Sunteți pe pagina 1din 76

Website: www.combatandsurvival.


Editor: Bob Morrison

Editors Assistant: Jitka Cajova
Designer: Ashley Lockwood
Senior Correspondent: Carl Schulze
Far East Correspondent: Gordon Arthur
Survival Specialist: Jason Polley
Gear Tester: Mike Gormley
Security Consultant: Robert Shaw
Webmaster: Daryl Crowther
Scale Models: Ian Young
Advertisement Sales Director:
Moira Spencer
Tel: 01484 435011

Distributed by
Warners Group Publications PLC
The Maltings, West Street, Bourne PE10 9PH
Print by Acorn Colourprint Ltd:
Loscoe Close, Normanton, WF6 1TW

Subscriptions and Back Issue Orders

P17 Multinational Forces BALTOPS 15 P17 to:
Bob Morrison covers the NATO Response Force amphibious COMBAT & SURVIVAL Magazine
landing on Polands Baltic coast which is published by:-
MAI Publications, Revenue Chambers,
St. Peters Street, Huddersfield, HD1 1DL
P24 Urban Survival CYBER-TERRORISM Tel: (01484) 435011
Jason Polley defines the threat, gives examples and Fax: (01484) 422177
discusses national and individual responses ISSN: 0955-9841
To Subscribe or order a digital edition visit
P29 Firearms SCAT-Poland
Bob Morrison looks at a company specialising in weapons,
close protection and maritime training Advertising:
P29 Editorial:
Copyright here and abroad of all material is held by
the publishers. No reproduction is permitted whatsoever
P35 Allied Forces PUMA 15 without prior consent in writing.
Carl Schulze covers a trinational Tactical Battle Group
armoured exercise in Northwest Poland IMPORTANT: All individual combat and personal
survival activities involve risk of injury to oneself and
others and great care must be taken carrying out any
such activities. Expert guidance should be sought and
P42 Elite Weapons XM/M2010 ESR equipment checked for reliability before any activities
Carl Schulze focuses on Remingtons .300 Winchester described here in are carried out. The publishers cannot
accept any responsibility for any injury, death, loss or
Magnum calibre Enhanced Sniper Rifle damage which may result.


P44 Elite Forces AMERICAN SNIPERS P35 will be welcomed and considered for publication.
Submission of such shall be considered a warranty that
Carl Schulze photographs an 82nd Airborne Division sniper they are original and do not infringe on the copyright
team and their equipment of others. Unsuitable material can only be returned
if you include a S.A.E. Loss or damage is not the
responsibility of COMBAT & SURVIVAL.
P48 Vehicle Focus KAJMAN DEFENDER DISCLAIMER: The publishers make no representations,
Bob Morrison photographs the Czech Airborne Battalions endorsements, guarantees or warranties concerning
unique Rapid Deployment Vehicle the products and/or services advertised within this
magazine. We expressly disclaim any and all liability
relating to or arising from the sale, manufacture,
distribution, use or misuse of such.
Bob Morrison looks at the 4-colour Type 95 woodland or leaf
pattern camouflage P44

P58 C&S Interview RUSTY FIRMIN

Bob Morrison interviews the SAS NCO who led Blue Team on
Operation NIMROD
P63 Outdoor Gear
Mike Gormley trials tactical boots, fleece,
power source, rolling duffel, and water
containers etc.

P70 Scale Models

Ian Young reviews some 1/35 resin
multimedia kits and conversions from
Accurate Armour September 15 Cover Image:
P05 : Comms Carl Schulze
P68 : Security M.A.I. Publications 2015

Combat & Survival 03

Left: Current MoD issue Meindl
(left) and HAIX Desert Combat High
Liability boots worn by Royal Marines
in Albania [ Bob Morrison]

Cold Wet Weather Boot (150,000

Jungle Boot (42,000 pairs)
Patrol Boot (190,000 pairs)

It is no major surprise that the Desert

Patrol category has been dropped
this time around, as the proven Desert
Combat High Liability Boot and the Patrol
Boot categories should suffice. What is
worrying, however, is the lack of boot
choice which will be offered in categories
3, 4 and 5. In theory any serviceman
or servicewoman currently entitled to the
issue of combat boots should be able to
choose one of two styles manufactured
on lasts of different shapes to, hopefully,
ensure the wearing of boots which best
fit them; we say hopefully, as we know
As regular readers of C&S will some of her NATO partners, the United the only choice some were given was
be aware, in August 2009 UK Kingdom has a tendency to scrupulously effectively take this make or take nowt.
MoD advertised a forthcoming follow EU tender procedures rather than Also rather worrying is the decision that
requirement for combat boots in claiming exemptions to protect national a Reverse Auction process will not occur,
six distinct categories, though jobs and manufacturing. which could mean tenderers do not
by the time orders commenced submit their best performing products
the Jungle Boot category had Back in March a total of 37 national and safe in the knowledge that competitive
been extracted. These new overseas companies (including all current pricing would be determined at a later
contracts were intended to suppliers) interested in tendering for the stage once the highest performance
cover combat boot requirements next UK Ministry of Defence contracts boots had been determined. We will be
for a four year period and the for combat boots attended the DE&S watching this one with great interest.
first of the orders were place in Footwear Industry Day to receive briefings.
late 2012 for initial roll-out in Subsequently DE&S despatched a formal ONLINE SURVEY
2013. Now one does not need notice on 12th May announcing: This is While on the subject of boots, to thank
to have Professor Stephen a requirement for the supply of 5 types of readers for participating in our 2015
Hawkings brainpower to work combat footwear. It will be tendered as 5 Online Survey, in conjunction with Alt-
out that the current four year separate lots, 2 choices of boots will be Berg the Yorkshire Bootmakers we are
contract must be drawing to selected for lots 1 and 2 and 1 choice putting everyones name into a draw
a close, so it should be no of boot for lots 3, 4 and 5. Up to 7 year and one lucky entrant will win a pair of
surprise that the UK DE&S (configured as an initial 5 year period plus His & Hers trekking or combat boots
(Defence Equipment & Support) 2 year option) framework agreements of choice. The boots on offer from Alt-
Defence Clothing team have could be awarded. Berg are either the Yan Tan, from their
started the ball rolling to try to Walking Boots range, or the Base Boot,
ensure deliveries of sufficient The five required lots are:- which is its Military derivative in MoD
stocks of new combat boots for Combat High Liability Boot (300,000 Brown. Both boots are manufactured
the Armed Forces are in place pairs) on Alt-Bergs new ergonomic A-Forme
by July 2017. Desert Combat High Liability Boot last, which master bootmaker Mike
(90,000 pairs) Sheehan has spent many years refining.

ithout question the current (i.e. C&S gear tester Mike Gormley, who
2013 issue) batches of brown has massive feet that often defeat other
combat boots have given the boot manufacturers, swears by his Yan
British Army, Royal Marines Tans, as does his petite better half Jean,
and RAF Regiment some of the best who accompanies him on his many
off-the-shelf footwear ever issued, so one expeditions. As for the Base Boot, I have
might ask why MoD is not simply placing worn this model, through choice, on
fresh orders rather than going through an many of my assignments to date this
expensive and time-consuming trials and year. It is therefore safe to say these more
procurement process. The simple answer asymmetric A-Forme last boots carry our
is that these days government depart- recommendation. For full specifications
ments are constrained by EU legislation Current MoD issue Alt-Berg Combat High go to and to enter the
intended to prevent institutionalised cor- Liability boots worn by a British Army tank survey go to combatandsurvival.
ruption and favouritism etc. and, unlike crewman [ Bob Morrison] com/survey2015 - BM

Combat & Survival 05

09:15 hours, 18th
April, Objective
Bronze: A
section of British
covered by rapid
fire laid down
by colleagues
crosses a road into
Freedom Village
on Fort Bragg
Training Area

Combat & Survival 09


The participation of a Main Image:

British Air Manoeuvre British
Battle Group on the
paratroopers of
Combined Joint Operational
Access Exercise 15-01
the 3rd Battalion,
(CJOAX 15-1) of the US The Parachute
Armys 82nd Airborne Regiment move
Division All American was down the flight
a major step forward in the line at Pope Army
process of establishing full Airfield prior to
interoperability between boarding US Air
US and UK airborne forces. Force C-130J
Over two weeks in April Hercules transport force begins its attack on the village, whole area from the enemy.
C&S followed the exercise,
aircraft for a a well-fortified complex of buildings
held at the Fort Bragg The attack on the Freedom Village
Training Area in North
training jump that serves as an enemy training
camp. Straight away a section of MOUT (Military Operations in Urban
Carolina and in this third paratroopers, weapons in the ready Terrain) complex was the final combat
article in the series we look 1: As part of the position, heads for a window in one action of CJOAX 15-01. Early that
at the British units involved Interoperability of the nearest buildings, which had morning B and C Companies of
in the largest bilateral Training British previously been selected as their the 3rd Battalion of The Parachute
airborne exercise held in Paras jumped break-in point. On reaching the Regiment (3 PARA) had conducted a
the States for nearly 20 with the US building the Paras stack up to the left ground infiltration and then opened
years. T-11 Personnel of the window, then a hand grenade the attack by assaulting Objectives
Parachute System

is thrown into the room behind. Silver and Gold. With the first attacks
8:06 18th April 2015, Free-
- here some can be under way, A Company conducted
dom Village, Fort Bragg Train- a heliborne assault to the west of
ing Area: Fire! bellows the
seen exiting from Seconds later a loud explosion and
a bright flash of light emerge from Freedom Village and closed in on
Sergeant from the fire support a US Air Force
the window. Now a Para fires a burst foot to attack Objective Bronze. This
element of B Company, 3rd Bat- C-130J Hercules into the room with his 5.56mm SA80 attack was supported by a second
talion, The Parachute Regiment. transport aircraft A2 TES assault rifle, peppering it heliborne assault, during which D
A split second later his paratroop- with bullets. Immediately after this he Company of 1st Battalion from 325th
ers lay down a heavy barrage of Images climbs through the window into the Airborne Infantry Regiment of the 82nd
rapid fire, pinning down the enemy Carl Schulze building, followed by his comrades Airborne Division of the US Army was
fighters in their positions with their in quick succession. A shout can be inserted by CH-47F Chinook transport
5.56mm L110A2 Minimi Light heard from inside: Door to the front, helicopters and UH-60M Black Hawk
Machine Guns and 7.62mm L7A2 two enemy dead, room clear! The utility helicopters, landing directly on
General Purpose Machine Guns. Paras have created a foothold in the the objective.
first building of the village and this will
Under the covering fire the assault now be exploited in order to clear the When conducted in April 2015 the

10 Combat & Survival

(HVM) system in the light role
configuration; we will feature this
Troop in a future issue. Logistic
support for the formation was
provided by a 40-strong element
of 82 Air Assault Squadron and
47 Air Despatch Squadron from
13 Air Assault Support Regiment
Royal Logistics Corps. Medical
support for the formation was
provided by 19 Medical Squadron
of 16 Medical Regiment.

A 50-soldiers strong Air Delivery

Group also operated as part
of the AMBG. Provided mainly
by 47 Air Despatch Squadron
Royal Logistic Corps, it included
Parachute Jump Instructors (PJI)
and Drop Zone Safety Staff,
among other personnel. Also part
CJOAX 15-01 was the largest US/UK Above: UK and US Mike Shervington, provided the core of
the British AMBG (Air Manoeuvre Battle of the battlegroup were elements
British airborne exercise for nearly 20 paratroopers land on of Headquarters 16 Air Assault
years since Exercise PURPLE STAR Sicily Drop Zone of the Group) as well as its command element.
was conducted in 1996. One of the Brigade, the Defence Chemical,
Fort Bragg Training Biological, Radiological and
main aims of the latest exercise, of During the exercise the AMBG fell
Area - jumping with under command of the 2nd Brigade Nuclear Wing, the Royal Air Force
which the field training phase took
place between the 13th and 19th April,
the T-11 earned the Combat Team Falcons of the 82nd Regiment, 33 Engineer Regiment
was to improve the interoperability
British Army Paras the
between US and UK airborne forces US Army Parachutist
in order to allow British assets to Badge, also known as
seamlessly integrate within the 82nd Jump Wings
Airborne Division and the US Armys
Global Response Force and for US Right: Paratroopers
assets to integrate with 16 Air Assault armed with a 5.56mm
Brigade, a core element of the British L110A2 LMG and a
Armys high readiness Reactive Force. 7.62mm L7A2 GPMG
await the order to
3RD BATTALION, THE provide cover fire to
PARACHUTE REGIMENT support their comrades
Some 850 British troops from16 Air assaulting a building
Assault Brigade participated in CJOAX in Freedom Village
15-01 and the bulk of these, around
620, were provided by the 3 PARA.
Below: British
This battalion deployed to the USA its
Battle Group Main HQ, Tactical HQ, A,
paratroopers fight
B and C Company, Support Company
their way into
(including Mortar Platoon, Machinegun Freedom Village during
Platoon, Anti-Tank Platoon and Fire the final attack of
Support Group 1), ISTAR Company CJOAX 15-01 - note
(including Patrols Platoon and they wear US Tactical
Sniper Platoon) and an Echelon of Engagement System Airborne Division All American. The (Explosive Ordnance Disposal),
Support Company. The battalion, sensor harnesses and battlegroup also comprised a long 14 Signal Regiment (Electronic
commanded by Lieutenant Colonel helmet bands range reconnaissance asset, provided Warfare), 7 Air Assault Battalion
by the Pathfinder Platoon, a 100- Royal Electrical and Mechanical
strong Engineer Group provided by 51 Engineers, 216 (Parachute) Signal
Parachute Squadron of 23 Parachute Squadron, 4th Battalion (Reserve)
Engineer Regiment and a 40-strong The Parachute Regiment and
Artillery Group provided by F (Sphinx) 156 Provost Company from 4th
Parachute Battery from 7th Parachute Regiment Royal Military Police.
Regiment Royal Horse Artillery. The
latter was equipped with 105mm L118 WHEELED VEHICLES
Light Guns and included Joint Terminal A total of 57 light wheeled vehicles
Attack Controllers (JTAC) and a Joint was deployed with the British
Fires and Influence Cell (JFIC). troops. This number included:
Yamaha Grizzly 450 IRS Quads
Close air defence for the AMBG with trailers; Jackal 1 High Mobility
was provided by Strike Troop of 12 Weapons Platforms; Pinzgauer
(Minden) Air Assault Battery from12 Truck Utility Medium/Heavy Duty
Regiment Royal Artillery, equipped with (TUM/HD) 4x4 and 6x6 prime
the Starstreak High Velocity Missile movers; Land Rover 90 XD Wolf

Combat & Survival 11

General Service
soldiers of
the 3rd (green
TRF) and 4th
(black TRF) and
RAMC (maroon/
navy blue/
yellow TRF)
prepare to enter
a suspected

as well as on the US Army and buildings and clearing rooms.

82nd Airborne Division structures
and procedures and on the Global US medical personnel trained the
Response Force (GRF) in particular. British paratroopers in medical drills
and reporting procedures they use on
Together with their US Airborne operations. This training was followed
comrades from the 2nd Brigade by a battle run through the pine
Combat Team Falcons, the woods of the Ford Bragg Training Area
British paratroopers then began paint-ball range, which saw the British
to conduct interoperability training paratroopers crossing obstacles
at all levels. As part of this, most and treating simulated casualties
of the British paratroopers went while constantly under enemy fire.
Truck Utility Light High Specification Above: A British through the Advanced Airborne At the same time the UK and US
(TUL HS) and 110 XD Wolf Truck Utility paratrooper School at Fort Bragg, participating commanders conducted familiarisation
Medium High Specification (TUM
provides cover fire in T-11 Sustained Airborne Training training that made them aware of each
HS). Some of the Pinzgauers and the and conducting jumps with the others SOPs (standard operational
deployed 105mm L118 Light Guns
with his 5.56mm
new US parachute (see feature procedures) and was aimed at
were parachute dropped during the L110A2 Light in last months issue) from C-17
field training phase of CJOAX 15-01 Machine Gun while Globemaster III and C-130J
from C-17 Globemaster III and C-130J his comrades Hercules transport aircraft.
Hercules transport aircraft of the USAF storm a building
using US air drop pallets, parachutes after conducting a The airborne infantry companies
and rigging equipment. heliborne assault of 3 PARA together with US
paratroopers of the 2nd Battalion,
INTEROPERABILITY Right: UK medics 325th AIR conducted small unit
TRAINING AT ALL LEVELS train to apply collective training at section and
For the British troops, participation platoon level. This training was
medical assistance
on CJOAX 15-01 was an eight week intended to familiarise the troops
deployment that, for the bulk of
while operating of the two nationalities with each
them, began on the 9th March when aboard a US Army others tactics as well as to foster
they arrived at Fort Bragg, the home UH-60M Black comradeship. A number of firing
base of the 82nd Airborne Division. Hawk helicopter packages on the ranges of Fort
On their arrival the troops were - a British MERT Bragg Training Area were part of
put through a Reception, Staging, (Medical Emergency the training and ranged from the
Onward movement, and Integration Response Team) zeroing of weapons to section
(RSOI) package straight away, just closely cooperated and platoon level live-fire attacks.
as if entering a conflict theatre. This with US medics The troops also trained in FIBUA
included, among other training, (fighting in built-up areas), or MOUT
lessons on local laws and customs in US parlance, including entering

12 Combat & Survival

developing common standing Right: British
operational procedures.
The Gunners of F (Sphinx) Parachute
fight their way
Battery from 7th Parachute Regiment through Freedom
(7 PARA) RHA trained with their Village which
counterparts of the 2nd Battalion, was defended by
319th Field Artillery Regiment. Again soldiers of the
interoperability was the main focus of 1st Battalion,
the training which, for example, saw 3rd U.S. Infantry
the British airborne gunners operating Regiment The
US 105mm M119A3 light towed Old Guard
howitzers, which is the latest shorter
barrelled US-produced version of the
acting as OPFOR
British L118 Light Gun.
British drivers were trained to handle
different types of vehicles in service 2: A British
with the US Army, such as the FMTV Para provides
6x6 trucks, so that they could operate cover while his
them if required. The sappers of comrades cross
33 Engineer Regiment (Explosive a street - his
Ordnance Disposal) also trained with SA80 A2 TES
troops from the US 192nd Ordnance
(EOD) Battalion, searching roads,
assault rifle is
buildings and vehicles for IEDs and
fitted with a
dealing with unexploded ordnance, Spectre OS 4x

Dual Role Combat a complex at Pope Army Airfield

where the air mounting process
Sight with Shield is conducted. Here troops were
Close Quarter issued parachutes, conducted final
Battlesight (CQB) safety training and then boarded
on top C-17 Globemaster III and C-130J
Hercules transport aircraft of the US
3: This US Army Air Force at around 15:00 hours.
105mm M119A3 At the same time the heavy drop
light towed pallets were loaded onto additional
howitzer is de- aircraft.
rigged by British
Then, after last light, the FTX (field
gunners after training phase) of the exercise
while the engineers of 51 Parachute upcoming operation and their being dropped kicked off with a massive air drop of
Squadron from 23 Parachute Engineer part in it, rigged their vehicles to by parachute some 2,100 troops, including some
Regiment trained with troops from the be air-dropped or prepared them onto Sicily Drop 500 British paratroopers. The drop
37th Brigade Engineer Battalion Green to be flown in with the follow-on Zone during the was conducted in two waves and
Falcons in the demolition of obstacles air-landing waves, conducted walk- interoperability involved twelve C-130J Hercules
using PE7 and C4 explosives. through-talk-through rehearsals, training phase and eight C-17 Globemaster III
and were put through Sustained transport aircraft of the US Air
96-HOUR PRE-DEPLOYMENT Airborne Training to prepare them Force, as well as two C-130J
PROCESS for the planned massive airborne
With the familiarisation and integration drop.
training completed, the Air Manoeuvre
Battle Group was put trough the 96- AIR-DROP, TWO-GUN
hour pre-deployment process for a RAIDS & HELIBORNE
Global Response Force deployment ASSAULTS
together with the troops of the 2nd D-Day of CHOAX 15-01 was 13th
Brigade Combat Team Falcons. Among April. With the pre-deployment
other tasks, the Paras prepared their process work completed, the
kit as part of this, were issued rations British and American troops were
and ammunition, were briefed on the now transferred to Green Ramp,

Combat & Survival 13

4 One of two 105mm L118 Light
Guns of F (Sphinx) Battery from
7th PARA Regiment RHA is picked
up by US Army UH-60M Black
Hawk helicopters for a two-gun
raid supporting a heliborne air

Paratroopers of 3 PARA board a CH-47F Chinook transport

helicopter of the 10th Combat Aviation Brigade, 10th Mountain
Division, during the extraction after conducting an airborne assault
Hercules transport aircraft of the to secure a chemical weapons plant 4: 3 PARA Support 6
Royal Air Force. Also dropped with situated in a village. Companys Fire
the paratroopers were twenty-one
Support Group 1 used
vehicles, including a couple of British These operations were supported by
ones. two-gun raids that saw artillery pieces
Jackal 1 High Mobility
of F (Sphinx) Parachute Battery 7th Weapons Platforms
The drop was the beginning of Parachute Regiment RHA being during CJOAX
a Combined Joint Forcible Entry flown forward in order to support the 15-01 - this unit was
Operation. In the first part of this, assault forces with indirect fire. US heavily employed for
the dropped US and UK troops enablers participated in the British-led screening and fire
secured an airfield and conducted operations while UK enablers, such support missions
a NEO (non-combatant evacuation as engineers, supported US troops in
operation). With the airfield secured, carrying out their missions. The final 5: After the
task for the British troops
exhausting battle
was to assault Freedom
Village and destroy an
British paratroopers
enemy training camp are supplied with
situated there. For this water once they have
purpose D Company of secured Objective
1st Battalion from 325th Bronze - note the
Airborne Infantry Regiment Yamaha Grizzly 450
was placed under British IRS Quad with trailer
command. and stretcher cooperating closely. For the troops
of 16 Air Assault Brigade, and the
MAJOR MILESTONE 6: Many enablers paratroopers of the 3rd Battalion
In modern times military of The Parachute Regiment in
operations are seldom
belonged to the Air particular, CJOAX 15-01 was a
conducted by the armed forces Manoeuvre Battle fantastic opportunity to train with
the troops then began to expand the
of one nation alone. All recent Group centred around their US partners in a combined
area they controlled. While doing so
deployments of the British Army, the 3 PARA including environment. The exercise also was
elements of British AMBG conducted members of 156
such as with KFOR in Kosovo, under a major milestone on the way to fully
a pair of heliborne air assaults to
seize key objectives and neutralise
Operation TELIC in Iraq and with Provost Company integrate UK and US airborne forces,
hostile forces. In one of these
ISAF in Afghanistan, have been from 4th Regiment so that in the future they can conduct
assaults the British paratroopers had
of a combined nature, involving Royal Military Police operations together in response to
troops of two or more nations crises worldwide.

14 Combat & Survival

/combatandsurvival @CombatSurvival +CombatAndSurvivalOnline

RN Fleet flagship HMS Ocean
anchored off Ustka with RAF
Chinook above two Apache
helicopters on the flight deck as a
brace of LCVPs return to the ship
[USMC: 1st Lt. Sarah E. Burns]

This June over 20 NATO 1: Swedish 1

allies and partner nations Marines wade
conducted a series of training
ashore at Ravlunda
manoeuvres in Europe under
the ALLIED SHIELD umbrella,
from CB-90 fast
including: NOBLE JUMP, the assault craft as a
first training deployment of Royal Navy Lynx
Allied high-readiness units hovers overhead
under the new Very High [USMC: Sgt. Tatum
Readiness Joint Task Force Vayavananda]
framework; SABER STRIKE, 2
a significant land exercise in 2: US Marines
the Baltic States; TRIDENT climb off a
JOUST, a NRF command and
Swedish beach
control exercise in Romania;
and BALTOPS, the major
after coming
Baltic Sea naval exercise. In ashore by
total, approximately 15,000 Royal Marines
troops simultaneously LCVP during
participated, using military familiarisation
training areas in countries training [USMC:
including Sweden, Poland, Sgt. Tatum
Lithuania and Latvia. C&S Vayavananda]
attended the three main
exercise phases held in

Combat & Survival 17

3 The LST (Landing Ship Tank) ORP
Lublin - the orange safety boat
alongside proved necessary when
the PTS-M sunk - fortunately its
crew escaped unharmed

he official NATO notification 3: USS San
of these exercises, formally Antonio, a
released on 12th May though Landing Platform
we were briefed on the Dock, provided
scenario and approximate dates
the bulk of the
back in January, explained that
all exercises were defensive and
US Marine Corps
intended as part of the Alliances
component of
assurance measures in response the Combined
to challenges on NATOs southern Amphibious Task
and eastern periphery. The activity Force
focused on enhancing interoper- This PTS-M brought a platoon of
ability, readiness and responsive- 4: HMS Ocean in Finnish Marines safely ashore
ness among Allied and partner the background but floundered in heavy swell
nations as well as demonstrating with various on its return trip out to ORP
that NATO members are united American, British Lublin (Pennant 821)
in their commitment to collective and Swedish
defence. amphibious craft
coming ashore
We are commencing our coverage and a Polish
of the ALLIED SHIELD exercise PTS-M beaching
series this month by looking at part
of the second amphibious landing 5: Finnish
phase of BALTOPS 15, held on
Marines from the
the wooded coastline to the west
of the Polish port of Ustka where a
Nyland Brigade
very large tract of land is used as
aboard a PTS-M
a military training area. Four days which is just
before we visited, the Combined about to swim
Amphibious Task Force had landed ashore from
at Ravlunda in Sweden in what Polish ORP Lublin
was effectively a dress rehearsal [USMC: 1st Lt.
to give participating Marines and Sarah E. Burns]
Sailors a chance to train together,

18 Combat & Survival

A phalanx of USMC AAV-P7/
A1 tracked amphibious
assault vehicles swims
ashore from USS San Antonio
anchored off Ustka [USMC:
1st Lt. Sarah E. Burns]

6 7

6: As the US
Marines amtracs
hit the beach
Swedish CB-90
fast assault craft
covered them with
heavy machineguns
and grenade
but the main event would take place BALTOPS, short for Baltic Operations, and partner forces to defend the
7: The American more than 200 kilometres south-east, is an annual joint, multinational Baltic region. First run in 1971, the
AAV-P7/A1 amtracs across the Baltic Sea, where the maritime-focused NATO exercise exercise is US-led and
can transport up airfield at Wicko Morskie had to be designed to enhance flexibility sponsored by Commander US
captured to give an air transportation and interoperability, as well as to Naval Forces Europe. Its purpose
to 21 Marines plus
point of entry. demonstrate resolve among Allied is primarily to train partner nations
three crew ashore in integrated anti-submarine
under armour 8
warfare, mine countermeasures,
protection and search & rescue, and maritime
travel far inland interdiction operations based on
scenarios dealing with potential
8: The Soviet-built real world crises and maritime
PTS-M used by security.
the Polish Marine
Infantry serves The Standing NATO Maritime
the same purpose Group and Standing NATO
as the AAV-P7/A1 Maritime Countermeasures Group
but is open-topped naval aspects of BALTOPS lie
outside the scope of this magazine,
so offers less
but the littoral operations side of
protection the exercise are of great interest.
Britains fleet flagship HMS

Combat & Survival 19

The CV-22 Osprey tiltrotor 9: US Navy Landing
has replaced the CH-53E Craft Air Cushion
helicopter as USMC air (LCAC) sweeps
transportation - these aircraft ashore past ORP
are capable of operating from Lublin which can
HMS Ocean just be seen through
the spray

10: Finnish SISU

wheeled armoured
personnel carriers
back off a US Navy
hovercraft - these
APCs also have
an amphibious
11: The SISU (now
Patria) XA-185 Pasi
can carry up to 16
troops in addition
to a crew of two
- propellers give it
a water speed of
9 10

Ocean (amphibious assault ship) 11 12

participated, along with HMS Iron
Duke (Type 23 frigate) and HMS
Quorn (mine countermeasures
vessel). A troop (platoon) Royal
Marines operated from Ocean, but
they appear to have come ashore
by LCVP (landing craft vehicle
personnel) in the first wave so we
were unable to photograph them.

High winds and extremely choppy summer foliage partially obscured the
seas caused logistics problems,
through the pine forests to assault the 12: Finnish Marine
airfield. However our Polish hosts let us provides security beach from our vantage point.
with the original plan to transport
the media from Ustka Port to the
approach as close to the beachhead for a mortar
as safety constraints allowed (bearing detachment - he During the period that we were on the
landing beach by Swedish CB-90 beach the wave of multinational forces
in mind that the bulk of media attending wears the NATO
assault craft being shelved on coming ashore consisted primarily of
were not defence specialists familiar Response Force
safety grounds, so by the time Finnish and United States Marines.
with amtracs and hovercraft) though patch on his upper
we arrived there overland the first Some of the Finns were landed by
the downside to us being on the dunes right arm
wave was ashore and had set off Polish PTS-M tracked amphibious
rather than in the boats was that early

20 Combat & Survival

vehicle and others were brought
onto the beach in their SISU
personnel carriers by US Navy
Landing Craft Air Cushion (LCAC),
while US Marines landed in their
Assault Amphibious Vehicles (AAV).
The Swedish CB-90 fleet covered
the beachhead from the flanks.

Footnote: When informed that those

responsible for Swedish combat
boat flotilla operations had deemed
the sea state too rough to take us
aboard, some of the media could
not see any problem. However,
when midway through the landing
phase a Polish PTS-M tracked sank
while attempting to re-embark an
LST, they quickly appreciated the
power of Neptune.

Next month: NOBLE JUMP 15

Above: The Finns

set up their mortar
line behind the first
rows of sand dunes
to cover Marines
assaulting Wicko
Morskie airfield

Right: The Finnish

Marines from the
Nyland Brigade are
highly respected -
Carl will bring an
in-depth report on
them in a future
13: Although
we did not see
them some Royal
Marines went
ashore at Ustka
- long shadows
suggest this was
early morning
[ Polish MoD]

13 14 14: Swedish Saab

JAS 39 Gripen
aircraft - seen here
in a formation low
pass - provided
combat air cover
for the Combined
Landing Force

Bob Morrison
unless noted

Combat & Survival 21

An elite Jaeger from Finlands Nyland Brigade on the
dunes at Ustka during BALTOPS 15 - the shield on his
upper right arm is the high visibility version of the NATO
Response Force badge [ Bob Morrison]

22 Combat & Survival

We are all too connected and the use of the
Internet has expanded massively in recent
times. Every organisation is now connected
and almost everyone has a smart phone.
Computers control telephone services, power
supplies, rail networks, banks, air traffic and
vast areas of our military and security systems.
Imagine if a hostile force were able to gain
control of those computer systems, or even just
slip in a damaging virus.

24 Combat & Survival

Internet- DEFINITIONS persons unknown had hacked into subtly implanted so control could be
dependent Cyber-terrorism is more than cyber- one of its databases, taking the gained at a later date
personal information of millions of
cities are crime, which is about money and usually
government employees, some with In 2013 a group calling itself the
highly targeted at individuals. Cyber-terrorists
a high level of security clearance. Syrian Electronic Army hacked into an
vulnerable want to create terror. They want to
control and cause damage, bringing Although China is suspected of Australian Internet company leading to
to cyber- whole organisations or countries to their being behind the attack, nothing several American media companies,
terrorism [BM] knees. Cyber-terrorists are motivated by could be proven. Someone now including the New York Times, losing
a political and/or military agenda, not has a long list of people that may control of their websites. A similar attack
Images wealth. be worth bribing, kidnapping, was carried out during the Russian-
Jason Polley or duplicating their ID, putting under Georgian War in 2008, when hackers
Bob Morrison This is a form of warfare where the surveillance or even assassinating. got into several news and radio websites
soldiers are skilled hackers, the The list could be repeatedly sold and re-wrote the news ... like something
battlefield is the Internet, and the around the world. out of a Bond movie. The hackers
weapons are viruses. Cyber-attacks realised you can control the people if
are conducted remotely, anonymously Prior to this, Sony were hit and you control the media.
and cheaply, requiring no expensive details of 77 million customers were
weapons or troops, yet the effects can taken. Other victims of cyber-attacks The Leveson Inquiry into phone
be as crippling as any warhead. have included the NHS, the CIA and hacking has shown just how easy and
Lockheed Martin; the aerospace widespread the practise is. No form of
EXAMPLES company that designed the F35 electronic communication is truly secure.
In June 2015 the US admitted it had Lightning. What if information was
been the subject of an attack and not just stolen, but viruses were In 2007 Estonia was attacked by remote

Combat & Survival 25

the US Strategic Command the
task of combating cyber-terrorism.
This also led to the creation of the
Air Force Cyber Command, as
well as coordinated strategies with
other agencies like the National
Security Agency. The FBI now has
a Cyber Task Force to address
cyber-terrorism, identity theft
and all forms of cyber-crime. The
CIAs Digital Innovation Office is
the first new directorate the CIA
has created in 50 years and in
direct response to the threat from
cyber-terrorism. Groups like ISIS
which have shown considerable IT
expertise - and they just get better.

Good anti-virus software helps,
hackers on a massive scale. It was defences, but many suspect they are Above: An airport but the hackers are often after
probably Russia, but the nature of actually engaged in attacks on foreign without computers personal data, so as to get round
cyber-attacks means virtually nothing governments and behind a significant
can be accurately traced. Like so
would grind to a the protection and imitate you.
proportion of international hacking.
many countries, Estonia is a computer/ A report published by McAfee, the
halt in seconds Malware and phising innocent
internet dependent country, and was worlds largest security technology - most forms of looking emails that aim to coax
rendered off-line completely for several company, reveals that China has public transport personal information out of you
weeks. This disabled the countrys hacked into dozens and dozens of US could be paralysed - are harder to defeat. Once they
banking, transport and mobile phone and UK companies and government by a cyber-attack
services, as well almost every aspect agencies, including Britains Foreign
of its business life. Office. Right: Cyber-
attacks on banks
In more recent times, the head of Britain takes all forms of cyber-crime and financial
Interpol, Ronald Noble, had his identity and terrorism seriously. Within the
stolen. Hackers gained access to the
institutions are
Police force there is the National Cyber
Interpol system and learned about an Crime Unit, initially created to support
often hushed up
on-going operation. the Fraud Squad but now extended for fear of losing
to all forms of crime and terrorism. public confidence
Many cyber-attacks are hushed up for It helped set up the International
fear of losing public confidence and Cybercrime Security Protection Below: Britains
giving terrorists publicity. What we read Alliance, to unify the public and private NHS was recently
about is a tiny percentage of what is sector approach to the cyber-attacks. hacked - but what
actually happening. The Counter Terrorism Command was the real
(SO15) is a merger of the Special purpose of the
ANONYMOUS Branch and the Anti-Terrorist Branch,
Anonymous is the name of a and work closely with MI5 and MI6 in
mysterious group of very skilled addressing cyber-terrorism.
have enough data to make the
hacker-activists that operate globally.
computer system believe they are
They have the ability to hack into The US also takes very seriously
you, they can get into a system and
virtually any system, as well as to the threats from cyber-attacks. The
wreak havoc, plant viruses and steal
co-ordinate the mass emailing of Department of Defence has appointed
information with ease.
organisations so as to
paralyse them. Often
Dont open emails from
symbolised by an
organisations you have not had
image of Guy Fawkes,
recent contact with, particularly mail
they have launched
with an attachment or hyperlink. Use
cyber-attacks as part
one PC/laptop for work and another
of a political protest,
for recreational use.
or just for fun. Their
attacks are almost
Have a low-tech Plan B if making
impossible to trace, and
arrangements with others. Do not
come from thousands
under-estimate our reliance on
of different directions
computers. Understand just how
vulnerable we all are, and take steps
to improve firewalls and personal
NATIONAL security particularly if you work
RESPONSES for a government department or
Chinas Defence
Ministry has its Cyber
Blue Team supposedly
To be continued...
set up to bolster its

26 Combat & Survival

SCATs instructors
are specialists in the
Maritime Security, Close
Protection and Firearms
Training fields with a
breadth of Military and
Police experience

Combat & Survival 29


If you are ever in the Main Image: SCAT

Gdansk area while one of founder Mariusz spent
our courses is running, more than half of
feel free to drop in and his 22-year military
watch how we do things
career with GROM - in
at SCAT. That invitation
from the UK representative
this photo the Polish
of the Polish-based and
SF unit is seen during
internationally accredited boarding operations
Security Consulting And in the port of Umm
Training company was an Qasr in March 2003
offer we could not refuse, [US Navy: Arlo K.
as we had been picking up Abrahamson]
good vibes about their set-
1: In addition to

up and courses. Founded
classroom, workshop, ast month we covered one the police or armed forces, and so
by Mariusz Pakiela, who
armoury and firing of SCATs two-day Basic merely required a refresher, but a
spent the first part of his
Firearms course, which luckily couple were novices whose work
22-year military career range facilities SCAT
coincided with NATOs ALLIED could put them in a situation where
with Polands elite 56th has access to both SHIELD series of exercises in the knowing how to use a firearm prop-
Commando Company before inland waterway and Baltic nations for which I had set erly might save their life.
transferring to serve 12 Baltic Sea harbours aside a couple of weeks to work in
years with GROM Special and vessels for Poland. Some of the students on SCAT run a number of shooting
Forces, SCAT is an unique authentic maritime this course had previous firearms courses, both Basic and
training company. training training, through prior service in Advanced, covering pistol and

30 Combat & Survival

With a wide range of both live
and drill weapons (like these
Simunition Glocks) at their
disposal SCAT instructors can
train students across a wide
range of scenarios

carbine techniques, to cater 2: Under their

for individuals who are totally instructors
unfamiliar with weapons supervision Basic
procedures and handling skills
Firearms Course
right through to those with
previous training who need
students out on the
to reduce reaction time and
firing range at the
shoot with a higher degree start of Day Two
of accuracy in a tactical practise skills taught
environment. However this is the previous day
only one string to the training
companys bow, as they also run 3: As paper targets
fully accredited Maritime Patrol do not fire back the
Craft, Target Interception, Close firing range is rather
Quarters Battle, Vessel Board clinical but before
Search & Seizure, Insertion they progress to
& Extraction, and Patrol Boat using Simunition duration, with both theoretical and personnel, the Basic Diving
Security Operations courses for
rounds every practical exams at the end leading course lasts 30 days with the
Police, Coastguard and Security
Company operatives.
student must master to certification, but these almost pale Advanced Diving course being of
weapons handling into insignificance when compared the same length, but if Underwater
Many of the more intense drills and display with the highly specialised Diving Vehicle, Tactical and Cold Water
Maritime training courses shooting accuracy courses which Mariusz and his team modules are bolted on each
offer. Intended for military, police, student could spend 95 days
offered by SCAT are of 14-day
border guard and port security under SCAT tuition .

Combat & Survival 31

Once the pistol has been
mastered it is time to move on to
9mm sub-machineguns and, as
here, 5.56mm assault rifles like
this Mossberg MMR Tactical firing
Simunition rounds

Left: This blue Glock terrorism but

and its dedicated also theft and
magazine allow vandalism pose
students to both a significant
safely shoot indoors problem.
in a CQB environment Longer courses
and shoot back at for security
similarly equipped screeners, both
assailants firing on the Document
Other non-maritime and non-firearms marker rounds Verification and
day courses run by SCAT include: Checkpoint Control
Basic Security Awareness, for Right: An instructor aspects, are also
personnel working in a heightened supervises a student run by this Polish-
security environment (where the as he engages various based team which
threat of terrorist attack on the targets on command operates as a Non-
public or the workforce is high); while walking Public Continuing
and Behavioural Profiling, for retail through a kill house Education Provider
industry workers in environments - this photo was only with EU and ISO
where not only possible because accreditation.
Simunition rounds
were used However it is in
the Firearms and
Maritime Security Training spheres training base on the outskirts of
that Mariusz is really in his element, Elblag, just a stones throw from
as he spent so much of his military the docks on the river which gives
career ascending to the city its name, are adorned with
Student are given access to a the pinnacle of plaques and certificates charting
range of 9mm sub-machineguns excellence in Mariuszs military career and
of German, Polish and Swiss manufacture these disciplines. underscoring his competency in
- this is the Brgger & Thomet APC The classroom Naval Special Warfare, Riverine
configured for firing Simunition rounds walls of the SCAT Patrol Craft Operations and Naval

32 Combat & Survival


Main Image: Outdoors Small Craft Instruction. As for his

two students take on Instructor Cadre, this is drawn
an armed assistant as primarily from Polish Special
an instructor bundles Forces and retired police and
the third to safety in border guard anti-terrorist unit
a Close Protection officers who are Polish and/or
scenario outside NATO security certificated, so
SCATs training base their expertise level is second to
4: Students armed with
assault rifles practise Finally, turning to the weapons
CP drills against used on the Basic and Advanced
assailants firing Firearms Courses, both live
with AKs from longer and Simunition versions of a
5 wide range of types are used.
range - as this was
As can be seen the Glock 17 is
a non-firing exercise
SCATs pistol of choice, with both
with empty magazines
normal and marker ammunition
no helmets were worn
versions being used dependent
on precise training scenario, but
5: Simunition ammo a range of sub-machineguns
has a lower charge and assault rifles, including a
giving reduced batch of consecutively numbered
velocity allowing AK-47s purchased unfired, is also
service weapons available to students for familiarity,
to be used - the handling and shooting practise.
paintball-like marker
bursts on impact and To find out more about SCAT
should not injure a courses go to - the
person wearing face website is in English, Polish and
protection Russian.

Images Bob Morrison, unless noted Combat & Survival 33

In response to the Ukraine Main Image: During
crisis, and the Russian the live-fire phase
involvement in it, NATOs of PUMA 15 a
focus has changed from BWP-1 armoured
training to conduct
infantry fighting
stabilisation and counter-
insurgency operations to
vehicle of 2 Batalion
preparing for conventional
warfare again. In May
engages a target
2015 French, Polish and with its 73mm 2A28
US forces trained for gun
armoured warfare at the
Land Forces Training Right: Engineers
Centre and Drawsko of 15 Mazurski
Pomorskie Training Area Batalion Saperw
in north-east Poland, blow a gap through
during Exercise PUMA a minefield with
15. Led by 15 Giycka a Zesp Bojowy the position where a segment of the continue to close in on the well dug
Brygada Zmechanizowana Wyrzutni
. adunkw attacking enemy armoured forces has in positions of the French and Polish
(the Giycko-based 15th Wyduzonych
. been destroyed by a combination of troops of the multinational Tactical
Mechanised Brigade) of the Duzych Sukhoi Su-22 fighter-bombers and Battle Group (TBG).
Polish Army, this exercise (Zmodernizowany) Mi-24W Hind attack helicopters, as
marked the first ever mine clearing line well as well-directed artillery fire of a Now the enemy has come in range
deployment of French Army
charge battery from 15 Mechanised Brigades of the defenders anti-tank weapons
Leclerc main battle tanks Dywizjon Artylerii Samobienej (self- and main battle tanks, with the
outside France for training propelled artillery squadron) equipped first of their vehicles crossing the
purposes. with 2S1T Gozdzik howitzers. However open fire line. Immediately on the
the air-strikes and artillery fire have right, bright flashes followed by
11:00 approx. 29th May, 2015: In merely disrupted, but not stopped, deafening crashes indicate that
the distance black smoke marks the attacking enemy forces that the lead enemy armour has been

Combat & Survival 35

1 2

engaged by French Leclerc main Bojowy Wyrzutni adunkw

1: BWP-1 armoured lines of its sister company.
battle tanks from 12e Rgiment de Wyduzonych Duzych / infantry fighting

Cuirassiers, with their 120mm CN Zmodernizowany) mine clearing vehicle of 2 Batalion Again the loud bangs of 120mm tank
120-26/52 smoothbore tank guns. line charges. Suddenly there Zmechanizowany guns and the fizzling noises of the
From the left the fizzling noises of is a huge fire-ball followed by 73mm guns of the armoured infantry
(mechanised infantry
high explosive anti-tank rounds can a massive bang as the large fighting vehicles can be heard all over
be heard heading down the range, explosion created by the system
battalion) conduct the Drawsko Pomorskie Training Area
indicating that the Polish BWP-1 clears a gap through a minefield
an offensive river range. With this battalion-size live-fire
armoured infantry fighting vehicles that had initially been created
crossing operation exercise involving American, French
of the 2 Batalion Zmechanizowany by engineers of the defending and Polish forces Exercise PUMA 15
(mechanised infantry battalion) armed force in order to block the enemy 2: During an drew to a close.
with the 73mm 2A28 gun have entered advance. With the minefield offensive operation
the fight. This massive weight of breached, the reserves now this BWP-1 armoured ANNUAL EXERCISE
anti-armour fire wreaks havoc among begin their attack. From the infantry fighting Exercise PUMA 15 was the latest of
the attacking forces and immediately woods behind the French forces vehicle of 2 Batalion a series of exercises held annually by
checks their advance. It is now time for a previously concealed US tank Zmechanizowany 15 Giycka Brygada Zmechanizowana
the battalion commander of the Polish company, equipped with M1A2 has just successfully of the Polish Army. Usually being
2nd Battalion to launch a counter- SEP (V2) Abrams MBTs, emerges negotiated a water of a national nature, involving only
attack with his reserves in order to and pushes forward at high obstacle Polish troops, the battalion-level
totally destroy the attacking enemy speed. At the same time a Polish exercise programme is held to
force. mechanised infantry company, Images allow the brigade command to
equipped with BWP-1 armoured Carl Schulze evaluate the operational readiness
The counter-attack begins with the infantry fighting vehicles, appears of subordinate units and certify
launch of two ZB-WWD/Z (Zesp on the left to pass through the them ready for combat service. This

36 Combat & Survival

A Leclerc main battle tank of 12e
Rgiment de Cuirassiers engages a
target from a defensive position with
its stabilised 120mm CN 120-26/52
smoothbore tank gun
during the PUMA 15 3
live-fire package

involved in the exercise, providing 4

combat and logistic support for
the TBG or serving as command
and control elements or opposing
forces. The exercise was conducted
on the Drawsko Pomorskie Training
Area, in north-western Poland,
home of the Land Forces Training
Centre, between 11th and 29th May
years exercise, however, also 3: Polish Mi-24W Hind and, according to official statistics,
saw the participation of a Sous- attack helicopters of involved some 2,000 troops and
Groupement Tactique Interarmes 300 wheeled and tracked vehicles
1 Brygada Lotnictwa
(SGTIA) of the French Army and as well as helicopters and combat
Wojsk Ladowych
aircraft. Overall control of the

elements of the 2nd Battalion, 7th provided close air

Infantry Regiment Cottonbalers exercise was in the hands of
support to the French, General Slawomir Kowalski, brigade
of the US Army.
Polish and US ground commander of 15 Gizycka Brygada

The participation of NATO troops

forces during PUMA Zmechanizowana.
in the exercise was a direct result 15
of the ongoing reassurance TACTICAL TRAINING AND
measures taken by the Alliance 4: French infantry LIVE FIRE PACKAGE training saw the combined armoured
in the wake of the Ukraine crisis deployed on PUMA 15 Basically Exercise PUMA 15 was force conducting offensive and
and the Russian involvement were equipped with divided into a tactical phase and defensive operations, such as fighting
in it. For 15 Giycka Brygada the FELIN (Fantassin a live-fire phase. The first phase a delaying battle, fighting an all-arms
Zmechanizowana, the involvement quipement et consisted of an interoperability defensive battle, attacking across a
of French and US troops on Liaison Intgr) package and a tactical training water obstacle, conducting flanking
Exercise PUMA 15 was a great infantry equipment 5
operations, advancing
benefit, allowing its units to train in - note this 5.56mm to contact, operating
a combined forces environment. FELIN FAMAS it is under an NBC threat,
During the exercise the 2nd fitted with a EOTech and taking and
Mechanised Infantry Battalion, sight holding objectives with
commanded by Lieutenant offensive action.
Colonel Marke Pieniak and also
5: This French VBCI On 27th May,
based at based at Giycko,
equipped with BWP-1 armoured
of the SGTIA has for example, the
infantry fighting vehicles, was also
deployed along a TBG conducted
evaluated. vital advance route a battalion-size
of the multinational offensive operation
The French and US contingents Tactical Battle Group after beating off an
were placed under command to provide cover enemy attack. In the
of the Polish battalion in order for the advance of package. During the interoperability first part of the offensive, French and
to form a Tactical Battle Group elements of the package familiarisation training was US forces secured objective A in
(TBG). Most of the other units of Polish 2 Batalion conducted at all levels in order to order to enable the remaining assets
15 Mechanised Brigade were also Zmechanizowany develop and standardise common of the battlegroup to pass through
operational procedures. The tactical and attack the final objective B. In

Combat & Survival 37


Main Image: support. Conducting a counter-

Conducting attack, including the passage of
operations under lines, was also part of the live-fire
chemical weapons package.
threat of was one
part of the training SOUS-GROUPEMENT
- here Polish BWP-1
IFVs run through a France participated in Exercise
decontamination PUMA 15 with a Sous-
point after being Groupement Tactique Interarmes
exposed to simulated (SGTIA) - a reinforced company-
chemical weapons size all arms battle group
attack provided by the 2e Brigade
Blinde (2e BB) and numbering
order to do so the
6: The M1A2 SEP some 300 troops. The core of the
Polish troops then
(V2) Abrams is the SGTIA was formed by a squadron
had to fight their latest version of the of the Olivet-based 12e Rgiment
way across a water US main battle tank de Cuirassiers, equipped with 15
obstacle and secure - this one belongs to Leclerc main battle tanks.
the other bank; D Company from 2nd
Battalion of the 7th The platoon-size infantry
the water obstacle
Infantry Regiment component of the SGTIA was
crossing being
provided by the 16e Bataillon
supported by 15 Cottonbalers
de Chasseurs, based at Bitche.
Mazurski Batalion
The infantry fielded four Vhicule
Saperw (engineer Left: A Star 6x6 Blind de Combat de lInfanterie
battalion). With this truck of the Dywizjon (VBCI) wheeled infantry fighting
task achieved they Przeciwlotniczy vehicles and its infantrymen
had to continue their is ferried over a were equipped with the latest
attack, take the final objective and (NBC defence forces) of the Polish water obstacle by a FELIN (Fantassin quipement
secure it against an enemy counter- Army. PTS-M amphibious et Liaison Intgr) infantry
attack. In the last phase of the day the
transport vehicle of equipment. Engineer support
enemy deployed chemical weapons Exercise PUMA 15 then
to stop the advance of the TBG, culminated in the live-fire package
15 Mazurski Batalion for the SGTIA was provided by a
therefore large parts of it had to be conducted on 28th and 29th May,
Saperw section of the 13e Rgiment du
Gnie (13e RG) equipped with
relieved in place during the evening during which the forces trained to
one Engin Blind du Gnie (EBG)
and run through a decontamination fight a defensive battle supported
armoured engineer vehicle and
point run by the Wojsk Chemicznych by indirect fire assets and close air

38 Combat & Survival


Polish soldiers of 2 Batalion

Zmechanizowany battalion and
US troops of the 2nd Battalion
from 7th Infantry Regiment
Cottonbalers train together in
basic room clearing drills
7: This was the reconnaissance and liaison
first time French vehicles, Renault 6x6 trucks and
Army Leclerc main so on.
Indirect artillery fire support for the Tactical Battle battle tanks were
Group was provided by 2S1T Gozdzik self-propelled
. deployed outside The deployment of the French
howitzers from the Dywizjon
. Artylerii Samobieznej of France for training troops to Poland was conducted
the 15 Gizycka Brygada Zmechanizowana purposes - a total by rail and started on 20th April.
While Exercise PUMA 15 was not
of 15 tanks from the first time that French forces
12e Rgiment de had trained in Poland, it marked
Cuirassiers were the first time that Leclerc main
deployed battle tanks of the French Army
were deployed outside France for
8: A Leclerc training purposes.
main battle tank
from Frances DEATH RIDERS
12e Rgiment The US Army participated on
de Cuirassiers Exercise PUMA 15 with elements
advances over of the 2nd Battalion, 7th Infantry
the Drawsko Regiment Cottonbalers from the
Pomorskie 1st Armored Brigade Combat Team
Training Area - its of the 3rd Infantry Division; this
primary armament formation has replaced 2nd Cavalry
three Vhicule de lAvant Blind (VAB) transportation detachment. In total
is the 120mm Regiment, which C&S worked with
Genie wheeled armoured personnel the French Army deployed some
CN 120-26/52 earlier this year, in the USAREUR
carriers in the engineer configuration. 90 wheeled and tracked vehicles orbat. This US contingent was
with the SGTIA, among them in smoothbore tank
centred around D Death Riders
The SGTIA also included a logistic addition those already mentioned, a gun Company of the battalion, but also
support element containing, among Dpanneur du Char Leclerc armoured included elements of the units
other assets, a medical detachment, recovery vehicle, VAB ambulances, Headquarters and Headquarters
a maintenance detachment and a several Vhicule Blind Lger (VBL)

Combat & Survival 39


Company (HHC), such as the 9: After a

Mortar Platoon and the Scout simulated
Platoon. Major equipment fielded chemical attack
by the US troops included 14 M1A2 this Engin
SEP (V2) Abrams main battle tanks,
Blind du Gnie
three M3A3 Bradley cavalry fighting
vehicles, one M3A3 Bradley Fire
(EBG) armoured
Support Team Vehicle (B-FiST), one
engineer vehicle
M88A2 Heavy Equipment Recovery
of the 13e
Combat Utility Lift and Evacuation Rgiment du
System (HERCULES), one M88A1 Gnie (13e RG) is
armoured recovery vehicle and decontaminated
three 120mm M1064 mortar by Polish troops
carriers as well as several M113A3
armoured personnel carriers, FMTV 10: T-72M1 main 10
6x6 trucks and HEMTT trucks. battle tanks of
the Batalion
The US troops first deployed under Czogw also
Operation ATLANTIC RESOLVE to saw action
Poland in March 2015. ATLANTIC during PUMA 15
RESOLVE is aimed at reassuring - on the tactical
NATOs eastern members of the phase they
continued US commitment to the provided the core
collective security of the Alliance.
of the Opposing
Simultaneously, other elements of
the 2nd Battalion of 7th Infantry
Regiment Cottonbalers deployed
to Estonia and Latvia, where they
also participated in national and/or
NATO-led exercises.

Polands 15th Mechanised Brigade is based at Gizycko in north-eastern Poland,

close to the border between Poland and the Russian exclave of Kaliningrad. The
brigade belongs to the 16th Pomorska Mechanised Division, based at Elblag, which
also includes: the Wesola-based 1st Warszawska Armoured Brigade; the Braniewo-
based 9th Braniewska Armoured Cavalry Brigade; the Bartoszyce-based 20th
Bartoszycka Mechanised Infantry Brigade, the Wegorzewo-based 11th Mazurski
Artillery Regiment; the Goldap-based 15th Goldapski Air Defence Regiment and the
Elblag-based 16th Command Battalion.

The 15 Gizycka Brygada Zmechanizowana was formed out of the 2 Puku

Zmechanizowanego (mechanised infantry regiment) in 1994 and today the brigade

consists of the following units:
Batalion Dowodzenia (command battalion) based at Giycko
Kompania Rozpoznawcza (armoured reconnaissance company) based at Giycko
and equipped with BRDM-2 Szakal wheeled armoured reconnaissance vehicles
1 Batalion Zmechanizowany (mechanised infantry battalion) based at Orzysz and
equipped with BWP-1 armoured infantry fighting vehicles
2 Batalion Zmechanizowany mechanised infantry battalion based at Giycko and
equipped with BWP-1 armoured infantry fighting vehicles
Batalion Czogw (armoured battalion) based at Orzysz and equipped with T-72M1
main battle tanks
Dywizjon Artylerii Samobienej (artillery group) based at Orzysz and equipped with
2S1T Gozdzik self propelled howitzers
Dywizjon Przeciwlotniczy (air defence group) based at Giycko and equipped with
towed 23mm ZU 23-2 anti-aircraft guns
15 Mazurski Batalion Saperw (engineer battalion) based at Orzysz and equipped
with a wide range of engineer equipment including: the PTS-M amphibious
. transport vehicle; the Inynieryjny System Minowania Krotan mine laying vehicle;
Above: Badge of 15 Gizycka Brygada Zmechanizowana, worn since the Transporter Rozpoznania Inynieryjnego engineer reconnaissance vehicle;
December 2006 - the two swords represent the 1410 Battle of the Zesp Bojowy Wyrzutni adunkw Wyduonych Duych (Zmodernizowany)
Grunwald which resulted in a Polish victory over German knights and ZB-WWD/Z mine clearing line charge; the SL-34C dozer loader; and the BLG-67
the coat of arms are those of Polish knight Zawisza Czarny who took armoured bridgelayer.
part in the battle and serves as brigade patron Batalion Logistyczny (logistic support battalion) based at Giycko

40 Combat & Survival

1 2

MANUFACTURED BY 1: The bolt action

THE NEW US ARMY SNIPER the Remington 700
M24 trigger
WAS INITIALLY FIELDED 2: Manufactured by
XM2010 BUT NOW, AFTER Company the M2010
IS DESIGNATED M2010 round box magazine
(ESR). RATHER THAN 3: The rifle uses the
a front hand guard
section with
CHAMBERED M24 SWS. AS A Rails at the top,
RESULT OF ITS DIFFERENT bottom, left and
POWER AND A 50% Carl Schulze

The XM2010/M2010 Enhanced Sniper Rifle (ESR) entered service from late 2010 and the snipers
of the 82nd Airborne Division All American were among the first to receive the new weapon

42 Combat & Survival

4 5

4: The bi-pod of the 6

Enhanced Sniper
Rifle is made by
Harris Engineering

5: The ESR is fitted

ith extended butt-stock and
with a Leupold Mark
suppressor mounted, the 4 Extended Range/
M2010 ESR is 52.2 inches Tactical Riflescope
(1325mm) long. It has a with Advanced
combat ready weight of 18.7 lbs (8.5 Scalable Ranging
kg) and, according to official sourc- and Targeting
es, an effective operational range of Reticule
out to 1,200 metres. According to
information from the manufacturer, 6: The M2010 ESR
the weapon offers an out-of-the-box
1 MOA accuracy. The rifle uses the
uses the Remington
Remington 700 M24 long action re-
700 M24 long action height adjustable cheek piece Rail of the stock. Accessories issued
ceiver and trigger. Its .300 Winches- receiver and is fitted and butt pad. The stock is made with the weapon include hard cases
ter Magnum free-floating, hammer- with a Leupold Mark of T7075 aluminium alloy and for the rifle and the sniper scope, a
forged barrel is 24 inches (610 mm) 4 6.520 x50mm captures the bolt handle when soft case, cleaning kit and a tactical
long and features a 1 in 10 inches Extended Range/ folded. Additionally, the chassis sling.
twist. The weapon uses the Rem- Tactical (ERT) features cable routing guides that
allow management of electrical Fielding of the XM2010 ESR
ington Accessory Chassis System Riflescope cables, for example for aiming aids commenced in late 2010 and the
(RACS) that incorporates a free-float
tubular design and a front hand such as laser light modules. The weapon was type classified as
7: The butt stock weapon is issued with detachable M2010 ESR in July 2013. The last of
guard section fitted with monolithic
MIL-STD 1913 Picatinny Rails at the
folds to the right box magazines that
top, bottom, left and right.
- it has a fully can hold up to five
length and height rounds. Its bi-pod
The right-folding stock of the adjustable cheek is made by Harris
RACS has a fully length and piece and butt pad Engineering.

The M2010 comes

with a TITAN-QD
tactical suppressor
manufactured by
Advanced Armament
Corporation and is
fitted with a Leupold
Mark 4 6.520
x50mm Extended
Range/Tactical (ERT) Riflescope with a total of 2,520 weapons ordered to
Advanced Scalable Ranging and date for reconfiguration by the US
The M2010 ESR comes with a Targeting Reticle. The sniper scope Army was delivered in May 2014.
TITAN-QD tactical suppressor can be operated with the AN/PVS-30 From summer 2011 onwards the
manufactured by Advanced Clip-on Sniper Night Sight, which is weapon was in use operationally
Armament Corporation mounted in front of it on the upper with US Army snipers deployed to
monolithic MIL-STD 1913 Picatinny Afghanistan under ISAF.

Combat & Survival 43

The 82nd Airborne Division Main Image: The
All American is the only snipers of the 82nd
airborne formation of the
Airborne Division
US Army and nearly all its
personnel are parachute
All American
jump qualified. The division were among the
can field nine parachute first to be issued
infantry battalions and three with the the
airborne cavalry squadrons XM2010 ESR as
as its combat forces. Each seen here during
of these battalion-size units CJOAX 15-1 in
can field a Sniper Section, North Carolina
making the snipers of the
82nd Airborne an elite within
Right: A well
the elite.
sniper team of

eutralising targets with high
precision and at long range
the 1st Battalion,
is only one task of the snipers 325th Airborne
of the 82nd Airborne Division. Infantry Regiment
Their main mission is not just to pull has taken up a longer period of time and by doing so missions. They can also identify targets
the trigger of a sniper rifle, as within a position in a improve the situational awareness of the for the artillery and close air support
the parachute infantry battalions and hedge - weapons battalion headquarters and even higher assets as well as transmit target data
commands. to the battalion HQ. In their function as
the airborne cavalry squadrons the carried by shooter
snipers they can neutralise high value
snipers serve as a versatile and highly and spotter are Deployed by parachute or helicopter, targets at long range with high precision.
capable reconnaissance asset. They XM2010 ESR and
have the ability to monitor the enemy the airborne snipers can operate They are also able to provide overwatch
M110 SASS behind enemy lines in order to gather for other assets of the battalion, to
from well camouflaged positions over
intelligence or to conduct sniping conduct blocking actions, to demoralise

44 Combat & Survival

enemy forces through accurate Above: Sniping
fire and to conduct counter-sniper is actually not
operations. the main task
While they can be employed for
of the snipers
longer periods of time if necessary,
of the 82nd
the sniper teams can usually sustain Airborne Division
themselves for a period of 96 hours All American
without receiving any external as 80% of their
support. During a three-day mission missions serve
each member of the sniper team reconnaissance
will carry a load of about 60 to 90 or intelligence
pounds. gathering
Each of the parachute infantry
battalions and airborne cavalry Right: Wearing
squadrons of the 82nd Airborne a Ghillie Suit inferior in accuracy to the X/M2010 weeks long. The training days are long
Division features one Sniper Section. a sniper of the ESR, the semi-automatic weapon still and crammed with lessons, practical
This section belongs to the Recon 1st Battalion, allows them to engage targets out to a training and shooting exercises. If a
Platoon of the unit, which falls under 325th Airborne distance of 800 metres and on top of trainee misses more than four hours of
its Headquarters and Headquarters Infantry Regiment that offers the possibility to fire several the training he has automatically failed
Company. In addition to the Sniper advances along rounds in quick succession. If high the course.
Section, the Recon Platoon consists a tree line - he is precision is required the X/M2010 ESR
of three Scout Sections and a is used, and for long range sniping The first week of the training is mainly
armed with the
command element. The Sniper and technical targets the M107 LRSR. dedicated to stalking, practising range
Section features three Sniper Teams.
semi-automatic In addition to the two latter weapons, estimations and target detection.
Each team number three soldiers 7.62mm Semi- the shooter also carries a 5.56x45mm During the second week the students
and consist of the team leader, the Automatic Sniper M4A1 carbine during operations. learn the basics of ballistic and are
shooter and the spotter, all of them System rifle introduced to the M110 SASS. In the
fully trained snipers. SNIPER TRAINING third week shooting with the M110
1: The AN/PVS-30 The sniper training for the SASS is part of the training as well
The following sniper weapons are Clip-on Sniper paratroopers of the 82nd Airborne as gathering data with the weapon.
available within the teams: the Night Sight can Division is conducted at the Sniper The week ends with a written exam
.300 Winchester Magnum bolt be used with the School in Fort Benning, Georgia. The covering everything the students have
action X/M2010 Enhanced Sniper basic US Army sniper course is seven learned since the start of the course
scopes of the X/
Rifle (ESR); the semi-automatic
7.62x51mm M110 Semi-Automatic
M2010 ESR and 1
Sniper System (SASS) and the the M110 SASS
semi-automatic 12.7x99mm M107 allowing snipers
Semi-Automatic Long Range Sniper to engage targets
Rifle (LRSR). Which weapon or during periods of
weapons mix the teams actually use limited visibility
usually depends on the mission and and low light
type of target. levels
The snipers of the 82nd Airborne
Division regard the M110 SASS as
their primary sniper weapon. While
Carl Schulze

Combat & Survival 45

Left: The
snipers of the
82nd Airborne
Division operate
in teams of
three consisting
of a team
leader, a spotter
and a shooter -
here the spotter
and shooter can
be seen using
an XM2010 ESR
Right: Patch
of the 82nd
Division All
and which every student has to pass. is dedicated to alternative shooting American sniper is attached to a team within the
positions, such as the back position. - this is the Sniper Section of his battalion. Following
Week four sees the trainees being During this week the students are also only airborne this he is given several chances to
introduced to the X/M2010 ESR. In introduced to the M107 LRSR and further improve his skills, for example
addition, a series of night shoots with write the final exam. The seventh and
division of the by visiting the Mountain Scout Sniper
night vision devices is conducted. last week of the course features a field
US Army and Course at the Marine Corps Mountain
During week number five the trainees training exercise that ends with the final nearly all its Warfare Training Center (MCMWTC) in
have to pass an unknown distance shot, a live fire test that the students personnel are Bridgeport, California. Here he learns to
qualification, conduct shots on moving have to master. parachute jump engage targets in mountainous terrain
targets and are taught to handle the qualified above and below his own position at
9x19mm M9 pistol. The sixth week Upon graduation from Sniper School the extreme angles.

Equipment fielded by 82nd Airborne Division snipers. Weapons are the .300 Winchester Magnum bolt action XM2010 ESR, the semi-automatic 7.62mm M110 SASS and the semi-
automatic 12.7mm M107 LRSR. Also shown are AN/PVS-30 Clip-on Sniper Night Sight, M151 Sniper Spotting Scope, Manfrotto 055CXPR03 tripod with weapon rest attached
and Kestrel 4500NV Applied Ballistics Meter

46 Combat & Survival


The US High Mobility Main Image: Czech

Multipurpose Wheeled Para KAJMAN
Vehicle (HMMWV), more Defender 130
commonly referred to with 12.7mm
as the Hum-vee, is an main armament
extremely capable rough
traversed to rear
terrain vehicle across wide
open spaces like the US
during NOBLE
deserts and prairies, but JUMP 15 on Zagan
its size and weight can Training Area
go against it in certain
circumstances. During 1: Two of the crew
the 1991 Gulf War, where of a KAJMAN lay
expanses of soft sand down supporting
and sabkha (thin crust fire during a

salt flats) were often Special Operations ritains Special Air Service, immediately after Gulf War One
encountered, the Hum- assault - the in contrast, had a seemingly finished the US Rangers went to
vee had a tendency to driver is with the excellent light utility vehicle Land Rovers Government & Mili-
flounder and once it did vehicle but the at their disposal in the shape tary Operations team, headed up at
so digging out its massive other three have of the almost off-the-shelf Land that time by George Adams, with a
bulk was discovered to be dismounted on the Rover One-Ten DPV (Desert Patrol fag packet design for a heli-trans-
problematic. It was also far side Vehicle), which could not only fit portable rapid deployment vehicle
too wide to be transported inside the CH-47 Chinook Transport based on the standard Defender
inside helicopters by helicopter but was also light enough 110 model, which needed to trans-
clandestine Special port up to six fully armed Rang-
to operate effectively in sand and
Operations Forces.
scree deserts. As a consequence, ers and also carry a .50cal heavy

48 Combat & Survival

This KAJMAN photographed at IDET 15
in May is armed with a 12.7mm NSV
(modern version of the DShK) machinegun
and one 7.62mm PKB machinegun
machinegun or Mk.19
grenade launcher on a
ring mount. The R-SOV,
or Rangers Special
Operations Vehicle,
was born.

The Royal Marines

and British Army WMIK
(Weapons Mount
Installation Kit) family
of Land Rover Rapid
Deployment vehicles,
first used operationally
in Sierra Leone and
later in both Afghanistan
and Iraq, built upon
the foundations laid by
the R-SOV but these
conversions used the
conventional 3-door
body style rather than
the 5-door body derived
from the Station Wagon,
which the Rangers opted
for. A small number of
nations including Turkey,
as we saw back in the
February and March issues, opted chassis, these appear to have been Above: The large it is nicknamed the KAJMAN (as
for the 5-door R-SOV configuration stopgap procurements made on swing-away in Caiman crocodile) on official
rather than the 3-door WMIK, but what the UK would call an Urgent stowage pannier documentation.
Operational Requirement (UOR)
only the Czech Army appears to at the rear usually
basis until they could design a Procured specifically for the elite
have procured both types. carries the foul
vehicle which better suited their 43rd Airborne Battalion of the 4th
Although the Army of the Czech precise requirements. In 2009 this
weather canopy Rapid Deployment Brigade, which
Republic (ACR) operationally tailor-made solution entered service
and removable is the core of the Czech Republics
deployed both WMIK and R-SOV as the LAND ROVER DEFENDER windscreen panels contribution to NATOs new Very
versions on the Defender 110 - MILITARY ARMOURED 4, though etc. High Readiness Joint Task Force

Combat & Survival 49


The sixth crew member of this

KAJMAN racing forward at
Zagan has left his seat and is
perched on the stowage basket
- both machineguns are PKBs

Second pair of seats can

swivel outwards to allow
the Paras to cover both
sides with their assault
rifles and speedily dismount
into action

(VJTF) spearhead formation, each 2: Six KAJMAN 3

of these vehicles can transport Defenders allocated
a fully-equipped six-man squad to NATOs VJTF
of paratroopers plus two support are flown forward
weapons. The base vehicle is a by USAF C-17
stretched wheelbase Defender
Globemaster III at
130 with a combination body
which mates Station Wagon lower
the start of NOBLE
panels to a High Capacity Pick
JUMP 15 [1 GNC
Up rear tray, over which is fitted
pool photo]
a removable roll cage which
also carries a ring mount for the 3: This KAJMAN
primary armament. photographed on
the ranges in 2010
Three different armament has a 20mm AGS 17
configurations are fielded: Type as main armament
a) carries one 12.7mm NSV - tubular rail limits
machinegun and one 7.62mm depression over cab

PKB machinegun; Type b) carries [ Zdenek Novk]

two 7.62mm PKB machineguns;
and Type c) carries one 30mm

50 Combat & Survival

4 Despite its extended wheelbase the
Defender 130 KAJMAN still has reasonably
good cross-country performance in
addition to being heli-portable

AGS 17 automatic grenade launcher the Czech MoND, front and rear 4: Easily windscreen panels can also be fitted.
and one 7.62mm PKB machinegun. lower protection for the vehicle removable Usually these vehicles are fielded
Combat weight for the KAJMAN corresponds to STANAG 4569 softskin doors and without doors, but it appears both
Kolov Bojov Prostredek (CAIMAN Level One and, though not fitted windscreen panels armoured and unarmoured doors are

Wheeled Combat Vehicle), which is in the accompanying photos, the have been refitted available, as is a foul weather canopy
powered by a 4-cylinder 2402cc Ford KAJMAN has an underside blast kit.
to this KAJMAN
Duratorq Puma engine, is between protection armour plate similar to
along with its foul
3900kg and 4100kg and top speed is that seen on the British E-WMIK All KAJMAN Defenders have a
limited to 110km/hr (c.70mph). and R-WMIK models. Armoured
weather kit - its bumper-mounted WARN winch
plates are also noticeable
weapons mount for self-recovery, a pair of twin
ahead of driver and commander has been removed jerrycan racks mounted on the front
According to information released by and removable ballistic glass brushguard, a large hooded central

Combat & Survival 51

headlight for tactical night driving, Main Image: This in hot climates. Although I have used by 601st Special Forces Group
and Australian SASR Perentie- line-up of KAJMAN not seen photos confirming this, I in Afghanistan.
type tubular strengtheners from Defenders carries suspect that for active operations
brushguard back to D-post four six-man MAPIK-style lightweight soft armour The two static shots of the clean
chassis outrigger which double as squads of Paras panels would be fitted to the rear KAJMAN were taken at the IDET expo
running boards. At the rear there section of the roll cage in the same in Brno but the remainder were shot
along with one
is a near full width swing-away way that they were fielded on the during Exercise NOBLE JUMP 15 in
12.7mm and
stowage pannier, which doubles 4-man Czech Defender 110 SOV Poland.
as a rear compartment door, in
seven 7.62mm
which the foul weather canopy
machineguns 5
can be stored.
5: The same four
Normal crew for these vehicles vehicles from the
is six, with the commander up rear - there are
beside the driver manning the five vehicles to
secondary PKB machinegun, the a platoon but the
gunner stands in the ring mount, 5th was on static
two Paras sit on swivelling seats display - another
at the forward end of the rear platoon sits in
compartment and a sixth Para sits front of them
on a swivelling seat at the rear
right. There is also a jump seat for Images
the gunner on the loadbed behind Bob Morrison
the second row of seats for when unless noted
he does not need to man the
main weapon. The five full seats
have mesh panels for comfort

52 Combat & Survival

54 Combat & Survival
Combat & Survival 55
The uniform featured this can both fade with washing and/
month is no stranger to Kit or exposure to strong sunlight and
& Camo as Q, our former appear substantially different to
quartermaster who retired both eye and camera in certain light
a few years back, covered conditions.
it in some depth way back
in our August 2003 issue. The Czech Para NCO who kindly
Generally described as agreed to pose for C&S appears to
being vzor (pattern) 95, be wearing two different camouflage
usually abbreviated to patterns - i.e. predominantly green
vz.95, but often described the Czechs resurrected the stalled On the previous two jacket and predominantly brown
as Czech Leaf pattern by vz.85 project design but with colour pages we saw that trousers - but this difference is mostly
collectors, this camouflage variations which toned down the the Para NCO in to do with wear and different level of
actually entered service chocolate brown and bottle green Czech vz.95 Leaf exposure to sunlight.
shades while retaining lime green
two years earlier. Twelve camo was wearing
and black.
years ago, having a predominantly
established that it entered
Some commentators, possibly
green jacket and
service earlier than many
working mainly from photographs predominantly
sources stated, Q tried to brown trousers.
convince camo collectors or from small samples, suggest
that three shades of green plus Well, believe it
that it should really be or not, the above
called vz.93 but as he was black are used, and indeed from a
distance this camo does appear to photograph is
unsuccessful we will stick
with convention. be quite verdant. However having actually of the back
handled uniforms and recently of that very same
green jacket, but

compared (and photographed)
four-colour pattern originally
experimentally conceived
seven different large sample as the sun had now
around 1985 for what then
swatches of different fabrics punched through
was Czechoslovakia, the
approved by the ACR (Army the clouds it
design relies heavily on the US
of the Czech Republic) for the appeared to be more
manufacturer of uniforms my brownish to both
Armys 1948 ERDL (Engineer
opinion is that the colours are eye and camera.
Research and Development
essentially Pastel Green, Khaki For reference,
Laboratory) pattern which eventu-
Drab, Earth Brown and Black.
ally evolved into the US Armys these two Czech
Having said that, the Khaki Drab
M81 Woodland camo. Following
and Earth Brown shades can
SF operators (right)
the amicable 1991 split into the
vary from fabric to fabric and, like
carry MultiCam
Czech and Slovak Republics,
most IRR-treated fabrics, colours bergens.

56 Combat & Survival Images Bob Morrison

Years In The SAS
was published on
20th July this year

NIMROD does not really feature on helping injured soldiers

Just after 7:20pm on a Bank much as this biography first through the Pilgrim Bandits
Holiday Monday evening in chronicles his path through Forces Charity (pilgrimbandits.
May 1980 former Royal Artillery life and the British Army until org), of which he is an
bombardier Rusty Firmin he joined The Regiment then ambassador. A few days before
stepped into the history books. focuses on those fifteen years THE REGIMENT - 15 Years In The
The occasion was, of course, out of his 27-year career which SAS (ISBN: 978-1-472811318)
Operation NIMROD and Rusty was he served with the Special Air was published by Osprey
the gloveless NCO leading Blue Service. Running out to close Publishing, C&S visited Rustys
Team from B Squadron of 22 SAS on 300 pages, the book covers farmhouse to chat to him about
in the dramatic mission which previously seldom mentioned his new book, the past and the
rescued 19 out of 20 hostages missions in Northern Ireland and future. We have now read the
held by six gunman inside the Operation MIKADO, the proposed biography cover to cover and
Iranian Embassy in London. In suicide mission to insert two will bring you a review next
2010, at the time of the 30th C-130 Hercules transport aircraft month but in the meantime
anniversary of what many full of SAS Troopers and Pink here, told in his own words, is
consider to be the most iconic Panther SIIa Land Rovers behind the story of how Rusty joined
counter-terrorism operation enemy lines on the Argentinian the British Army and ended
of the modern era, Rusty co- half of Tierra del Fuego to take up serving in The Regiment
authored Go! Go! Go! which was out Super Etendard aircraft during that period when it
a highly detailed account of the and Exocet missiles during the dramatically reappeared in
rescue. Falklands Conflict in 1982. public view, but this time in its
previously secretive Counter-
On Monday 20th July Rustys Today Rusty has put soldiering, Terrorist role. It is a fascinating
latest book was published but, and Private Military Contracting, tale, recounted in much more
other than in one chapter, Op behind him as he concentrates detail in his new book.

58 Combat & Survival

Bob: Rusty, could you tell C&S fitness test, and was head and shoulders All of a sudden I felt I was worth
readers a little bit about your early above the rest. I won the cross-country by something to somebody. In reality, that
history. I know you were adopted a long way. Academically, having gone to was really the saving grace for me, as
and grew up in Carlisle; before you lots of different schools [Rustys adoptive I went on to play for the British Army
got to the end of your schooling father was in the military when he was and had professional trials as well, with
what were you thinking of doing young], I wasnt heading anywhere Im Arsenal, but I was never an Arsenal
with your life? afraid. So I did the test and they decided supporter. That was the start. Somebody
that Rusty was going to become a Junior wanted me, rather than Rusty being the
Rusty: My schooling was unhappy. I was Leader; a fifteen year old in the Army. I pain in the arse, the other way round,
heading nowhere. I was a Rolling Stones went along with it. I was going nowhere thinking the world was against him.
fan; tight powder blue jeans, Cuban heel and was tricked into going into the Army.
boots and long hair. I had no prospects September 1965 was when I went into the I started to enjoy what I was doing. Lots
whatsoever. I got caught stealing ducks Junior Leaders. of physical stuff. Skiing in Norway with the
eggs from a farmers barn; there were two Junior Leaders. Anything for me to get
of us, me and George. The farmer took me Bob: Why did you choose the out of a uniform and get into sports kit, I
back home and I got a really big bollocking Royal Artillery, or did the Royal was involved in. And that is what took me
Artillery choose through the Junior Leaders. I made the
you? regimental team, I played for them all the
time I was there, and it was the football
Rusty: I didnt. that preceded me after leaving Junior
The recruiting Leaders.
office looked at
my written stuff Bob: Where did you go with the
and they decided. Royal Artillery?
The warrant came
through for the Rusty: I went from Junior Leaders to
train and it had Barnard Castle, up in County Durham as
been decided it it was then, to 49 Field Regiment. They
was going to be were actually the regiment I asked to go
Junior Leaders, to. Funnily enough I had some friends in
Royal Artillery. Four Nine who had finished just before
There was no take me, so I put the regiment down and I got
your pick. It was it.
their choice.
From there we went down to support the
The Junior Leaders School of Artillery at Larkhill, where they
Regiment RA were run all the courses. Once again I got into
off my Old Man. He came up with a cunning based in Nuneaton in Warwickshire. So I the football big time in Four Nine. We
plan - he wasnt really my father though I joined there as a fifteen year old and went still had a couple of guys from National
knew him as my father. I was adopted at 14 through the system, within three months Service hanging around who were good
months of age, which didnt help. I found having completed my basic training. The footballers and they got me in the team. I
that out many years later. I didnt know who first parade after that three months was the never looked back from then. Once again
my real parents were and have never met only time in my life that I have fainted on it was football, cricket and everything
them to this day. a parade, a bit of an embarrassment, but else, where I got involved in my time
thats what happened. off, though it was football I was really
The Old Mans cunning plan was that interested in.
instead of the police coming to get me, how During those three months before I was
about I joined the Army? So I got dragged due to go home for my first leave, if I could Bob: So did football take you
down to the recruiting office. All Id ever have got my hands on 50, which was a through the military or did the
done was paper boy; I was the guy that lot of money in 65, I would have bought military take you away from
used to write down the addresses on the top myself out. The only saving grace after football?
of the papers so that the other boys could that was when I came back from leave, not
go and deliver them. That was all I had done being able to raise that 50, I knew that I Rusty: No, no. I stayed with football.
before I was fifteen [the School Leaving Age had been spotted playing football. On the I used to play in Larkhill, for example,
in England prior to 1972]. day of the parade I was spotted by Paddy sometimes playing five or six games a
OBrien, who was the guy who ran the JLR week. I played for civilian teams like West
I always had a huge passion for football RA football team. Lavington, for one, and then I might play
and always wanted to play but, at five foot for Market Lavington in the afternoon.
two and weighing seven stone..... A couple By then I had already started to grow - I So my football, even when I got to
of guys who played in the school team, six- grew ten and a half inches while I was in Larkhill and was starting to do lots of gun
footers, were England schoolboy footballers the Army - and he said: I watched you courses and I was getting promoted up to
but I couldnt even get in the team so the playing football and when you come back bombardier, continued. They reckon had
chances of me becoming a professional off leave Id like you to come to football I stayed in there Id probably have done
footballer slipped away. training with the regiment, the Junior really well, but I had itchy feet and moved
Leaders, and see how you get on. And from there to Germany after a few years,
So, I went to the recruiting office, did the thats what I did. to Hohne where, I think if I had stayed

Combat & Survival 59

there, I would probably have turned into an anything goes wrong youre coming back. There was a couple of other guys on the
alcoholic like a lot of guys. But I was determined it wasnt going to go Training Wing. I thought Ive only been on
wrong. the battery less than a year, but if they see
Once again I was involved with football, something in me... So I decided to go to
with German teams, I played with Nach So I went down to Plymouth. Thats where I the Wing. It meant I could keep myself fit. It
Hermansberg. I was playing with BAOR met my good old pal John McAleese, with meant I might miss out on certain tours and
(British Army on the Rhine) by then, playing the moustache. People like that were on stuff with the battery, but I was now in the
for the regiment and playing for the battery. the same course as me. They were trying position to teach new guys coming into the
Everything revolved around football, but I to get in 59 Commando [Royal Engineers] Commandos. I was part of a team of guys
had a social life with this. I didnt go to the and I was trying to get in 29 Commando that when gunners came in wed do the
pub every minute of the day, like a lot of on the artillery side. We were together, a beat-up with them and get them ready. So
guys when they werent working. There was little team of guys, in our social time we there was an end product there and it was
nothing else to do in places like Hohne. used to hang around together. The initial nice to be involved in taking these guys
training for the Commandos was what through. Id been through it myself. My job
I used to run down to Belsen from Bergen was to get them ready, help them and try
on a weekend, three miles down and three to get them fit and through to their second
miles back, have a wander round the phase at Lympstone so they could earn
camps and stuff. Other than pubs or sport their green beret.
there was just nothing to do there as a
single guy. Football, once again, was really I did that for a couple of years and
my saving grace. everything went well. There was a bit of
time off between courses and it was easy
Then we started Northern Ireland tours. to get into adventure training and so on. I
I did a couple of tours with Four Nine, did my parachute course in between, and
cutting the last one short, but while I things like that you could fit in to fill your
was there I started doing the long walks. time. But in time I got a bit bored again.
The first one was Saint-Jean-de-Luz to I was playing a lot of football, though it
Perpignan, over the Pyrnes, coast to wasnt interfering with my work because I
coast. Its 400 kilometres. In ten days we was on Training Wing. Then one day I let
walked it all the way. Three of us finished it; a thunderflash off when I got a bit bored.
an officer, the sergeant-major and myself. I put it inside a bedside locker, and they
Things like that I didnt find hard at all. went Thats about it!
Then it was the Great Divide Trail over in
Canada, the Italian Alps, things like that. It I thought: Hmm, I didnt do myself any
was all physical fitness really. favours there. So I took another step back
and thought: Im getting on a bit. I was
Once I could see where I was heading, now around the 26 mark and if I did [SAS]
although I was okay rank wise as I was up Selection again Id probably like to do it
to bombardier and had passed all my gun around 23. I knew some of the guys that
courses, it was now just a matter of where Rusty in his back garden in 2015 - he is still very fit, has had volunteered for it had passed and
I was heading next. I was getting bored. some had been RTUd, Returned To Unit,
all his own hair and only gave up competitive football
And then I met some guys playing for the so I thought it was now or never and so put
when approaching his 60th birthday [ Bob Morrison]
gunners back in the UK. They used to take in my papers for it. Of course Selection is
you back from Germany to play for the they call a beat-up. The first month was voluntary.
gunners, to represent your corps. One of done at Plymouth and the people who got
them was from 29 Commando, Stu, and through were selected for the All-Arms That was 1976, so in between courses
the other guy was from 7 Para RHA, and training course. I passed, John passed, I went up to the Brecon Beacons with
they both wanted me to go to their unit. and we were off to Lympstone to do the my bergen and stuff and took off in the
Commando Course. We passed this, summer of 76, and it was hot, really hot. I
So there was 7 Para in Aldershot and 29 together, and were presented with our got to know the Beacons over a period of
Commando were in Plymouth. My mindset green berets. time and was just waiting for the papers to
then was that I didnt really want to go and come through. Again I met up with John
spend a lot of time in Aldershot. It was all- After we finished the Commando Course, Mac McAleese, a good friend, Ginge
right going back there to play football for which was quite robust on the physical and Killer. The coincidence here is that
the Artillery in tournaments, but I didnt see side, I was then put in 145 Battery to start they were stationed up in Arbroath with
Aldershot as a place I could see myself with but the football got in the way a bit Five Nine and I was still in Plymouth and
settling down. So I thought no, Ill go and with work. I had been in the battery for the next time we met, after our beat-up,
do the Commando Course, and thats what about a year, maybe less, when they gave with no mobile phones in these days to
I did. I volunteered for it. me half an option. They wanted me in the keep in touch, was on the top of Pen y
battery because I was a good soldier, but Fan. I had come up from the other side,
I was in Northern Ireland at the time. They at the same time there was a vacancy from the Storey Arms side, and by the trig
accepted my application and a month coming up at the Commando Training point it was like a reunion. I said: Whats
before the Ireland tour finished it was pack Wing. Well, I was a fitness fanatic anyway, going on here? Mac said: Were going for
your bags youre back off to Germany, then so I said: When? They said if I left the Selection. I said: So am I.
pack all your kit, youre off to Plymouth to battery at that moment the vacancy was
do your Commando Course, best of luck, if there. Continued next month.....

60 Combat & Survival

Save 10% off
cover price
Free delivery
to your door*
Sub rates: 12 Issues
UK: 42.66
Europe (Airmail): 49.95
Worldwide (Surface Mail): 49.95 How to subscribe...
Worldwide (Airmail): 55.95 Online at
To receive your Pathfinder Compass just add Telephone: call 01484 435011
the following for postage and packing:
UK - Free of charge Europe: 8.10 Worldwide - 8.60 Post: return the form below
YES! Please start my low-price subscription to Combat & Survival for 12 issues and send Forname: ..........................................................................

me my free Pathfinder Compass. Starting my subscription from issue: _________ Surname: ..........................................................................

Cheque/PO or credit card payment - 1 Year (12 Issues). Address: ............................................................................

UK 42.66 Europe (Air) 49.95 World (Sur) 49.95 World (Air) 55.95 ..........................................................................................
Please include P&P UK - FOC Europe - 8.10 Worldwide - 8.60 ............................................... Postcode: .......................
1 I enclose a cheque/PO made payable to MAI Publications
Or Please charge my: Visa Mastercard
Credit Card Number: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Please indicate here if you do not wish to receive
Expiry Date: _ _ / _ _ Card Security Code: _ _ _ Issue No: _ _
special offers from companies other than MAI Publications or
Signed: ___________________________ Date: _____________
if you are under 18 years of age. All gifts subject to availability.
We reserve the right to substitute a gift of a similar value. Please
allow 28 days for delivery.

Return your completed subscription to: MAI Publications, Revenue Chambers, St. Peters Street, Huddersfield, HD1 1DL
Product - UK Contact: Top of The Range/Top of The Range
Telephone/Web: 01937 830 500/

I have to confess these boots, when carrying heavy weights, and

The toe area is
supplied by Top of the Range, only time will tell, but certainly for my
have been on my to do list use, carrying reasonable weight, they
well protected
for a while now, waiting were just fine. against abrasion
for a suitable trip to give - here you can
them a fair try. As they are The uppers are soft, comfortable and also see the
a hot climate boot the trial ideal for the hot dry environments complex and
conditions needed to be dry they are designed for. Importantly grippy tread
and warm. these boots are extremely light in pattern
weight; even in my large size (UK

t last it happened, when I went 13). The heels and toes are well
over to Belgium for the 200-year protected against abrasion. The lace
commemoration of the Battle fixings are plastic and work well and
of Waterloo. This turned out to seem to be tough enough. The were
be an ideal time to try these out as ideal for my needs.
it was very warm and mostly dry. I
walked a lot and was on my feet for
2 Main Image: The UA Valsetz boots are a bit different to look at but are
many hours over long days. I can now comfortable and well specified
tell you, these boots turned out to be
very comfortable. The slightly unusual 1: Inside the boot your foot is well catered for with substantial
looking soles give a good level of padding around the ankle and tongue
cushioning and seem to give good
grip. I do wonder if this inherent soft- 2: The sole design is unusual but gives very good shock absorption -
ness will reduce their life if used hard heel is well protected too

Combat & Survival 63

Product - UK Contact: EDZ/EDZ Biolite/Whitby and Co
Telephone/Web: 01900 810 260/ 01539 721 032/

Regulars will know I am a bit of an EDZ

fan now. This light fleece jacket has
proved to be one of those garments
I use a lot; mostly, it must be said,
around home base and it has taken the
place of my EDZ Yeti over the warmer

ost days it is the first thing I put on to ward
off morning chill. Very comfortable next
to skin but it also makes a very packable,
light top/ mid/ base/ layer to take along.
Perhaps much warmer and more comfortable than
it may look on a shop hanger. Seen in the photo
here worn in conjunction with EDZs Merino T-shirt,
these make a great combination Well worth a look
as far as I am concerned.

T-shirt works
well with the
micro fleece
or, as here,
on its own
Micro fleece
very much
a multi-use

Regular readers will be aware of the Biolite wood stoves,

previously reviewed in these pages. The Nano Grid is a handy
add-on that can work with the Biolite or separately if need be,
as an area lighting set-up with a separate Power Light.

he Power Light has an integrated rechargeable battery that plugs into the
Biolite or any other power source. This can be free standing or hand held
and is the power source for the Site Lights. All are independently switched
so you can control the lighting as required. The plentiful cables wind into the

When powered by the Biolite stove this is free light and offers a very flexible
lighting system for anything from a wild camping trip to a home BBQ in the

3: The Nano Grid puts out a lot of

light if required but each unit is
individually controllable - really
handy in lots of situations

4: Two general lights plus the base

unit - itself having a general light
and a torch - which contains
the battery and controls the other

64 Combat & Survival

Product - UK Contact: Eagle Creek UK/Eagle Creek UK Platypus /Cascade Designs
Telephone/Web: 0844 7365 333/ 07734 215 821/

There are a good few ways Right: The Eagle

out there of containing and Creek Flashpoint,
moving your valued kit. On a
few trips of late I taken this
seen here in the
Eagle Creek Rolling Duffel and snow, is well able
have to say at the outset was to stand up to
a bit of a sceptic, but by the rugged treatment
time I got home any doubts and also manages
had been turned around. to keep the
weather and your

or a start it arrived all rolled up, kit separated the trip as a shoe bag or similar, as it and this also offers a small zipped
which did not seem quite right.
has a Velcro closure and carry handle. internal stowage pouch. Substantial
But this is good. It can be packed
away into its own, supplied stuff
5: This is a Bonus! carry straps, a removable shoulder
pouch, which is great as when not in substantial duffel strap and compression straps are all
with the added The version I trialled is the XL 128-litre, included. The sturdy lockable zip has
use it is easy to store both when on
so has plenty of room for kit. It has a weather cover and, as proved on my
travels and when back at home. The bonus of its own trip when bags were left out in pouring
wheels which is good, large and very
stuff pouch comes in very handy on stuff bag which durable wheels, which is even better. rain and snow, on open trolleys, this
5 doubles as a boot These are well able to deal with the and the Bi Tech material are perfectly
bag humps and bumps and broken paving able to keep the rain out.
slabs and curbs one has to negotiate.
6: The Rollers on I was doubtful at first as this is not All in all a very good travel bag and
the bottom of the a ridged bag, but when full of kit it one which will definitely be with me on
my forthcoming trips.
Eagle Creek are seems to be quite fine and only has a
both practical and fabric handle which
again proved to be
robust perfectly usable. The
lack of a metal frame
7: The Water Tank and slide-out handle
can be rolled up all saves valuable
quite small when weight and in these
not in use days of very picky
check-in staff every
Images kilo counts.
or via
Mike Gormley The only ridged part
of the Flashpoint is
the wheel carriage

In use the handles

work well both to
carry and to pour
- the top opens
completely for
cleaning Moving and containing water is a necessary task.
This 4-litre container is a good one for base camp or
as a carry with for use when camped up. Empty it
packs flat.

would not recommend this to carry water inside your pack, as
the top closure is a press fit zip, but it does work well. It allows
for complete opening to clean so this could be used to collect
water of unknown quality for treatment prior to use. It carries
easily with the handles
and also pours well. Also
works well as a watering
can for the garden and
flower pots. Truly multi-

Combat & Survival 65

Product - UK Contact: Mountain Trails/Mountain Trails SealLine/Cascade Designs
Telephone/Web: 01995 672 879/ 07734 215 821/

8 9

Freeze-dried foods are now I, too, have now had a chance to try 8: A days worth last and valuable bits being trapped in
commonplace on the civvy side more than a stolen spoonful so can of food - note the the corners.
as well as in some military report with more firsthand knowledge.
pack depth even
ration packs. I did a brief Breakfast Porridge with Apple and As I mentioned in my heads-up, I was
heads-up on these recently, Cranberry is very tasty and not at all
with a long spoon impressed with the pack size of these
as I had not had a chance to bad to start your day with. I also tried rations. The volume of added gas is not
use them, but since then I can the Chicken Cous Cous; Im not quite 9: A selection there as these are vacuum packed, so
report that these have been as enthusiastic as Jamie, but thats from the range making the pack space considerably
used by our Dartmoor Ten Tors personal choice. The Rice Pudding and of the Mountain less. A real bonus if you have to carry
teams and have gained a few Strawberries is very nice indeed. Trails Food a few days
ticks of approval from them. on the Move rations with
The amount of food is not huge, but pouches you and

eam Manger Jamie, who first adequate, and I did a whole day out on for packing
introduced me to these, has been a trek on these alone and did not feel in general
Right: A very nice
very complimentary, especially wanting. The packs being compact and where space
about his favourite the Chicken narrow, which is good for the logistics
breakfast - note is always
and Cous Cous. He does comment on side, does make it necessary to have a the rounded an issue.
the importance of getting the amount of long spoon to avoid getting too messy package corners Worthy of a
water and timings correct, which I know when you eat but they are quite small so to improve your try, both from
from other similar products can be perhaps best to decant to a bowl. The chance of getting the taste and
important to critical. In my view longer pack corners are thoughtfully rounded all the food out transportation
is better. to avoid that annoying problem of those aspects.

Ways of keep your essential kit dry are always a good

thing. A dry bag that you can see through is even
better. You have been there? Groping around trying to
find a thing at the bottom of a bag. Being able to see
it helps a whole lot.

he SealLine is made from robust transparent vinyl with a fold over
and securable closure with integral D-ring so it can be secured to
prevent loss overboard. There is a range of sizes available.

Right :The SealLine transparent dry bag has distinct advantages especially
in this situation where it is used to store food so being able to see it saves
unloading the bag to find a specific item

66 Combat & Survival

Security Industry


A recent article in the based on the majority, which have few management is all about a rigid and


UK media discussed how educational qualifications. This would inflexible chain of command with no
personnel leaving the Armed obviously be very frustrating for any- imagination, that is institutionalised
Services, or being made one with a keen brain who then tends and where everyone has authority
redundant, are potentially to feel undervalued. If soldiers serve through rank and does not have to


discriminated against a full career of twenty-two years, or have genuine people management
when it comes to finding more, and then leave they will be hav- skills. Some of the public believe


employment. Research ing a civilian job interview which will be that officers and NCOs just bark
revealed that Army service only their second job interview in their orders and their soldiers follow them,
can put off potential life, despite them being around forty. meaning there is no use of initiative
employers; less than half of and no-one must say anything
those questioned thought To help them adjust, the soldier will outside of the official narrative. They
that serving in the Armed have had resettlement training which also genuinely worry that some
Forces was a positive teaches them to write a CV and helps veterans of campaigns in Iraq and
attribute and the rest rehearse job interviews. They also Afghanistan are suffering from PTSD
thought that it was one of undertake a paid course in which and excessive drinking; this hasnt

the least attractive traits in they train in civilian skills such as been helped by reports that over
a job-seeker. Many of those bricklaying, plumbing or painting half the UK homeless population are
surveyed said they would and decorating etc. Then there are ex-servicemen.
look negatively at potential Regimental Associations that will
employees if they had been advertise upcoming positions to apply What employers need to understand
in the Armed Forces. The for. The commissioned officer who is that many of those from the ranks
message that employees who leaves has much better prospects who have served a full career are
have served in the Army have as they are mostly graduates to start only institutionalised because they
valuable man management with, then given a postgraduate were allowed to join as children and
skills is disseminated to qualification whilst at Staff have known no other life. The Army
civilian employers, but this is College and they tend to has done everything for them and
clearly not getting through. spend their career their wage is very high compared to
Why? with an ever their civilian counterpart with a similar
watchful lack of qualifications. Employers

hen it comes to the military eye on jobs must realise that, despite this facet,
there are some differences in in the City former service personnel have
the employment model that or commerce. some of the best training in
make any ex-serviceman, Commissioned the world, including technical
or woman, applying for their first job officers also have a and man management skills,
outside in civvy street different from career coach in the and its not their fault that the
other applicants. The first is that most manning and personnel Army does not offer them any
in the ranks join at a very young age, centre to advise them and meaningful qualification (such
the majority having entered service an organisation that helps as a degree) or recognised
straight from school with very little them find a job; called the Officers certification in the way that the
qualifications (apart from the techni- Association, this 95 year old charity Royal Navy and Royal Air Force
cal trades, which ensure the applicant produces many resources including often do for their personnel.
has GCSEs). Although there is the a handbook of names and phone
very occasional graduate that joins numbers of ex-officers in commerce But its not only civilian employers
up as a private soldier, they tend to and industry who will help former that ex-soldiers have to worry about
be quickly identified and commis- officers find positions. when trying to find employment.
sioned before they can spend too Many ex-military employers or
long in the ranks - or they quickly be- Service personnel have other issues managers will only seek to employ
come demoralised and leave. This is to contend with in finding work, their friends or members of the same
because the Army tends to manage one of which is that those that regiment, and then
everyone in the same generic manner havent served assume that military they also add
the caveat of
rank. Rather than

experience and
qualifications, the
Army equates rank
and time served with


It is not just about educating

employers to the skills that soldiers
have, and getting a message
out to them, but also helping the

Might It Harm Your Next Career? soldiers get meaningful academic

qualifications over their twenty-two
year first career, in the same way the
- By Robert Shaw US Army does, that will make them
more attractively employable when
they leave.

68 Combat & Survival

The tail end of the 20th Main Image: A month I have details of three of Ac-
Century saw the introduction curate Armours products relating to
very early Tangi
of a new type of scale model armoured Land Rovers, with one full
photographed kit and two conversion kits.
miniature, namely the multi-
media kit. These new models
in 1988 inside
comprised polyurethane Grosvenor Road HOTSPUR
resin, white metal and photo- police station [BM] First up is Accurate Armours 1/35th
etched brass components scale resin complete kit depicting
and numerous cottage 1: The Hotspur the later variant of the Hotspur
industry manufacturers was based on the
sprang up during this period, Series III long depicted here, was fitted
with one of foremost being wheelbase Land with the 3.5-litre V8 engine
Scottish-based Accurate Rover and side skirts. This kit
Armour run by Derek features full chassis, internal
Hansen. Since then Accurate detail, comprehensive
Armour has grown into a
2: Close etched brass set, coloured
large company, producing comparison of the clear castings and tinted
a wide range of kits and Hotspur with the armoured glass windows,
accessories designed full size early Tangi plus lights and beacons as
for more accomplished reveals common well as full colour decals for
modellers. rear body design both RUC and ITN News
(the television company

he Accurate Armour kits and
Images courtesy used the Hotspur in the
conversion kits may cost a Armoured Land Rover, based on Former Yugoslavia in the early 1990s).
bit more than conventional
Accurate Armour
the 109 Series III Land Rover, that
kits, but they offer a range of or Bob Morrison was developed by the Royal Ulster The body is finely detailed to represent
models covering subjects that larger Constabulary (RUC) in Northern the plastic sheeting riveted to the body
manufacturers generally ignore. This Ireland. The later version, as panels of later vehicles to protect from

70 Combat & Survival

3 4

rocks and stones thrown by protesters 3: They have big 5

and full assembly and painting seagulls in Belfast
instructions and options for early or - this Accurate
late vehicles are included.
Armour Tangi has
The kit, Ref. LR011, retails at 65.00
been beautifully
in the EC with VAT included or 54.17 weathered
for export.
4: This mid-era Tangi
TANGI model has the raised
Following on from their Hotspur kit, Dawson roof design
AA have released a 1/35th scale and spaced upper
conversion set for the Hobby Boss side armour
Land Rover plastic construction kit.
The resultant kit gives a Tangi, which 5: A late model V8
was effectively a marriage of the Hotspur without side
Hotspur armoured body taken off skirts photographed
leaf sprung Series III 109 chassis to
in 1988 - it was
the newer coil sprung One-Ten Land
Rover chassis.
replaced by the Tangi
registrations, alternative markings The set includes full upper body with
The set covers the early part of the 6: The CAV 100 and a pre-printed glazing sheet are interior, V8 engine and replacement
Tangi service life, up to approximately Snatch was also included. axles, and a full set of road tyres
1999, whereupon the fleet was originally intended with front mounted spare. All doors
upgraded further, re-liveried and fitted for British Army The Accurate Armour Tangi package, and bonnet can be placed open or
with uprated chassis and the same roulement battalions Ref. LR012, retails at 50.00 in the closed and the roof hatch slides.
engine as the contemporary military serving in Northern EC or 41.67 for export. Tinted armoured glass windows and
110 Wolf; these later Tangi vehicles Ireland clear coloured lights are also included
will be the subject of a future release. CAV 100 SNATCH along with a comprehensive set of
This conversion, which requires the 7: Much maligned To wrap up this month we have etched brass mesh protection screens,
use of the Hobby Boss Land Rover details of another 1/35th scale wire cutter, rear step and many other
after pressed into
110 kit, contains full internal and resin and etched brass conversion smaller details. Full colour instructions
service on Ops and decals are provided and include
external detail, engine, rear axle and set depicting the British Army
extensive etched brass mesh plus
TELIC and HERRICK, CAV100 Snatch (in its Northern a selection of vehicle registrations,
full complement of coloured clear the Snatch was Ireland version), and is designed to tactical markings and telephone
castings for searchlights, beacons designed for public transform the 1/35th scale Hobby numbers.
and tinted armoured glass. RUC order duties Boss Land Rover 110 or Wolf kits.
Once again a Hobby Boss kit is
6 7
required to complete this model, or
alternatively you can use Accurate
Armours One Ten Chassis replacement
set (LRA007), to make up a full kit.
The CAV 100 kit, Ref. LR013, retails at
45.00 in the EC or 37.50 for export.

More information on these detailed

kits, and the rest of the range of Land
Rover kits available from Accurate
Armour, can be found on their website

Combat & Survival 71

This typical Defender 110 CAV-100 (Composite Armour Vehicle),
known as the Snatch Land Rover, was photographed at the Carlisle
Circus end of Antrim Road in Belfast on the morning of the 12th
July 2002 Orange Order parades. As a result of lowered
tensions following the 2001 commencement
of decommissioning of weapons by
paramilitary organisations and the
formation of the Police Service of
Northern Ireland to replace the Royal
Ulster Constabulary, this would
effectively be the last Twelfth
when large numbers of British
Army personnel and vehicles
were deployed on the streets of
Northern Ireland to help police
potential parade flashpoints.

72 Combat & Survival Images Bob Morrison

74 Combat & Survival