat ioning use of exist ing housing by pot ent ial rent ers.

One result of rent cont rol is a decrease in t he const ruct ion of new rent al unit s. Rent

103
PRA CT ICE T EST 2 7 January 1 9 9 7

cont rols have art if icially depressed t he most import ant long-t erm det erminant of
(20) prof it abilit y - rent s. Consider some examples. In a recent year in Dallas, Texas, wit h a
1 6 percent rent al vacancy rat e but no rent cont rol laws, 1 1 ,0 0 0 new housing unit s were
built . In t he same year, in San Francisco, Calif ornia, only 2 ,0 0 0 unit s were built . The
major dif f erence? San Francisco has only a 1 .6 percent vacancy rat e but st ringent rent
cont rol laws. In New York Cit y, except f or government -subsidized const ruct ion, t he only
( 2 5 ) rent al unit s being built are luxury unit s, which are exempt f rom cont rols. In Sant a
Monica, Calif ornia, new apart ment s are not being const ruct ed. New of f ice rent al spare
and commercial development s are, however. They are exempt f rom rent cont rols.

4 0 . What does t he passage mainly discuss?


( A) The const ruct ion of apart ment s in t he Unit ed St at es.
( B) Causes and ef f ect s of rent cont rol
( C) The f luct uat ions of rent al prices
( D) The short age of af f ordable housing in t he Unit ed St at es.

4 1 . The word " They" in line 9 ref ers t o


( A) t he t enant s ( B) t heir leases ( C) places ( D) rent cont rols.

4 2 . Which of t he f ollowing was NOT a reason f or t he int roduct ion of rent cont rols in Sant a Monica,
Calif ornia?
( A) Rapid populat ion growt h ( B) Inf lat ion
( C) Economic condit ions during wart ime ( D) Record-high housing prices

4 3 . The phrase " roll back" in lines 1 1 -1 2 is closest in meaning t o


( A) credit ( B) measure ( C) vary ( D) reduce

4 4 . The word " st imulat ing" in line 1 5 is closest in meaning t o


( A) experiment ing wit h ( B) ident if ying
( C) est imat ing ( D) encouraging

4 5 . It can be inf erred t hat t he purpose of rent cont rol is t o


( A) prot ect t enant s ( B) promot e const ruct ion
( C) increase vacancy rat es ( D) decrease sales of rent al unit s

4 6 . The word " depressed" in line 1 9 is closest in meaning t o


( A) saddened ( B) creat ed ( C) lowered ( D) def eat ed

4 7 . The inf ormat ion in t he last paragraph support s which of t he f ollowing st at ement s?
( A) San Francisco has eliminat ed it s rent cont rol laws.
( B) Rent cont rol leads t o a reduct ion in t he const ruct ion of housing unit s
( C) Luxury apart ment s are rarely built when t here is rent cont rol
( D) There is a growing need f or government -subsidized housing.

4 8 . According t o t he passage, which of t he f ollowing cit ies does NOT current ly have rent
cont rols?
( A) Sant a Monica ( B) Dallas ( C) San Francisco ( D) New York Cit y

4 9 . The word " st ringent " in line 2 3 is closest in meaning t o


( A) st raight f orward ( B) st rict ( C) expanded ( D) ef f icient

5 0 . According t o t he passage, which of t he f ollowing is NOT exempt f rom rent cont rol?

104
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

( A) Luxury apart ment s ( B) Commercial development


( C) Moderat ely priced apart ment s ( D) Of f ice space

105
PRACT ICE T EST 2 8
May 1 9 9 7
Que st ion 1 - 8
Wit h Robert Laurent and William Zorach, direct carving ent ers int o t he st ory of
modern sculpt ure in t he Unit ed St at es. Direct carving - in which t he sculpt ors
t hemselves carve st one or wood wit h mallet and chisel - must be recognized as
Line somet hing more t han just a t echnique. Implicit in it is an aest het ic principle as well
(5) t hat t he medium has cert ain qualit ies of beaut y and expressiveness wit h which
sculpt ors must bring t heir own aest het ic sensibilit ies int o harmony. For example,
somet imes t he shape or veining in a piece of st one or wood suggest s, perhaps even
dict at es, not only t he ult imat e f orm, but even t he subject mat t er.

The t echnique of direct carving was a break wit h t he ninet eent h-cent ury t radit ion in
(10) which t he making of a clay model was considered t he creat ive act and t he work was
t hen t urned over t o st udio assist ant s t o be cast in plast er or bronze or carved in marble.
Neoclassical sculpt ors seldom held a mallet or chisel in t heir own hands, readily
conceding t hat t he assist ant s t hey employed were f ar bet t er t han t hey were at carving
t he f inished marble.

(15) Wit h t he t urn-of -t he-cent ury Craf t s movement and t he discovery of nont radit ional
sources of inspirat ion, such as wooden Af rican f igures and masks, t here arose a new
urge f or hands-on, personal execut ion of art and an int eract ion wit h t he medium. Even
as early as t he 1 8 8 0 ' s and 1 8 9 0 ' s, nonconf ormist European art ist s were at t empt ing
direct carving. By t he second decade of t he t went iet h cent ury, Americans - Laurent
( 2 0 ) and Zorach most not ably - had adopt ed it as t heir primary means of working.

Born in France, Robert Laurent ( 1 8 9 0 -1 9 7 0 ) was a prodigy who received his


educat ion in t he Unit ed St at es. In 1 9 0 5 he was sent t o Paris as an apprent ice t o an art
dealer, and in t he years t hat f ollowed he wit nessed t he birt h of Cubism, discovered
primit ive art , and learned t he t echniques of woodcarving f rom a f rame maker.

(25) Back in New York Cit y by 1 9 1 0 , Laurent began carving pieces such as The
Priest ess, which reveals his f ascinat ion wit h Af rican, pre-Columbian, and Sout h
Pacif ic art . Taking a walnut plank, t he sculpt or carved t he expressive, st ylized design.
It is one of t he earliest examples of direct carving in American sculpt ure. The plank' s
f orm dict at ed t he rigidly f ront al view and t he low relief . Even it s irregular shape must
( 3 0 ) have appealed t o Laurent as a break wit h a long-st anding t radit ion t hat required a
sculpt or t o work wit hin a perf ect rect angle or square.

1 . The word " medium" in line 5 could be used t o ref er t o


( A) st one or wood ( B) mallet and chisel
( C) t echnique ( D) principle

2 . What is one of t he f undament al principles of direct carving?


( A) A sculpt or must work wit h t alent ed assist ant s.
( B) The subject of a sculpt ure should be derived f rom classical st ories.
( C) The mat erial is an import ant element in a sculpt ure.
( D) Designing a sculpt ure is a more creat ive act ivit y t han carving it .

3 . The word " dict at es" in line 8 is closest in meaning t o


( A) reads aloud ( B) det ermines ( C) includes ( D) records

106
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

4 . How does direct carving dif f er f rom t he ninet eent h-cent ury t radit ion of sculpt ure?
( A) Sculpt ors are personally involved in t he carving of a piece.
( B) Sculpt ors f ind t heir inspirat ion in neoclassical sources.
( C) Sculpt ors have replaced t he mallet and chisel wit h ot her t ools.
( D) Sculpt ors receive more f ormal t raining.

5 . The word " wit nessed" in line 2 3 is closest in meaning t o


( A) inf luenced ( B) st udied ( C) validat ed ( D) observed

6 . Where did Robert Laurent learn t o carve?


( A) New York ( B) Af rica
( C) The Sout h Pacif ic ( D) Paris.

7 . The phrase " a break wit h" in line 3 0 is closest in meaning t o


( A) a dest ruct ion of ( B) a depart ure f rom
( C) a collapse of ( D) a solut ion t o

8 . The piece t it led The Priest ess has all of t he f ollowing charact erist ics EXCEPT:
( A) The design is st ylized. ( B) It is made of marble.
( C) The carving is not deep. ( D) It depict s t he f ront of a person.

Que st ions 9 - 1 9
Birds t hat f eed in f locks commonly ret ire t oget her int o roost s. The reasons f or
roost ing
communally are not always obvious, but t here are some likely benef it s. In wint er
especially, it is import ant f or birds t o keep warm at night and conserve precious f ood
Line reserves. One way t o do t his is t o f ind a shelt ered roost . Solit ary roost ers shelt er in
(5) dense veget at ion or ent er a cavit y - horned larks dig holes in t he ground and
pt armigan burrow int o snow banks - but t he ef f ect of shelt ering is magnif ied by
several birds huddling t oget her in t he roost s, as wrens, swif t s, brown creepers,
bluebirds, and anis do. Body cont act reduces t he surf ace area exposed t o t he cold air,
so t he birds keep each ot her warm. Two kinglet s huddling t oget her were f ound t o
( 1 0 ) reduce t heir heat losses by a quart er and t hree t oget her saved a t hird of t heir heat .

The second possible benef it of communal roost s is t hat t hey act as " inf ormat ion
cent ers." During t he day, part ies of birds will have spread out t o f orage over a very
large area. When t hey ret urn in t he evening some will have f ed well, but ot hers may
have f ound lit t le t o eat . Some invest igat ors have observed t hat when t he birds set out
( 1 5 ) again next morning, t hose birds t hat did not f eed well on t he previous day appear t o
f ollow t hose t hat did. The behavior of common and lesser kest rels may illust rat e
dif f erent f eeding behaviors of similar birds wit h dif f erent roost ing habit s. The common
kest rel hunt s vert ebrat e animals in a small, f amiliar hunt ing ground, whereas t he very
similar lesser kest rel f eeds on insect s over a large area. The common kest rel roost s and
( 2 0 ) hunt s alone, but t he lesser kest rel roost s and hunt s in f locks, possibly so one bird can
learn f rom ot hers where t o f ind insect swarms.

Finally, t here is saf et y in numbers at communal roost s since t here will always be
a f ew birds awake at any given moment t o give t he alarm. But t his increased prot ect ion is
part ially count eract ed by t he f act t hat mass roost s at t ract predat ors and are especially
( 2 5 ) vulnerable if t hey are on t he ground. Even t hose in t rees can be at t acked by birds of
prey. The birds on t he edge are at great est risk since predat ors f ind it easier t o cat ch
small birds perching at t he margins of t he roost .

107
PRA CT ICE T EST 2 8 May 1 9 9 7

9 . What does t he passage mainly discuss?


( A) How birds f ind and st ore f ood. ( B) How birds maint ain body heat in t he
wint er.
( C) Why birds need t o est ablish t errit ory. ( D) Why some species of birds nest t oget her.

1 0 . The word " conserve" in line 3 is closest in meaning t o


( A) ret ain ( B) wat ch ( C) locat e ( D) share

1 1 . Pt armigan keep warm in t he wint er by


( A) huddling t oget her on t he ground wit h ot her birds.
( B) Building nest s in t rees.
( C) Burrowing int o dense pat ches of veget at ion
( D) Digging t unnels int o t he snow.

1 2 . The word " magnif ied" in line 6 is closest in meaning t o


( A) caused ( B) modif ied ( C) int ensif ied ( D) combined

1 3 . The aut hor ment ions kinglet s in line 9 as an example of birds t hat
( A) prot ect t hemselves by nest ing in holes. ( B) Nest wit h ot her species of birds
( C) Nest t oget her f or warmt h ( D) Usually f eed and nest in pairs.

1 4 . The word " f orage" in line 1 2 is closest in meaning t o


( A) f ly ( B) assemble ( C) f eed ( D) rest

1 5 . Which of t he f ollowing st at ement s about lesser and common kest rels is t rue?
( A) The lesser kest rel and t he common kest rel have similar diet s.
( B) The lesser kest rel f eeds sociably but t he common kest rel does not .
( C) The common kest rel nest s in larger f locks t han does t he lesser kest rel.
( D) The common kest rel nest s in t rees, t he lesser kest rel nest s on t he ground.

1 6 . The word " count eract ed" in line 2 4 is closest in meaning t o


( A) suggest ed ( B) negat ed ( C) measured ( D) shielded

1 7 . Which of t he f ollowing is NOT ment ioned in t he passage as an advant age derived by birds t hat
huddle t oget her while sleeping?
( A) Some members of t he f lock warm ot hers of impending dangers.
( B) St aying t oget her provides a great er amount of heat f or t he whole f lock.
( C) Some birds in t he f lock f unct ion as inf ormat ion cent ers f or ot hers who are looking f or
f ood.
( D) Several members of t he f lock care f or t he young.

1 8 . Which of t he f ollowing is a disadvant age of communal roost s t hat is ment ioned in t he


passage?
( A) Diseases easily spread among t he birds.
( B) Groups are more at t ract ive t o predat ors t han individual birds.
( C) Food supplies are quickly deplet ed
( D) Some birds in t he group will at t ack t he ot hers.

1 9 . The word " t hey" in line 2 5 ref ers t o


( A) a f ew birds ( B) mass roost s ( C) predat ors ( D) t rees

108
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

Que st ion 2 0 - 3 0
Bef ore t he mid-ninet eent h cent ury, people in t he Unit ed St at es at e most f oods only
in season. Drying, smoking, and salt ing could preserve meat f or a short t ime, but t he
availabilit y of f resh meat , like t hat of f resh milk, was very limit ed; t here was no way t o
Line prevent spoilage. But in 1 8 1 0 a French invent or named Nicolas Appert developed t he
(5) cooking-and-sealing process of canning. And in t he 1 8 5 0 ' s an American named Gail
Borden developed a means of condensing and preserving milk. Canned goods and
condensed milk became more common during t he 1 8 6 0 ' s, but supplies remained low
because cans had t o be made by hand. By 1 8 8 0 , however, invent ors had f ashioned
st amping and soldering machines t hat mass-produced cans f rom t inplat e. Suddenly all
( 1 0 ) kinds of f ood could be preserved and bought at all t imes of t he year.

Ot her t rends and invent ions had also helped make it possible f or Americans t o vary
t heir daily diet s. Growing urban populat ions creat ed demand t hat encouraged f ruit and
veget able f armers t o raise more produce. Railroad ref rigerat or cars enabled growers
and meat packers t o ship perishables great dist ances and t o preserve t hem f or longer
( 1 5 ) periods. Thus, by t he 1 8 9 0 ' s, nort hern cit y dwellers could enjoy sout hern and west ern
st rawberries, grapes, and t omat oes, previously available f or a mont h at most , f or up t o
six mont hs of t he year. In addit ion, increased use of iceboxes enabled f amilies t o st ore
perishables. An easy means of producing ice commercially had been invent ed in t he
1 8 7 0 ' s, and by 1 9 0 0 t he nat ion had more t han t wo t housand commercial ice plant s,
( 2 0 ) most of which made home deliveries. The icebox became a f ixt ure in most homes and
remained so unt il t he mechanized ref rigerat or replaced it in t he 1 9 2 0 ' s and 1 9 3 0 ' s.

Almost everyone now had a more diversif ied diet . Some people cont inued t o eat
mainly f oods t hat were heavy in st arches or carbohydrat es, and not everyone could
af f ord meat . Nevert heless, many f amilies could t ake advant age of previously
( 2 5 ) unavailable f ruit s, veget ables, and dairy product s t o achieve more varied f are.

2 0 . What does t he passage mainly discuss?


( A) Causes of f ood spoilage.
( B) Commercial product ion of ice
( C) Invent ions t hat led t o changes in t he American diet .
( D) Populat ion movement s in t he ninet eent h cent ury.

2 1 . The phrase " in season" in line 2 ref ers t o


( A) a kind of weat her ( B) a part icular t ime of year
( C) an of f icial schedule ( D) a met hod of f lavoring f ood.

2 2 . The word " prevent " in line 4 is closest in meaning t o


( A) est imat e ( B) avoid ( C) correct ( D) conf ine

2 3 . During t he 1 8 6 0 ' s, canned f ood product s were


( A) unavailable in rural areas ( B) shipped in ref rigerat or cars
( C) available in limit ed quant it ies. ( D) A st aple part of t he American diet .

2 4 . It can be inf erred t hat railroad ref rigerat or cars came int o use

109
PRA CT ICE T EST 2 8 May 1 9 9 7

( A) bef ore 1 8 6 0 ( B) bef ore 1 8 9 0 ( C) af t er 1 9 0 0 ( D) af t er 1 9 2 0

2 5 . The word " t hem" in line 1 4 ref ers t o


( A) ref rigerat or cars ( B) perishables ( C) growers ( D) dist ances

2 6 . The word " f ixt ure" in line 2 0 is closest in meaning t o


( A) luxury it em ( B) subst ance
( C) commonplace object ( D) mechanical device

2 7 . The aut hor implies t hat in t he 1 9 2 0 ' s and 1 9 3 0 ' s home deliveries of ice
( A) decreased in number ( B) were on an
irregular schedule
( C) increased in cost ( D) occurred only in t he summer.

2 8 . The word " Nevert heless" in line 2 4 is closest in meaning t o


( A) t heref ore ( B) because ( C) occasionally ( D) however

2 9 . Which of t he f ollowing t ypes of f ood preservat ion was NOT ment ioned in t he passage?
( A) Drying ( B) Canning ( C) Cold st orage ( D) Chemical addit ives.

3 0 . Which of t he f ollowing st at ement s is support ed by t he passage?


( A) Tin cans and iceboxes helped t o make many f oods more widely available.
( B) Commercial ice f act ories were developed by railroad owners
( C) Most f armers in t he Unit ed St at es raised only f ruit s and veget ables.
( D) People who lived in cit ies demanded home delivery of f oods.

Que st ion 3 1 - 3 8
The abilit y of f alling cat s t o right t hemselves in midair and land on t heir f eet has
been a source of wonder f or ages. Biologist s long regarded it as an example of
adapt at ion by nat ural select ion, but f or physicist s it bordered on t he miraculous
Line Newt on' s laws of mot ion assume t hat t he t ot al amount of spin of a body cannot change
(5) unless an ext ernal t orque speeds it up or slows it down. If a cat has no spin when it is
released and experiences no ext ernal t orque, it ought not t o be able t o t wist around as it
f alls.

In t he speed of it s execut ion, t he right ing of a t umbling cat resembles a magician' s


t rick. The gyrat ions of t he cat in midair are t oo f ast f or t he human eye t o f ollow, so t he
( 1 0 ) process is obscured. Eit her t he eye must be speeded up, or t he cat ' s f all slowed down
f or t he phenomenon t o be observed. A cent ury ago t he f ormer was accomplished by
means of high-speed phot ography using equipment now available in any pharmacy.
But in t he ninet eent h cent ury t he capt ure on f ilm of a f alling cat const it ut ed a scient if ic
experiment .

(15) The experiment was described in a paper present ed t o t he Paris Academy in 1 8 9 4 .


Two sequences of t went y phot ographs each, one f rom t he side and one f rom behind,
show a whit e cat in t he act of right ing it self . Grainy and quaint t hough t hey are, t he
phot os show t hat t he cat was dropped upside down, wit h no init ial spin, and st ill landed
on it s f eet . Caref ul analysis of t he phot os reveals t he secret : As t he cat rot at es as t he f ront
( 2 0 ) of it s body clockwise, t he rear and t ail t wist count erclockwise, so t hat t he t ot al spin
remains zero, in perf ect accord wit h Newt on' s laws. Half way down, t he cat pulls in it s
legs bef ore reversing it s t wist and t hen ext ends t hem again, wit h t he desired end result .
The explanat ion was t hat while no body can acquire spin wit hout t orque, a f lexible one
can readily change it s orient at ion, or phase. Cat s know t his inst inct ively, but scient ist s
( 2 5 ) could not be sure how it happened unt il t hey increased t he speed of t heir percept ions a

110
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

t housandf old.

3 1 . What does t he passage mainly discuss?


( A) The explanat ion of an int erest ing phenomenon
( B) Miracles in modern science
( C) Procedures in scient if ic invest igat ion
( D) The dif f erences bet ween biology and physics.

3 2 . The word " process" in line 1 0 ref ers t o


( A) t he right ing of a t umbling cat ( B) t he cat ' s f all slowed down
( C) high-speed phot ography ( D) a scient if ic experiment

3 3 . Why are t he phot ographs ment ioned in line 1 6 ref erred t o as an " experiment " ?
( A) The phot ographs were not very clear.
( B) The purpose of t he phot ographs was t o explain t he process.
( C) The phot ographer used inf erior equipment
( D) The phot ographer t hought t he cat might be injured.

3 4 . Which of t he f ollowing can be inf erred about high-speed phot ography in t he lat e 1 8 0 0 ' s?
( A) It was a relat ively new t echnology.
( B) The necessary equipment was easy t o obt ain.
( C) The result ing phot ographs are dif f icult t o int erpret .
( D) It was not f ast enough t o provide new inf ormat ion.

3 5 . The word " rot at es" in line 1 9 is closest in meaning t o


( A) drops ( B) t urns ( C) cont rols ( D) t ouches

3 6 . According t o t he passage, a cat is able t o right it self in midair because it is


( A) f right ened ( B) small ( C) int elligent ( D) f lexible

3 7 . The word " readily" in line 2 4 is closest in meaning t o


( A) only ( B) easily ( C) slowly ( D) cert ainly

3 8 . How did scient ist s increase " t he speed of t heir percept ions a t housandf old" ( lines 2 5 -2 6 ) ?
( A) By analyzing phot ographs ( B) By observing a whit e cat in a dark room
( C) By dropping a cat f rom a great er height . ( D) By st udying Newt on' s laws of mot ion.

Que st ion 3 9 - 5 0
The changing prof ile of a cit y in t he Unit ed St at es is apparent in t he shif t ing
def init ions used by t he Unit ed St at es Bureau of t he Census. In 1 8 7 0 t he census
of f icially dist inguished t he nat ion' s " urban" f rom it s " rural" populat ion f or t he f irst
Line t ime. " Urban populat ion" was def ined as persons living in t owns of 8 ,0 0 0 inhabit ant s
(5) or more. But af t er 1 9 0 0 it meant persons living in incorporat ed places having 2 ,5 0 0 or
more inhabit ant s.

Then, in 1 9 5 0 t he Census Bureau radically changed it s def init ion of " urban" t o t ake
account of t he new vagueness of cit y boundaries. In addit ion t o persons living in
incorporat ed unit s of 2 ,5 0 0 or more, t he census now included t hose who lived in
( 1 0 ) unincorporat ed unit s of t hat size, and also all persons living in t he densely set t led urban
f ringe, including bot h incorporat ed and unincorporat ed areas locat ed around cit ies of
5 0 ,0 0 0 inhabit ant s or more. Each such unit , conceived as an int egrat ed economic and
social unit wit h a large populat ion nucleus, was named a St andard Met ropolit an

111
PRA CT ICE T EST 2 8 May 1 9 9 7

St at ist ical Area ( SMSA) .

(15) Each SMSA would cont ain at least ( a) one cent ral cit y wit h 5 0 ,0 0 0 inhabit ant s
or
more or ( b) t wo cit ies having shared boundaries and const it ut ing, f or general economic
and social purposes, a single communit y wit h a combined populat ion of at least 5 0 ,0 0 0 ,
t he smaller of which must have a populat ion of at least 1 5 ,0 0 0 . Such an area included
t he count y in which t he cent ral cit y is locat ed, and adjacent count ies t hat are f ound t o
( 2 0 ) be met ropolit an in charact er and economically and socially int egrat ed wit h t he count ry
of t he cent ral cit y. By 1 9 7 0 , about t wo-t hirds of t he populat ion of t he Unit ed St at es was
living in t hese urbanized areas, and of t hat f igure more t han half were living out side t he
cent ral cit ies.
While t he Census Bureau and t he Unit ed St at es government used t he t erm SMSA
( 2 5 ) ( by 1 9 6 9 t here were 2 3 3 of t hem) , social scient ist s were also using new t erms t o
describe t he elusive, vaguely def ined areas reaching out f rom what used t o be simple
" t own" and " cit ies" . A host of t erms came int o use: " met ropolit an regions" ,
" polynucleat ed populat ion groups" , " conurbat ions" , " met ropolit an clust ers" ,
" megalopolises" , and so on.

3 9 . What does t he passage mainly discuss?


( A) How cit ies in t he Unit ed St at es began and developed
( B) Solut ions t o overcrowding in cit ies
( C) The changing def init ion of an urban area
( D) How t he Unit ed St at es Census Bureau conduct s a census

4 0 . According t o t he passage, t he populat ion of t he Unit ed St at es was f irst classif ied as rural or
urban in
( A) 1 8 7 0 ( B) 1 9 0 0 ( C) 1 9 5 0 ( D) 1 9 7 0

4 1 . The word " dist inguished" in line 3 is closest in meaning t o


( A) dif f erent iat ed ( B) removed ( C) honored ( D) prot ect ed

4 2 . Prior t o 1 9 0 0 , how many inhabit ant s would a t own have t o have bef ore being def ines as
urban?
( A) 2 ,5 0 0 ( B) 8 ,0 0 0 ( C) 1 5 ,0 0 0 ( D) 5 0 ,0 0 0

4 3 . According t o t he passage, why did t he Census Bureau revise t he def init ion of urban in 1 9 5 0 ?
( A) Cit y borders had become less dist inct .
( B) Cit ies had undergone radical social change
( C) Elect ed of f icials could not agree on an accept able def init ion.
( D) New businesses had relocat ed t o larger cit ies.

4 4 . The word " t hose" in line 9 ref ers t o


( A) boundaries ( B) persons ( C) unit s ( D) areas

4 5 . The word " const it ut ing" in line 1 6 is closest in meaning t o


( A) locat ed near ( B) det ermine by ( C) calling f or ( D) marking up

4 6 . The word " which" in line 1 8 ref ers t o a smaller


( A) populat ion ( B) cit y ( C) charact er ( D) f igure

4 7 . Which of t he f ollowing is NOT t rue of an SMSA?


( A) It has a populat ion of at least 5 0 ,0 0 0 ( B) It can include a cit y' s out lying regions
( C) It can include unincorporat ed regions ( D) It consist s of at least t wo cit ies.

4 8 . By 1 9 7 0 , what proport ion of t he populat ion in t he Unit ed St at es did NOT live in an SMSA?

112
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

( A) 3 / 4 ( B) 2 / 3 ( C) 1 / 2 ( D) 1 / 3

4 9 . The Census Bureau f irst used t he t erm " SMSA" in


( A) 1 9 0 0 ( B) 1 9 5 0 ( C) 1 9 6 9 ( D) 1 9 7 0

5 0 . Where in t he passage does t he aut hor ment ion names used by social scient ist s f or an urban
area?
( A) Lines 4 -5 ( B) Lines 7 -8 ( C) Lines 2 1 -2 3 ( D) Lines 2 7 -2 9

113
PRACT ICE T EST 2 9
August 1 9 9 7
Que st ion 1 - 9
In t he 1 5 0 0 ' s when t he Spanish moved int o what lat er was t o become t he
sout hwest ern Unit ed St at es, t hey encount ered t he ancest ors of t he modern-day Pueblo,
Hopi, and Zuni peoples. These ancest ors, known variously as t he Basket Makers, t he
Line Anasazi, or t he Ancient Ones, had lived in t he area f or at least 2 ,0 0 0 years. They were
(5) an advanced agricult ural people who used irrigat ion t o help grow t heir crops.

The Anasazi lived in houses const ruct ed of adobe and wood. Anasazi houses were
originally built in pit s and were ent ered f rom t he roof . But around t he year 7 0 0 A.D.,
t he Anasazi began t o build t heir homes above ground and join t hem t oget her int o
rambling mult ist oried complexes, which t he Spanish called pueblos or villages.
( 1 0 ) Separat e subt erranean rooms in t hese pueblos --- known as kivas or chapels --- were set
aside f or religious ceremonials. Each kiva had a f ire pit and a hole t hat was believed t o
lead t o t he underworld. The largest pueblos had f ive st ories and more t han 8 0 0 rooms.

The Anasazi f amily was mat rilinear, t hat is, descent was t raced t hrough t he f emale.
The sacred object s of t he f amily were under t he cont rol of t he oldest f emale, but t he
( 1 5 ) rit ual ceremonies were conduct ed by her brot her or son. Women owned t he rooms in
t he pueblo and t he crops, once t hey were harvest ed. While st ill growing, crops
belonged t o t he man who, in cont rast t o most ot her Nat ive American groups, plant ed
t hem. The women made basket s and pot t ery, t he men wove t ext ile and craf t ed
t urquoise jewelry.

(20) Each village had t wo chief s. The village chief dealt wit h land disput es and religious
af f airs. The war chief led t he men in f ight ing during occasional conf lict s t hat broke out
wit h neighboring villages and direct ed t he men in communit y building project s. The
cohesive polit ical and social organizat ion of t he Anasazi made it almost impossible f or
ot her groups t o conquer t hem.

1 . The Anasazi people were considered " agricult urally advanced" because of t he way t hey
( A) st ored t heir crops ( B) f ert ilized t heir f ields.
( C) wat ered t heir crops. ( D) plant ed t heir f ields.

2 . The word " pit s" in line 7 is closest in meaning t o


( A) st ages ( B) scars ( C) seeds ( D) holes.

3 . The word " st ories" in line 1 2 is closest in meaning t o


( A) art icles ( B) t ales ( C) levels ( D) rumors

4 . Who would have been most likely t o cont rol t he sacred object s of an Anasazi f amily?
( A) A t went y-year-old man ( B) A t went y-year-old woman
( C) A f ort y-year-old man ( D) A f ort y-year-old
woman

5 . The word " t hey" in line 1 6 ref ers t o


( A) women ( B) crops ( C) rooms ( D) pueblos

6 . The word " disput es" in line 2 0 is closest in meaning t o


( A) discussions ( B) argument s ( C) development s ( D) purchases

7 . Which of t he f ollowing act ivit ies was NOT done by Anasazi men?
( A) Making basket s ( B) Plant ing crops

114
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

( C) Building homes ( D) Craf t ing jewelry.


8 . According t o t he passage, what made it almost impossible f or ot her groups t o conquer t he
Anasazi?
( A) The polit ical and social organizat ion of t he Anasazi
( B) The milit ary t act ics employed by t he Anasazi
( C) The Anasazi' s agricult ural t echnology.
( D) The nat ural barriers surrounding Anasazi willages.

9 . The passage support s which of t he f ollowing generalizat ions?


( A) The presence of t he Spanish t hreat ened Anasazi societ y.
( B) The Anasazi benef it ed f rom t rading relat ions wit h t he Spanish.
( C) Anasazi societ y exhibit ed a well-def ined division of labor.
( D) Conf lict s bet ween neighboring Anasazi villages were easily resolved.

Que st ion 1 0 - 1 9
Barbed wire, f irst pat ent ed in t he Unit ed St at es in 1 8 6 7 , played an import ant part in
t he development of American f arming, as it enabled t he set t lers t o make ef f ect ive
f encing t o enclose t heir land and keep cat t le away f rom t heir crops. This had a
Line considerable ef f ect on cat t le ranching, since t he herds no longer had unrest rict ed use of
(5) t he plans f or grazing, and t he f encing led t o conf lict bet ween t he f armers and t he cat t le
ranchers.

Bef ore barbed wire came int o general use, f encing was of t en made f rom serrat ed
wire, which was unsat isf act ory because it broke easily when under st rain, and could
snap in cold weat her due t o cont ract ion. The f irst pract ical machine f or producing
( 1 0 ) barbed wire was invent ed in 1 8 7 4 by an Illinois f armer, and bet ween t hen and t he end
of t he cent ury about 4 0 0 t ypes of barbed wire were devised, of which only about a
dozen were ever put t o pract ical use.

Modern barbed wire is made f rom mild st eel high-t ensile st eel, or aluminum. Mild
st eel and aluminum barbed wire have t wo st rands t wist ed t oget her t o f orm a cable
( 1 5 ) which is st ronger t han single-st rand wire and less af f ect ed by t emperat ure changes.
Single-st rand wire, round or oval, is made f rom high-t ensile st eel wit h t he barbs
crimped or welded on . The st eel wires used are galvanized - coat ed wit h zinc t o make
t hem rust proof . The t wo wires t hat make up t he line wire or cable are f ed separat ely
int o a machine at one end. They leave it at t he ot her end t wist ed-t oget her and barbed.
( 2 0 ) The wire t o make t he barbs is f ed int o t he machine f rom t he sides and cut t o lengt h by
knives t hat cut diagonally t hrough t he wire t o produce a sharp point . This process
cont inues aut omat ically, and t he f inished barbed wire is wound ont o reels, usually
made of wire in lengt hs of 4 0 0 met ers or in weight s of up t o 5 0 kilograms.

A variat ion of barbed wire is also used f or milit ary purposes. It is f ormed int o long
(25) coils or ent anglement s called concert ina wire.

1 0 . What is t he main t opic of t he passage?


( A) Cat t le ranching in t he Unit ed St at es. ( B) A t ype of f encing
( C) Indust rial uses of wire ( D) A cont roversy over
land use.

1 1 . The word " unrest rict ed" in line 4 is closest in meaning t o


( A) unsat isf act ory ( B) dif f icult
( C) considerable ( D) unlimit ed

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PRA CT ICE T EST 2 9 A ugust 1 9 9 7

1 2 . The word " snap" in line 9 could best be replaced by which of t he f ollowing?
( A) f reeze ( B) click ( C) loosen ( D) break

1 3 . What is t he benef it of using t wo-st randed barbed wire?


( A) Improved rust -resist ance ( B) Increased st rengt h
( C) More rapid at t achment of barbs ( D) Easier inst allat ion.

1 4 . According t o t he aut hor, t he st eel wires used t o make barbed wire are specially processed t o
( A) prot ect t hem against rust ( B) make t hem more f lexible
( C) prevent cont ract ion in cold weat her ( D) st raight en t hem.

1 5 . The word " f ed" in line 2 0 is closest in meaning t o


( A) put ( B) eat en ( C) bit t en ( D) nourished

1 6 . The knives ref erred t o in line 2 1 are used t o


( A) separat e double-st randed wire ( B) prevent t he reel f rom advancing t oo
rapidly
( C) t wist t he wire ( D) cut t he wire t hat becomes barbs

1 7 . What is t he aut hor' s purpose in t he t hird paragraph?


( A) To explain t he import ance of t he wire. ( B) To out line t he dif f icult y of making t he wire
( C) To describe how t he wire is made ( D) To suggest several dif f erent uses of t he
wire.

1 8 . According t o t he passage, concert ina wire is used f or


( A) livest ock management ( B) int ernat ional communicat ions
( C) prison enclosures ( D) milit ary purposes

1 9 . ???

Que st ion 2 0 - 2 8
Under cert ain circumst ance t he human body must cope wit h gases at great er-t han
normal at mospheric pressure. For example, gas pressures increase rapidly during a dive
made wit h scuba gear because t he breat hing equipment allows divers t o st ay
Line underwat er longer and dive deeper. The pressure exert ed on t he human body increases
(5) by 1 at mosphere f or every 1 0 met ers of dept h in seawat er, so t hat at 3 0 met ers in
seawat er a diver is exposed t o a pressure of about 4 at mospheres. The pressure of t he
gases being breat hed must equal t he ext ernal pressure applied t o t he body; ot herwise
breat hing is very dif f icult . Theref ore all of t he gases in t he air breat hed by a scuba
diver at 4 0 met ers are present at f ive t imes t heir usual pressure. Nit rogen which
( 1 0 ) composes 8 0 percent of t he air we breat he usually causes a balmy f eeling of
well-being at t his pressure. At a dept h of 5 at mospheres nit rogen causes sympt oms
resembling alcohol int oxicat ion known as nit rogen narcosis. Nit rogen narcosis
apparent ly result s f rom a direct ef f ect on t he brain of t he large amount s of nit rogen
dissolved in t he blood. Deep dives are less dangerous if helium is subst it ut ed f or
( 1 5 ) nit rogen, because under t hese pressures helium does not exert a similar narcot ic ef f ect .

As a scuba diver descends, t he pressure of nit rogen in t he lungs increases. Nit rogen
t hen dif f uses f rom t he lungs t o t he blood and f rom t he blood t o body t issues. The
reverse occurs when t he diver surf aces; t he nit rogen pressure in t he lungs f alls and t he
nit rogen dif f uses f rom t he t issues int o t he blood and f rom t he blood int o t he lungs. If
( 2 0 ) t he ret urn t o t he surf ace is t oo rapid, nit rogen in t he t issues and blood cannot dif f use
out rapidly enough and nit rogen bubbles are f ormed . They can cause severe pains,
part icularly around t he joint s.

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T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

Anot her complicat ion may result if t he breat h is held during ascent . During ascent
f rom a dept h of 1 0 met ers, t he volume of air in t he lungs will double because t he air
( 2 5 ) pressure at t he surf ace is only half of what it was at 1 0 met ers. This change in volume
may cause t he lungs t o dist end and even rupt ure. This condit ion is called air embolism.
To avoid t his event , a diver must ascent slowly, never at a rat e exceeding t he rise of
t he exhaled air bubbles, and must exhale during ascent .
2 0 . What does t he passage mainly discuss?
( A) The equipment divers use
( B) The ef f ect s of pressure on gases in t he human body
( C) How t o prepare f or a deep dive
( D) The sympt oms of nit rogen bubbles in t he bloodst ream.

2 1 . The word " exposed t o" in line 6 are closest in meaning t o


( A) leaving behind ( B) prepared f or ( C) propelled by ( D) subject ed t o

2 2 . The word " exert " in line 1 5 is closest in meaning t o


( A) cause ( B) permit ( C) need ( D) change

2 3 . The word " dif f uses" in line 1 9 is closest in meaning t o


( A) yields ( B) st art s ( C) surf aces ( D) t ravels

2 4 . What happens t o nit rogen in body t issues if a diver ascends t oo quickly.


( A) It f orms bubbles ( B) It goes direct ly t o t he brain
( C) It is reabsorbed by t he lungs ( D) It has a narcot ic ef f ect

2 5 . The word " They" in line 2 1 ref ers t o


( A) joint s ( B) pains ( C) bubbles ( D) t issues

2 6 . The word " rupt ure" in line 2 6 is closest in meaning t o


( A) hurt ( B) shrink ( C) burst ( D) st op

2 7 . It can be inf erred f rom t he passage t hat which of t he f ollowing present s t he great est danger
t o a diver?
( A) Pressurized helium ( B) Nit rogen dif f usion
( C) Nit rogen bubbles ( D) An air embolism

2 8 . What should a diver do when ascending?


( A) Rise slowly ( B) Breat he f ast er ( C) Relax complet ely ( D) Breat he helium

Que st ion 2 9 - 3 8
Each advance in microscopic t echnique has provided scient ist s wit h new perspect ives
on t he f unct ion of living organisms and t he nat ure of mat t er it self . The invent ion of t he
visible-light microscope lat e in t he sixt eent h cent ury int roduced a previously unknown
Line realm of single-celled plant s and animals. In t he t went iet h cent ury, elect ron microscopes
(5) have provided direct views of viruses and minuscule surf ace st ruct ures. Now anot her
t ype of microscope, one t hat ut ilize x-rays rat her t han light or elect rons, of f ers a
dif f erent way of examining t iny det ails, it should ext end human percept ion st ill f art her
int o t he nat ural world.

The dream of building an x-ray microscope dat es t o 1 8 9 5 , it s development , however,


( 1 0 ) was virt ually halt ed in t he 1 9 4 0 ' s because t he development of t he elect ron microscope
was progressing rapidly. During t he 1 9 4 0 ' s elect ron microscopes rout inely achieved
resolut ion bet t er t han t hat possible wit h a visible-light microscope, while t he

117
PRA CT ICE T EST 2 9 A ugust 1 9 9 7

perf ormance of x-ray microscopes resist ed improvement . In recent years, however,


int erest in x-ray microscopes has revived, largely because of advances such as t he
( 1 5 ) development of new sources of x-ray illuminat ion. As a result , t he bright ness available
t oday is millions of t imes t hat of x-ray t ubes, which, f or most of t he cent ury, were t he
only available sources of sof t x-rays.

The new x-ray microscopes considerably improve on t he resolut ion provided by opt ical
microscopes. They can also be used t o map t he dist ribut ion of cert ain chemical element s.
( 2 0 ) Some can f orm pict ures in ext remely short t imes, ot hers hold t he promise of special
capabilit ies such as t hree dimensional imaging. Unlike convent ional elect ron microscopy,
x-ray microscopy enables specimens t o be kept in air and in wat er, which means t hat
biological samples can be st udied under condit ions similar t o t heir nat ural st at e. The
illuminat ion used, so-called sof t x-rays in t he wavelengt h range of t went y t o f ort y
( 2 5 ) angst roms ( an angst rom is one t en-billiont h of a met er) , is also suf f icient ly penet rat ing
t o image int act biological cells in many cases. Because of t he wavelengt h of t he x-rays
used, sof t x-ray microscopes will never mat ch t he highest resolut ion possible wit h
elect ron microscopes. Rat her, t heir special propert ies will make possible invest igat ions
t hat will complement t hose perf ormed wit h light - and elect ron-based inst rument s.

2 9 . What does t he passage mainly discuss?


( A) The det ail seen t hrough a microscope ( B) Sources of illuminat ion f or microscopes
( C) A new kind of microscope ( D) Out dat ed microscopic t echnique

3 0 . According t o t he passage, t he invent ion of t he visible-light microscope allowed scient ist s t o


( A) see viruses direct ly
( B) develop t he elect ron microscope lat er on
( C) underst and more about t he dist ribut ion of t he chemical element s
( D) discover single celled plant s and animals t hey had never seen bef ore.

3 1 . The word " minuscule" in line 5 is closest in meaning t o


( A) circular ( B) dangerous ( C) complex ( D) t iny

3 2 . The word " it " in line 7 ref ers t o


( A) a t ype of microscope ( B) human percept ion
( C) t he nat ural world ( D) light

3 3 . Why does t he anot her ment ion me visible light microscope in t he f irst paragraph?
( A) To begin a discussion of sixt eent h cent ury discoveries.
( B) To put t he x-ray microscope in hist orical perspect ive
( C) To show how limit ed it s uses are
( D) To explain how it f unct ioned

3 4 . Why did it t ake so long t o develop t he x-ray microscope?


( A) Funds f or research were insuf f icient .
( B) The source of illuminat ion was not bright enough unt il recent ly.
( C) Mat erials used t o manuf act ure x-ray t ubes were dif f icult t o obt ain
( D) X-ray microscopes were t oo complicat ed t o operat e.

3 5 . The word " enables" in line 3 2 is closest in meaning t o


( A) const it ut es ( B) specif ies ( C) expands ( D) allows

3 6 . The word " Rat her" in line 2 8 is closest in meaning t o


( A) signif icant ly ( B) pref erably ( C) somewhat ( D) inst ead

3 7 . The word " t hose" in line 2 9 ref ers t o

118
T OEFL Re ading Com pre he nsion

( A) propert ies ( B) invest igat ions ( C) microscopes ( D) x-rays

3 8 . Based on t he inf ormat ion in t he passage, what can be inf erred about x-ray microscopes in t he
f ut ure?
( A) They will probably replace elect ron microscopes alt oget her.
( B) They will event ually be much cheaper t o produce t han t hey are now.
( C) They will provide inf ormat ion not available f rom ot her kinds of microscopes.
( D) They will event ually change t he illuminat ion range t hat t hey now use.

Que st ion 3 9 - 5 0
Perhaps t he most st riking qualit y of sat iric lit erat ure is it s f reshness, it s originalit y of
perspect ive. Sat ire rarely of f ers original ideas. Inst ead it present s t he f amiliar in a new
f orm. Sat irist s do not of f er t he world new philosophies. What t hey do is look at
Line f amiliar condit ions f rom a perspect ive t hat makes t hese condit ions seem f oolish,
(5) harmf ul or af f ect ed. Sat ire jars us out of complacence int o a pleasant ly shocked
realizat ion t hat many of t he values we unquest ioningly accept are f alse. Don Quixot e
makes chivalry seem absurd, Brave New World ridicules t he pret ensions of science, A
Modest proposal dramat izes st arvat ion by advocat ing cannibalism. None of t hese ideas
is original. Chivalry was suspect bef ore Cervant es, humanist s object ed t o t he claims of
( 1 0 ) pure science bef ore Aldous Huxley and people were aware of f amine bef ore Swif t . It
was not t he originalit y of t he idea t hat made t hese sat ires popular. It was t he manner of
expression t he sat iric met hod t hat made t hem int erest ing and ent ert aining. Sat ires are
read because t hey are aest het ically sat isf ying works of art , not because t hey are morally
wholesome or et hically inst ruct ive. They are st imulat ing and ref reshing because wit h
( 1 5 ) commonsense briskness t hey brush away illusions and secondhand opinions. Wit h
spont aneous irreverence, sat ire rearranges perspect ives, scrambles f amiliar object s int o
incongruous juxt aposit ion and speaks in a personal idiom inst ead of abst ract plat it ude.

Sat ire exist s because t here is need f or it . It has lived because readers appreciat e a
ref reshing st imulus, an irreverent reminder t hat t hey lived in a world of plat it udinous
( 2 0 ) t hinking, cheap moralizing, and f oolish philosophy. Sat ire serves t o prod people int o an
awareness of t rut h t hough rarely t o any act ion on behalf of t rut h. Sat ire t ends t o
remind people t hat much of what t hey see, hear, and read in popular media is
sanct imonious, sent iment al, and only part ially t rue. Lif e resembles in only a slight
degree t he popular image of it . Soldiers rarely hold t he ideals t hat movies at t ribut e t o
( 2 5 ) t hem, nor do ordinary cit izens devot e t heir lives t o unself ish service of humanit y.
Int elligent people know t hese t hings but t end t o f orget t hem when t hey do not hear
t hem expressed.

3 9 . What does t he passage mainly discuss?


( A) Dif f icult ies of writ ing sat iric lit erat ure.
( B) Popular t opics of sat ire
( C) New philosophies emerging f rom sat iric lit erat ure
( D) Reasons f or t he popularit y of sat ire.

4 0 . The word " realizat ion" in line 6 is closest in meaning t o


( A) cert ainly ( B) awareness ( C) surprise ( D) conf usion

119
PRA CT ICE T EST 2 9 A ugust 1 9 9 7

4 1 . Why does t he aut hor ment ion Don Quirot e, Brave New World and A Modest Proposal in lines 6 -
8?
( A) They are f amous examples of sat iric lit erat ure
( B) They present commonsense solut ions t o problems.
( C) They are appropriat e f or readers of all ages.
( D) They are books wit h similar st ories.

4 2 . The word " aest het ically" in line 1 3 is closest in meaning t o


( A) art ist ically ( B) except ionally ( C) realist ically ( D) dependably

4 3 . Which of t he f ollowing can be f ound in sat ire lit erat ure?


( A) Newly emerging philosophies
( B) Odd combinat ions of object s and ideas
( C) Abst ract discussion of moral and et hnics
( D) Wholesome charact ers who are unself ish.

4 4 . According t o t he passage, t here is a need f or sat ire because people need t o be


( A) inf ormed about new scient if ic development s
( B) exposed t o original philosophies when t hey are f ormulat ed
( C) reminded t hat popular ideas are of t en inaccurat e
( D) t old how t hey can be of service t o t heir communit ies.

4 5 . The word " ref reshing" in line 1 9 is closest in meaning t o


( A) popular ( B) ridiculous ( C) meaningf ul ( D) unusual

4 6 . The word " t hey" in line 2 2 ref ers t o


( A) people ( B) media ( C) ideals ( D) movies

4 7 . The word " devot e" in line 2 5 is closest in meaning t o


( A) dist inguish ( B) f eel af f ect ion ( C) pref er ( D) dedicat e

4 8 . As a result of reading sat iric lit erat ure, readers will be most likely t o
( A) t each t hemselves t o writ e f ict ion
( B) accept convent ional point s of view
( C) become bet t er inf ormed about current af f airs
( D) reexamine t heir opinions and values

4 9 . The various purposes of sat ire include all of t he f ollowing EXCEPT


( A) int roducing readers t o unf amiliar sit uat ions
( B) brushing away illusions
( C) reminding readers of t he t rut h
( D) exposing f alse values.

5 0 . Why does t he aut hor ment ion " service of humanit y" in line 2 5 ?
( A) People need t o be reminded t o t ake act ion
( B) Readers appreciat e knowing about it
( C) It is an ideal t hat is rarely achieved.
( D) Popular media of t en dist ort such st ories.

120
ANSWER KEY
PRA CT ICE T EST 1 5
DDCDACADA BBBDBCCCDA BCBBAABCBA BDBDBDAAADB DCBADCCADD

PRA CT ICE T EST 1 6


CBDAD BBABB DDCDC BCACA CBDCA DDBCD AACBC ABADB CCBAA BCBDB

PRA CT ICE T EST 1 7


ACDCA BCDBA BCACD DCBAC DABCC CBCBB DDCCA BADCB DCCAC BBCAD

PRA CT ICE T EST 1 8


ADCBB CBDAD CAAAC ACCAD BBDBA ACADC DACAD ADCAB DBBCB BCAAD

PRA CT ICE T EST 1 9


BBDBD CACAD CABCD ABACD BABCB BCADA BAADC ADBCD BBABC BBCAD

PRA CT ICE T EST 2 0


DACCB DBBAD DABDC CDCBD ABCAB BBDDA BCACA BCABC DBABC ADADD

PRA CT ICE T EST 2 1


DBDBC ACABD DBBCA DCDCD AADDB CDACB ABADC CBACB DCACB DBABC

PRA CT ICE T EST 2 2


BCCAB CCABB AADCC ACBDA ACDBB BCABC BDCCA DBBCA BDADC ADBAA

PRA CT ICE T EST 2 3


ACBDC CBBDD ACACA CBDBD BDDCC DACAA DCBBD ABDAA DACCB BDDBA

PRA CT ICE T EST 2 4


BDDCC ABABD DCDCB CABAB DAAAC BBCAA DBDCD CBBBA ACBBC DCDAD

PRA CT ICE T EST 2 5


DCACD ADCBB CBCAC ADDCD BBDDA BAADC BCAAD DCDBA DABCD ACBDD

PRA CT ICE T EST 2 6


AACCD CABDC DACBA ACCBC DBBDA BDDAC BDBAD ACBDC BDDAB CCACD

PRA CT ICE T EST 2 7


ABBDB BACBD DAACC CACCB DCAAB ABDBB CCAAA DBDDB DCDDB CBBBC

PRA CT ICE T EST 2 8


ACBAD DBBDA DCCCB BDBBC BBCBB CADDA AABAB DBACA ABABD BBDBD

PRA CT ICE T EST 2 9


CDCDB BAACB DDBAA DCDAB DADAC CDACD DABBD DBCDB AABCD ADDAA

121