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MECH3429 Air Conditioning and Refrigeration

Part 1 Air conditioning and ventilation

Note: This note is mainly compiled based on Principles of heating, ventilation and air conditioning with worked
examples by Wijeysundera NE and other materials and also some images from Internet. Last updated August
23, 2017. Note: This is the first year that I teach this course with the new notes. Please send any typos or errors
that you find to Yuguo Li email: liyg@hku.hk.

Chapter 1 Introduction to air conditioning and refrigeration

What is the difference between air conditioning and refrigeration? Why are the two being put together here?
How to make a building cool (principles, refrigeration), how much cool to make (cooling load)? How to take
the cool medium (e.g. water or air) from one place to another (distribution)? Why do we need a cool medium
at all?

Air conditioning refers to the control of air temperature, moisture, and air quality as required by occupants, a
process or a product in an enclosed space. Simply speaking, it is the technologies used to maintain an enclosure
at a desired set of physical conditions.

The enclosures can be a building, a car, a bus, a train cabin, an aircraft cabin, a space station or a submarine. For
many engineers, air conditioning refers to air cooling and heating only. In such situations, we make a reference
to air conditioning and ventilation, as the latter refers to supply of outdoor air into a space, and distribute within
it. HVAC is a commonly used acronym for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning.

(a) (b)_

Figure 1. (a) A conceptual diagram of HVAC system. (b) All-water two-pipe heating and cooling system in a
multi-story building.

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Refrigeration is a process of producing a cool or cold medium,
i.e. low-temperature reservoir, by removing heat from it and
transferring it to a high-temperature reservoir, by different
mechanisms, e.g. vapor compression. Air conditioning has
become a common application of refrigeration, in addition to
refrigerators and freezers in the cold chain, and cryogenics etc.

Technically, man-made refrigeration was first demonstrated by


William Cullen at the University of Glasgow in 1748 and a
practical vapor-compression refrigeration system was built in
1851 in Australia. The first air conditioning system was only
developed, about 50 years later, in 1902 in New York. However,
quite a few different cooling methods were invented or used by
Willis Carrier (1896-1950) invented
human for keeping themselves and their food cool, long before
air conditioning in 1902.
19th century. The late Mr Lee Kuan Yew of Singapore once
suggested that air conditioning was the most important human
invention in the 20th century.

Though air conditioning brings us with comfort, coverts inhabitable land to modern cities, and takes people to
space, two major environment challenges in the 20th and 21th century have also been caused by air
conditioning:
Climate change and energy efficiency - Energy consumption by HVAC has been on the significant rise,
a major contributor to fossil fuel consumption, which has led to the on-going climate change.
Ozone hole - Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which became a safe, non-toxic, non-flammable alternative
to dangerous substances like ammonia for purposes of refrigeration, were found to lead to depletion of
stratospheric ozone. Their alternatives were now developed, e.g. hydrofluorocarbon replacing CFC-12.

Basic academic background needed for this course are


Thermodynamics energy balance for a closed system or fixed mass or a control volume with mass
flowing in and out.
fluid mechanics how liquid and gases flow in a pipe or duct as shown by flow-pressure relationship.
The flow can be steady or transient.
and heat transfer conduction, convection and radiation.

Table 1. Properties of dry air at atmospheric pressure

T (oC) (kg/m3) cp (kJ/kg.K) (kg/s.m) (cm2/s) k (W/m.K) (cm2/s) Pr (-)


-50 1.582 1.006 1.4510-5 0.092 0.020 0.130 0.72
0 1.293 1.006 1.7110-5 0.132 0.024 0.184 0.72
10 1.247 1.006 1.7610-5 0.141 0.025 0.196 0.72
20 1.205 1.006 1.8110-5 0.150 0.025 0.208 0.72
30 1.165 1.006 1.8610-5 0.160 0.026 0.223 0.72
60 1.060 1.008 2.0010-5 0.188 0.028 0.274 0.70
100 0.946 1.011 2.1810-5 0.230 0.032 0.328 0.70

Heating is the transfer of energy to a space or to the air in a space by virtue of a difference in temperature
between the source and the space/air. The input heat involved in a rise in the temperature of air is referred to as
sensible heat.
= (2 1 ) = (2 1 )

2
where is the rate of sensible heat transfer (W), mass flow rate of air (kg/s), constant pressure specific
heat of air (J/kgK), the volume flow rate of air (m3/s), air density (kg/m3), 2 air temperature at exit, and 1
air temperature at inlet (oC), is the humidity ratio.

Derivation:
Mass balance of dry air: 1 = 2 =
Mass balance of water: 1 1 = 2 2 , as no water vapor is added, hence 1 = 2
Energy balance (ignoring the change in potential energy): 1 1 + = 2 2
Hence = (2 1 ) = (2 1 )

Figure 2. Illustration of heating and humidification of air in a duct.

Example 1 Determine the rate at which heat must be added to a 1 m3/s air stream to increase its temperature
from 13 oC to 24 oC?

Solution: = (2 1 ) = 1.247 1 1006 (24 13) = 13,799.3 W=13.8 kW

Humidification - Humidification refers to the addition of water vapor to air. This can be done by spraying fine
water droplets into air. The water droplets totally evaporate to become water vapor, but need to extract heat
from air, which is the latent heat transfer.
=
where is the rate of latent heat transfer (W), rate of water being vaporized (kg/s), and enthalpy of
vaporization (J/kg).

Table 2. Properties of water at atmospheric pressure

T cp (kg/s.m) k Pr
(oC) (kg/m3) (kJ/kg.K) (cm2/s) (W/m.K) (cm2/s) (-) (J/kg)
0 0.9999 4.217 0.01787 0.01787 0.56 0.00133 13.44 2501
10 0.9997 4.192 0.01304 0.01304 0.58 0.00138 9.45 2477
20 0.9982 4.182 0.01002 0.01004 0.59 0.00142 7.07 2454
30 0.9957 4.178 0.00798 0.00802 0.61 0.00146 5.49 2430
40 0.9923 4.178 0.00654 0.00659 0.63 0.00152 4.34 2406
50 0.9881 4.180 0.00548 0.00554 0.64 0.00155 3.57 2382
100 0.9584 1.011 0.00283 0.00295 0.68 0.00166 1.78 2257

Example 2 We like to add 1 kg water vapor per second to a dry air stream. Assume that we use the saturated
(liquid) water in the humidifier. Calculate the required heat.
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Solution:
= = 2454 1 = 2454 W = 2.5 kW

Cooling is the transfer of energy from a space or to the air in a space by virtue of a difference in temperature
between the source and the space/air. In air conditioning, the cooling is usually achieved by passing the air over
a cool surface, e.g. a cooling tube surface. The tube surface may be cooled by a chilled liquid, say water or
refrigerant. Cooling usually signifies sensible heat transfer, with a decrease in the air temperature.

Dehumidification refers to the removal of water vapor to air. This can be done by circulating air over a
sufficiently cold surface which leads to condensation of water vapor from the air. It is also possible to
dehumidify by spraying cold water droplets into the air.

Ventilation refers to the supply of outdoor fresh air into a space and distribute within it. Air cleaning refers to
the removal of airborne pollutants from air, such as particles by filtration and volatile organic compounds by
adsorption etc.

Typical large commercial air-conditioning systems


The major elements of a commercial air-conditioning system is shown in Figure 3.
The air conditioning and distribution system (also called secondary components of the HVAC system) in
general, this system design involves the determination of individual zones to be conditioned. A zone is a
conditioned space under the control of a single thermostat, which senses the space temperature and sends a
correction signal if it is not within a desired range. Hence ductwork is a significant part of the system.
Return air from the conditioned space is drawn into the air handling unit (AHU) by the return air fan. As
the air passes through the AHU a fraction of it is discharged to the outside ambient through the exhaust port
EA, and replaced by an equal amount of fresh outdoor air through inlet OA. Dampers are used to control
this process. The mixture of return air and fresh air then passes through a filter before entering the cooling
and dehumidifying coil for the major operation of the HVAC system, i.e. air cooling and dehumidification.
The condensed water is drained out. The supply air fan then distributes the cold air through the supply duct
network to the conditioned space, and the desired quantity of air is discharged to each conditioned space or
room through flexible ducts connected to supply diffusers.

Question: using your daily experience, discuss the best location of the thermostat considering the possible non-
uniformity of air temperature distribution in different spaces.

Chillers and boilers (also called primary components of HVAC system) provide chilled water and hot ware
or steam through a piping system to the entire facility. Hence piping is also a significant part of the system.
For large college campuses such as this campus, a central plant for chillers and boilers may be used.

The cooling coil receives chilled water pumped from the chiller, which is essentially a refrigerator, where
the evaporator cools water to a temperature of abut 3-6oC. The heat rejected by the condenser of the
refrigerator is carried away by cooling water, pumped through the tubes of the condenser. This cooling
water finally discharges heat to the atmosphere in a cooling tower, before being circulated back to the
condenser by the cooling tower pump. A fuel-fired boiler can provide hot water for the heating coil of the
AHU. Chillers and boilers covert fuel or electrical energy to heating and cooling effects respectively.

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Figure 3. A typical central and large heating and air conditioning system using air and water.

Package, unitary systems, and reversible heat pumps for heating and cooling
The packed systems incorporate a vapor compression refrigeration unit, and a fuel-fired or electrical heating
unit, in a single compact package, for installation on roofs of commercial buildings, and connected through
supply and return ducts to the conditioned space below. Smaller air conditioning units, i.e. unitary or window
units, are designed to serve a single space, installed in a window or a wall opening, with the controls on the
inside. Room air is cooled and dehumidified by circulating it across the finned tube coils of the evaporator using
a fan. The condenser coil of the unit, facing the outside is cooled by a fan blowing ambient air over it.

A reversible heat pump (as shown right) is essentially a vapor


compression refrigeration system, with a reversing valve. The
inside coil becomes evaporator during cooling. The position of
the reversing valve allows the compressor to suck refrigerant
from the evaporator. For heating, inside coil becomes condenser
instead. The reversing valve is repositioned so that the
compressor is now able to suck the refrigerant from the outdoor
evaporator. In ground-source heat pumps, the refrigerant in the
outdoor unit exchanges heat with a fluid circulating through a
coil buried in the ground. The ground temperature variation is
smaller than ambient air.

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Figure 4. Overview of HVAC design procedure.

The design, installation and commissioning of an HVAC system requires input of specialists from several
disciplines, i.e. architects, civil engineers, mechanical engineers, control engineers, manufacturers and
contractors.
The important considerations include the purpose and use of the building, its location and the local weather
conditions. The historical (or even future) weather data such as solar radiation, temperature, humidity and
wind speed/direction, including extreme weather conditions such as the extreme heat/cold, and the strong
winds at the location.
The design of the buildings such as orientation, materials, windows designed by architects affect the heating
and cooling load.
In general, HVAC designers will first determine the design heating and cooling load, based on the top 1% or
5% extreme weather conditions, and then select the type and size of the systems, followed by sizing each
individual component, and consult the manufacturers catalogues to select the appropriate units. In making
their choices, engineers consider both first cost and the operation cost, i.e. the life-cycle cost analysis.

Introduction to heat transfer


Air conditioning is about the transport and transfer of heat. Hence a basic knowledge is reviewed here with a
reference to building applications.

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Figure 5. Modes of heat transfer (conduction, convection and radiation) for a wall

Figure 6. Illustrations of heat conduction through a wall and convection


1D heat conduction = (0 ), where k is the thermal conductivity of the wall material(s) [W/mK].


The general form of the Fouriers Law = ( )

Materials such as fiberglass have very low thermal conductivity, and they are called
thermal insulation materials.

0
We write = (0 ) = , where = is the equivalent thermal

resistance,
or 0 =
Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768-1830)
For thermal resistance in series, with Fourier series, Fourier transform and
1 2 = 1 ; 2 3 = 2 ; 3 4 = 3 ; Fourier's law in his honor. He also
hence 1 4 = (1 + 2 + 3 ) = discovered the greenhouse effect.

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We define overall heat transfer coefficient
1
= (1 4 ), where =

1 1 1 1 1 2
For thermal resistance in parallel = ( + + ), and =
1 2 3

When the wall surface is specified with a temperature or a heat flux, then the above equations can be directly
used.

When there is a convective heat transfer, we need to use the Newtons law of convection, which states
1
= ( ) or = =
where is the convective heat transfer coefficient. Thus, the thermal resistance for a convective boundary is
1
=

Thermal radiation transport does not require a material medium, but a result of
the propagation of electromagnetic waves. All bodies emit radiation at the
expense of stored energy. When these waves of radiation fall on other bodies, a
fraction of the radiation is absorbed, and the rest of reflected. The absorbed
energy is converted to stored energy in the receiving body.
The total emission power of a surface is defined as the total rate of radiant
energy emission in all directions over all the wavelengths per unit area of the
surface.
For a blackbody, the Stefan-Boltzman law = 4 , where = 5.67
108 W/Km2 is the Stefan-Boltzman constant.
For a grey surface of emissivity , = 4 .
Consider a beam of radiation that is incident on a thin flat
body, we define the reflectivity , the absorptivity and the Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (1858-
transmissivity , we have + + = 1. 1947), originator of quantum theory,
explained black-body radiation using
Question: For a black surface, what are the values of the energy quantisation
reflectivity , the absorptivity and the transmissivity ?

Kirchhoffs law states that for a surface, = .

Figure 7. Radiation exchange between two gray surfaces.

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We can derive that the energy exchange rate between two very large surfaces due to radiation is
1 1 1
1 = 2 = (12 22 ) , where = + 1.
1 2

If one of the surface is black, e.g. surface 1, then 1 = 2 = 2 (12 22 ), and for two black surfaces 1 =
2 = (12 22 ).

Example 3. The exterior wall of a large industrial building has a layer of fiberglass insulation of thermal
conductivity 0.035 W/mK, and thickness 8 cm, sandwiched between two plywood sheets of thermal
conductivity 0.11 W/mK and thickness 1 cm. The inner and outer surfaces of the wall are at 15oC and 32oC
respectively. Calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient, and the steady heat flow rate through the wall per
unit wall area.

Solution:
0.01
= = 10.11 = 0.0909 K/W
0.08
= = 10.035 = 2.286 K/W
Hence = + + = 0.0909 2 + 2.286 = 2.4678 K/W
1 1
= = 12.4678 = 0.405 W/Km2

3215
= = 2.4678 = 6.89 W

Example 4. The inner section of a wall is made by placing slabs of fiberglass of thermal conductivity 0.038
W/mK in the vertical spaces formed in a wooden frame of thickness 150 mm. The thermal conductivity of the
framing material is 0.15 W/mK. The temperatures of the inner and outer surfaces of the wall section are 18oC
and 6 oC respectively. The area of the insulation is 75% of the total area of the wall.

Calculate the total heat flow rate through the wall per unit area, and the heat flow rate through the insulation.

Solution: This is a resistance in parallel problem. Consider the wall has an area of A m2.

150103 5.26
= = 0.750.038 = K/W

150103 4
= = 0.250.15 = K/W

1 1 1 1 1
= ( + ) = (5.26 + 4) = 0.44;

186
Hence = = = 5.29 W/m2
2.27

Consider the heat flow path through the insulation area


186
= = 5.26 = 2.28 W/m2

Example 5. A cold room maintained at -10 oC has a wall made of two layers of different materials. The inner
layer is 2 cm thick, and has a thermal conductivity of 0.1 W/mK. The outer layer is 4 cm thick and has a
thermal conductivity of 0.04 W/mK. The outside ambient air temperature is 30 oC. The convective heat transfer
coefficients on the outside and inside of the wall are 40 W/m2K and 20 W/m2K respectively.

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Calculate the rate of heat flow through the wall, and the temperature of the interface between the two layers
making the wall.

Solution: Consider unit area A = 1m2 of the wall.


1 1 1 1
= = 120 = 0.05 K/W; = = 140 = 0.025 K/W
0.02 0.04
= = 10.1 = 0.2 K/W; = = 10.04 = 1.0 K/W
= + + + = 1.275 K/W;
30+10
= = = 31.37 W
1.275

Between the interface and the outside ambient, we have


30
= + = 1.025 = 31.37 W, hence = 2.15 oC.

Example 6. A concrete wall of thickness 8 cm and thermal conductivity 1.6 W/mK, absorbs solar radiation at a
steady rate of 300 W/m2. The heat transfer coefficient between the outer surface of the wall and the ambient at
30 oC is 25 W/m2K. The heat transfer coefficient between the room air at 20 oC and the inner surface of the wall
is 10 W/m2K.

Calculate the rate of heat flow into the room, and the temperature of the outer surface of the wall.

Figure 8. Heat flow through a concrete wall, and its thermal network

Solution:
Consider a unit area of the wall.
1 1 1 1 0.08
= = 110 = 0.1 K/W; = = 125 = 0.04 K/W; = = 11.6 = 0.05 K/W

Energy balance at the outer surface node


+ 300 = ;
30 30
= = ;
0.04
20 20
= = .
+ 0.15

Substitute and into the energy balance equation, gives = 37.37 oC.

Then we can find that = 184.2 W/m2, suggesting that some of radiation absorbed by the wall is lost to the
ambient air by convection.

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Example 7. The external vertical wall of a room, made of thin metal, absorbs solar radiation at the rate of 480
W/m2. The wall loses heat to the air on the outside due to wind, and to the air on the inside due to natural
convection. The wind speed is 8 m/s. Assuming steady-state heat transfer, calculate the temperature of the wall.

Given: The convective heat transfer coefficient (W/m2K) at a wind speed V (m/s) is = 2.8 + 3; and the
natural convection heat transfer coefficient (W/m2K) for a vertical wall is = 4.2( )1/4 , where and
are the temperatures of the surface and the surrounding air respectively.

Solution Assume that the metal wall is a good conductor of heat so that the temperature variation across its
thickness is negligible. The wall temperature is . The radiation transfer is also negligible.

The energy balance equation for the wall is


= + or 480 = ( 31) + ( 29)
That is 480 = (2.8 + 3)( 31) + (4.2( 29)1/4 )( 29)

We let 29 = , then 480 = (2.8 + 24)( 2) + 4.21.25, by trial and error, = 15.2 oC, so that =
29 + 15.2 = 44.2 oC.

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Chapter 2. Psychrometric principles and air conditioning systems

In the case of a mixture of a gas and vapor, such as dry air and water vapor,
the vapor could change phase during a process. For example, when ambient
air passes through the cooling coil of an air conditioner, some of the water
vapor in the air condenses to water on the cold surface of the coil. The air
delivered to the conditioned space after passing through the cooling coil, is
therefore drier than the original ambient air. The reverse process occurs in a
cooling tower where the air leaving the system becomes more moist due to
the water vapor added to the air.

In order to analyze these practical situations, we need to develop a set of


parameters to characterize a mixture of gases and vapors, and also obtain
expressions for the relevant thermodynamic properties of the mixture.

How special is the mixture of dry air and water vapor?


Dry air is the air that is free of any moisture. The water vapor is generally
present in moist air in a superheated state. The pressure of water vapor in
typical ambient air is relatively low. For example, at 30oC the water vapor
pressure in air that is fully saturated with water vapor is about 4.24 kPa, which is the saturated pressure of water
vapor at 30oC from the steam table. This is compared with a mixture pressure about 100 kPa. Under such dilute
conditions, we assume that water vapor and dry air behave like ideal gases, which are independent from each
other, ie. the properties of water vapor are not influenced by the presence of air.

Figure 1. The saturation vapor pressure as a function of its temperature.

Table 1. The steam table

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We consider a piston cylinder with moist air at state A, shown in the temperature-volume diagram. The pressure
of air in the cylinder is kept constant. Due to Daltons rule, we have
= + ;
where is the pressure of the mixture; and the partial pressure of the air and water vapor respectively.

Figure 1. (a) piston-cylinder set-up with moist air; (b) T-v diagram for vapor.

Now imagine the air in the cylinder is cooled slowly, i.e. a quasi-steady process. The load on the top of the
piston is fixed, so that the pressure of the mixture remains unchanged.

Initially, since the mole fraction of air and that of the water vapor are constant, hence the partial pressure of
water vapor remains unchanged. The cool process follows a constant pressure line, from A to B.
At reaching B, which is the saturated vapor curve, condensation of water vapor starts. The temperature at B,
where the condensation just begins is the dew point of the air, and the air is then referred to as saturated air.

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As the cooling process continues from B to C, more vapor condensed. The mass of water vapor, and thus the
mole fraction of water vapor in the mixture, decrease. The small volume of the water does not affect the
mixture in the cylinder. Hence partial pressure of the water vapor decreases. Since vapor is in saturated state
during condensation, its temperature and consequently the temperature of mixture decrease. As the mixture
pressure is unchanged, hence the partial pressure of air increases to compensate for the reduced vapor
pressure.
Now consider if there was no dry air, only pure water vapor in the cylinder. A constant pressure cooling
would follow a constant temperature line BD.

Is it interesting that the presence of air significantly alters the overall behavior of the vapor during
condensation? This is the beauty of physics.

Properties of air-water mixtures


The relative humidity is the ratio of the partial pressure of the vapor, in the mixture to the saturation

pressure () of the vapor at the mixture temperature, , i.e. = () .

The humidity ratio, is defined as the mass of water vapor in a given volume of mixture to the mass of dry air
in the same volume.
/
= = // = ;

where and the mases of vapor and dry air respectively in a volume of . and the densities of
vapor and dry air respectively.

As = and = , and are the respective gas constants of water vapor and air.


= = 28.96; and = = 18, where is the universal gas constant, and and are the molecular

masses.

() 18 () 0.622 ()
Hence = = = (

= = = .
)
( ()) 28.96( ()) ( ())
The degree of saturation, is defined as the ratio of the mass of water vapor in a mixture of air and water
vapor to the mass of vapor that would be present if the air was in a saturated state at the same temperature and
mixture pressure.

= , where is the specific humidity of saturated air at the same temperature and mixture pressure.

0.622+
= [0.622+ ].

Enthalpy of moist air (kJ/kg of dry air)


The enthalpy of moist air is equal to the sum of enthalpy of dry air, and that of superheated water vapor,
= + () = + ();

where is the dry-bulb temperature, humidity ratio, the specific heat capacity at constant pressure of dry
air. For the typical range of temperature of about 0-60 oC, we may use = 1.00 kJ/Kkg.

From the steamtable, under low pressures, the enthalpy of superheated steam is approximately equal to the
enthalpy of saturated stream at the same temperature. So we choose () to be the saturated vapor enthalpy.
14
An alternative approximate relation for the moisture air enthalpy can be obtained by assuming that low pressure
water vapor behaves like an ideal gas.

() = + ; where = 2501 kJ/kg is the enthalpy of saturated water vapor at the reference
temperature of 0oC, and = 1.86 kJ/kgK is the specific heat capacity of water vapor.

Hence
= + () = + ( + ) = +
where = + is the specific heat of moist air.

Consider a process from state 1 to state 2 where the change of enthalpy is = 2 1 , we can derive
(derivation omitted)

= + where the sensible heat = (2 1 ), and the latent heat = (2 1 ). Both


and are evaluated at mean temperature and mean humidity ratio of the two states.

2 +1 +
= +
= + ; and = + = + 2 2 1
2

Specific volume of moist air (m3/kg dry air) can be obtained by using the ideal gas equation for dry air


0.622( )
= , we can also obtain = ( )
= ;= [1 + 0.622], so = [1 + 0.622].

Adiabatic saturation and wet-bulb temperature


An ideal process is shown in Figure 3a, where a stream of air passing
steadily through to a saturated state. The walls are perfectly insulated, and
the water pool is sufficiently long and large. It can be derived that at ideal
conditions, the air entering with different combined conditions, would
result in the same fully saturated air at the same saturation temperature.
This saturation temperature is the so-called thermodynamic web-bulb
temperature. We commonly use the web-bulb thermometer to measure the
thermodynamic web-bulb temperature, though only appropriate, but fairly
accurate (not derived here). The web-bulb thermometer consists of an
ordinary liquid-in-glass thermometer whose bulb is covered with a wet
porous wick, continuously supplied with water. The air whose humidity is
to be determined is blown over the wick usually with aid of a fan. The
temperature indicated by the thermometer under steady conditions is
called the web-bulb temperature.

The psychrometric chart Heinrich Hertz (1857-1894), who proved


Exterminating the physical and thermodynamic properties of air-
existence of electromagnetic waves, also
water vapor mixtures as above is referred to as psychrometrics
or psychrometry. The term comes from the Greek psuchron produced the thermodynamic diagram
() meaning "cold" and metron () meaning "means of atmosphere and moisture.
of measurement". A psychrometric chart is a graph of the
thermodynamic parameters of moist air at a constant pressure,
i.e. at a particular elevation relative to sea level. The ASHRAE-style psychrometric chart, pioneered by Willis
Carrier in 1904, is often used in Hong Kong.
15
(a) (b)

Figure 3. (a) Adiabatic saturator; (b) The coordinates of a commonly used psychrometric chart, and from any of
the two known parameters, one can determine the other parameters. The results are equivalent to using the
formulas shown/derived earlier. Computer software is now widely used for the determination, however, reading
psychrometric chart is still common.

Figure 4. A typical psychrometric chart (Wikipidia).

Sensible heat ratio protractor

16
The sensible heat ratio (SHR) is defined as the ratio of the change in sensible enthalpy to the change in the
total enthalpy

SHR = = 1 ;
As = (2 1 ) = , hence

SHR = 1 = 1 ; where = /.

Figure 2. The ASHRAE psychrometric chart at 101.325 kPa pressure


17
Example 1. Atmospheric air at a pressure of 95 kPa has a humidity ratio of 0.016, and a temperature of 27oC.
Determine the following quantities: (a) the dew point temperature; (b) the relative humidity, (c) the specific
volume, and (d) the enthalpy.

Solution In theory, you may use psychrometric chart, but be careful as the chart is generally for the sea level
pressure as shown here.
0.622
(a) = ( )
= 0.016, = 95 kPa, we can find out = 2.382 kPa, from the steam table or graph, the
dew point is 20.3oC.
2.382
(b) = () = 3.564 = 66.8%, where 3.564 kPa is the saturation vapor pressure at 27oC.

0.287(27+273) 0.016
(c) = [1 + ]= [1 + ] = 0.93 m3/kg dry air
0.622 95 0.622
(d) = + () = 1.0 27 + 0.016 2550.3 = 67.8 kJ/kg

Example 2. The dimensions of the room are 10 m 6 m 3 m. The pressure, temperature and degree of
saturation of the air in the rom are 100 kPa, 25oC, and 55% respectively. (a) Calculate the mass of air in the
room. (b) If the surface temperature of a window of the room is 10.5oC, will moisture condense out of the air?

Solution
From the steam table, the saturation vapor pressure at 25oC is 3.166 kPa.

The humidity ratio of saturated air at 25oC can be obtain


0.622 0.6223.166
= ( )
= = 0.02034; note that is the saturation vapor pressure at 25oC.
1003.166


= = 0.02034 = 0.55; hence = 0.011187

0.287(25+273) 0.011187
= [1 + 0.622] = [1 + 0.622 ] = 0.8706 m3/kg dry air
100
The room volume = 10 5 3 = 180 m3
180
The mass dry air in the room is = = 0.8706 = 206.74kg
The mass of moist air is = (1 + ) = 206.74 (1 + 0.011187) = 209.05 kg
18
0.622
= ( )
= 0.011187, hence = 1.7669 kPa. The dew point is the saturation temperature at this pressure,
which is 15.6oC. The window surface temperature is much lower than this, hence condensation will occur.

Example 3. The pressure and dry-bulb temperature of the air in a house are 100 kPa and 22oC respectively. The
surface temperature of a window of the house is 6oC. What is the maximum relative humidity allowable in the
house if no condensation is to occur on the surface of the window?

Solution
Assume dew point is =6oC, from the steam table, the saturation pressure at this temperature is 0.9346 kPa.

The saturation vapor pressure at the air dry-bulb temperature of 22oC is 2.642 kPa.
0.9346
At = 22 oC, =6oC, = = = 35.37%, which is the max allowance RH.
2.642

Example 4. Moist air undergoes a process from an initial state 1 with 1 = 10 and 1 = 0.005 to a final
state 2 with 1 = 40 and 1 = 0.021. Obtain the changes in enthalpy using three ways (a) the basic
formula for enthalpy of moist air; (b) the formula for the change in sensible enthalpy and latent enthalpy, and
(c) the psychrometric chart.

Solution
(a) = + (), and the saturation vapor enthalpy obtained from the steam table, and also the specific
heat capacity as a function of temperature.
1 = 1.004 10 + 0.005 2519.2 = 22.64 kJ/kg
2 = 1.0056 10 + 0.021 2573.7 = 94.27 kJ/kg
2 1 = 71.63 kJ/kg.

(b) = + where
= (2 1 ), = (2 1 )

We use the mean values for the specific heat capacity and enthalpy. = 1.03 kJ/kgK and = 2555
kJ/kg.

= 1.03 (40 10) = 30.9, and = 2555 (0.021 0.005) = 40.88


= + = 30.9 + 40.88 = 71.78 kJ/kg.
19
(c) 2 1 = 72 kJ/kg

Psychrometric processes for heating and air conditioning


The processing units of air conditioning systems use psychrometric processes to produce air with the required
temperature and relative humidity to be supplied to a space.

Basic psychrometric processes include mixing of two moist air streams, sensible heating and cooling of air,
dehumidification of air by cooling, humidification of air by adding moisture,.

Mixing of two moist air streams


The two streams 1 and 2 are mixed to become a joint stream 3. The change in enthalpy is much greater than
those in kinetic energy and potential energy, which are ignored here. We also assume adiabatic process at
steady state conditions and constant pressure.
Mass balance of air: 1 + 2 = 3 , All there symbols represent respectively dry air mass
flow rates of the three streams.
Mass balance of water: 1 1 + 2 2 = 3 3
Energy balance of moist air: 1 1 + 2 2 = 3 3


Thus, 1 = 3 2 = 3 2, suggesting that 1-2-3 is a line.
2 1 3 1 3

(a) (b)
20
Figure 5. (a) Mixing of two air streams; (b) psychrometric chart.

From the energy balance equation, we have

1 [( + 1 )1 + 1 ] + 2 [( + 2 )2 + 2 ] = 3 [( + 3 )3 + 3 ];

As 1 1 + 2 2 = 3 3 , we have
1 ( + 1 )1 + 2 ( + 2 )2 = 3 ( + 3 )3;

If we assume that the specific heat capacities of the moist air are equal in the three streams, then we can obtain
he following appropriate relation for the mixed temperature


3 = 1 1 + 2 2 ;
3 3

Sensible heating and cooling


Heating may be obtained by an electrical resistance heater or a tubular coil carrying a hot fluid. The air can be
cooled by passing a cold fluid like chilled water or a refrigerant through a similar coil.

(a) (b)

Figure 6. (a) Sensible heating or cooling; (b) psychrometric chart.

During sensible heating and cooling, the moisture content of the air remains constant. This means that we need
to ensure that the coil surface temperature is above the dew-point of the entering air.

Mass balance of dry air: 1 = 2 =


Mass balance of water: 1 1 = 2 2
Energy balance: 1 1 + = 2 2

Hence = (2 1 )
Assume that the specific heat capacity of moist air is constant, = (2 1 )

Note that can be negative, which applies to cooling.

Dehumidification by cooling
Useful to consider the following three situations:
21
S1 - the piston cylinder set up discussed earlier;
S2 - flowing over a cold plate; and
S3 - an actual system using cooling coil.

On a psychometric chart, S1 goes along the 1-3-4 line, S2 goes along the straight dashed line 1-4 and S3 long
the solid curved line 1-2.

Figure 7. Three ideal cooling processes (S1, S2 and S3) and their illustration on the psychrometric chart.

S1 is an ideal process, with line 1-3 representing a sensible cooling phase with the humidity ratio being kept
constant. After Point 3, the air attains its dew-point temperature, and become fully saturated with water vapor.
Further cooling results in vapor condensation and temperature reduction, hence following the saturation curve
3-4.

S2 is more realistic. The cold plate temperature is below the dew-point, and water vapor will condense on the
plate from the air layer just adjacent to it. However, the mean temperature of the air at a section would be above
the dew-point for some distance along the plate. A detailed analysis of the heat and moisture between the air
and the plate is possible, but beyond the scope here. The main result, pertinent to the present discussion is
( )
= Le (
)
where and are respectively the constant plate temperature and the saturation humidity ratio of the air
adjacent to the water film, and and the meam temperature and humidity ratio of the air at a section
respectively.

If the Lewis number is unity (1), then line 1-4 is approximately linear. This is sometimes called the straight line
law. At point 4, the air temperature approaches the plate temperature.
22
S3 is more like an actual system. Moist air flows over the outside tube surface of the coil. The air is cooled
sensibly as it passes over the first few tube rows, and condensation of water vapor occurs over the rest of the
rows. Ideally, vapor condensation begins at the tube row where the tube surface temperature is just below the
dew-point. The condensed water drains through exit 3.

Unlike the plate cooling S2, the tube surface temperature of the actually cooling coil is not uniform over
different tube rows. This results in the non-linear variation of the mean air temperature, i.e. curve 1-2.

Consider the simplified control volume,


Mass balance of dry air: 1 = 2 =
Mass balance of water: 1 1 = 2 2 + 3 (note: 3 is the condensate flow at 3).
Energy balance: 1 1 = 2 2 + 3 3 +

is the total rate of heat transfer from the air to the cooling fluid flowing through the tubes. This is called
the refrigeration load or refrigeration capacity.

A simple bypass model for the cooling coil


A complete analyses of the cooling coil is also possible, just like that for a cold plate. Here a semi-empirical
model using the bypass factor is presented for understanding.

The cooling process can be considered as a composite process. The bypass portion does not contact the cold
tube surface, with its state unchanged. The cooled portion undergoes cooling similar to the cold plate process
S2. The two portions are mixed adiabatically to obtain state 2.

The cooling coil temperature or apparatus dew-point is .

Mass balance of dry air: = + (note: and are the dry air flow rates of the bypass portion
and the cooled portion)


A bypass factor is defined = .

For the assumed adiabatic mixing process, we obtain

2 = 1 + ; (note: equals to 4 in the figure).


Using the above three equations, we have = 2 .
1

The sensible cooling rate = (1 2 ) = (1 )(1 ) (note: consider the situation if =


0, i.e. no bypass)

The total cooling rate is given by


(1)(1 )
= = .

Where SHR is the sensible heat ratio, which may be obtained directly from the protractor in the psychrometric
chart for the process 1-4 as shown for S2.

Humidification of air
Here we show a humidifier where a series of nozzles spray moisture directly to the air stream. Under ideal
conditions, we assume that all the moisture sprayed is retained in the air stream. Consider the control volume as
shown.

23
(a) (b)

Figure 8. (a) Humidification of air; (b) psychrometric chart.

Mass balance of dry air: 1 = 2 =


Mass balance of water: 1 1 + = 2 2
Energy balance: 1 1 + = 2 2

The enthalpy-humidity ratio is obtained by the manipulating the three equations.



= 2 1 = ;
2 1
Where is the enthalpy of the sprayed moisture.

Consider the change of enthalpy of the two points 1 and 2 in case the dry-bulb temperature is unchanged.

2 () 1 () = (2 1 ) (); hence if = 2 1 = = (), i.e. the line 1 2 is the constant dry-
2 1
bulb temperature line passing through 1.

For other values of the moisture enthalpy , we may use the following relation (not derived).
()
cot cot = , where S is the scale factor of the psychrometric chart

(considered to be a constant).

Hence
If > (), < , i.e. the air will be sensibly heated during humidification process.
If < (), < , i.e. the air will be sensibly cooled during humidification process.

Evaporating cooling
In such a system, ambient is passed through a porous structure supplied with water, and the non-evaporated
water dripping down which is then recirculated. The porous structure distributes water in the form of a thin film,
and increases the contact area between ai rand water to facilitate evaporation. The incoming air is relatively dry,
so during evaporation, water absorbs the latent heat of evaporation from air. Air is then cooled.

24
(a) (b)

Figure 9. (a) Evaporative cooler; (b) psychrometric chart.

The above simple analysis for air humidification can be done here, but not useful. Again a detailed design
analysis can be carried out, but beyond the scope here. One useful conclusion is that under ideal conditions, the
state of air during adiabatic evaporative cooling follows a constant wet-bulb temperature in the psychrometric
chart. However, in practice, the moist air leaving the cooler at 2 is not cooled to the wet-bulb temperature,
which is the lowest possible temperature to which the air could be cooled.

Space condition line


It is customary to list all energy and moisture flows into the space which the air conditioning system needs to
remove in two groups, i.e. sensible cooling load and the latent cooling load.
The sensible cooling load (total sensible heat gain) : heat flow through walls, roofs, and windows;
appliances generating heat, lighting and occupants within the space; unintended air infiltration.
The latent cooling load : the moisture released by appliances and occupants within the space, and moist
air infiltration. The total rate of moisture gain by the air is .

For heating, we have heating load. We assume that these are available for our analyses. Their calculation is
discussed later.

We assume that the space conditions are steady, and the air is well mixed within the space. Thus, the return air
condition is the same as in the space.

(a) (b)

Figure 10. (a) Air conditioned space; (b) psychrometric chart.

25
Consider a control volume with a single inlet port 1 and a single outlet port 2, surrounding the space.

Mass balance of dry air: 1 = 2 =


Mass balance of water: 1 1 + = 2 2
Energy balance: 1 1 + + = 2 2
Manipulating the three equations, we have

+
= 2 1 = ;
2 1

Thus, for fixed values of the sensible and latent cooling loads, and the rate of moisture gain, the enthalpy-
moisture ratio, is constant. Moreover, the state point of supply air at 1 on the psychrometric chart must lie on

a straight line drawn through 2, parallel to the direction of in the -protractor.

This straight line is the space condition line.

2
Again using cot cot =

If = 2 , or the enthalpy-moisture ratio equals to the enthalpy of vapor in the space, then we have the line
2 1 , the constant dry-bulb temperature line.
If > 2 , < , i.e. the supply air at 1 is cooler, and less humid than the air in the space (line 1-2). This is
the condition line for a typical summer air conditioning situation.
If < 2 , < , i.e. the supply air is warmer and less humid than the air in the space. This could be a
typical winter air conditioning situation.

Using the earlier results, the sensible cooling load and the latent cooling load may be expressed by
= (2 1 ) and = (2 1 )
= + .

For the temperature range from 0 oC to 60oC of a typical psychrometric chart, the following mean values may be
used. = 1.02 kJ/kgK and = 2555 kJ/kg.


The sensible heat ratio (SHR) is SHR= .

Application of the psychrometric processes


As shown above, the desired conditions of the space, its heating/cooling loads, and the required supply air
conditions are related by the condition line of the space.
Zone: a space or a room with a specified temperature, humidity ratio and heating/cooling load.
Single-zone: controlled by its own thermostat.
Multi-zone: a large building may have many different rooms with different heating/cooling loads, and
different temperature and humidity ratio requirements.

Here we show how the psychrometric processes can be used for analyzing single-zone and multi-zone systems.

Single-zone air conditioning system: summer air conditioning systems


The essential air processing components consisting of a filter, a cooling and dehumidifying coil, and a fan are
arranged in series. These are connected using ducts through which air flows. For ventilation, a portion of the air

26
withdrawn from the space at 2 is discharged to the ambient at 3, and replaced with an equal mass of outdoor air
at 4. Again, we assume steady state condition.
Point 2 and condition line of the space this is the space condition in term of the temperature and humidity
ratio or other moist air properties. If the sensible and latent cooling loads of the space are estimated, then
SHR can be calculated. The condition line of the space is obtained by drawing a straight line through Pont 2
in the direction of the line on the protractor pointing towards the SHR-value for the space.
Point 4 the state of outdoor air is easily located by knowing two thermodynamic properties of the ambient
air. The dry air mass fraction of the outdoor air to compensate for the return air discharged at 3 is usually
specified.
Point 5 the mixture of the outdoor air of 4 and the return air of 2. This uses the adiabatic mixing analysis
early, and 5 can be obtained by dividing the straight line 2-4 in the inverse ratio of the dry air mass flow
rates of the two air streams.

The curved line 5-1, or the coil condition line gives the state of air as it flows through the cooling and
dehumidifying coil. This can be obtained using the coil manufacturers data or the computer-based heat and
mass transfer analyses of the cooling coil.

(a) (b)

Figure 11. (a) Summer air conditioning system; (b) psychrometric chart.

The air undergoes a slight increase in temperature as it flows through the fan, which for all practical purposes,
could be neglected. However, we could add the energy input to the fan as a sensible cooling load to the space.
In the basic air conditioning system, the cooling and dehumidifying coil is the sole air processing unit, and
therefore only one property of the air could be controlled. In most systems, this property would be the dry-bulb
temperature.

Summer air conditioning systems with reheat


If the condition line of a space is very steep, then the coil condition line and the space condition line drawn on
the psychrometric chart may not intersect. In physical terms, this implies that the cooling coil is unable to
produce the required state of the supply air to meet the cooling load of the space. Inclusion of a reheat coil after
the cooling coil may remedy this situation.

As shown in the psychrometric chart, in the reheat coil, the air leaving the cooling coil at 6 undergoes sensible
heating with the humidity ratio remaining constant. Therefore, the intersection of the space condition line and
the horizontal line through 6 gives the supply air state 1. The rest is similar to the basic system.

27
(a) (b)

Figure 12. (a) Air conditioning system with reheat; (b) psychrometric chart.

Since the energy has been expended to cool the air to state 6, the energy input to the reheat coil is an additional
energy input that lowers the overall energy efficiency of the system. This demonstrates that there is a trade-off
between the desired comfort conditions in a space and the operating energy cost of the system.

Multi-zone air conditioning systems: multi-zone systems with reheat


For illustration purpose, we consider two zones A and B. The states of the return air from the two zones are
represented by points 2a and 2b. The two streams of return air mix adiabatically to produve air with the state 2.
The outdoor air at state 4, is mixed with the return air at 2 to produce state 5 of the air entering the cooling coil.
The air at state 5 is cooled to state 6, and then reheated sensibly at constant humidity ratio, satisfying the
different requirements of zones A and B.

(a) (b)
Figure 13. (a) A multi-zone system with reheat; and (b) the psychrometric chart.

In practice, the dry-bulb temperatures of the zones are maintained by thermostats that control the heat inputs of
the two reheat coils. The reheating helps to control the required temperature and humidity of each zone more
precisely, but at a cost of energy efficiency.

Dual-duct multi-zone systems


In such systems, the supply air from the main fan is divided into two streams. One stream passes through a
cooling and dehumidifying coil, and the other through a heating coil and a humidifier. The temperature of the
air supplied to each zone is controlled by mixing air from the hot and cold streams in correct proportion. This is
done in a mixing box which in practice responds to a signal from the thermostat in the zone.

28
(a) (b)

Figure 14. (a) A dual duct system for multi-zones, and (b) Psychrometric chart.
In the chart,
The return air from the two zones A and B, at states 2a and 2b, mix adiabatically to produce air at state 2.
The outdoor air at state 4 mixes with return air at 2 to produce state 5 of the air entering the fan. Here the
stream bifurcates.
From state 5 to 7, the air passes through the cooling and dehumidifying coil along the coil condition line.
From state 5 to 8 and then to 9, the air first passes through the heating coil, heated sensibly at constant
humidity ratio, reaching 8. Ideally, in the humidifier, the state of the air follows a web-bulb temperature
line. However, the final temperature at 9 of the air leaving the humidifying depends on the saturation
effectiveness of the humidifier.
The conditions 1a and 1b of the air resupplied to the two zones A and B, through the mixing boxes, are
located by the points of intersection of the line 7-9 and the respective space conditioning lines of the two
zones.

The dual-duct system can deal with zones of widely different temperature requirements. For instance, some
zones may only need cooling, and other need heating only. Its disadvantages include the high initial cost for two
supply air ducts, and also possible the lowered overall energy efficiency as energy is expended both for cheating
and cooling as in a reheat system.

Variable air volume (VAV) systems


In a VAV system, the temperature of a zone is controlled by varying the supply air flow rate to the zone. This is
achieved by changing the settings of the dampers in the VAV-unit mounted in the supply air duct to the zone.
The main fan of the system is designed to supply the air flow rate required to meet the maximum total cooling
load of the system. The cooling loads on the different zones can attain their maximum values at different times.
VAV systems allow to balance the air flow to the different zones to meet the required maximum flow rates of
each zone. Typical VAV systems are used for summer cooling where only a cooling and dehumidifying coil is
required. Therefore, any reheat required in a zone has to be supplied locally by using a separate heater.

29
(a) (b)

Figure 15. (a) VAV system, and (b) Psychrometric chart.

However, there are variations of VAV systems that incorporate reheat and dual duct arrangements. In such
systems, the ability to control the temperature and humidity of each zone is enhanced.

In the chart,
The return air from the two zones A and B, at stages 2a and 2b respectively mix adiabatically to produce air
at stage 2.
The mixing of outdoor air at stage 4 and the return air at stage 2 results in the stage 5 of the air entering the
fan.
From state 5 to 7, air passing through the cooling and dehumidifying coil along the coil condition line. The
condition lines for the two zones A and B are along the lines 7-2a, and 7-2b respectively.

Example 5. In an air conditioning system return air at 26oC dry-bulb temperature and 50% relative humidity is
mixed with outdoor ambient air at 34oC dry-bulb temperature and 60% relative humidity. The dry air mass flow
rate of outdoor air is 30% of the supply air mass flow rate to the space. The pressute is constant at 101.3 kPa.
(a) Calculate the enthalpy, the humidity ratio and the dry bulb temperature of the supply air using the ideal
gas expressions.
(b) Obtain the answers using the pscychrometric chart.

Solution
(a) Let 1 and 2 denote properties of the two air streams and 3 the properties of the mixed stream.

We extract the following steam table data

For 1 = 26 oC, 1 = 3.36 kPa, 1 = 2548.4 kJ/kg;


For 2 = 34 oC, 2 = 5.318 kPa, 1 = 2562.9 kJ/kg;
The total pressure = 101.3 kPa

The humidity ratio


0.6221 1 () 0.6220.53.36
1 = = (101.30.53.36) = 0.010489;
(1 1 ())

0.6222 2 () 0.6220.65.318
2 = = (101.30.65.318) = 0.02023;
(2 2 ())

The enthalpy
1 = 1 + 1 () = 1.0 26 + 0.010489 2548.4 = 52.73 kJ/kg;
30
2 = 2 + 2 () = 1.0 34 + 0.02023 2562.9 = 85.85 kJ/kg;

After mixing
1 1 + 2 2 = 3 3 ; so 3 = 0.7 52.73 + 0.3 85.85 = 62.67 kJ/kg
1 1 + 2 2 = 3 3 ; so 3 = 0.7 0.010489 + 0.3 0.02023 = 0.01341

The enthalpy at exit 3 may be written as


3 = 3 + 3 () or 1.03 + 0.013413 () = 62.67
We can make an initial guess of the temperature 3 , and then obtain the saturation vapor enthalpy from the
steam table. The process can be iterated to adjust the guessed value until the above equation is satisfied. We
find 3 = 28.4.

We can also use the following approximate relation



1 1 + 2 2 = 3 3 or 3 = 1 1 + 2 2 = 0.7 26 + 0.3 34 = 28.4.
3 3
(b) Using the

The solutions obtained are 3 = 65 kJ/kg; 3 = 29; 3 = 0.014, which agree relatively with the first
method. The psychrometric chart is found to be useful.

Example 6. In a summer air conditioning system, 25% of the return air from a space at 30 oC dry-bulb
temperature, and 22 oC web-bulb temperature is exhausted and an equal quantity of outdoor air at 34 oC dry-
bulb temperature, and 28 oC web-bulb temperature is mixed with the remaining return air.

The mixture passes over a cooling coil whose coil surface temperature (apparatus dew-point) is 8 oC, and the
bypass factor is 0.25.

The mass flow rate of dry air to the space is 0.8 kg/s; and the pressure
is constant at 101.3 kPa.

Calculate (a) dry-bulb temperature and the relative humidity of the air
leaving the cooling coil; (b) enthalpy-humidity ratio of the cooling
process, and (c) the refrigeration capacity of the cooling coil.

Solution
31
We use psychrometric chart. Identify state 1 (space air) and state 2 (outdoor air), and divide line 1-2 such that
(length 1-3)/(length 2-3) = 1/3. We have 3 = 31 and 3 = 23.5.

For the cooling coil process, the bypass factor is 0.25, meaning only 75% of the air passes through the ideal
straight line (3-4), to finally achieve the apparatus dew-point of 8oC, i.e. state 4. The cooled air at state 4 mixes
with the bypass air at state 3, to produce the supply air at state 5. To locate 5, we divide line 3-4 so that (length
4-5)/(length 3-5) =1/3.

(a) 5 = 13.8 and 5 =89%


(b) To obtain gthe enthaly-humidity ratio of the cooling process,we draw a line paeallel to line 3-4 through

the centre of protractor. This gives the -ratio as 5300 kJ/kg.
(c) The refrigeration capacity of the cooling coil is given by
= (3 5 ) = 0.8 (71 36.5) = 27.6 kW.

Example 7. Return air from an air conditioned space is at 32oC db-temperature, and 50% relative humidity. To
satisfy the design requirements of the space, air has to be supplied at 16oC db-temperature, and 65% relative
humidity. The pressure is constant, at 101.3 kPa. Answer the following two questions:
(a) Can a cooling and dehumifying coil be used as the only processing unit of the system?
(b) What other processing units could be included to satisfy the required conditions of the supply air?

Solution: We find state 1 (32oC db, 50% RH) and state 2 (16oC db, 65%)
on the psychrometric chart. We observe that the condition line 1-2 of the
required ideal cooling coil does not interest the saturation line. Hence it is
not possible to achieve state 2 of the supply air by a cooling coil alone.

If we draw line 1-3 that is tangential to the saturation curve, then state 3
gives the lowest temperature (3.7oC) to which air could be cooled using
an ideal cooling coil.

Air at stage 5m lying on the horizontal line through 2, can be produced by cooling 75% of the dry air mass flow
to state 3 and later mixing it with the 25% of the bypass mass flow. We obtain mixed state 5 as 10.8oC. Reheat
from 5 to 2, we can produce the required state 2.

Another method we cool the entire air flow to the saturated state 4 (9.3oC). Reheat sensibly from 4 to 2.

Example 8. Ambient air at 10oC db-temperature and 20% RH enters a steam humidifier with a dry air mass
flow rate of 0.85 kg/s. Superheated steam at 110oC is sprayed into the air stream. The air leaves with a RH of
70%. The pressure is constant at 101.3 kPa. Calculate the db-temperatrure of the air leaving, and the rate of
flow of steam.

Solution: We first locate state 1 (10oC db, 20% RH) on the


psychrometric chart, read 1 = 0.0015. We use the enthalpy-humidity
ratio protractor to find state 2 of the air at the exit of the humidifier.

For the humidifier water and energy balance, we have


2 = 1 + and 2 = 1 +

32

The two equations lead to the enthalpy-humidity ratio = 2 1 = . The enthalpy of the superheated steam
2 1
at 110oC can be obtained from the steam table as = 2696 kJ/kg. We firsr draw the radial line on the
enthalpy-humidity ratio protractor pointing to = 2696 kJ/kg. To locate the state 2, we draw a line through 1,
parallel to the line on the protractor to interest the 70% constant RH curve.

Read from state 2: 2 = 10.8 and 2 = 0.0057. The mass flow rate of steam is

= (2 1 ) = 0.85(0.0057 0.0015) = 0.00357 kg/s.

Note that the constant db-temp line through 1 points in the direction of at 10oC, which from the steam table is
2519 kJ/kg. Since > , the air is heated and humidified.

Example 9. Ambient air at 38oC db-temperature and 20oC wb-temperature enters an evaporative cooler with a
dray air mass flow rate of 0.75 kg/s. Ther pressure is constant at 95kPa. The air leaves at a db-temperature of
25oC. Calculate:
(a) The relative humidity of the air at inlet,
(b) The relative humidity of the air at exit,
(c) The rate of flow of water to the cooler, and
(d) The saturation effectiveness of the cooler.

Solution: Since the pressure is 95kPa, we cannot use the standard


psychrometric chart, but we still illustrate the process on it.

We obtain the following data from the steam table.

At 1 = 38, 1 = 6.624 kPa, 1 = 2570 kJ/kg;


At 1 = 20, 1 = 2.33 kPa, 1 = 2537.6 kJ/kg; 1 = 83.9
kJ/kg;
At 2 = 25, 1 = 3.166 kPa, 1 = 2546.6 kJ/kg;

At the wb-temperature, the relative humidity 2 = 100%. The humidity ratio


0.6221 () 0.6222.337
1 = = = 0.01569;
1 () 952.337
The enthalpy is
1 = 1.0 20 + 0.01569 2537.6 = 59.81kJ/kg;
The properties at the wb-temperature and db-temperature are realted. Hence


= 1 1 = 1 ;
1 1
Substituting numerical values in this equation, we have 59.81 (38 + 25701 ) = 83.9(0.01569 1 ) ,
hence 1 = 0.00824.

Now the humidity ratio is given


0.6221 () 0.6226.6241
1 = = = 0.00824; hence 1 = 18.53%.
1 () 956.6241

Assume that the water sprayed in the humidifier is at the wb-temperature of the incoming air that is at 20oC.
The governing equation of the humidifier is given

33

= 2 1 = ;
2 1
Substituting numerical values in this equation, we have 59.81 (25 + 2546.62 ) = 83.9(2 0.00824 ) ,
hence 2 = 0.0135.

Now the humidity ratio is given


0.6222 () 0.6223.1662
2 = = = 0.0135; hence 2 = 63.7%, which is the RH at the exit.
2 () 953.1662
The mass flow rate of water is given
= (2 1 ) = 0.75(0.0135 0.00824) = 0.00395 kg/s.
The saturation effectiveness of the humidifier is
3825
= 1 2 = 3820 = 72%.
1 1

Example 10. The rate of sensible heat gain and the rate of moisture gain by a space are 23 kW and 0.0024 kg/s
respectively. The space is maintained at 24oC db-temperature and 50% RH. The air supplied to the space is at
db-temperature of 15oC. Assume that the moisture entering the space has an enthalpy of 2555 kJ/kg. The
pressure is constant at 101.3kPa. Calculate
(a) The relative humidity, the wb-temperature, and the dry air mass flow rate of air supplied;
(b) The refrigeration capacity of the cooling coil; and
(c) The bypass factor and the apparatus dew-point of the cooling coil.

Solution
A schematic diagram of the system is shown in Figure 10a. We locate
state 2 of the space air (24oC db-temp and 50%RH).

To find state 1 (supply air), we use SHR protractor.


= 23kW; and = 0.0024 2555 = 6.13kW.
23
The sensible heat ratio = = = 0.7895.
+
23+6.13
We first draw a line on the SHR-protractor pointing towards the value of
0.7895. The space condition line is obtained by drawing a straight line
through 2, parallel to the line drawn on the protractor. State 1 is located by the intersection of the space
condition line and the 15oC constant db-temp line.

(a) Read state 1 properties on the psychrometric chart. wb-temp = 12.8oC, and RH = 78%.
23
The mass flow rate of dry air is obtained by = (2 1 ), hence = 1.02(2415) = 2.505
kg/s.
(b) The refrigeration capacity of the cooling coil is given by
= (2 1 ) = 2.505(48 36.3) = 29.3 kW, where the enthalpies are obtained from the
chart. The total heat load on the space is 23+6.13= 29.13 kW. This value should equal to by energy
conservation.
(c) The apparatus dew-point or the ideal coil surface temperature is the temperature at the point of
intersection 3, of the line 1-2 and the saturation line. We read = 3 = 10.5oC.
The bypass factor of the coil is
1510.5
= 1 = 2410.5 = 0.33.
2

34
Example 11. An air conditioning system supplying air to a space with a sensible heat load of 14 kW, and a
latent heat load of 9 kW has a cooling coil and a bypass path as shown in Figure 16.

(a) (b)

Figure 16. (a) A schematic diagram for Example 11; (b) associated psychrometric chart.

The db-temperature of the space is maintained at 26oC. The dry air mass flow rate of supply air is 1.2 kg/s.
Outdoor ventilation air at 34oC db-temperature and 50% RH is introduced into the system with a dry air mass
flow rate of 0.26 kg/s.

The air leaving the cooling coil is fully saturated at a db-temperature of 6oC. The pressure is constant at 101.3
kPa.

Determine
(a) Db-temperature and RH of the supply air to the space;
(b) Wb-temperature of the space;
(c) The temperature of the air entering the cooling coil;
(d) The refrigeration capacity of the cooling coil.

Solution: Locate state 6 (6oC db-temp and saturation). The state 6 air mixes with state 2 return air to produce
supply air at state 1. Now the space condition line 1-2 is shown therefore Points 6, 2 and 1 must all lie on the
condition line.

14
The sensible heat ratio, SHR is given by = + = 14+9 = 0.608

We first draw a line on the SHR-protractor pointing towards the value of 0.608. The space condition line is
obtained by drawing a straight line through 6, parallel to the line drawn on the protractor. The intersection of
this line and the 26oC db-temp gives state 2 of the return air.

The sensible heat load is given by = (2 1 ), and 14 = 1.2 1.02 (26 1 ),


(a) Hence the supply air temperature1 = 14.56 .

State 1 is located (14.56 db-temp and the space condition line). We read RH at state 1 as 77%.

(b) The wb-temperature of the space is read as 2 = 19 . The dry air mass flow rates at points 6 and 2a
in Figure ?? are obtained from the lengths of the lines 1-6 and 1-2 on the psychrometric chart. This gives

6 = 1.2 12 = 0.68 kg/s;
61
Mass mixing at the mixing junctions 2a-6-7 and 2c-4-5 gives
35
2 = 1.2 0.68=0.52 kg/s;
2 = 0.68 0.26=0.42 kg/s;
The state 4 of the outdoor air is located by the intersection of the 34oC constant db-temperature line and the
50% constant RH curve. The outdoor air at 4 is mixed with return air at 2 to produce air at 5 that enters the

cooling coil. Therefore state 5 is obtained by dividing the line 2-4 such that 45 = 0.42/0.26.
25

(c) We obtain the db-temperature at 5 as 29oC.


(d) The refrigeration capacity of the cooling coil is given by = (5 6 ) = 0.68(63 20.8) =
28.7 kW, where the enthalpies are obtained from the psychrometric chart.
Note: it is instructive to check the overall energy balance of the system. This can be written as

+ = 4 (4 2 ); LHF=14+9=23 kW; RHS=28.7-0.26(77.5-54)=22.6 kW.

Fairly good balance! Considering we read quite a number of quantities from the psychrometric chart.

36
Chapter 3. Heat and moisture transfer in buildings, and cooling and heating loads

To calculate the cooling and heating loads, we need to understand the basic process of heat and moisture
transfer in buildings.

Steady heat transfer through multi-layered structures


As shown in Figure 1, a typical wall consists an outer layer 1, followed by a sheathing layer 2, that bears
agonists a wooden frame made of vertical beams called studs, (s). The space between these studs is filled with
insulation material (in). The inside of the wall consists of a layer of wall board 4. Hence this is a thermal
network with both series and parallel heat flow paths, which can be handled by at least two methods, i.e. the
parallel path method and the isothermal plane method. The final results are the same.

Figure 1. (Left) typical arrangement of a multi-layered wall structure; (Right) Corresponding networks with (a)
parallel path; and (b) isothermal plane.

In the isothermal plane method, we assume that the heat flow paths are parallel only through the insulation and
the studs.

The individual thermal resistances of the wall sections are


1 1
= ; 1 = 1 ; 2 = 2 ; = ; 4 = 4 ; = ; =
1 2 4
Where the total wall area = +
The overall thermal resistance of the wall
1 1 1
= + 1 + 2 + ( + ) 4 + ;

We can then calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient,

= = ; where = is the overall temperature difference.

Radiation heat transfer coefficient


On each surface, both interior and exterior surfaces, in addition to the convective heat transfer, there also exists
radiative heat transfer between it and other surrounding surfaces. Fortunately, the temperature difference
between surfaces is generally small, and this allows us to simplify the calculation.

Consider a flat surface, e.g. a roof, losing heat by both thermal radiation and convection to the surrounding
ambient. The sky, with which the surface exchanges radiation, may be treated as a large hemispherical surface
at an absolute temperature .

37
The net rate of radiation heat transfer between the surface and sky is
= (4 4 ), where , and are the emissivity, area and the absolute temperature of the surface.
+
Let = and = , we can write (derivation not shown)
2
3 0.25 2 3
= ( ) [4 (1 + 2 )] (4 )( )= ( );

3
where = 4 is the radiation heat transfer coefficient.

The convective heat transfer rate = ( ), and if the sky temperature assumed to be close to the
ambient air temperature , the total heat transfer rate becomes

= ( + )( ) = ( ); where is the combined convection-radiation heat transfer


coefficient.

Table 1. Surface combined heat transfer coefficients in still air (ASHRSE 2013 Fundamentals)

Orientation of Heat flow Emissivity =0.9 Emissivity =0.2 Emissivity =0.05


surface direction [W/m2K] [W/m2K] [W/m2K]
Horizontal Upward 9.26 5.17 4.32
Slope 45 Upward 9.09 5.0 4.15
Vertical Horizontal 8.29 4.2 3.35
Slope 45 Downward 7.5 3.41 2.56
Horizontal Downward 6.13 2.1 1.25

For moving air: = 34 [W/m2K] at speed 6.7 m/s and : = 22.7 [W/m2K] at speed 3.4 m/s.

Overall heat transfer coefficient of windows and doors


Heat transfer across windows and doors occur through the transparent section as well as the frame. Again we
assume that the heat flow is 1D for the central glass area, but 2D for the edge of the glass and the frame. For
design calculations, the window or door is divided into three sections with different average heat transfer
coefficients, i.e. the center of the glass (area ), the edge of the glass (area )and the frame (area ). The
average heat transfer coefficients for the edge and the frame can be done by 2D simulations.

(a) (b)

Figure 2. (a) Double-glazing unit construction; (b) heat flow sections of window.

38
The total heat transfer across the window may be expressed in terms of an average heat transfer coefficient .
( + + ) = + + ;
+ +
= .
+ +

Table 2. U-values of fixed double-glazed windows [W/m2K] (ASHRSE 2013 Fundamentals) (based on -18oC
outdoor and 21 oC indoor temperatures, wind speed of 6.7 m/s.)

Gap, gas in Center of glass Edge of glass


Aluminum Aluminum
space frame without frame with
break, break,
6 mm, air 3.12 3.63 3.88 3.52
13 mm, air 2.73 3.36 3.54 3.18
6 mm, argon 2.90 3.48 3.68 3.33
13 mm, argon 2.56 3.24 3.39 3.04
6 mm, air* 2.95 3.52 3.73 3.38
13 mm, air* 2.50 3.20 3.34 2.9
6 mm, argon* 2.67 3.32 3.49 3.13
13 mm, argon* 2.33 3.08 3.20 2.84
*) for the two surfaces facing the gas space, the emissivity, = 0.60

Calculations for basement walls and floors are possible, but not included here.

Heat transfer in gas filled cavities


Gas filled spaces or cavities are present in several building envelop components, such as walls, roofs and multi-
glazed fenestrations like windows, doors and sky lights. In some windows, the space between the two glass
panes may be filled with a gas like argon or krypton.

Heat transfer across the gas space of two surfaces 1 and 2 , occurs due to radiation and convection.
= + = ( + )(1 2 ) = (1 2 );
3 1 +2
= + 4 , where = 2

The values are also available from ASHRAE 2013 fundamentals. Table 3 presented some representative
values for 13 mm vertical air spaces.

Table 3. Heat transfer coefficients (W/m2K) for 13 mm vertical air spaces.

, = 0.03 = 0.05 = 0.2 = 0.5 = 0.82


32.2 5.6 2.33 2.44 3.45 5.26 7.14
10.0 16.7 2.22 2.33 3.13 4.55 6.25
10.0 5.6 2.13 2.22 3.03 4.55 6.25
-17.8 11.1 2.0 2.08 2.63 3.85 5.0
-17.8 5.6 1.92 2.0 2.56 3.7 5.0
-45.5 11.1 1.96 2.0 2.44 3.23 4.17
-45.6 5.6 1.79 1.82 2.22 3.03 3.85

Infiltration

39
This is the unintended air flows into a conditioned space through cracks and openings in the building envelope.
The infiltration rate can be estimated using the air flow theory.

The cooling load = ( ) = +


The sensible and latent cooling loads
= ( ); = ( ) and added moisture = ( ).

Substituting the density and specific heat capacity of air at standard conditions of 1 bar and 15oC,
[kW] = 1.23 ( ); [kW] = 3010 ( )
Where is the volume flow rate of infiltration air (m3/s).
The infiltration air flow rate is sometimes specified as air exchanges per hour (ACH).
3600
ACH= , where V is the building volume.

Ficks law for moisture transfer through multi-layered building structures.



= ; where is the mass flow rate of water vapor, is the area of vapor flow, is the vapor
pressure drop across the thickness L of the material, and is the permeability of the material.

The Ficks law of diffusion has the same mathematical form as Fouriers Law of heat conduction. Hence the
methods for 1D conduction are also applicable to the diffusion problem.

Table 4. Permeability of some building materials (ASHRSE 2013 Fundamentals)

Material Thickness, mm Average permeability,


[ng/Pasm]
Concrete (1:2:4 mix) - 4.6
Concrete block 200 28
Brick 102 4.6
Gypsum 9.5 27
Plywood 6.4 0.7
Sheathing - 30-70
Glass-fiber batt - 172
Mineral wool - 245
Polystyrene - 1.2
Softwoods - 0.6-7.8

Solar radiation
Solar radiation incident on the external surfaces of a building contributes significantly to the cooling load of the
building.
Opaque surfaces such as walls and roofs absorb a fraction of the incident solar radiation, and reflect the
rest. A portion of the absorbed radiation is conducted through the wall or roof, while the rest is lost to
the ambient by convection, and thermal radiation exchange with surrounding surfaces.
On transparent surfaces like glass windows and skylights, the solar radiation incident undergoes
reflection, absorption and transmission. The absorbed is either transferred to the inside air by conduction
and then convection, or to the surroundings by radiation. The transmitted arrive on different inner
surfaces such the floor, being absorbed, conducted or radiated again by these inner surfaces. The glass
windows and skylights are usually called fenestrations.

40
Total solar radiation incident on a surface (horizontal, vertical or inclined) can be calculated or measured, as a
function of the three fundamental angular quantities, the latitude, the declination and the hour angle. The
location of the sub at any time during the day can be specified by two angles, i.e. the solar altitude angle and the
solar azimuth angle.

The shading of surfaces from solar radiation can also be estimated.

Example 1. An exterior wall of a building has a 10cm thick layer of face brick on the outside, followed by a
layer of 20 cm thick concrete. A 15 cm thick layer of mineral wool insulation is sandwiched between the
concrete and a layer of plywood of thickness 10 mm. The wall is 10 m long and 3 m high. The outside and
inside heat transfer coefficients are 30 W/m2K and 9 W/m2K respectively. The outside and inside air
temperature are 22oC and -15oC respectively. Calculate
(a) The total thermal resistance;
(b) The overall heat transfer coefficient, and
(c) The total heat transfer rate through the wall.

Solution: Consider unit area of the wall where the constituent layers are in series. The thermal resistance of a
1
layer is = . Here we obtain the data as follows (note: we obtain the thermal conductivity values from

ASHRA 2013 Fundamentals).

Layer, i ,W/mK , mm , m2K/W


Brick 0.81 100 0.123
Concrete 1.8 200 0.11
Mineral wool 0.035 150 4.29
Plywood 0.095 10 0.105

1 1 1 1
Also = = 9 = 0.11 m2K/W; = = 30 = 0.033 m2K/W

Total thermal resistance = 0.033 + 0.123 + 0.11 + 4.29 + 0.105 + 0.11 = 4.77 m2K/W;
1 1
The overall heat transfer coefficient is = = 4.77 = 0.21W/ m2K.

The total heat transfer rate through the wall is = ( ) = 10 3 0.21 (22 + 15) = 233W.

Example 2. A building has an exterior wall with 3.8 cm 14 cm framing that makes 20% of its area. The wall
consists of the following layers of materials:

9.5 cm thick gypsum board on the inside of the framing, fire glass in the spaces between the framing, 12.7 mm
thick sheathing next to the insulation and framing, 38 cm thick layer of expanded polystyrene, 100 cm thick
layer of brick on the outside.

The air temperature inside is 20oC and the outside ambient temperature
is -10oC. The wind speed is 12 km/h. The inside heat transfer
coefficient is 8 W/m2K. Calculate (a) the total thermal resistance; (b)
the average heat transfer coefficient, and (c) the average heat transfer
rate through the wall using (i) the parallel path method, and (ii) the
isothermal plane method.

Solution

41

It is convenient to first compute the unit thermal resistance = , considering the unit cross sectional area of

each heat transfer path.

Layer, i Actual area, m2 ,W/mK , mm , m2K/W


Brick 1.0 0.89 100 0.11
Polystyrene 1.0 0.036 38 1.06
Sheathing 1.0 0.055 12.7 0.23
Wood frame 0.2 0.15 140 0.93
Fiber glass 0.8 0.04 140 3.5
Gypsum 1.0 0.16 9.5 0.059

For wind speed 13 km/h or 3.6 m/s, we can find from reference that = 25 W/m2K. The unit thermal
resistance of the indoor and outdoor air films, including contributions due to thermal radiation are
1 1 1 1
= = 8 = 0.125 m2K/W; = = 25 = 0.04 m2K/W

(i) Consider two parallel heat flow paths from the outside air to the inside air, the first through the wood
framing and the second through the fiber glass insulation.
The total thermal resistance of these two paths are
1 2.554
= (0.04 + 0.11 + 1.06 + 0.23 + 0.93 + 0.059 + 0.125) = 0.2 = 12.77 K/W;

1 5.124
= (0.04 + 0.11 + 1.06 + 0.23 + 3.5 + 0.059 + 0.125) = = 6.405 K/W;
0.8
The two resistances above are in parallel. Therefore the overall thermal resistance is
1 1
1 1 1 1
= ( + ) = (12.77 + 6.405) = 4.27 K/W

The overall heat transfer coefficient is
1 1
= = 4.271 = 0.234 W/m2K.

The average heat transfer rate through the wall is
= ( ) = 1 0.234 (20 (10)) = 7W/m2

(ii) Isothermal plane method


In the isothermal plane method we assume that heat flows uniformly through all the layers except the framing
and the insulation where the heat flow paths are parallel. The thermal resistances of the latter two paths are
0.93 3.5
= 0.2 = 4.65 and = 0.8 = 4.375
The equivalent resistance of these two parallel paths is
1 1
1 1
= ( ) = (4.65+4.375) = 2.254 K/W
+
Hence the total thermal resistance is
= 0.04 + 0.11 + 1.06 + 0.23 + 2.254 + 0.059 + 0.125 = 3.88 K/W
The overall heat transfer coefficient is
1 1
= = 3.881 = 0.258 W/m2K.

The average heat transfer rate through the wall is
= ( ) = 1 0.258 (20 (10)) = 7.74W/m2

Example 3. A building has a double-glazed vertical window with a 13 mm air space between the two glasses.
The glass thickness is 6 mm and thermal conductivity is 0.8 W/mK. The emissivity of glass is 0.9. The inside

42
and outside heat transfer coefficients are 8.3 W/m2K and 34 W/m2K respectively. The indoor air conditions are
20oC and 49% RH. The outdoor air temperature is -10oC. The ambient pressure is 101.3 kPa.
(a) Calculate the rate of heat loss through the center of the window.
(b) Will condensation occur on the inner surfaces of the window?

Solution: Consider unit area ( = 1 m2) of the window. Thermal resistance of each glass pane is
6103
= = = 7.5 103 m2K/W
0.8
The effective emissivity for the air-filled cavity between the glass panes is given
1 1 1 2
= + 1 = 0.9 1 = 1.22, so = 0.82 W/m2K.

As an initial guess assume the inner and outer glass surface temperature to be 14oC and -8oC respectively. The
mean air space temperature is 3oC, and the temperature difference is 22oC. The air space heat transfer
coefficient is a function of the surface emissivity, mean air space temperature and temperature difference. Table
8.3 includes some typical values. Using interpolation, we find = 6.02 W/m2K.

The overall thermal resistance of the center of the window is


1 1 3 1 3 1
= + 7.5 10 + + 7.5 10 + = 0.33 , and = 3.02 W/m2K.
8.3 6.02 34

The total heat transfer rate per unit area through the center of the window is

= ( ) = 3.02 30 = 90.6W/m2
We now obtain an improved estimate of the inner glass surface temperatures by applying network analogy.
Hence we have
1
1 = 20 90.6 (8.3 + 7.5 103 ) = 8.4;
1
2 = 10 + 90.6 (34 + 7.5 103 ) = 6.65.

Therefore, the new mean air space temperature and the temperature difference are 0.9oC and 15oC respectively.
We use the same table 8.3 to obtain new air space heat transfer coefficient, = 5.7 W/m2K
The overall thermal resistance of the center of the window is
1 1 3 1 3 1
= + 7.5 10 + + 7.5 10 + = 0.34 , and = 2.94 W/m2K.
8.3 5.7 34

The total heat transfer rate per unit area through the center of the window is

= ( ) = 2.94 30 = 88.2W/m2
We now obtain an improved estimate of the inner glass surface temperatures by applying network analogy.
Hence we have
1
1 = 20 88.2 (8.3 + 7.5 103 ) = 9.4.

Now the indoor air conditions are 20oC and 49% RH, hence the dew-point is 6oC, according to the
psychrometric chart, which is lower than the inner glass surface temperature, hence no condensation occurs.

Example 4. The multi-layered wall shown schematically in Figure ?? has a think sheet of vapor retarder
material, of negligible thermal resistance, located between the inner layer of plywood ( = 0.12 W/mK) of
thickness 6 mm, and the layer of glass fiber insulation plywood ( = 0.036 W/mK) of thickness 140 mm. The
43
thickness of the layer of concrete ( = 2.2 W/mK), and the layer of brick ( = 0.9 W/mK) are 200 mm and 100
mm respectively. The temperature and RH of the inside and outside air, are respectively, 22oC, 30% and -18oC,
75%. The inside and outside heat transfer coefficients are 8.0 W/m2K and 28 W/m2K respectively.

(a) Calculate the temperatures at the interfaces of the different layers of the wall.
(b) Obtain the saturation vapor pressure at the interfaces;
(c) Calculate the required value of the vapor resistance of the vapor retarder to avoid condensation of water
vapor in the wall.

Solution:
(a) Consider unit area ( = 1m2) of the wall where the constituent layers are in series. The thermal

resistance of a layer is = .

Table 4.1 Thermal resistances and vapor resistances for Example 4. (Note that values are available from
ASHRAE 2013 handbook of fundamentals)

Layer, i , mm ,W/mK , m2K/W , , ,


ng/Pasm Pasm2/ng
Inside air - - 0.125 - 0
Plywood 6 0.12 0.05 0.65 0.0092
Retarder Small Large 0 - Z
Insulation 140 0.036 3.9 -172 0.00081
Concrete 200 2.2 0.09 4.65 0.p043
Brick 100 0.9 0.11 4.54 0.022
Outside air - - 0.036 - 0

The total thermal resistance is


= 0.125 + 0.05 + 3.9 + 0.09 + 0.11 + 0.036 = 4.31;
22(18)
The total heat flow rate = 4.31 = 9.28 W
Applying the thermal network analogy to the different layers of the wall, we obtain the interface temperatures
in the following table.

Table 4.2 Interface temperatures and pressure


Interface 1 2 3 4 5 6
, 20.84 20.38 20.38 -15.84 -16.65 -17.67
, Pa 2462 2393 2393 20.38 -15.84 -16.65
, Pa 793 784.7 153 152.3 113.5 93.6

The saturation pressure of water vapor at the different interface temperatures, obtained from steam table, are
also in Table 4.2

(b) The unit vapor diffusion resistance of a layer is , = , where is the water vapor permeability of

the material. See Table 4.1 for the data.
Let the vapor resistance of the vapor retarder be Z. Neglecting the vapor resistance of the inside and outside
air layers, we obtain the total vapor resistance of the wall as.
, = (0.0092 + + 0.00081 + 0.043 + 0.022) = (0.075 + ) Pasm2/ng
Note: 1 ng (nano-gram) = 109g.
The inside and outside vapor pressure are given by
44
= , = 0.3 2644 = 793Pa;
= , = 0.75 124.9 = 93.7Pa;
where is the relative humidity.

Apply Ficks law we obtain the total vapor flow rate


( ) 79393.7 699.3
, = = (0.075+) = (0.075+)ng/sm2
,

Apply Ficks law to the brick layer, we obtain


(5 93.6) 699.3
, = = (0.075+)ng/sm2 (1)
0.022

Apply Ficks law to the concrete layer, we obtain


( 93.6)
4 699.3
, = 0.022+0.043 = (0.075+)ng/sm2 (2)

To avoid condensation of water vapor, the vapor pressures at interfaces 4 and 5 must be less than the
corresponding saturation vapor pressures at these locations. Here we have 4 < 153.6 Pa and 5 < 141.9 Pa
respectively.

Applying these conditions to equations (1) and (2), we obtain the following conditions for the vapor resistance
of the vapor retarder.
> 0.68 and > 0.24.

Choosing a value of = 0.7 Pasm2/ng. We calculate the vapor pressures at different interfaces; see Table
4.1. Note that the vapor pressures at all interfaces are blow the corresponding saturation vapor pressures.
Therefore, vapor will not condense at the interfaces.

Cooling load and heating load calculations


Space heating load refers to the rate of heat input needed to maintain the indoor temperatures and humidity of a
building within specified limits during the winter heating season. The heating load includes:
The heat loss to the outside ambient across the building envelope
The heat required to raise the temperature of the infiltrated air as the outdoor air is colder than the indoor
air.

Space cooling load refers to the total rate of heat that is needed to be removed from the space to maintain a
comfortable temperature and relative humidity. The cooling load includes
The heat gain from the outside ambient across the building envelope
Solar radiation entering through the windows
Heat released from lighting, occupants and other equipment such as computers.
Heat gained due to the infiltration of the outside warmer and humid air

45
Figure 3. Illustration how energy and moisture flow in a building

The space loads are time varying.

The detailed energy and moisture flows in a building are shown in Figure x. Clearly, a detailed analysis of all
the transient process is complex and also tedious. In real design, load estimation is done by computer software.
Our aim here is to describe the physical principles that form the basis of these computerized procedures of load
estimation.

Note that ASHRAE simplified the wind heating load estimation, by ignoring the solar radiation gain.

Assume that we have a magic and accurate computer software which can simulate the entire system of a
building including the heat and moisture transfer, and the air conditioning system operation. We have the
detailed, say hourly weather data over the last 100 years. We can simulate how the system performs all the
100 365 24 hours, and a large number of design options need to be tested. We can choose an ideal design
which can satisfy, say 99% of time, as the most extreme weather conditions may lead to unrealistic cost. In
practice, we cannot choose such a process, and engineers are smarter. They choose the design conditions for
both outdoor and indoor, and they make assumptions so that their design calculations are sufficiently fast.

Outdoor design conditions


46
The design is normally done to meet the first the extreme weather conditions expected at a location. The
weather records for a large number of locations around the world have been compiled and processed to develop
a series of weather related outdoor design conditions. They are tabulated in ASHRAE Fundamentals.

Table 1. Design weather data for winter heating systems

Location Lat deg. Long. deg DB (oC) DB (oC) Wind Wind


99.6% 99% speed (m/s) speed (m/s)
1% 5%
New York 40.7N 73.8W -13.0 -10.2 12.1 9.2
Dallas 32.9N 97.04W -5.0 -2.6 11.6 9.2
Toronto 43.68N 79.63W -16.1 -13.3 13.3 10.5
Sydney 33.93S 151.18E 6.1 7.1 12.9 10.2
Beijing 39.93N 116.28E -11.0 -9.1 9.8 6.7
Bangalore 12.97N 77.58E 15.2 15.9 5.5 4.1

Table 2. Design weather data for summer cooling systems

Location DB/MCWB (oC) DB/MCWB (oC) DB/MCWB (oC) 2.0%


0.4% 1.0 %
New York 29.8/22.4 27.8/21.6 26.6/21.1
Dallas 38.0/23.6 37/23.7 35.8/23.9
Toronto 28.5/21.8 26.8/21.4 25.3/20.8
Sydney 32.9/19.5 30.1/20.1 28.2/20.0
Beijing 35//22.0 33.2/22.5 32/22.4
Bangalore 34.2/19.8 33.4/19.8 32.6/19.8

In Table 1, the middle two columns give the dry bulb temperatures during the coldest month of the year with
respective annual cumulative frequencies of 99.6% and 99%. The values listed under 99.6% is the ambient
temperature exceeded 99.6% of the time during a year. In the case of New York, this implies that, on average,
the low temperature of -13oC is exceeded during 8725 out of 8760 hours a year. In the last two columns, the
wind speeds exceeded, on average, during 1% (88 hours) and 5% (438 hours) of the time during a year, are
shown

In Table 2, the dry bulb (DB) temperatures under 0.4%, 1% and 2% levels are the
high temperature exceeded, on average, 0.4% (35 hours), 1% (88 hours) and 2%
(175 hours) of the time during a year. The mean coincident wet-bulb temperature
(MCWB) is the average value of the wet-bulb temperature at the corresponding
dry-bulb temperature. 0.4% level is often selected for design.

Human body thermal balance


The human body converts chemical energy from food into heat and mechanical
work by a process called metabolism. The metabolic energy generation rate, usually
in met unit in thermal comfort (1 met = 58.2 W/m2 of body area),
depending on the activity level, age and health conditions. Povl Ole Fanger (1934 2006), Danish
scientist, developed the thermal comfort
theory still being used today.
Temperature regulation of the body is achieved through the
control of blood flow rate to the skin. As the environmental
temperature goes up, the blood flow rate to the skin increases to raise the skin temperature, which in turn,
47
increases the heat transfer rate to the environment. This process is effective until the skin temperature reaches
the core body temperature of 37 oC. At this stage, sweating is initiated, which transfer the metabolic heat to the
surroundings by evaporation.

Figure 4. Thermal interaction of the human body with the environment.

The energy and moisture transfer between human body, cloth and environment is shown in Figure 2.

The metabolic heat and sweat reaching the skin flows across the air gap between the skin and the inner
surface of the clothing. Heat and moisture then diffuse the clothing layer to the outer surface. The above
heat and moisture transfer processes depend respectively on the effective thermal resistance, and mass
transfer resistance of the clothing layer.
Heat transfer from the clothing surface to the ambient occurs by convection and thermal radiation. The rate
of convection is governed by the ambient air temperature, and the air movement around the clothing surface.
The radiation transfer, on the other hand, is governed by the temperature of the surrounding surfaces.

Question: Can the temperature of surrounding surfaces differ from the air temperature? Explain your answer.

The rate of energy transfer to the ambient due to the evaporation of sweat is dependent on the ambient
temperature, the relative humidity and the speed of air movement.
Heat is also transferred from the body to the ambient due to respiration. The rate of energy transfer in this
case depends on the average air flow rate into the lungs and the temperature and relative humidity of
ambient air.

Two important physiological variables affecting thermal comfort are the skin temperature and the evaporation
rate due to sweating.

Effective temperature
Several comfort indexes were developed to correlate human thermal comfort to the surrounding environmental
conditions. One is the effective temperature.

Assume: the energy loss due to respiration is negligible; the surrounding surface temperature is the same as the
air temperature; and the wetted area of the skin is constant.

We have the heat loss rate from the skin, to the ambient at and

48
= ( ) + (, ) (1)

Where and , are the skin temperature and the satuation humidity ratio at the skin temperature
respectively. The sensible and latent heat parameters and depends on either overall heat/moisture
transfer coefficient from clothing to ambient.

Here is the trick. If we select an arbitrary air temperature, and a RH of 50%, it becomes
= ( ) + (, 0.5, ) (2)

Note that at 50% relative humidity, the humidity ratio is approximately half the saturation humidity ratio, , .

(a) (b)

Figure 5. (a) Line of constant heat loss and effective temperature ET*, and (b) the ASHRAE summer and winter
comfort zones.

Now is a function of only. is referred to effective temperature, denoted as ET*. If RH is another


value, the corresponding ET* values for the same value, can be obtained by solving (1). Thus, ET* follows
a straight line through Point B ( , 50% RH) as shown in Figure 3a. Once the effective temperature B changes
to a higher value, say at Pont P, then due to Equation (1), the sensible heat transfer reduces, and the latent heat
transfer has to be increase, hence the corresponding humidity ratio will be less to maintain the same total heat
loss.

Question: What humidity ratio benefits thermal comfort? A higher value or a lower value?

Indoor design conditions


The ASHARE thermal comfort chart based on the effective temperature concept is shown in Figure 3b. The
indicated comfort zones for winter and summer are for people performing office type work, and wearing
clothing with thermal resistances of 1.0 clo (winter) and 0.5 clo (summer) respectively. The speed of air
movement is less than 0.2 m/s. The upper limit of the humidity ratio is 0.012 kg/kg DA, and no lower limit is
recommended. The recommended temperature range is 20-25oC for winter and 24-28 oC for summer.

49
In the middle of a thermal comfort zone, a person wearing the prescribed clothing would have a neutral thermal
sensation. The middle of the winter and summer comfort zones are 22oC /50% RH, and 25oC/50%RH
respectively.

Indoor air quality


Airborne pollutants are generated within the conditioned space, and can also be transported from other
locations, such as the ambient or neighboring rooms. One of the major pollutant sources is due to the human
body. Some pollutants can be removed by air cleaning, e.g. filtration for removing fine particles. In general,
ventilation, i.e. supply of outdoor clean air can be used to dilute the indoor air pollutants. This also means that
the ventilation air intakes should not be close to high pollution areas, such as roads with heavy traffic.

Because that the ventilation air needs to be cooled and dehumidified (in Hong Kong for example), the amount
of ventilation air should be as small as possible while maintaining a reasonable indoor air quality.

The minimum ventilation rates are given by recognizable standards such as those form ASHRAE. The values
depend on the number of occupants, and their activities, as well as the indoor materials.

Table 2. Minimum ASHRAE recommended ventilation rates.


Application Function Design occupancy/100m2 Ventilation air flow rate
per person (L/s)
Office Offices 7 10
Conference room 50 10
Restaurant Lounge 100 15
Dining room 70 10
Kitchen 20 7.5
Retail store Shops, malls 20 1 (L/sm2)
Sport area Ballrooms 100 13
Gymnasiums 30 10

Internal heat sources in buildings (people, lights, and equipment)


Note: during winter season, these internal heat sources help to reduce the heating load, not included in heating
load calculations.

Heat gain from people


Metabolic heat of people is released to the air both as sensible heat, and latent heat due to sweating,
The sensible heat consists of a convective component (thus released to indoor air immediately) and a
radiative component, which first absorbed by other surfaces and later released to indoor air by convection.
This time delay needs to be considered.
The latent heat is released to indoor air immediately

Table x. Heat and moisture released by people of different activities


Activity level Total heat (W) Sensible Latent Radiant/sensible heat (%)
Adult male Adjusted for heat (W) heat (W) Low air speed High air
M/F/children 0.5 m/s speed 2 m/s
Seated at theater 115 95 65 30 60 27
Moderate office 140 130 75 55 58 38
work
Walking, standing 160 145 75 70 58 38
50
Light bench work, 235 220 80 140 49 35
factory
Heavy work, 440 425 170 255 54 19
factory

Heat gain from lighting


The radiant energy emitted by lights is absorbed by different surfaces in the room, especially the floor (as most
lighting is on the ceiling), and the absorbed heat on surfaces released to indoor air later. Lights also transfer heat
to air directly by convection due to their higher operating temperature.

The rate of heat gain, = , where is the total light wattage (not including the energy released by
ballasts), is the fraction of the wattage in use, and is the special allowance factor which is the ratio of the
actual energy released by the lighting fixture to the power consumption of the lamps.

Furthermore, the fraction of the total heat that enters the room is called the space fraction. For example, for the
recessed lights located in ceilings, only a portion of the heat released enters the room air, while the rest goes to
unconditioned space above the ceiling.
Lighting heat gain parameters

Luminaire type Space fraction Radiative fraction


Recessed fluorescent without lens 0.64-0.74 0.48-0.68
Recessed fluorescent with lens 0.40-0.50 0.61-0.73
Downlight compact fluorescent 0.12-0.24 0.95-1.0
Downlight incandescent 0.70-0.80 0.95-1.0
Not-in-ceiling fluorescent 1.0 0.50-0.57

Heat from equipment


Estimation is difficult due to the wide variety, and varying operating schedules. The direct use of the energy
data on the nameplate can be a significant overestimate. For a list of equipment, see the latest ASHRAE
handbooks.

Table 7. Radiative and convective fractions for various heat gains


aa
Type of heat gain Radiative fraction Convective fraction
Occupants, office 0.6 0.4
Office equipment 0.1-0.8 0.9-0.2
Lights
Conduction through walls 0.46 0.54
Conduction through roofs 0.6 0.4
Conduction through windows
SHGC>0.5 0.33 0.67
SHGC<0.5 0.46 0.54

Transient effect
If all the heat gains can be added together, then the calculation of cooling load is easy. The difficulty arises due
to the temporary storage of walls and other surfaces. We shall demonstrate this by a simple case.

51
Figure 6. A simple model of a thin wall; (a) thin wall surface; (b) thin interior surface.

We assume that the room air temperature, is constant. The interior or exterior surface absorbs a fraction of
the incident solar radiation or lighting radiation, () as a function of time, and also exchange heat with room
air by a combined convection and thermal radiation ( ). The wall is thin with a high conductivity, so that we
assume that its temperature is uniform, at .

() = () ( ); (1)

where A is the wall surface area, l is the thickness, c is the specific heat capacity, and is the density of wall
material.

The heat flux per unit area entering the room from the surface is
= ( ); (2)

Thus + = (), (3)

where = and = = .

The solution of this first order ODE (3) is



() = 0 + 0 () (4)
where 0 is the heat flux at time = 0. The above solution shows that the current heat flux at time is affected
by the heat gain that occurred at earlier times, i.e. between = 0 to the present.

If () is a constant 0 , we have () = 0 + 0 (1 ) (5)


1
(note that = + )

Solution (5) shows that as time goes to infinity, () = 0 + 0 , and at time = 0, () = 0 .

We divide the period into = , where is the total number of intervals. Assume each interval is one
hour, and we assume that heat gain () is constant during each time interval. Solution (4) gives

() = 0 + =0 [ (+1) ]
(1)
(6)
Where is the short wave radiation at time internal = 0, 1.

In equation (6), we let (+1) = , i.e. the transfer function coefficients.

In almost all cooling load calculations, we assume 24-hour steady periodic conditions.

52
This means () = ( 24).

Consider at = 0, (0) = (24) = 0 , equation (6) becomes

()(1 24 ) = 23
=0

[1 ]; or
1
() = 23
=0( ) [1 ].

This great equation is applicable to a 24-hour period, where = 24, = 1 hour.

We define radiant time factors


1 23 1 23
= [1 ] ; and we can find out =0 = [1 ] =0 = 1

Hence () = 23
=0( ) .

This is an amazing formula, showing that the instantaneous heat flux (cooling load) at time can be calculated
using the radiant time factors, which depends only on the geometrical and thermal properties.

We write as , , the radiant heat gain rate during the -th hour before the current hour , and is the
radiant time factor for hour . Hence

, = 23
=0 , .

Note that this approaches works for a thin wall, which can be assumed to have a uniform temperature
distribution.

In case, a thick wall does not have a uniform temperature distribution, the basic 1D heat conduction equation
can also be analyzed, though the procedure becomes complex. The results are similar as follows.

The hourly heat gain due to conduction, , at hour is


, = 23
=0 , .

Where is the so-called conduction time factor for hour or interval . , is the heat imput at the
exterior surface of the wall during the -th hour before the current hour.

, = (, ); where is the overall heat transfer coefficient for the wall, surface area, indoor
air temperature (constant). is the so-called sol-air temperature.

The concept of sol-air temperature for an exterior surface is used to simplify the surface heat gain calculation
due to the combined effect of solar radiation, and convection/thermal radiation.
= = + ( ) + ( );
= + ( ) + ( ) ( );

= ( + )( ) = ( ); and = +
The small term = ( ) is generally considered to be a small correction term for the difference
between the sky and air temperature.

53
Thus, the sol-air temperature is an effective driving temperature that incorporates the contributions of solar
radiation, long wave radiation, and convection to the energy interactions at an external surface.

The cooling load calculation by the RTS and CTS methods


The above derived radiant time factor series (RTS) and conduction time factor series (CTS) can be used to
convert heat gains on surfaces to cooling loads by accounting for the time delays caused by the thermal storage
of walls, roofs and surfaces within a zone.

Values for RTS and CTS for different walls and roofs are available in ASHRAE 2013 Fundamentals.

Table 1. Conduction time series (CTS) for two walls and one roof

Curtain wall: mass = 20.9 kg/m2; thermal capacity = 20.4 kJ/m2K; U=0.429 W/m2K
Hour 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(%) 25 57 15 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Hour 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
(%) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Brickwall: mass = 304 kg/m ; thermal capacity = 253.5 kJ/m K; U=0.348 W/m K
2 2 2

Hour 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(%) 2 2 2 3 5 6 7 7 7 7 6 6
Hour 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
(%) 5 5 5 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 1
Metal deck roof: mass = 57.6 kg/m2; thermal capacity = 57.2 kJ/m2K; U=0.297 W/m2K
Hour 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(%) 0 10 22 20 14 10 7 5 4 3 2 1
Hour 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
(%) 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Table 2. Nonsolar radiant time series (RTS) for two constructions


Light construction: with carpet, 50% glass
Hour 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(%) 50 18 10 6 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1
Hour 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
(%) 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Light construction: with carpet, 10% glass
Hour 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(%) 47 11 6 4 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Hour 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
(%) 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Building energy estimation and modelling


We described the heat and transfer calculations for the purpose of cooling and heating load estimations. To
predict the long-term energy consumption in buildings, we can use sophisticated methods to calculate hourly
energy consumption, using hourly weather data, human behavior and system operation. Here we describe some
typical manual methods, i.e. the degree-day method and the bin method for predicting annual energy
consumption.

54
Degree-day method
In this method, we assume
The heating load depends only on the indoor and outdoor dry-bulb temperatures
The efficiency of the heating system is constant
The internal heat gain due to solar radiation, people, lights and equipment are constant
Air infiltration affects only the sensible heating load

Different instantaneous energy flow rates in and out of the space are as follows
Heat flow rate across the envelope = ( ) (1)
where and are the heat transfer coefficient and area of the building envelop respectively.
Sensible heat flow due to infiltration = ( ) (2)
where and are the infiltration rate and specific heat of air respectively.
Adding (1) and (2), we obtain the total energy loss due to envelop heat transfer and infiltration, which can be
expressed simply in the equivalent form,

= ( + )( ) = ( ); where is the effective heat transfer


conductance.
The rate of heat gain due to solar energy, people, lights and equipment = + + +

At steady state the heating load, = = ( )


We define a balance temperature, or a base temperature. = ( ), and = . This

means that the heating load is zero when = .

The heating degree-day method is based on the observation that the heating system needs to supply heat only
when < . Thus the total amount of heat to be supplied by the heating system during the heating season
is

= 0 ( )+ ; (note: the superscript + indicates only positive values included.)

For a period, such a month, , = () , where () is the total heating degree-days for the
month.

()
If the furnace efficiency is , the amount of fuel energy required , = .

A similar cooling degree days can be defined. Thus we have heating and cooling degree days (HDD and CDD).

Bin method
The degree-day method has the following limitations. (a) a single indoor temperature set-point is assumed; (b) a
constant heat rate is assumed, and changes in occupancy rate cannot be included; (c) variation in outdoor
humidity is not included, and therefore latent heat loads have to be neglected.

In the bin method, these limitations are partially overcome by compiling outdoor temperature data as a
frequency distribution over a series of outdoor temperature intervals. The exact principle and the application of
the bin method can be found in literature.

Computer simulation methods

55
These methods can incorporate all the dynamic interactions occurring between the various subcomponents of an
HVAC system. The widely used software include TRANSYS, EnergyPlus, and ESP-r.

Example 5. A thin vertical metal wall of a building at a location with a northern latitude of 40 faces 35 east of
south. The measured direct beam and diffuse solar radiation intensities at the location on August 15 at 10 am
solar time are 580 W/m2, and 148 W/m2 respectively. The reflectivity of the ground surrounding the wall is 0.3.
With such information, we can estimate the direct radiation incident on unit area of the wall surface is 331.8
W/m2; the diffuse radiation incident on unit area is 133.57 W/m2; and the ground-reflected radiation falling on
unit area of surface is 89.4 W/m2. Thus the total solar radiation incident on unit area of the wall is 554.8 W/m2.
(Note the solar radiation and solar shading calculations are beyond the scope of the lecture).

The average emissivity of the wall surface is 0.85. The ambient temperature and the inside air temperature are
28oC and 23oC respectively. The overall external and internal heat transfer coefficients are 35 W/m2K and 8.5
W/m2K respectively. Assume that the heat capacity and the thermal resistance of the wall are negligible,

Calculate
(a) Sol-air temperature; and
(b) The temperature of the wall.

Solution: The sol-air temperature


0.85554.8
= + = 28 + = 41.47. Note that we assume that = 0.
35

Since the thermal capacity and the thermal resistance of the wall are negligible, the net heat flow rate

= ( ) = ( ); 35(41.47 ) = 8.5( 23).


= 37.86.

Example 6. The effective temperature, ET* for a particular indoor ambient is 25oC. The ratio of sensible heat
parameter , to the latent heat parameter is 0.0038. The average skin temperature is 33.7 oC. Calculate
(a) The ratio of the sensible heat transfer to the latent heat transfer to the ambient;
(b) The ambient relative humidity if the temperature changes to 23 oC and 27 oC for the same ET*.

Solution
(a) = ( ) + (, )
= 33.7, hence the saturation humidity ratio can be obtained from tabulated data or from the chart , =
0.03406
The humidity ratio, at 25oC and 50% RH is = 0.01
( ) 0.0038(33.725)
Hence =
(
= = 1.37.
)
, 0.034060.01

(b) Along the constant ET* line: + =constant.

Applying it to = = 25, and = 23, we have


25 + 0.01 = 23 + ; we have = 0.0176. Hence RH=96% at = 23.

Applying it to = = 25, and = 27, we have


25 + 0.01 = 27 + ; we have = 0.0024. Hence RH=12% at = 23.

56
Example 7. The zone of a building is occupied by people engaged in moderate office work. The occupancy
schedule is given in Table E2.1. Each person generates 75W of sensible heat and 55W of latent heat. The
radiative fraction of the sensible component is 0.6. The interior of th ezone is of light construction for which the
appropriate non-solar RTS values are given in Table E2.2.
The cooling load due to people was calculated for all hours except hour 11 and 15, as shown in Table E2.3

(a) Calculate the cooling load due to people for hour 11 and hour 15.
(b) Obtain the highest cooling load due to people and its occurrence time.

Given:

Table E2.1 Occupancy schedule of zone (* hour from midnight; =number of people)
Hour* 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 12 12 12
Hour* 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
12 12 12 12 12 12 5 0 0 0 0 0

Table E2.2 Nonsolar radiant time series (RTS)


Light construction: with carpet, 50% glass
Hour 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(%) 50 18 10 6 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1
Hour 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
(%) 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Table E2.3 Cooling load due to people at 22 of the 24 hours

Time 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 340 1020 1020
+
42 35 29 24 19 13 8 2 90 302 432
42 35 29 24 19 13 8 2 430 1322 1452
Time 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
1020 1020 1020 1020 1020 425 0 0 0 0 0
+
461 481 504 509 514 363 199 132 96 74 55
1480 1501 1524 1529 1534 788 199 132 96 74 55

Solution
(a) The latent heat gain and the convective component of the sensible heat gain from people contribute to the
cooling load immediately. Hence for hour 11, we have
+ = 1 = ( + 0.4 ) = 12 (55 + 0.4 75) = 1020 W;

Here comes the important part the radiant components of the sensible heat gains during the previous 24 hours
contribute to the cooling load at 11 am. These hourly contributions are obtained by the hourly radiant heat gains
and RTSs for the 24 hours, i.e = 2 = 23=0 , .

Table E2.4 Computation of radiant contributions for hour 11. (* 24 hours before hour 11)

57
Hour* 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
(%) 50 18 10 6 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1
12 12 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
540 540 180 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
270 97.2 18 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Hour* 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
(%) 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 5 12 12 12 12 12 12 12
0 0 0 0 225 540 540 540 540 540 540 540
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Table E2.5 Computation of radiant contributions for hour 15. (* 24 hours before hour 15)

Hour* 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
(%) 50 18 10 6 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1
12 12 12 12 12 12 4 0 0 0 0 0
540 540 540 540 540 540 180 0 0 0 0 0
270 97.2 54 32.4 21.6 16.2 3.6 0 0 0 0 0
Hour* 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
(%) 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 12 12 12
0 0 0 0 0 0 540 0 225 540 540 540
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

The total contribution from radiant heat gains during the 24 hours prior to hour 11
= 2 = 23=0 , = 270 + 97.2 + 18 + 0 + = 385.3 W;
= + ) + = 1020 + 385.2 = 1405.2 W
(

For hour 15,


= 2 = 23
=0 , = 270 + 97.2 + 54 + 32.4 + 21.6 + 16.2 + 3.6 + 0 + = 495 W;
= ( + ) + = 1020 + 495 = 1515 W

Table E2.3(completed) Cooling load due to people at 22 of the 24 hours

Time 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 340 1020 1020 1020
+
42 35 29 24 19 13 8 2 90 302 385 432
42 35 29 24 19 13 8 2 430 1322 1405 1452
Time 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
1020 1020 1020 1020 1020 1020 425 0 0 0 0 0
+
461 481 495 504 509 514 363 199 132 96 74 55
1480 1501 1515 1524 1529 1534 788 199 132 96 74 55

The highest cooling load due to people is 1534 W, and occurs at hour 18.

58
Example 8. The all of a building is 8 m long and 3 m high. It has two equal sized windows of length 2.5 m and
height 2 m located in it. The overall heat transfer coefficient for the wall is 0.246 W/m2K. The overall heat
transfer coefficient for the window is 3.02 W/m2K. The indoor and outdoor design temperatures are -10oC and
20oC respectively. Calculate the total heat load due to heat loss through the wall.

Solution
= 3 8 2 2.5 2 = 14 m2;
( ) = 14 0.246 (20 + 10) = 103.3 W;
=

= 2 2.5 2 = 10 m2;
= ( ) = 10 3.02 (20 + 10) = 906 W;
Therefore, the total heating load due to wall heat loss is
= + = 103.3 + 906 = 1009.6W.

Example 9. For a two-story building, the infiltration rate is 0.068 m3/s. The outdoor design conditions are 22oC
and 40% relative humidity. The outdoor ambient air is saturated at -10 oC. The pressure is 101 kPa. Calculate
the sensible and latent heat loads due to infiltration of ambient air.

Solution: From the psychrometric chart, = 0.0066; and = 0.001606 (the values were actually from
tabulated data).

= 1.23 ( ) = 1.23 0.068 1000 [22 (10)] = 2676 W;


= 3010 ( ) = 3010 0.068 1000 (0.0066 0.001606) = 1022W.

59
Chapter 4 Air and water distribution systems

The topics include the pressure losses across ducts and fittings, arrangement of duct work, characteristics of
fans, interaction of fan and duct network and distribution of air within the conditioned space. The same applies
to water systems.

Total pressure distribution


At any section of a duct system, the total mechanical energy per unit mass of fluid, (J/kg) is
2
= + + ; where the three RHS terms are potential energy due to static pressure (N/m2), kinetic energy
2
due to fluid velocity and gravitational potential energy due to vertical height.

The total head, (m) of fluid at any section is defined as


2
= = + 2 + ; where the three RHS terms are the static pressure head, velocity head and elevation

head respectively.

Figure 1. (a) A typical duct network of an air conditioning system; (b) the total pressure (total head)
distribution.

As fluid flows through a duct work, a fraction of its mechanical energy is converted to internal thermal energy
due to fluid friction, resulting in a small rise of the fluid temperature. We usually call the change in the
mechanical energy between any two sections as an energy loss, (J/kg), or expressed by the head loss and
total pressure loss (Pa)

Between two sections 1 and 2 of the duct.


1 2 2 2
12 = ( ) = (1 + 21 + 1 ) (2 + 22 + 2 );

Or
2 2
12 = 12 = (1 + 21 + 1 ) (2 + 22 + 2 );
The variation of total pressure (total head) of the air in shown in Figure x for a duct network.
60
The total pressure entering the return air duct decreases progressively as it passes through the grill, return
duct and filter. The graph slow indicates the total pressure loss in each element. There is a sharp increase
across the fan due to the work input by the fan.
The heating and cooling coils also result in a significant loss. The air flow divides into three streams. Each
air stream loses total pressure due to friction in the duct, fittings and diffuser.

Pressure loss in duct networks


The frictional pressure loss [Pa] in a straight duct of circular cross section is given by the Darcy-Weisbach
equation
2
= 2 ; (1)
where
64
for laminar flow, = Re and
1 1
for turbulent flow, = 1.14 + 2log ( ) 2log [1 + 9.3 ( ) ( )]. (2)
Re

The latter is the Colebrook equation, which is a transcendental equation, and has to be solved iteratively. The
friction factor can also be obtained from the Moody chart.

pipe length (m); pipe diameter (m); fluid velocity (m/s); fluid density (kg/m3); = friction factor

[-], Reynolds number Re= ; - dynamic viscosity of fluid (Pas), absolute surface roughness [m].

In air-conditioning, we develop a simple graphical method as follows. The volume flow rate of a fluid through a
circular duct is
1
= 4 2 (3)
From (1) and (3), we obtain
8 2
=( ) ;
2 5
8
Hence log ( ) = 2log() 5log() + log ( 2 )
Either for a constant diameter or a constant fluid velocity, the friction coefficient can be determined. Hence

log ( ) and log() has a linear relationship. A typical graph is shown in Figure x. The actually designvalues
for diameter and flow velocity falls within the area bounded by the bold lines considering duct cost, fan power
and noise level. Larger duct sizes usually associated with lower fan power and noise levels, have higher initial
cost. Smaller ducts on the other hands, have higher noise levels and require more fan power.

61
Figure 2. Friction chart for round ducts with curves for constant diameter and constant velocity. (Temperature =
20oC, density 1.2041 kg/m3, and roughness = 0.09 mm.

The above formulas and graph can also be applicable to a rectangular duct with side lengths and , by using
the equivalent diameter.
()0.625
= 1.30 (+)0.25.

Pressure loss in fittings


Air duct system consists of straight ducts and fittings, such as contractions, enlargements, elbows, branches,
dampers, filters and diffusers.

62
Figure 3. Typical fittings. (a) 90o elbow; (b) transition; (c) diverging tee; (d) converging tee.

Table 1.1 Loss coefficients for 90o elbow.

Table 1.2 Loss coefficients for transition, round to round ducts.

Table 1.3 Loss coefficients for diverging tee.

63
Table 1.4 Loss coefficients for converging tee with > 250mm.

In fittings, mechanical energy losses or dynamic losses, as commonly called, occur as a result of direction
changes in elbows, flow area changes in expansions and contractions, and mixing as in branches.

The total pressure loss in a fitting is generally considered as


1
, = = (2 2 );
64
where local loss coefficient referenced to section o [-]; - velocity pressure at the selected referenced
section o [Pa]; -velocity at the selected referenced section o [m/s].

ASHRAE duct fitting database (2012) contains an extensive data set of loss coefficients for nearly all air duct
fittings. ASHRAE Handbooks also contain a limited list. Here we cited some representative values for the
typical fittings shown in Figure x.

For some fittings like contractions, with unequal inlet and outlet areas, the loss coefficient may be changed from
section o (outlet) to i (inlet) by applying the mass balance equation.
1 2
, = = (2 2 ), where = ( ) .

For diverging and converging flow junctions, the total pressure loss (mechanical energy) through the straight
(main) section is
1
, = = (2 2 );
where local loss coefficient referenced to section s [-]; - velocity pressure at the selected referenced
section s [Pa]; -velocity at the selected referenced section s [m/s].

The total pressure loss through a branch section is


1
, = = (2 2 );
where branch loss coefficient [-]; - velocity pressure at the selected referenced section b [Pa]; -
velocity at the selected referenced section s [m/s].

In converging sections, mechanical energy is exchanged between two fluid streams moving at different
velocities due to turbulent mixing. Consequently, under some flow conditions, the mechanical energy per unit
mass of the slower moving stream can increase due to mixing. This results in a negative loss coefficient for the
lower velocity stream.

Total pressure loss in duct sections


The total pressure loss in a duct section consisting of straight sections and fittings can be obtained

1 1
= (2 2 ) + (2 2 );

The loss coefficient and the friction coefficient have to be referenced to the appropriate sections. It is
possible to have a computer code doing all the calculations.

Air distribution fans


The mechanical work input to a fan generates the pressure necessary to overcome the pressure loses in the ducts
and the fittings. Some fans, used mainly for exhaust, are placed at the discharge end of a duct, while some are
placed near the center. The commonly used fans in air conditioning systems are either axial flow fans or
centrifugal fans.

65
(a)

(b)

Figure 4. (a) A schematic diagram of axial fan, and their static pressure rise, ideal fan power and efficiency; (b)
those for a centrifugal fan with forward-curved blades.

In an axial fan, the air is moved axially by the propeller blades, mounted on a concentric hub, rotated by an
electric motor. The kinetic energy imparted to the air is converted to a pressure rise by the stationary blades
located downstream of the propeller. The stationary blades also help improve the efficiency of the fan by
reducing the swirl of the air. As axial flow fans are located axially in the flow duct, they do not require a
change in flow direction of the air. Axial flow fans are used mainly in high volume flow applications.
A centrifugal fan consists of an impeller with a series of blades attached to a hub, driven by an electric
motor. The power is usually transferred from the motor to the fan through a belt drive with pulleys attached
to the motor and the impeller. Air enters at the center of the impeller in a direction normal to the plane of the
figure as shown. The centrifugal force created by the rotating blades accelerates the air in the radial
direction. The kinetic energy gained by the air is converted to a high static pressure in the diffusing section
of the fan.

Four types of blades are used in the impellers of centrifugal fans.


Radial, airfoil and backward-curved commonly used in high pressure or high volume flow system.
Forward-curved commonly used in low pressure systems, shown in Figure 4, are curved in the same
direction as the direction of rotation of the impeller.

Fan characteristics
66
These parameters are generally included in tabular form or graphical form in manufacturers catalogues.
Total pressure the rise in total pressure cross the fan. = , , , where I and o denote conditions at
the inlet and outlet respectively.
Static pressure - the rise in the static pressure across the fan. = , , .
Ideal power input required to operate the fan under the given conditions. Assuming the temperature rise of
(, , )
air to be negligible, and the density to be constant, = , where is the mass flow rate of air.


Fan efficiency the ratio of the ideal power required to the actual shaft power input of the fan, = .

Usually fans are driven by electric motors through belt drives. If the efficiency of the electric motor is ,

then the required electric power input = .

For the typical performance characteristics of an axial fan and a centrifugal fan, the fan produces a large
increase in the static pressure, followed slow decreases as the airflow rate increases, and a very sharp and rapid
decrease in static pressure at higher flow rates. The fan power, which is proportional to the product of the static
pressure rise and the volume flow rate, increase up to a point, and then decreases at higher flow rates. The ideal
power approaches zero at very low and very high flow rates, results in the efficiency variation.

Fan laws
They are a group of approximate relationships that may be used to predict the effect of certain design and
operating variables, and the fan laws may be derived by dimensional analysis. For the volume flow rate , total
pressure , the work input are grouped individually with the density , the characteristic dimension , and
the rotating speed , we have


= 1 ; 22 = 2 ; 53 = 3 , where the dimensionless constants 1, 2 and 3 are the same for two
3
aerodynamically similar fans. This condition allows us to predict the fan performance under different operating
conditions.

Fan-duct network interaction


Referring to the simple duct network in Figure 5, we have duct sections and fittings before and after the fan. For
duct sections 1-2 and 3-4:

1 1
12 = 0 2 = [ (2 2 ) + (2 2 )] ;
12
1 1
34 = 3 0 = [ (2 2 ) + (2 2 )] . (5)
34
where 0 is the uniform pressure of the space to which the inlet and outlet of the duct system are connected at
locations 1 and 4, respectively.

Figure 5. A simple duct network with a fan.

67

The velocity = at a section with an area of . Substituting for the velocities in term of flow rate in (5),

we have

12 = 0 2 = 12 2 and 34 = 3 0 = 34 2; where 12 and 34 are terms involving various


friction factors, duct dimensions and the loss coefficients of the fittings, and the two terms can be assumed for a
particular system.
We have = 3 2 = (12 + 34 ) 2, and the variation of the total pressure loss in the duct system
with the volume flow rate is the system curve. Ideally, the system curve is parabola.

The operation of the duct-fan system also depends on the fan characteristics, which is the variation of the
pressure generated by the fan with the flow rate, at a fixed value of the fan speed. The point of intersection of
the fan characteristic and the system curve gives the fan pressure and flow rate under steady operating
conditions, i.e. the operating point of the system.

(a) (b)

Figure 6. Flow rate control by (a) damper control; and (b) fan speed control.

Two basic air flow rate control methods


Damper control as the damper closes, the system curves changes. The new fan power, which is
proportional to the product of the fan pressure and the flow rate may not decrease much from the initial one.
Variable speed drive this changes the fan speed, and the fan characteristics change as a result. The new fan
power is significantly reduced.
Many AHUs operate under part-load conditions much of the year except during peak load conditions. Using
variable speed drive can reduce energy use. In a VAV system, both damper control and variable speed drive are
used, hence VAV systems can reduce significantly fan power under part-load conditions.

Design methods for duct systems


The main requirements of a duct system are:
It supplies the specified rates of air flow to the different zones;
It is economical in initial cost, operating cost and also the cost of the building space
The noise level is acceptable.

Two methods are discussed here, i.e. the equal friction method and the static regain method. Other two other
methods are the velocity method and the T-method.
68
Figure 7. An example for design methods of duct networks

Equal friction method


In this method, the frictional pressure loss per unit length (unit pressure loss) is assumed to be the same for all
sections of the duct network. Pressure losses through any fittings in the duct section are not included in the
assumed unit pressure loss. The ASHRAE 2013 Fundamentals recommended the selected pressure drop be
within the enclosed region of the duct friction chart as earlier.

Using the system shown in Figure 7 as an example, here is how the method works.
(i) The flow rates to the zones 3 , 4 and 5 are estimated from the thermal loads of the zones. If the
air density is assumed constant, then the flow rate from the fan is = 3 + 4 + 5 .
(ii) The layout of the duct network is based on the location of the zones, and AHU. For each duct
section, the length, and the number and type of fittings are specified.
(iii) The pressure for each zone is also specified. Usually, all the zones are at the same pressure.
(iv) An initial unit frictional pressure loss 0 is chosen. This value is applied to all duct sections of the
duct network.
(v) Obtain the diameter and the air velocity from the duct friction chart based on the flow rate and
pressure loss.
(vi) As the value of 0 is usually chosen based on past design experience, the duct sizes obtained in (v)
may not always deliver the specified flow rates to the three zones. This has to be checked by
calculating the total pressure loss from 1 to exits at 6, 8 and 10, ,16, ,18,and ,110. The
three total pressure losses must be equal to deliver the specified flow rates.
(vii) If the pressure losses are not equal, then dampers may have to be installed at the exit of some ducts
to increase the pressure drop artificially to achieve the desired flow rates to the zones. An alternative
approach is to change the diameter of some branches of the network to obtain the desired pressure
losses.

Static regain method


It only applies to supply air duct systems as shown in Figure 7. The aim is to maintain the same static pressure
at all the entry points to the fittings where the air flowing through the network diverges. Maintaining a low
static pressure throughout the entire duct system helps minimize duct leakage and also reduce stresses in the
duct wall.

We illustrate the design procedure be referring to the section 1-6. The total pressures at locations 2, 4 and 6
may be expressed as
1 1 1
2 = 2 + 2 12 ; 4 = 4 + 2 22 ; 6 = 6 + 2 32 (1)

In this method, we make all static pressure the same at all locations, i.e. 2 = 4 = 6 (2)
Hence
1 1
2 4 = 2 12 2 22 = ,23 + ,34 + ,34 ;

69
1 1
4 6 = 2 12 2 32 = ,45 + ,56 + ,56 ; (3)
1 1
Also 2 = 4 22 2 ; 3 = 4 42 3 (4)

Here are major steps


(i) The flow rates to the zones 3 , 4 and 5 are estimated from the thermal loads of the zones.
(ii) The layout of the duct network is based on the location of the zones, and AHU. For each duct section,
the length, and the number and type of fittings are specified.
(iii) The pressure for each zone is also specified. Usually, all the zones are at the same pressure.
(iv) A velocity 1is selected for the main duct section 1-2. The pressure loss terms on the RHS of (3) are
functions of velocity and duct diameter, which are related by (4). (3) and (4) can be iteratively solved to
obtain the unknown velocities and diameters.

Additionally, not covered here include the duct system optimization, consideration of air distribution, e.g. by
basic principles or using computational fluid dynamics.

Example 1. The supply duct of an air conditioning system, shown in Figure 8 delivers 0.8 m3/s of air at 20oC
dry-bulb temperature. The diameter of the duct is 0.4 m, and the total length of the straight duct sections from 1
to 10 is 80 m. The fan generates a total pressure of 125 kPa at section 1.

Figure 8. A supply air duct section for Example 1.

The loss coefficient for each right angle bend is 0.1. The friction coefficient is 0.0186. The density of air is 1.2
kg/m3.

Calculate

(a) The static pressure and velocity pressure at section 1


(b) The total frictional pressure loss from 1 to 10;
(c) The pressure loss in the fittings from 1 to 10.
(d) The total static and velocity pressure at section 10
(e) The static and velocity pressure heads at section 1
(f) The total mechanical energy loss per unit mass of air from 1 to 10; and
(g) The rate of mechanical energy loss from 1 to 10.

Solution
40.8
The air velocity through the duct is = = 1 2 = 3.140.42 = 6.37 m/s

4
1 1
(a) The velocity pressure at section 1 is 1 = 2 2 = 2 1.2 6.372 = 24.34 Pa
Hence the static pressure 1 = 1 1 = 125 24.34 = 100.9 Pa
1 1
(b) and (c) The total pressure loss = (2 2 ) + (2 2 )

70
80 1 1
,110 = 0.0186 0.4 (2 1.2 6.372 ) + (4 0.1) (2 1.2 6.372 ) = 90.56 + 9.73 = 100.3
Pa;
(d) The total pressure at section 10, ,10 = 1 ,110 = 125 100.3 = 24.7Pa
10 = 10 1 = 24.7 24.34 = 0.36 Pa
1 100.9 1
(e) The static pressure head at 1 1 = = 1.29.81 = 8.57 m; and the velocity heat at 1 is 1 = =

24.34
= 2.06 m;
1.29.81
(f) The mechanical energy loss per kg of air from 1 to 10 is
100.3
,110 = ,110 = 1.2 = 83.58 J/kg;

(g) The rate of mechanical energy loss from 1 to 10
= ,110 = 0.8 100.3 = 80.24 W. Thus the mechanical energy loss or conversion to
heat results in a rise in temperature of air of about 0.08 oC.

Example 2. The dimension of a duct system, supplying air at 20oC to two zones 5 and 6 are shown in Figure
2.1. The flow rates to the two zones are 1.4 m3/s and 1.0 m3/s respectively. The fan generates a total pressure of
285 kPa at the entrance section 1. Calculate (a) (i) the velocity pressures in the duct sections; (ii) the total
pressures at all sections from 1 to 6. (b) If a damper is installed just upstream of section 5 to make the total
pressures at 5 and 6 equal, calculate the required pressure loss through the damper.

Solution: The air velocities in the duct sections 1-2, 3-5 and 4-6 are given by
42.4 41.4 41.0
12 = 12 = 3.140.62 = 8.49 m/s; 35 = 35 = 3.140.52 = 7.13 m/s; 46 = 46 = 3.140.42 = 7.95 m/s
12 35 46
The velocity pressure in the duct sections are
1 2 1 2
12 = 2 12 = 0.5 1.2 8.492 = 43.2Pa; 35 = 2 35 = 0.5 1.2 7.132 = 30.5Pa;
1 2
46 = 2 46 = 0.5 1.2 7.952 = 37.9Pa.
The frictional pressure losses in the straight duct sections can be calculated (find the friction f values)
12 = 53.6 Pa; 35 = 42.8 Pa; 46 = 120.8 Pa

The loss for the 90 bend 4-6, diverging tee-junction 2-3-4


1 2 1
46 = 2 46 = 2 0.11 1.2 7.952 = 4.17 Pa;
1 2 1
23 = 2 12 = 2 0.14 1.2 8.492 = 6.05 Pa;
1 2 1
24 = 2 12 = 2 1.2 1.2 8.492 = 51.89 Pa;

The total pressure at different sections are


1 = 285 Pa; 2 = 1 12 = 285 53.6 = 231.4Pa;
3 = 2 23 = 231.4 6.05 = 225.35Pa; 4 = 2 24 = 231.4 51.89 = 179.5a;
5 = 3 35 = 225.35 42.8 = 182.55Pa; 6 = 4 46 = 179.5 120.8 = 58.7Pa;

Hence the required pressure loss through the damper at section 5 is


= 5 6 = 182.55 58.7 = 123.85Pa.

Example 3. The breath and height of the outlet diffuser of a centrifugal fan are at 0.62 m and 0.32 m
respectively. The fan delivers 1.6 m3/s of air when the rotational speed is 205 rpm. The static pressure at the
outlet is 540 Pa. (a) Calculate the ideal power output required to operate the fan; (b) if the efficiency of the
motor and drive is 72%, calculate the power input to the motor.
71
1.6
Solution: The outlet velocity of the air is given by = = 0.620.32 = 8.06 m/s.

1 1
The velocity pressure at the outlet of the fan is = 2 = 1.2 8.062 = 39.0 Pa
2 2
The total pressure at the outlet = 39 + 540 = 579 Pa
The ideal power input = = 1.6 579 = 926.4 W.
926.4
Actual power = = 0.72 = 1287W.

Example 4. Ambient air at 20oC and density 1.2 kg/m3 enters a fan rotating at 180 rpm. The total pressure of
the air delivered by the fan is 11.5kPa, and the volume flow rate 4.5 m3/s.
(a) Calculate the ideal power input to the fan;
(b) Calculate the volume flow rate, the pressure rise and the power input; if the fan speed is increased to 200
rpm with the same density; or if the speed remains constant but the ambient air temperature increases to
40oC.

Solution: The ideal power input is 1 = 1 1 = 4.5 11.5 = 51.75 kW.

If the fan speed increases from 180 rpm to 200 rpm (density is constant)
200
2 = 2 1 = 4.5 = 5.0 m3/s
1 180
2 2 200 2
2 = ( ) 1 = (180) 11.5 = 14.2 kPa
1

3200 3
2 = (2 ) 1 = (180) 51.75 = 71 kW
1

If the speed remains constant but the ambient air temperature increases to 40oC, we assume the air is an idela
gas, = , hence
2 273+20
= 1 ; , 2 = 1 (1 ) = 1.2 (273+40) = 1.123 kg/m3.
1 2 2
The flow rate is independent of the density, so remains constant. For the same fan seed

1.123
2 = (2 ) 1 = ( ) 11.5 = 10.76 kPa;
1 1.2
2 1.123
= ( ) 1 = ( ) 51.75 = 48.4kW.
1 1.2

Example 5. Figure x shows a supply air duct system and all ducts are circular. The flow rates and duct lengths
are indicated in the figure. The loss coefficient for the duct exists is 0.6.
(a) Use the equal friction method to size all ducts;
(b) Determine where dampers should be located to achieve the desired air flow rates to the spaces;
(c) Can the pressure losses in the duct runs be balanced by changing the duct diameters?

Solution
(a) The flow rates (m3/s) through the different duct sections are as follows.
12 = 4.5; 34 = 3.5; 56 = 1.5; 78 = 1.5; 9,10 = 2.0; 11,12 = 1.0

To apply the equal friction method, we assume air velocity in section 1-2 is 9m/s. On the friction chart, we
obtain the duct diameter as 0.8 m, and unit pressure loss as 0.93 Pa/m, which all within the recommended
bounds.

72
Using the same unit pressure loss for all other duct sections, and their flow rates, we obtain their duct diameters.
We than calculate their velocities, velocity pressure and losses in Table 4.1.

Table 4.1 The chosen duct diameters and other parameters for each section

Section , m , m3/s , m , m/s , Pa , Pa


1-2 15 4.5 0.8 9.0 48.3 12.95
11-12 7 1.0 0.45 6.2 23.3 6.5
3-4 12 3.5 0.73 8.4 42.7 11.2
9-10 6 2.0 0.59 7.36 32.6 5.58
5-6 20 1.5 0.53 6.87 28.4 18.6
7-8 8 1.5 0.53 6.87 28.4 7.4

(b) Based on the flow rates and duct diameters, we obtain the loss coefficients of the two diverging tee-juctions,
and the 90 bend from tabulated data set.
2,3 = 0.13; 2,11 = 2.4; 4,5 = 0.14; 4,9 = 1.5; 6,7 = 0.11.
The total pressure losses in different duct runs are
1 8 = 12 + 23 + 34 + 45 + 56 + 67 + 78 + = 13.95 + 0.13 48.3 + 11.2 + 0.14
42.7 + 18.6 + 0.11 28.42 + 7.4 + 0.6 28.42 = 83.6Pa;
1 12 = 12 + 2,11 + 11,12 + = 13.95 + 2.4 48.3 + 6.5 + 0.6 23.3 = 150 Pa;
1 10 = 12 + 23 + 34 + 4,9 + 9,10 + = 13.95 + 0.13 48.3 + 11.2 + 1.5 42.7 +
5.58 + 0.6 32.64 = 120.6 Pa.

The fan has to deliver the largest pressure loss of 150 Pa for section1-12. To balance the pressure losses in the
three duct runs, dampers have to be installed along section 7-8 and 9-10 to artificially introduce additional
pressure losses, i.e. with magnitudes of 78 = 150 83.6 = 66.4Pa, and 910 = 150 120.6 = 29.4Pa.

(c) We can reduce the duct 7-8 and duct 9-10 diameters to increase their pressure losses. After some
calculations, the solutions are for section 7-8, the diameter is reduced to 0.37 m so that velocity = 13.4 m/s and
pressure in 1-8 is 120 Pa. For section 9-10, the diameter is reduced to 0.42 m so that velocity = 14 m/s and
pressure in 1-10 is 145 Pa. Note that these changes bring the unit pressure loses in 7-8 and 9-10 to the boundary
of the recommended region in the friction chart.

Example 6. A return air duct network, shown schematically in Figure x, is made of round sheet metal ducts.
The flow rates and lengths are indicated in the figure.
(a) Use the equal friction method to size this circular duct system;
(b) Determine where dampers should be located to achieve the desired air flow rates from the spaces.

Solution: The flow rates (m3/s) through the different duct sections are as follows.

12 = 1.45; 34 = 1.45; 56 = 1.9; 78 = 2.35; 9,10 = 0.45; 11,12 = 0.45

To apply the equal friction method, we shall use a unit pressure drop of 0.90 Pa/m, which is closer to the lower
bound of the recommended values.

Using the same unit pressure loss for all other duct sections, and their flow rates, we obtain their duct diameters.
We than calculate their velocities, velocity pressure and losses in Table 11.1.

73
Table 11.1 The chosen duct diameters and other parameters for each section

Section , m , m3/s , m , m/s , Pa , Pa


1-2 9.2 1.45 0.524 6.7 27.2 8.28
3-4 4.6 1.45 0.524 6.7 27.2 4.14
5-6 4.6 1.9 0.581 7.2 31.0 4.14
7-8 9.5 2.35 0.629 7.55 34.4 8.55
9-10 9.2 0.45 0.337 5.04 15.3 8.28
11-12 9.2 0.45 0.337 5.04 15.5 8.28

(b) Based on the flow rates and duct diameters, we obtain the loss coefficients of the two diverging tee-juctions,
and the 90 bend from tabulated data set.
2,3 = 0.11; 4,5 = 0.36; 10,5 = 0.28; 6,7 = 0.25; 12,7 = 0.21.
The total pressure losses in different duct runs are
1 8 = 12 + 23 + 34 + 45 + 56 + 67 + 78 = 8.28 + 0.11 27.2 + 4.14 + 0.36 31 +
4.14 + 0.25 34.4 + 8.55 = 48Pa;
9 8 = 9,10 + 10,5 + 56 + 67 + 78 = 8.28 0.28 31 + 4.14 + 0.25 34.4 + 8.55 = 21 Pa;
11 8 = 11,12 + 12,7 + 78 = 8.28 + 0.21 34.4 + 8.55 = 24 Pa.

The fan has to deliver the largest pressure loss of 48 Pa for section1-8. To balance the pressure losses in the
three duct runs, dampers have to be installed along section 9-10 and 11-12 to artificially introduce additional
pressure losses, i.e. with magnitudes of 910 = 48 21 = 27Pa, and 1112 = 48 24 = 24Pa.

Note: as in the last example, we could also adjust the diameters of ducts section 9-10 and 11-12 to increase the
pressure losses in the duct runs 9-8 and 11-8 for balance.

Example 7. A circular supply air duct system is shown schematically in Figure x. The flow rate through section
1-2 is 40 m3/s, and the air velocity is 18 m/s. The section 3-4 with a 90
Bend is 12 m long. The flow rate through section 3-4 is 24 m/s. Determine the diameter of section 3-4 using the
static regain method.
2 2
4 440
Solution: Section 1-2 diameter 1 = (1) = (3.1418) = 1.68 m
2
Applying the modified Bernoullis equation between 2 and 4
1 1 1 1
2 + 2 22 = 2 22 + 34 34 32 + 2 32 + 4 + 2 32 ; (1)
3
Where and are the loss coefficients of the straight section of the tee-junction 2-3-5 and the 90 bend of
section 3-4.
1 1
For static regain method, 2 = 4 . As 1 = 4 12 2; 2 = 4 22 3
Equation (1) becomes
(1 ) 1 2 (1+ ) 34 (1 ) 40 2 (1+ ) 1234
( ) = + 34 ; with numerical values (24) = + (2)
14 2 24 25 1.684 24 25

Equation (2) can be numerically solved for the diameter 2 . However, the loss coefficient for the tee-
2
junction is a function of 2 and 2 = (2 ) . The loss coefficient for the 90 bend is a function of the diameter
1 1 1
2 .

74
The main steps in a numerical solution are as follows: Guess an initial value of 2 . Obtain and . Obtain the
friction factor 34 . Iterate using simple methods such as bifurcation, then we can obtain 2 = 142.6 cm.

Water distribution systems


Water distribution systems, also called hydronic systems, have several practical advantages over air
distribution: (a) the size of hear source is smaller; (b) water pipes requires less space than air ducts; and (c) for
heating applications, higher temperature are more practical with water than with air. Air distribution is
commonly used in residential and small commercial applications where the distances from the heat source to the
conditioned spaces are usually short. For large central air conditioning systems, it is more common to use hot
water and chilled water as distribution media.

Energy equation for hydronic systems


We commonly use the pressure head form of the energy equation, with total pressure head as follows
2
= = + 2 + ;

Two simple systems, i.e. open loop and close loop systems.

For open loop, between 1 and 2,

2 2
(1 + 2
1
+ 1 ) + = (2 + 2
2
+ 2 ) + ; (1)

Where [J/kg] is the work input by the pump per unit mass of fluid. The mechanical energy loss per unit
mass, includes frictional losses I the pipe and dynamic losses in the fittings. Note for the open loop
system, one part is in direct contact with air, as in the cooling tower water loop of the air conditioning system as
shown in Figure 9.

Figure 9. Two types of water distribution systems, i.e. (a) open loop and (b) closed loop systems.

For close loop, between 1 and 2,


1 12 2 22
=( + )( + )= ; (2)
2 2

note that change in elevation for the close loop system is generally negligible. The chilled water loop is an
example of a close loop system.

Head losses
2
Frictional loss in straight pipes = = () (2)

2
Dynamic loss in fittings 12 = (2)
75
2 2 2
Total head loss = () (2) + (2) = [ () + ] (2)
2 2
Equivalent length (2) = ( ) (2), we have =
= ( ) .

Figure 10. Friction pressure loss chart for water flowing in Schedule 40 steel pipes. Water temperature is 20oC,
and absolute roughness = 0.00046.

Pump characteristics
The most commonly used pumps are centrifugal pumps, similar in operation to the centrifugal fans, and a
schematic diagram is shown Figure 11. The impeller with blades is driven b=in the clockwise direction by
electric motor.

76
Figure 11. (a) Schematic of centrifugal pump; (b) performance curves for a typical centrifugal pump.

The rotating blades impart a high radial velocity to the water entering the impeller at
the center. The diffusing section at the periphery of the impeller converts the high
velocity head of water to a static pressure rise.

Typical profiles of total pressure head, work input and efficiency with flow rate are
shown in Figure 12. The head across the pump is a maximum when the flow rate is
zero. As the flow rate increases, the head decreases progressively until at the
maximum flow rate the head becomes zero. The power input at zero flow rate is
used to stir the fluid in the pump and is all converted into thermal internal energy.
The power input increases near linearly with flow rate.

Following equation (2), the ideal work input to the fluid per Denis Papin (1647 c. 1713), French physicist,
unit mass of fluid by the pump mathematician and inventor, developed the first
true centrifugal pump in 1687, long before
= = , where is the density of fluid, and Bernoulli equation in 1738.
is the total head.
The ideal power input to the fluid by the pump

= = ;
The actual work input per unit mass, is larger than the ideal work.

The pump efficiency =
=
=

With liquid pumps, difficulties arise if the pressure inside the pump becomes very low. At low pressures, liquids
vaporize and pockets of vapor may be formed if the pressure falls below the saturation vapor pressure
corresponding to the prevailing temperature. Vapor bubbles are carried along with the liquid until a region of
high pressure is reached, where they suddenly collapse. If vapor bubbles are near to a solid surface, when they
collapse, the forces exerted by the liquid rushing into the cavities create very high local pressure causing serious
erosion of the solid surfaces. This phenomenon is known as cavitation.

In any application, the available suction head has to exceed a parameter called the net positive suction head
(NPSH) to avoid cavitation. The available NPSH is as follows.
2
NPSH = + 2 ; where and are the head and the velocity at the impeller entrance and is the
vapor pressure of the liquid at the prevailing temperature.

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Note that system-pump interaction and flow control is similar to those for fan-duct systems. Dampers in fan-
duct system are replaced by valves in the hydronic systems.

Figure 12. Typical characteristics of a centrifugal pump.

Design of water distribution systems


A typical system consists of straight pipes, fittings like bends and tee-joints, valves, heat exchangers, an
expansion tank, and pumps.

For close systems, two arrangements are possible, i.e. the two-pipe direct-return systems, and two-pipe reverse-
return systems. They are called two-pipe systems because there are separate supply and return pipe systems.

Figure 13. Pipe networks. (a) direct-return system; (b) reverse-return system.

In the direct return pipe system, the terminal units in the zones A, B and C are supplied with hot water from a
boiler or chilled water from a chiller plant, depending on the application. Its drawback is that the available
pressure to the three terminal units are different due to the different lengths of the supply and return pipes to and
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from the units. More water would be supplied to A, e.g. if the A pipes are much shorter. If the available
pressures differ significantly, then it would be difficult to ensure the desired flow rates to the three units, even
with the help of control valves.

In the reserve-return system, the total lengths of the piping from the boiler or the chiller to the three terminal
units, including the supply and return pipe lengths, are approximately equal. Therefore, the available pressures
and the flow rates to the three units will not differ by much. Its disadvantage is the additional pipe required.

An open-loop system has at least one section where the water is in contact with atmosphere air. Therefore, the
pressure at any other point in the pipe network can be determined by knowing pressure difference between the
point and the air-water contact surface.

A closed loop system is normally operated with the entire system above atmospheric pressure to prevent air
leakage into the system. Moreover, the total volume of closed loop systems change with temperature due to the
different coefficients of thermal expansion of water and the pipe materials. An expansion tank is installed in
close-loop systems to accommodate such volume changes, and to provide a reference pressure to prevent
cavitation in the pump. The design procedures for expansion tanks is given elsewhere.

Pipe network design


Guidelines are available in ASHRAE Handbook 2013 Fundamentals. The factors that determine the maximum
and minimum velocities in water pipes are the noise level, erosion level, installation cost and operating cost.

If the pipes are too small, the resulting high velocities lead to unfavorable noise levels, erosion levels and
pumping costs. Too large pipes lead to excessive installation cost. For pipes of nominal diameter 50 mm or less,
the recommended velocity limit is 1.2 m/s. For pipe diameters >50mm, a unit pressure loss limit of 400 Pa/m is
recommended.

The main steps in the design of pipe networks are listed below:
1. Determine the layout of the pipe network with all the necessary fittings;
2. Size the pipes in all sections of the system based on the anticipated maximum flow rate;
3. Determine the head loss through the different loops of the pipe network;
4. Obtain the head requirement of the pump based on the largest head loss from step 3 above;
5. Adjust the pipe diameters of the branches so that all the loops in step 3 have the same head loss as that
used to selected the pump in step 4.

Example 8. Water at 70oC flows at the rate of 3.2 L/s through a horizontal steel pipe of nominal diameter of 50
mm and length 45 m. The absolute roughness of commercial steel is 0.000046. The viscosity and density of
water at 70oC are 0.406 mPas and 977.7 kg/m3. Calculate (a) the total head loss through the pipe; (b) the
velocity head, and (c) the change in static head.

Solution: The actually inner diameter of the pipe with a nominal diameter 50 mm is 52.5 mm. For steel pipe
and the Reynolds number, = 0.0206.
4 43.2103
Velocity = 2 = 3.14(52.5103 )2 = 1.478 ms/.
2 0.0206451.4782
The friction head loss = ( ) (2) = 52.5103 29.81 = 1.97m;
2 1.4792
The constant velocity head in the pipe is = (2) = 29.81 = 0.111m;

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2 2
For a straight pipe, the change in the total head is equal to the friction head loss, (1 + 2
1
) (2 + 2
2
)= .

12 22
As 2 = 2, hence the change in static head is = = 1.97m.

Example 9. Water at 20oC is distributed through the pipe network shown in Figure 9.1. The lengths, diameters,
and flow rates of the different pipe sections are indicated in the figure.
(a) Calculate the total pressure losses from 1-6, 1-8 and 1-0.
(b) If the pressures at the pump suction 0 and the exit sections 8, 6 and 10 are atmospheric, estimate the
required delivery pressure of the pump at 1;
(c) If the efficiency of the pump is 75%, calculate the required power input to the pump.

Figure 9.1. The pipe network for Example 9.


4
Solution: The water velocity in a pipe section: = 2

2
The friction loss in the pipe section: = ( ) (2)

Table 2.1 Friction head losses in pipe sections


Section , m , mm , L/s ,m/s , m , m
1-2 20 75 9.5 2.15 0.236 0.0198 1.244
3-4 15 50 6.5 3.3 0.558 0.021 3.157
5-6 22 40 4 3.18 0.515 0.0223 6.336
7-8 30 35 3 3.12 0.495 0.0231 9.809
9-10 25 35 2.5 2.6 0.345 0.0234 5.755

The loss coefficients for the fittings are obtained. Hence for the two tee-junctions
2,3 = 0.9; 2,7 = 1.23; 4,5 = 0.9; 4,9 = 1.4;

For the 90 elbows, in section 7-8, = 35mm, = 1.26; in section 9-10, = 35mm, = 1.26

The corresponding velocity heads are the same as in Table 2.1. Hence
1 6 = 12 + 23 + 34 + 45 + 56 = 1.244 + 0.9 0.236 + 3.517 + 0.9 0.558 +
6.336 = 11.8m;
1 8 = 12 + 27 + + 78 = 1.244 + 1.23 0.236 + 1.26 0.495 + 9.809 =
11.97m;

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1 8 = 12 + 23 + 34 + 49 + + 9,10 = 1.244 + 0.9 0.236 + 3.517 + 1.4
0.558 + 1.26 0.345 + 5.775 = 11.96m.

(b) The total head loss through the three sections are nearly equal. We can select the pump to deliver 9.5 L/s
of water at a total head of about 12 m. The ideal work input under these operating conditions is =
() = 12 998 9.81 9.5 103 = 1116W, and
1116
(c) = = .75 = 1488W.

Example 10. In the air conditioning system, shown schematically in Figure 10.1, the evaporator supplies chilled
water at 6oC to two cooling coils A and B with cooling capacities of 32 kW and 25 kW respectively. The rise in
temperature of the chilled water in each coil is 3oC.

The pipe lengths of different sections of the network are also shown in the figure. Schedule-40 steel pipes with
threaded fittings are used. The pressure losses through the coils A and B are 1.8 m and 1.5 m respectively. The
pressure losses through the evaporator is 3.6 m.

(a) Size the pipes for this system;


(b) Determine pump flow rate and the head required.

Figure 10.1. The chilled water supply system for Example 10.

Solution:

First we calculate the chilled water flow rates through the two cooling coils.
32 25
= ; = = 10004.23 = 2.54 L/s and = = 10004.23 = 1.98 L/s

Total flow rate through the evaporator = + = 2.54 + 1.98 = 4.52L/s.

Using the guideline from ASHRAE, using the friction chart, we choose the following pipe diameter, velocity
and unit pressure loss for each section:
Evaporator line: flow rate 4.52 L/s; diameter 65 mm, velocity 1.36 m/s, unit pressure loess 306 Pa/m
Coil B line: flow rate 1.98 L/s; diameter 50 mm, velocity 1 m/s, unit pressure loess 242 Pa/m
Coil A line: flow rate 2.54 L/s; diameter 55 mm, velocity 1.07 m/s, unit pressure loess 240 Pa/m
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All diameter satisfies the limit on velocity and unit pressure loss.

We then calculate the total pressure loss across each of the pipe sections with constant flow rate, i.e. section 1-
2, 7-8, 5-6 and 3-4.
The relevant loss coefficients for the fittings:
For = 65mm pipe, k-globe valve = 6.5, k-90 elbow = 0.85, k-tee-junction-straight = 0.9; k-tee-junction-
branch = 1.3;
For = 55mm pipe, k-globe valve = 0.17;
For = 50mm pipe, k-globe valve = 0.17, k-90 elbow = 1.0.

The head losses in different pipe sections are given by


27() = 25 + 2 + + 56 + 67;
27() = 23 + 2 + 2 + + 9,10 + 34 + 47 ;
12 = + 2 + + 12;
78 = 3 + + 78 .
The head developed by the pump is
= 1 8 = 18;
Under steady operating conditions
= 18 = 18 + 27 + 78 .

The computer head losses are summarized in Table 3.1


Component Length/number Head loss Component Length/number Head Component Length/number Head
(m) loss (m) loss (m)
Pipes 1-2 and 9.7m 0.3038 Pipes 5-6 2m 0.0489 Pipes 3-4 9m 0.2228
7-8
Evaporator 1 3.6 Gate valves 2 0.0198 Gate 2 0.0176
valves
90 elbows 4 0.3215 Cooling coil 1 1.8 Cooling 1 1.5
A coil B
Globe valves 2 1.2294 Tee-branches 2 0.2459 90 elbows 2 0.1037
2-5, 6-7
Tee- 3 0.2553
branches 2-
3, 4-7, 9-10
78 + 12 5.4547 27 via 5-6 2.1146 27 via 3-4 2.0994

The total head loss from 2 to 7 through two paths Coil A 2-5-6-7 and Coil B 2-3-4-7 are nearly equal. If the two
were unequal, then the gate valves in the circuit could be used to provide additional head loss to balance the
flow.

The total head developed by the pump is = 18 = 18 + 27 + 78 = 5.455 + 2.115 = 7.57m.

And the required flow rate is 4.52 L/s.

Example 11. A water-cooled condenser of a water chiller plant rejects 145 kW of heat to the atmosphere
through a cooling tower as shown in Figure 11.1. The rise in temperature of the cooling water in the condenser
is 6oC. The total length of piping from the pump exit 1 to spray header 2 of the cooling tower is 14 m. The
length of piping from the cooling tower sump 3 to the pump inlet 4 is 12 m.

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The vertical distance between the spray header and the water surface in the sump is 1.2 m. The pipe inlet in the
sump has a square inlet. The head loss through the condenser is 2.2 m. The head loss through the spray nozzles
in the cooling tower is negligible. The pipe network uses schedule-40 steel pipes with threaded fittings.
(a) Size the pipes for this system;
(b) Calculate the rise in total head required at the pump.

Figure 11.1. The cooling water piping system for Example 11.

Solution: First we calculate the water flow rate through the condenser.
145
= ; = = 10004.26 = 5.75 L/s

Using the guideline from ASHRAE, using the friction chart, we choose the following pipe diameter, velocity
and unit pressure loss for the pipe. The diameter satisfies the limit on velocity and unit pressure loss.
Flow rate 5.75 L/s; diameter 70 mm, velocity 1.49 m/s, unit pressure loess 333 Pa/m

We then calculate the total pressure loss across each of the pipe sections. The relevant loss coefficients for the
fittings:
For = 70mm pipe, k-globe valve = 6.3, k-90 elbow = 0.83, k-square inlet = 0.5

The computer head losses are summarized in Table 9.1

Component Length/number Head loss (m) Component Length/number Head loss (m)
Pipe 1-2 14 m 0.476 Pipe 3-4 12m 0.408
Condenser 1 2.2 Globe valves 1 0.717
90 elbows 4 0.378 90 elbows 3 0.283
Globe valves 1 0.717 Square pipe entrance 1 0.057
1 2 3.77 3 4 1.465

The pressure in the cooling tower between 2 and 3 is atmospheric and (2 3 ) = 1.2m. We also have
(1 4 ) (2 3 ) = 3.77 + 1.465 = 5.235m;

Therefore the required pump head (1 4 ) = 6.44m.

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