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ICC19 Conference Recap Novel High Effectiveness Recuperator New Cryostat Design Volume 8 Cryogenic Coatings for

ICC19 Conference Recap Novel High Effectiveness Recuperator New Cryostat Design Volume


Cryogenic Coatings for Deep Space LIGO Prepares Cryogenic Update SCW Student Scholarship Established






Student Scholarship Established 28 12 38 18 45 Heat Measurement in Cryogenics | 26 Volume 32
Student Scholarship Established 28 12 38 18 45 Heat Measurement in Cryogenics | 26 Volume 32
Student Scholarship Established 28 12 38 18 45 Heat Measurement in Cryogenics | 26 Volume 32
Student Scholarship Established 28 12 38 18 45 Heat Measurement in Cryogenics | 26 Volume 32

Heat Measurement in Cryogenics | 26

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Inside This Issue


















ICC19 Conference Recap

LOX System For Navy Cuts Cost, Increases Efficiency

Large Pulse Tube Coolers Deliver 1,280 W at 77 K

Novel High Effectiveness Recuperator Developed

Cryostats for Space, Superconductivity and More

Solving Wiring Issues in a Closed Cycle Optical Cryostat

New Cryostat Design Volume

Short History of Heat Measurement in Cryogenics

Cryogenic Coatings for Deep Space

Annular Air Leaks in an LH 2 Storage Tank

LIGO Collaboration Prepares Cryogenic Update

Predicting Language Deficits after Stroke

Oh, Canada! Tips on CRN and International Code

Low-Defect Nitrogen-Doped Graphene

SCW Student Scholarship Established

Nitrogen-Doped Graphene SCW Student Scholarship Established ON OUR COVER The Cryostat-500 instrument shown here is


The Cryostat-500 instrument shown here is undergoing tests at the Cryogenics Test Labo- ratory at NASA Kennedy Space Center. CSA President James Fesmire is the senior prin- ciple investigator there, and in this issue he begins a four-part series on boiloff calorimetry for the measurement of very low heat flows. Part 1 begins on page 26 and provides a short history of heat measurement in cryogenics.

In all instances, CSA CSMindicates a Corporate Sustaining Member of CSA.


In Memoriam: Dr. Karl A. Gschneidner and Dr. Helen Edwards


Conference Connect: ICHEP 2016 and Space Tech Expo 2016







Executive Director’s Letter

Defining Cryogenics

Space Cryogenics



Meyer Tool 3-Stage Hydrogen Heat Exchanger


Braemar Creates a Niche in the LNG Market


The Scoop on LN 2 Ice Cream Installations


Cool Pair Plus Offers Life Support to Aging MRIs








Publication of the 2017 Buyer’s Guide is just around the corner, so now is the time to review your company’s listing at Please contact Jo Snyder (jo@cryogenicso- by Oct. 28 with any updates you would like to make. The issue will feature editorial content on insulation, infor- mation on handling expansion and contraction and personal accounts exploring relationships with mentors. Please contact Brian Dudley ( with any questions or story ideas. Content is due by Oct. 28.

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4

Cold Facts Magazine Executive Editor L AURIE H UGET Editor B R I A N
Cold Facts Magazine Executive Editor L AURIE H UGET Editor B R I A N

Cold Facts Magazine

Executive Editor




Advertising Coordinator


Online Marketing Manager



Graphic Designer


CSA Board of Technical Directors



European Spallation Source (ERIC) 46 46-888 31 50

President JAMES FESMIRE, NASA Kennedy Cryogenics Test Laboratory | 321-867-7557

Past President


FRIB, MSU | 517-908-7395

President-Elect MELORA LARSON, Jet Propulsion Laboratory


Treasurer RICH DAUSMAN, Cryomech, Inc.




LeTourneau University

Executive Director


Huget Advertising, Inc. | 708-383-6220 x 302

Registered Agent WERNER K. HUGET, Huget Advertising, Inc.

Technical Directors

KATHLEEN AMM, GE Global Research


LANCE COOLEY, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory



TERRY GRIMM, Niowave, Inc.

PETER SHIRRON, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

WILLIAM SOYARS, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

SIDNEY YUAN, The Aerospace Corp.

Cold Facts (ISSN 1085-5262) is published six times per year by the Cryogenic Society of America, Inc. Contents ©2016 Cryogenic Society of America, Inc.

Although CSA makes reasonable efforts to keep the information contained in this magazine accurate, the information is not guaranteed and no responsibility is assumed for errors or omissions. CSA does not warrant the accuracy, completeness, timeliness or merchantabil- ity or fitness for a particular purpose of the information contained herein, nor does CSA in any way endorse the individuals and companies described in the magazine or the products and services they may provide.

From the Executive Director

and services they may provide. From the Executive Director M a n y thanks go to

M a n y thanks go to Drs. Ray Radebaugh and Marcel ter Brake for teaching the very successful “Foundations of Cryocoolers” course at the recent International Cryocoolers Conference (ICC19) in San Diego. The class was well-attended and drew many positive comments.

ICC19 was a resounding suc- cess, bringing together persons from across the globe who are working in the many areas of cryocooler tech- nology. Congratulations to Dr. Dean Johnson, conference chairman, co- chairmen Drs. Jose Rodriguez and Sidney Yuan, program chair Dr. Carl Kirkconnell, and deputy pro- gram chair Dr. Mark Zagarola, for making the conference both interest- ing and enjoyable.

It’s official! The 27th Space Cryogenics Workshop (SCW) will be held July 5-7, 2017, at the Hyatt Lodge at McDonald’s Campus, Oak Brook IL. We promise you a very special work- shop, set in a state-of-the-art confer- ence center surrounded by the beauty of nature.

The venue is a short distance from either O’Hare or Midway airports and other attractions in DuPage County, just west of Chicago. Co-chairs are Drs. Ali Hedayat of Marshall Space Flight Center and Franklin Miller of the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Visit www.spacecryogenicsworkshop. org for details on this major CSA event. We will be offering sponsorship op- portunities, advertising packages and more.

And there’s more exciting news about SCW! Former CSA President Lou Salerno, present board member Dr. Sidney Yuan, and Mrs. Dorothea Frederking, widow of our first CSA Fellow, Dr. Traugott Frederking, have made donations to estab- lish a memorial scholarship in Dr. Frederking’s name for students who wish to attend SCW.

This is so very fitting, as the late UCLA professor often paid person- ally for his students to attend SCW and other important conferences. Donations are welcome and details about applications will be published in upcoming Newsflashes, online and in Cold Facts.

Visit us at our table at the Applied Superconductivity Conference (ASC), coming up September 4-9 in Denver. CSA will be presenting our Roger W. Boom Award on Monday, September 5.

Our board will meet at 11:45 on Tuesday, September 6. We’ll be certi- fying the results of the election being conducted in August. Members in good standing are voting for President-elect and four new Directors. We look for- ward to meeting and greeting many of you at this major superconductivity event!

greeting many of you at this major superconductivity event! Randall Barron, ret. Louisiana Tech University Jack
greeting many of you at this major superconductivity event! Randall Barron, ret. Louisiana Tech University Jack
greeting many of you at this major superconductivity event! Randall Barron, ret. Louisiana Tech University Jack

Randall Barron, ret. Louisiana Tech University Jack Bonn, VJ Systems, LLC Robert Fagaly, Leidos Brian Hands, ret. Oxford University Peter Kittel, ret. NASA Ames Peter Mason, ret. Jet Propulsion Lab

Editorial Board

Glen McIntosh, McIntosh Cryogenics John Pfotenhauer, University of Wisconsin-Madison Ray Radebaugh, ret. NIST Boulder Ralph Scurlock, Kryos Associates, ret. University of Southampton Nils Tellier, EPSIM Corporation

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4

t h 1 2
t h

1)Wing Sze Lui (JPL), Dean Johnson (JPL), Denise Gutierrez (JPL), Nga Vu-Lintag (JPL), Yvonne Chen (JPL), Jose Rodriguez (JPL) and Sidney Yuan (Aerospace Corporation) pose outside the conference center. 2)Ted Conrad (Raytheon), Mary Bradley, Peter Bradley (NIST), Alex Veprik (SCD) and Valery Borsenets (SLAC National Laboratory) take a break while exploring the San Diego Natural History Museum.

A group of 180 researchers and en- gineers from 12 countries gath- ered in San Diego June 20-23

for the 19th International Cryocooler Conference (ICC19), coordinated by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and held at the Town and Country Resort and Convention Center.

The conference included a combina- tion of 80 oral and poster presentations over the course of three days. Presentation topics included cryocooler modeling and analysis, cryocooler control electronics, large-scale cryocooler applications as well as cryocooler miniaturization, laboratory and aerospace applications.

On June 19, CSA hosted “Foundations of Cryocoolers,” its daylong short course designed to provide attendees with an un- derstanding of cryocooler fundamentals and a description of how these principles are used in various types of gas-cycle cryocoolers to achieve temperatures from about 2 K to 150 K. Dr. Ray Radebaugh, consultant to the Applied Chemicals and Materials Division at NIST Boulder and a world-renowned expert in the field of cryogenics, taught the course together with Prof. Marcel ter Brake, a noted leader in the cryogenics field who is on

the Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, the Netherlands.

Reggie Little, from Iris Technology, was one of the course attendees. Like many in the cryogenics community he got in- volved in the industry because there was an on-the-job need. “But I didn’t know any- thing about what a cryocooler was, how it works or the different types, and so that’s why I attended the short course,” he says. “And now, after eight hours, I pretty much have the background and understanding of what’s going on. Now it all makes sense [and] I’m a happy person. It’s just a good program to get into, a really good course.”

Kelsey McCusker, a thermal engineer at Northrop Grumman and one of CSA’s 2016 Young Faces in Cryogenics, agrees. “There’s a lot of trial and error [in research fields] so it’s really nice to be able to come in here and get a lot of really condensed, useful infor- mation to eliminate a lot of the mistakes we could have potentially made in the future,” she says. “And, I like that [Ray] attaches a lot of it to the theory because then I’m able to really look at all the different cryocool- ers and understand why one is better at a certain temperature or why another is better with a certain cooling capacity. And I think breaking it down like this is really useful.”

Radebaugh says teaching the course has been rewarding for him, especially when he is able to watch individuals new to the field develop into top researchers. “I see people come to the class that are maybe just starting in the field and then a few years later at the cryocooler conference they are presenting papers with some new ideas,” he says. “I’m learning from them in the pro- cess…so, it’s very rewarding to me.”

Through the 20 years that he has taught the course, Radebaugh says the big- gest changes he’s seen have been in space applications, and indeed, the aerospace community has traditionally organized the conference. This year’s conference in- cluded a strong focus on space cryocoolers, detailed by Peter Shirron in his column of page 22 of this issue. The column includes a performance summary for long-life cryo- coolers provided by JPL’s Ron Ross.

“We’ve got two or three coolers in orbit running 24/7 for 18 years,” Ross says. And there are “over 30 coolers up there now with over 10 years of continuous operation.”

Ross attended his first conference in 1988, chaired in 1994 and has worked extensively over the years to help distribute the papers presented at the conference. For some time

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4

4 3 5 6 7 8

3)Guests line the entry stairs at Quantum Design before taking a tour of its new facility. 4)Attendees take notes during the Foundations of Cryocoolers short course presented by 5)Dr. Ray Radebaugh (left) and Marcel ter Brake. 6)Local flora on the nature trails of Balboa Park. 7)Musicians welcome visitors to the Fiesta de Reyes market. 8) Garden adjacent to the Estudilllo House, a national historic landmark in San Diego's Old Town.

the conference worked with various publish- ing houses, but in 2006 Ross helped start ICC Press, an in-house publishing company that now provides the papers in open access.

Ross says the open access is “terribly im- portant” for the community. “The whole rate at which cryocoolers are advancing is very de- pendent on how quickly you can get the word out,” he says. “I’m still embarrassed with our situation to some extent with the period we were with the New York publishing houses because all of those papers are there but they charge you $30 apiece to look at them. It totally inhibits people being able to browse through the library of the old papers and pick up the technology.”

The conference provided attendees this year with digital copies of the peer- reviewed papers. They will also be avail- able on the ICC website and published in Cryocoolers 19, a hard bound proceedings book distributed to conference attendees via mail later this year and thereafter available to order from in early 2017.

The volume will include a paper from

Alan Caughley, technology group manager

at Callaghan Innovation, whose presentation

on a new range of large pulse tube cryocoolers (see page 11) opened the conference. “I had one person collar me almost immediately af- terwards,” he says. “And quite a few people have come up to talk about it. It’s been good. Well worthwhile. A lot of people are inter- ested in the machine itself and the utility of the machine…It’s not one of the old things being refined more; this is something new.”

He says that coming to ICC is essential for companies such as Callaghan that oper- ate in the more remote areas of the world. “We don’t have that community in New Zealand, so I’ve got to come and talk to all the people here.”

One thing New Zealand does have, however, is a large community of whales.

And attendees learned all about them from

a special whale exhibit during the confer- ence banquet held Wednesday evening at the San Diego Natural History Museum.

The Del Lago Trio (a cello, flute and wood- wind ensemble) provided relaxing back- ground music for the evening.

After the conference concluded, a group of 50 interested attendees enjoyed a private tour of the world headquarters of Quantum Design, Inc. (CSA CSM), a manufacturer of cryogen-free measurement systems.

ICC19 was chaired by JPL’s Dean Johnson and co-chaired by Jose Rodriguez and Sidney Yuan of JPL and Aerospace Corporation re- spectively. Carl Kirkconnell from West Coast Solutions and Mark Zagarola of Creare LLC (CSA CSM) served as program chairs.

Zagarola’s team presented a recu- perator at ICC19, discussed on page 12, and the company will host ICC20 in 2018. “Creare is extremely excited and honored to host the 20th International Cryocooler Conference,” says Zagarola. “We look forward to welcoming the community to picturesque and historic New England in June of 2018.”

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4

LOX System for Navy Cuts Cost, Increases Efficiency Huntington Ingalls is set to deliver the

LOX System for Navy Cuts Cost, Increases Efficiency

Huntington Ingalls is set to deliver the USS Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78) to the US Navy in September, the first of three announced Ford Class aircraft carriers designed to replace the aging Nimitz Class vessels first commissioned in the


Onboard the carrier is an advanced liquid oxygen (LOX) plant developed by RIX Industries in partnership with Chart Inc. (CSA CSM). It features energy-efficient Thermoacoustic Stirling Technology (TST) by Chart and new militarized VPSA separators by RIX. The plant promises benefits in safety, perfor- mance and reliability, according to Terry Allvord (USN retired), director of busi- ness development at RIX.

The system operates at 50 psig pressure, liquefies at approximately 105 K and produces LOX for both med- ical and pilot use aboard the carrier. For medical applications the liquid is boiled into a gas onboard the carrier, while for flight use pilots first bring the liquid aboard planes in small con- tainers where it is then converted to gas prior to consumption.

The LOX plant was designed with objectives stipulated by the Navy and Northrop Grumman to achieve major reductions in life cycle cost through the application of more highly integrated, autonomous systems that enable a large- scale reduction in crew members.

that enable a large- scale reduction in crew members. LOX plant aboard the USS Gerald R.

LOX plant aboard the USS Gerald R. Ford. Image: RIX Industries

Chart Qdrive’s Acoustic-Stirling Liquefier (model 2s362K), for example, is included in the plant and helps decrease ownership costs by reducing operational manpower and virtually eliminating maintenance. It is powered by a single 20kW pressure wave generator, produces LOX 20 minutes from start-up and oper- ates unattended.

“We are honored to be selected for such a critical application,” says Gordon Reid, Qdrive’s sales manager. “The com- pact, reliable designs of our liquefiers make them ideal for demanding ship- board applications where long life, low vibration and maintenance free operation is essential.”

The new LOX plant provides a 50 percent reduction in size and weight and is impervious to rolls and lists, resulting

in uninterrupted supply. The system also requires no system thaw or heater, uses less power and requires minimal manipu- lation by its operator.

“I’ve not experienced a better ex- ample of teamwork,” says Jerry Stultz, director of DOD/Navy Programs at RIX Industries. “We dramatically reduced the size and weight of the plant while sat- isfying the ship’s production and crew member reduction requirements. It’s truly satisfying to continue our role as part of building such a bright future for the US Navy’s aircraft carrier fleet.”

The RIX Industries/Chart LOX plant is scheduled to be included on the USS John F. Kennedy (CVN-79) and the re- cently announced USS Enterprise (CVN- 80), vessels expected to be commissioned in 2023 and 2027 respectively.

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4

Large Pulse Tube Coolers Deliver 1,280 W at 77 K by Alan Caughley, Callaghan Innovation,

Large Pulse Tube Coolers Deliver 1,280 W at 77 K

by Alan Caughley, Callaghan Innovation,

Callaghan Innovation and Fabrum Solutions, in collaboration with Absolut System, have produced a range of large pulse tube cryocoolers based on Callaghan Innovation’s metal diaphragm pressure wave generator technology (DPWG). The metal diaphragms in a DPWG separate the clean cryocooler working gas from the oil-lubricated reciprocating mechanism.

These industrially robust cryocoolers are suited to cooling High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) applications such as transformers, power cables and fault current limiters, or for on-site production of industrial liquid nitrogen.

The largest cryocooler, the PTC1000, consists of three in-line pulse tubes working in parallel sharing a 1,000 cc swept volume DPWG. A test unit demon- strated 1,280 W of refrigeration at 77 K— from 24 kW of input power—during an 11-month test run at a liquid nitrogen liquefaction plant.

The gas company provided an indus-

trial environment, real duty cycles and

a commercially viable use for the liquid

nitrogen produced. Its location was close to the development team, providing enough proximity to aid monitoring but also enough separation to ensure that op-

eration of the liquefier was conducted by the gas company and therefore provided

a real-environment test.

The test began in July 2015, accumulat-

ing 3,338 hours of run time with a duty cycle

of 42 percent and 67 stop-start cycles. Over

30,000 liters of liquid nitrogen were pro- duced for sale. The pulse tubes produced consistent performance, liquefying at a rate of approximately 11 l/hr. The radiator- based cooling system proved itself over a wide temperature range through a sum- mer and winter in an uninsulated factory building.

The DPWG motor power input was steady at 24 kW and when combined with the 2.5 kW of electricity consumed

kW and when combined with the 2.5 kW of electricity consumed The PTC1000 liquefier in commercial

The PTC1000 liquefier in commercial operation. Image: Callaghan Innovation and Fabrum Solutions

by the cooling system’s circulation pump and radiator fans the energy cost for the nitrogen liquefied was 2.5 kWh/ liter. Engineers replaced the alpha-pro- totype DPWG with a production DPWG in June 2016.

Development of the pulse tube has continued with the PTC330, a single in- line pulse tube direct mounted to a 330 cc DPWG. The pulse tubes on the large cryo- cooler each produced 450 W of refrigeration at 77 K. Further optimization of the PTC330 has increased the cooling power to 500 W at 77 K, with no change in input power. The PTC330 has been incorporated into a liq- uefier and has been producing 4.7 l/hr of liquid nitrogen.

The next step is to continue running the PTC1000 liquefier alongside the liq- uefier featuring the PTC330. The reduced cost of liquid nitrogen production, made possible by the pulse-tube-based lique- fiers, has allowed the gas company used by Callaghan Innovation and Fabrum Solutions for endurance tests to secure more customers and to meet increased demand for liquid nitrogen.

The two liquefiers will be joined by three more in the coming months, making a total of five units producing commercial liquid nitrogen. A paper presenting the experiences of running these tests was pre- sented at ICC19 and is available online here:

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4


Novel High Effectiveness Recuperator Developed for High Capacity Turbo-Brayton Cryocoolers by Dr. D. Deserranno,

Novel High Effectiveness Recuperator Developed for High Capacity Turbo-Brayton Cryocoolers

by Dr. D. Deserranno,; Dr. M. Zagarola,; Dr. D. Craig,; Dr. R. Garehan,; Dr. T. Giglio,; Dr. J. Smith,; Dr. J. Sanders,; Dr. M. Day,

To support future space missions, NASA is evaluating the long-term, zero boiloff storage of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen in low-earth orbit. NASA researchers have investigated a co-storage concept [1] where the liquid oxygen tank intercepts a large fraction of the heat load for the hydrogen tank.

The resulting radiative heat flux to the hydrogen tank is thereby reduced to the order of 0.02 W/m 2 . For a liquid hy- drogen storage tank with a capacity of 38 metric tons, the net heat load is estimated to be 20 W at 20 K and must be lifted using an active refrigerator to prevent boiloff. This heat load, however, exceeds the capacity for any space borne cryocooler demonstrated to date.

Under NASA funding, Creare (CSA CSM) is addressing the challenge by de- veloping a turbo-Brayton cryocooler that provides 20 W of refrigeration at 20 K [2].

Turbo-Brayton cryocoolers are ideal for this application because of favorable mass and performance scaling to high capacity and low temperatures. The cryocooler de- sign shown in Figure 1 delivers the required cooling capacity and temperature for an input power around 1.6 kW, corresponding to a specific power of 80 W/W. The coef- ficient of performance for this machine is 18 percent of the Carnot cycle, significantly better than any 20 K cryocooler existing [3] or currently under development.

The key mechanical components of the cryocooler are the compressors, turboalter- nators and recuperators. The compressors and turboalternators have been previously demonstrated at the needed capacity and only minor modifications were required for the 20 K, 20 W cryocooler design.

For the recuperator, however, an order of magnitude increase in capacity was required,

Three-Stage Centrifugal


Compressor Assembly


20 K Turboalternator
20 K Turboalternator

Figure 1. Creare’s 20 K, 20 W cryocooler for liquid hydrogen storage. Image: Creare LLC

Outer Shell Shell Flow Tube Sheet Micro-Tubes Mid Plates Inner Shell Tube Flow
Outer Shell
Shell Flow
Tube Sheet
Mid Plates
Inner Shell
Tube Flow

Figure 2. High capacity recuperator schematic. Image: Creare LLC

compared to existing space qualified designs. The design, fabrication and testing of a new type of high capacity recuperator by the team of Creare LLC, Mezzo Technologies and Edare Inc. is described in this article.

Micro Shell-and-Tube Design

Creare chose a micro shell-and-tube heat exchanger design for the 20 K, 20 W recuperator. The use of micro-tubes enabled

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4

six-inch ruler Figure 3. Completed recuperator module following proof-pressure testing. Image: Creare LLC Recuperator
six-inch ruler
six-inch ruler

Figure 3. Completed recuperator module following proof-pressure testing. Image: Creare LLC

Recuperator Mass Flow Rate (gm/s) Recuperator Ineffectiveness
Recuperator Mass Flow Rate (gm/s)
Recuperator Ineffectiveness

Figure 4. Thermal ineffectiveness of the recuperators throughout the development process. Image: Creare LLC

a significant mass savings compared to the conventional shell-and-tube heat exchang- ers commonly used in industry. The pri- mary technical challenge is to fabricate the micro-tube recuperator with 100 percent hermetic joints between the high and low pressure streams.

Recuperator Design and Analysis

The recuperator design included more than 6,600 micro-tubes with an outer diameter of 0.022 inch, each with a length of over 150 inches. For ease of fabrication, the recuperator was divided into five modules roughly 40 inches in length, in- cluding headers (the heat transfer zone for each module is 30 inches long). As shown in Figure 2, the cross-section of the core is annular in shape with an inner diameter of 2 inches and outer diameter of 4 inches.

Computational fluid dynamics analysis was used to assess the effect of various design features on the heat exchanger performance. The nominal operating conditions for the recupera- tor are 3.6 gm/s of helium; tube-side inlet pressure of 7.9 atm and inlet tem- perature of 300 K; and shell-side inlet pressure of 5.6 atm and inlet tempera- ture of 20 K.

The predicted recuperator loss, de- fined as the cold-end stream-to-stream enthalpy difference multiplied by the recuperator mass flow rate, is 17.7 W, including parasitics. The team con- ducted structural analyses to ensure the design meets the requirements of NASA’s General Environmental Verification Standard (GEVS). These calculations included hydrostatic

pressure analysis and random vibration analysis.

Recuperator Fabrication and Testing

The key step in fabrication of the heat exchanger is the joining of the

micro-tubes to the tubesheets, as even

a small cross-stream leak can cause

significant performance degradation. To meet the thermal performance re- quirements, a 99.8 percent weld joint reliability was required. The engineers used laser welding because of the abil- ity to repair joints.

Off-axis cameras were used to en-

able real-time pre- and post-inspec- tion of critical weld joint features. A bubble-point leak check was used to identify non-hermetic joints, which were then repaired. After welding the headers to the recuperator core, engi- neers proof-pressure-tested the unit. The completed recuperator module

is shown in Figure 3. The unit passed

a variety of workmanship screening

tests, including external leak check, cross-stream leak check and pressure versus flow tests.

Engineers then tested the recu-

perator under cryogenic conditions to evaluate its thermal ineffectiveness. The module was tested over a larger end-to-end temperature difference than in normal operation to artifi- cially increase the stream-to-stream temperature difference, minimize measurement uncertainty and ensure

a more reliable characterization of

recuperator performance. The recu- perator’s warm end was held at room temperature and the cold end was operated between 20 K and 50 K. It was covered in multilayer insulation to reduce parasitic losses.

A total of 19 steady-state test points were collected for a nominal warm tem- perature of 295 K and a cold temperature range of 20 K to 50 K. The heat transfer between the two streams varied between 4.2 kW and 6.2 kW, depending on the test conditions. continued on page 15

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4


Novel High Effectiveness Recuperator Continued from page 13 The thermal ineffectiveness results are shown in

Novel High Effectiveness Recuperator

Continued from page 13

The thermal ineffectiveness results are shown in Figure 4 (page 13) as a function of mass flow rate. The test results for several design iterations are plotted. With each itera- tion, significant reductions in thermal ineffectiveness were demonstrated. Ultimately, the first production unit achieved the single module target ineffectiveness of 1.2 percent at the design flow rate of 3.6 gm/s.

In addition to thermal performance, an earlier version of the

recuperator module was subjected to, and passed, space launch vibration testing.

Conclusions and Future Work

Creare, in collaboration with Mezzo Technologies and Edare Inc., has successfully designed and demonstrated a lightweight, high-capacity, high-effectiveness recuperator suitable for use in space missions. The five-module recuperator has a predicted ef- fectiveness exceeding 0.995, enabling a 20 K cryocooler to deliver 20 W of refrigeration for an input of over 1.6 kW.

Future work includes the fabrication of the remaining re- cuperator modules, the integration of these modules into the cryocooler and cryocooler system testing. Additional techni- cal details related to the recuperator development work are available in [4].


Creare gratefully acknowledges NASA for their support of this work (Contracts NNX13CL57P and NNC14CA15C).

A paper further detailing this recuperator was presented at

ICC19 and is available online at


1. Mustafi, S., Canavan, E.R., and Boyle, R., “Co-Storage of

Cryogenic Propellants for Lunar Exploration,” AIAA 2008-7800,

AIAA SPACE 2008 Conf & Expo, San Diego, CA (2008).

2. Deserranno, D., Zagarola, M.V., Li, X. and Mustafi, S.,

“Optimization of a Brayton Cryocooler for ZBO Liquid Hydrogen

Storage in Space,” Cryogenics, vol. 64, (2014), pp. 172–181.

3. Chaa, J.S. and Yuan, S.W., Aerospace Report TOR-2013(3905)-4


4. D. Deserranno, M. Zagarola, D. Craig, R. Garehan, T. Giglio,

J. Smith, J. Sanders, and M. Day, “Performance Testing of a High

Effectiveness Recuperator for High Capacity Turbo-Brayton Cryocoolers”, ICC 19 International Cryocooler Conference, San Diego, CA (2016).

Cryocooler Conference, San Diego, CA (2016). ■ Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4


Cryostats for Space, Superconductivity and More by Shankar Ghosh, director, Shell-N-Tube Pvt. Ltd. (India),

Cryostats for Space, Superconductivity and More

by Shankar Ghosh, director, Shell-N-Tube Pvt. Ltd. (India),

Demand for large capacity cryostats in India originates principally from the space program, research activities in high tempera- ture superconductivity and metallurgical applications for surface treatment. The space program uses cryostats at both liquid nitro- gen as well as liquid hydrogen temperatures, whereas high temperature superconductiv- ity research and metallurgical applications utilize cryostats operating at liquid nitrogen temperatures.

The demand for large capacity cryostats encouraged Shell-N-Tube Pvt. Ltd. (CSA CSM) to custom design cryostats to suit these applications. The cryostats developed so far include three 3,000 liter capacity liquid ni- trogen cryostats for high temperature super- conducting fault current limiters, a 3,000 liter capacity liquid hydrogen cryostat for devel- opment of flight model discreet level sensor arrays, a 3000 liter liquid nitrogen cryostat for testing ultra high pressure helium gas storage bottles used for cryogenic stages of satellite launch vehicles and a 35,000 liter rectangular liquid nitrogen cryostat for metal treatment.

The 3,000 liter liquid hydrogen cryostat was designed to meet the specific need of cali- brating discreet level sensor arrays suitable for liquid hydrogen service. A discreet level sensor array consists of multiple capacitance sensors, the capacitance of which changes abruptly due to the change of fluid phase when the liquid level crosses that sensor. It is used to monitor rapid change in cryo fluid level in the propellant tank of the cryogenic stage of rockets or in the run tank of a cryo- genic test facility. This cryostat was supplied to Indian Space for the GSLV-MK III program.

Special care was taken during manu- facture to prevent deformation of the ves- sel’s large body flange. The flange allowed for removal of the vacuum jacketed top lid so that the discreet level sensor arrays could be introduced and taken out vertically dur- ing the calibration process. Eliminating the leakage of hydrogen gas through the body flange was a challenging problem. Metallic seals were tried but were found unsatisfac- tory. Viton o-rings, in multiple grooves,

found unsatisfac- tory. Viton o-rings, in multiple grooves, Trial for 3 Phase Superconducting Fault Current Limiter.

Trial for 3 Phase Superconducting Fault Current Limiter. Image: Shell -N-Tube

were then incorporated into the design, re- sulting in successful operation.

Three 3,000 liter capacity liquid nitrogen cryostats were designed and manufactured to accommodate three high temperature super- conducting fault current limiting coils. Since these superconducting fault current limiters are expected to run in an unattended remote location, an automated PLC based liquid fill and level control system was integrated into the fault current limiter.

When required, the unit’s differential pressure level sensors generate a feedback signal for the liquid nitrogen level in indi- vidual cryostats, causing the PLC to com- mand LN 2 fill from a bulk liquid nitrogen tank through a set of solenoid operated valves. The main manufacturing challenge in this system was keeping system cleanli- ness to a high level as the fault current limit- ers were tested discreetly at 40kV and 130A in Shell-N-Tube's facility before delivery to the customer. The system is expected to be opera- tional this year at a remote rural location.

A 3,000 liter liquid nitrogen cryostat for Indian Space was designed to cater to a specific need of testing the onboard helium gas stor- age bottle to a pressure of 400 bar at 78 K. The unit had a special design requirement, a rein- forced multilayer insulated top lid to support the weight of the suspended helium gas stor- age bottle during testing. Body flanges were

also provided to help quickly remove and introduce multiple test samples.

A very large capacity cryostat was also designed and manufactured for a steel roll- ing mill to simultaneously cool four 2,000 kilo steel rolls. It is a rectangular 35,000 liter cryostat with internal dimension of 7m x 2m x 2.5m. The cryostat has built-in internal liquid nitrogen spray headers that quickly and uni- formly cool the steel rolls to about 60°C to im- prove the surface properties of the steel roll. Since this was formed as part of a continuous production process, a microcontroller-based LN 2 flow control and a temperature monitor- ing system were integrated into the cryostat.

Additional safety interlocks in the form of oxygen concentration in ambient air were included because of the large volume of ni- trogen being handled in the cryostat. An automated purging system with air blower was also incorporated to make the unit safe for regular operation. The system has been operational for the last five years without any design or operating problem.

The main challenge in making such a large double-walled cryostat was making the outer vessel compatible for external pressure when the annular cavity is evacuated. This problem was solved by providing a counter- pressure neutral support system in the an- nulus to take care of ambient thrust load.

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4

Solving Wiring Issues in a Closed Cycle Optical Cryostat by Madison Cebuhar, Director of Marketing,

Solving Wiring Issues in a Closed Cycle Optical Cryostat

by Madison Cebuhar, Director of Marketing,; Matt Rounds, Cryogenics Engineer,

Rounds, Cryogenics Engineer, Fusion F2 cryostat. Image: Montana Instruments Many

Fusion F2 cryostat. Image: Montana Instruments

Many cryogenic experiments rely on electrical connections from the lab envi- ronment to a sample inside a low tempera- ture cryostat. Any wir- ing used in the setup provides a path for heat from the outside world to the sample, so it is important to consider a number of heat flow factors to minimize the effects of wiring on the base temperature. While thin, long wires mini-

mize heat load, these can be difficult to manage and tend to break easily. Proper thermal lagging is also essential to pulling energy out of the wire before it reaches the sample, but this is often tedious and can hinder electrical and thermal performance if not done correctly.

Montana Instruments has worked to solve many of these com- mon frustrations related to the sensitivity of wiring on cryogenic per- formance with its newest closed cycle optical cryostat, the Fusion. Quick-click MDR26 side connectors on the outside of the Fusion chamber connect to the sample platform via flexible circuits that simplify wire management and prevent interference. The 25 elec- trical feedthroughs are routed to a pre-lagged modular cold circuit board inside the sample space, allowing users to plug directly into the header pins from inside the chamber without the use of thermal clamps. Portions of the modular circuit board can also be replaced with standard feedthroughs to any of the four available base side panels, such as RF coax, fiber optics or gas inputs.

The Fusion is based on the proprietary thermal design and patented vibration isolation technology of the original Cryostation, offering superior sample and optical access, ease-of- use and fully automated control in a closed cycle system. Montana Instruments' systems can be customized to meet the unique needs of various experimental setups with an array of available options and configurations. The platforms are designed with a unique tabletop architecture for ultimate end-user functionality.

end-user functionality. ■ Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4 17

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4


New Cryostat Design Volume

Excerpted from the preface Cryostat Design: Case Studies, Principles and Engineering

Cryostats are technical systems that maintain equipment or cryogenic liquids at cryogenic temperatures. As such, they are one of the fundamental building blocks of cryogenic systems. Examples of cryostats include: the magnet cryostats that comprise the majority of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, spaceborne cryostats con- taining sensors operating below 1 K, MRI cryostats found in most large hospitals and large cryogenic liquid storage vessels.

Cryostats that contain superconducting radio frequency cavities are frequently referred to as cryomodules, while cryostats whose prin- ciple function is to store cryogenic fluids are also referred to as dewars. Cryomodules and dewars are also covered in this work.

The proper design of cryostats requires knowledge of many disciplines including:

cryogenic properties of materials, heat transfer and thermal insulation, instrumen- tation, safety, structures and seals. One of the best ways to learn about cryostat design is to study the design choices and resulting performance of previous designs.

This book provides such a review. It is edited by John Weisend II, a senior scientist and group leader at European Spallation Source ERIC and CSA chairman, and in- cludes contributions from Weisend’s col- leagues and researchers from CERN, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (CSA CSM), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, GE Global Research and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (CSA CSM).

Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (CSA CSM). It begins with an introduction to the principles of

It begins with an introduction to the principles of cryostat design, including practical data and equations. A series of case studies on existing cryostats follows, presenting the design choices behind vari- ous cryostats and the resulting performance of each. The cryostat examples used were chosen to cover the wide range of cryostat applications and the authors of each case are leading experts in the field, all of whom participated in the design of the cryostats being described.

Chapters 2 and 3 are case studies involving superconducting magnets for large particle ac- celerators. Due to the large numbers of magnets

required in these cases, low heat leak, reliabil- ity and cost are key requirements. Chapter 4 describes a one-of-a-kind spaceborne dewar system whose requirements are very different than those of accelerator cryostats.

Chapters 5 and 6 describe cryomodules that contain superconducting RF cavities in particle accelerators. As readers will dis- cover, there are two broad families of these cryomodules (segmented and continuous), with different design drivers and approaches. Taken together these chapters describe a total of six different cryomodules and provide an overview of the evolution of cryomodule de- sign from the 1980s to the 2010s.

Chapter 7 presents special topics in cryo- stat design, many of particular importance for the MRI magnet cryostats that provide the examples, but which are broadly valuable for all cryostats. A cryostat design for very low (50 mK) temperatures is described in Chapter 8. In addition to the lower temperatures, this cryostat has unique material requirements due to the need to keep the radioactive back- ground of the associated experiment as low as possible.

Transfer lines connect cryostats and are a type of cryostat themselves. Transfer line features, an overview of major transfer line systems and a detailed case study of a transfer line are found in Chapter 9. The final chapter provides a summary by listing guidelines for successful cryostat design, while extensive references throughout pro- vide sources of further information.

List of Contributors: Edward F. Daly, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility Fermi National
List of Contributors:
Edward F. Daly,
Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
Joseph Preble,
Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility
Michael DiPirro,
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Thomas J. Peterson,
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
Richard L. Schmitt,
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
Jaroslaw Fydrych,
European Spallation Source ERIC
Wolfgang Stautner,
GE Global Research
Philippe Lebrun,
Thomas H. Nicol,
Hardcover $129.00
ISBN 978-3-319-31148-7
ebook $99.00
ISBN 978-3-319-31150-0
20% Discount Code: csa2016
J. G. Weisend II,
European Spallation Source ERIC

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4

Defining Cryogenics by Dr. John Weisend II, European Spallation Source ERIC, CSA chairman,
Defining Cryogenics
by Dr. John Weisend II, European Spallation Source ERIC, CSA chairman,

Two-Phase Flows

T wo-phase flows are those flows

in which there is a mixture of

two physical states (solid, liq-

uid or vapor). In cryogenic applications, such flows are almost always a mixture of a cryogenic liquid along with its cor- responding vapor. A mixture of liquid he- lium and helium vapor would be a typical example.

While the complexity and potential issues of two-phase flows are such that they are frequently avoided in cryogenic designs (see Defining Cryogenics in Cold Facts, Vol 32 No 3), there are cases where two-phase flows are either desirable or unavoidable. Two-phase flows are found in many areas of cryogenics including LNG, large-scale helium systems and space cryogenics.

A principal advantage of two-phase flows is that they can provide isother- mal heat sinks. Due to the latent heat of boiling, heat added to the liquid part of a two-phase flow will convert liquid to vapor in the two-phase flow but will not increase the mixture’s temperature. This feature is used in the cooling schemes of the Tevatron, HERA and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) magnets and in most su- perconducting radio frequency cavity systems such as the X-ray Free Electron LASER (XFEL).

Two-phase flows are also important in thermosyphon systems (see Defining Cryogenics in Cold Facts, Spring 2012) where the density difference between the liquid and gas phases drives the natural convection heat transfer that provides cooling.

There are a number of disadvantages to two-phase flows. These flows typi- cally have a higher pressure drop when flowing though pipes and other compo- nents, flow instabilities may develop that result in pressure surges and vibrations,

incorrectly designed systems may trap the vapor phase against surfaces resulting in inadequate cooling and many flow com- ponents such as pumps, flow meters and turboexpanders may not function prop- erly in two-phase flows.

In addition, in cases where the flow is on an incline (a common occurrence in particle accelerator tunnels), all the liquid may flow to the downhill side. This may necessitate the use of weirs or shorter flow paths to maintain the desired liquid-vapor ratio.

Due to these issues and complexi- ties, detailed modelling and sometimes experimentation is required whenever two-phase flows are used in cryogenic systems, to ensure proper performance. Care must also be taken that a nominally single-phase (say pure liquid) flow in a system does not suddenly become two- phase due to heat inputs or pressure drops resulting in unexpected problems.

One way to characterize two-phase flows is by their flow regimes, which de- scribe the arrangement and relative frac- tions of the liquid and vapor in the flow.

In non-cryogenic fluids, the Baker dia- gram provides a map of the various flow regimes as a function of flow properties. Experiments by Theilacker and Rode at Fermilab National Accelerator Laboratory (CSA CSM) showed, however, that the Baker diagram isn’t valid for two-phase he- lium and provided an alternative diagram. Their research on helium flow regimes can be found in “An Investigation into Flow Regimes for Two-Phase Helium Flow,” J.C. Theilacker and C. Rode, Adv.Cryo.Engr. Vol. 33 (1988).

Extensive modelling and experimen- tation was carried out for the particular case of He II two-phase flow in support of the LHC and International Linear Collider

projects. One outcome of this research was the determination of an upper limit for the velocity of the vapor phase that should not be exceeded if one wanted to remain in the desirable stratified flow regime.

An introduction to two-phase flow may be found in Cryogenic Two-Phase Flow, N.N. Filina and J.G. Weisend II, Cambridge University Press (1996).

An example of the use of two-phase flows to cool large magnets via a ther- mosyphon is given in “The Cryogenic System for the Superconducting Solenoid Magnet of the CMS Experiment,” D. Delikaris et al., Proceedings of Fifteenth International Conference on Magnetic Technology (1997).

Other examples of two-phase cooling are “Forced Two-phase Helium Cooling

Scheme for the Mu2e Transport Solenoid,”

G. Tatkowski et al., Adv.Cryo.Engr.-

IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 101 (2015) and “Superfluid Helium Cryogenics for the Large Hadron Collider Project at CERN,” P. Lebrun, Cryogenics 34 (1994).

Examples of modelling and experiments

on He II two-phase flow include: “He II Two Phase Flow in an Inclinable 22 m Long Line,” B. Rousset et al., Adv.Cryo.Engr.

Vol. 45a (2000) and “An experimental and

numerical study of He II two-phase flow in the TESLA test facility,” Yu Xiang, et al. Cryogenics 42 (2002).

Examples of work on cryogenic two- phase flows are given in “Two-phase heat transfer and pressure drop of LNG during saturated flow boiling in a horizontal tube,” D. Chen and Y. Shi, Cryogenics 58 (2013) and “Hierarchy of Two-Phase Flow Models for Autonomous Control of Cryogenic Loading Operation,” D. G. Luchinsky et al., Adv.Cryo.Engr.-IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 101 (2015).

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4

Space Cryogenics by Dr. Peter Shirron, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center,
Space Cryogenics
by Dr. Peter Shirron, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center,

Space Cryocooler Status and Developments

T he 19th International Cryocooler

Conference (ICC19) was held June

20-23 in San Diego. The aerospace

community traditionally organizes the conference—in this case the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL) and others listed in the confer- ence recap on page 8 of this issue—but the content of presentations is not limited to space cryocoolers. This year’s conference did, however, include a strong focus on space cryocoolers and hence provides an excellent snapshot of current developments and trends for future capabilities, which are summarized here, with more detail avail- able in the proceedings.

But before getting to that, it is instruc- tive to look at what past and current state- of-the-art cryocoolers have achieved—and are still achieving—in space. JPL’s Ron Ross (CSA Fellow) has taken it upon

himself to create and maintain the defini- tive performance summary for long-life cryocoolers used in orbiting satellites and the International Space Station. For many of these coolers, the operating durations are well beyond their mean time to fail- ure estimates—without degradation in performance—which should help retire the stubborn perception of risk in using cryocoolers for space instruments. The table below was updated in May 2016.

Absent from the list is Astro-H/Hitomi, with its four Stirling cryocoolers and 4.5 K Joule-Thomson (JT) unit. Although all coolers worked nominally until breakup of the satel- lite after 37 days on orbit, the operation did not establish any meaningful track record of longevity. This leaves the Planck JT cooler as the only 4 K-class cryocooler that has demon- strated long operating life (4.4 years) on orbit.

Several ongoing developments gleaned from the conference presenta- tions are noteworthy for future space missions as the trend toward lower oper- ating temperatures continues. An increas- ing number of astronomy and cosmology missions is driving this trend, including the Advanced Telescope for High-Energy Astrophysics (Athena), the Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) and the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA).

These projects will use low temperature detectors and will require complex cool- ing chains to achieve long mission lifetimes, including cryocoolers operating in the 2-4 K range to support sub-kelvin refrigera- tors. Another area where cryocoolers are increasingly vital is propellant produc- tion and storage, where high power 20 K

propellant produc- tion and storage, where high power 20 K Table 1: Space Cryocooler Flight Operating

Table 1: Space Cryocooler Flight Operating Experience as of May 2016. Image Ron Ross/JPL

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4

Table 2: Active space cryocooler development programs reported at the ICC19. Image: Shirron Lockheed microcooler.

Table 2: Active space cryocooler development programs reported at the ICC19. Image: Shirron

development programs reported at the ICC19. Image: Shirron Lockheed microcooler. Image: Lockheed development of a 4

Lockheed microcooler. Image: Lockheed

development of a 4 K regenerator using porous silicon, its volumetric heat capac- ity exceeding most rare-earth materials in

the 10-20 K range, and Nakagawa (Osaka Univ.) on the optimization of Er(x)Ho(1-x)

N spheres.

In the higher temperature regimes, a

much wider range of technologies and ca- pabilities were presented. These are sum- marized in Table 2. One recurrent theme

in these developments is the push toward

miniaturization, of obvious interest to the space community as these coolers can have very low mass and low input power, open- ing up possibilities for deployment on small satellites (e.g. Cube SATs) and in remote planetary exploration.

A couple of other developments re-

coolers are needed for liquefaction and low

liquefaction of 3He. This is not a constraint

Also in support of Athena, Rutherford

ported during the conference are also noteworthy for space systems. The first is

produced to each load. This has the effect


zero boiloff storage.

for the 3-stage ADR systems described by

the development (Conrad/Raytheon) of a

For the lowest temperature regime, Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. was the first to begin work in the late 1990s on space-

DiPirro/NASA and Brasiliano/CEA.

Appleton Laboratory (Crook) presented

temperature control process for a hybrid Stirling/pulse tube cooler—by adjusting the Stirling phase—to match the cooling

worthy JT coolers operating below 2 K and currently has a unit under life test operating

work on a 2 K JT cooler which will use two compression stages and a single flow loop


ing better cooling rates during a cooldown.

minimizing the input power and provid-

for more than 250 days with a load of 5 mW


produce 150 K, 15 K and 2 K, with a goal

Conrad noted that the scheme could be ap-


1.7 K.


20 mW at 2 K with 200 W of input power.

plied to all of its cryocoolers.

This is a critical technology area for Athena and SPICA, as the hybrid 3He sorption/adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) cooler described by Duband/CEA (which is the baseline sub- kelvin cooler for both missions) and the closed cycle dilution refrigerator being

developed at the Neél Institute (not pre- sented) as a backup technology, require

a base temperature of 2 K or less for

In the 4-6 K regime, Petach/NGAS gave an update on the performance and vi-

bration measurements for the pulse tube/6

K JT cooler integrated into the MIRI instru-

ment on the James Webb Space Telescope, slated for launch in 2018.

Other work presented focused on the development of advanced regenera- tors, with Creare (Chen) reporting on the

The second, by Trollier/Absolut Systems, Inc., focused on aspects of inte- gration, in particular techniques for pro- ducing flexible Al and Cu thermal straps for linking loads to a cold head, and a 20 K forced flow loop, using high-pressure he- lium gas. Although intended for ground systems, it could be the basis for distrib- uted cooling of large systems like propel- lant depots in orbit.

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4

Cryo-Oops by John Jurns, senior cryogenic engineer, European Spallation Source ERIC,
by John Jurns, senior cryogenic engineer, European Spallation Source ERIC,

Be Careful What You Ask For – You Just May Get It!


Whenever I sit down to write this col- umn, I start by pondering the dumb things I’ve done over the years. Being an engineer, I usually think of “oops” in terms of hard- ware or operations. This month, however, I started thinking about mistakes I’ve made before any hardware ever showed up at my doorstep. And let me tell you, this line of thought opened up a whole new area.


Before you ever lay your hands on a piece of hardware you have to specify or design it, and then buy or build it. If you can design and build something in-house (at your own facilities), you have a certain amount of control over the process and final product. However, when you go out on the open market and buy something, your suc- cess depends on how well you can define your requirements.

Once an order is placed, you are at the mercy of the supplier, to some extent, to deliver according to your specification. This isn’t to say that suppliers are out to intentionally screw you. They understand that they won’t stay in business long if they continually disappoint customers and they really do want to provide what you want to the best of their ability. But rather, it is to stress that it is up to you to clearly define your requirements, whether for in-house or procured hardware.


This is one of my favorite stories from about 20 years ago. We were building up a new test facility and I had asked one of our electronics technicians to fabricate a control panel (back in the day when panels had real switches, knobs and instrument readouts in- stead of the modern touch panel computer displays). I had given some general instruc- tions, knowing that he was an excellent

technician, and could work with minimal direction. Also, just to make sure things were done right, I brought a dozen donuts down to the shop (always a good idea to keep people happy). A few days later, I stopped down at the shop to check on progress. The control panel looked good but I did mention one small item I thought should look different. “Oh,” he replied with a smile, “you wanted the two dozen donut job. You only paid for the one dozen donut job.”

Lesson learned—If you want some-

thing specific, be sure to ask for it. When de- veloping requirements for something, there

is always the risk of either under-specifying

or over-specifying. Not enough details, and you may not get what you expect. Too many details, and you may end up paying more than you need to. If you are dealing with

a qualified professional or company, make

sure to provide enough details on the must haves, and trust them to use proper judg- ment on the details.

This assumes that you are dealing with qualified parties, which brings up my next story. We had to move our cryogenic test fa- cility a number of years ago because another organization took over the area. This move involved a few new buildings and relocat- ing our cryogenic hardware. We had speci- fied the work to be done, entertained bids and accepted a proposal from a well-known engineering firm.

At the first project review meeting, we

could see that they had the civil construction and much of the system design well in hand.

It became painfully obvious to us, however,

that they had absolutely no previous experi- ence with the design and installation of cryo- genic systems. Although this slowed things down a bit, it wasn’t a showstopper. We did have to make an extra effort to fill them in on specific requirements for design and installa- tion of cryogenic hardware, and by the end of the project their competence had greatly increased and we had a satisfactory design.

Lesson learned—When developing requirements for cryogenic system design, fabrication and installation, make sure to include the requirement that potential sup- pliers provide information that will allow you to make an informed decision when awarding a contract. It is quite appropri- ate to ask for references on past projects of similar scope, resumes of individuals who will work on the project and company cer- tifications. This can save a lot of headaches down the road.

One last matter I want to bring up is about writing specifications. These docu- ments can often be long and detailed. If you have access to a similar document that you can use as a template, hurrah! Not having to create paragraph after paragraph of minute design details can be a work-saver and also provide some consistency from one project to the other. But also be aware of the risks of “copy/paste,” and don’t blindly copy specifications and requirements that are not applicable.

For example, if you are using a template that refers to flammables such as hydrogen or LNG, the document will doubtless have re- quirements for intrinsically safe or explosion proof electrical design. If you are not using flammable fluids in your system you obviously don’t need to include those requirements.


If we make the effort to define what we want, there’s a good chance we’ll end up with what we really need. Make the effort to think through your requirements and distill them into precise enough lan- guage to be easily understood by those seeking to fulfill them.

As always, we invite you to share any of your “oops” stories with us. Feel free to send them in to Brian Dudley at editor@ and we’ll try and in- clude them in this column.

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4


Boiloff Calorimetry for the Measurement of Very Low Heat Flows

Part 1: Short History of Heat Measurement in Cryogenics

by James Fesmire, senior principal investigator, Cryogenic Test Laboratory, NASA Kennedy Space Center, CSA President,

The use of boiloff calorimetry has be- come a practical and useful tool to measure, in a direct way, the thermal insulating perfor- mances of materials and systems of materials.

The use of boiloff calorimetry to measure the effects of thermal energy (or heat) dates back to the early 1900s [1, 2]. Gas flow rates measured in evaporation—or boiloff—calo- rimetry enable direct calculation of quantities such as heat flux and thermal conductivity. A particularly useful approach is to use nitrogen for the heat measurement fluid as it is read- ily available, inert and generally safe to use. The temperature range from normal boiling point (77.4 K) to ambient (approximately 300 K) represents a wide range of particular needs in construction, transportation, food and beverage, pharmaceuticals, electrical power, electronics, medical imaging, aerospace, in- dustrial processes and so forth, touching on virtually all aspects of modern life. The low- est temperature boiloff liquid is liquid helium with a normal boiling point of 4.2 K.

Because heat does not flow through a material as a function of temperature but ac- cording to a temperature difference, the use of a cryogen such as liquid nitrogen also pro- vides a convenient way to establish the sub- ambient test conditions represented in the wide range of end-use applications.

Origins of Heat Measurement

Considerations and use of the cold have led to the understanding and appli- cation of the hot and have fundamentally paved the way for the development of the thermal sciences and related engineering fields. By 1761, Joseph Black had devised an experimental calorimeter using ice and came up the idea of hidden heat through his experimental studies [3]. In another example, an early ice-bath calorimeter was used in 1782–83 by Antoine Lavoisier and Pierre-Simon Laplace to determine the heat evolved in various chemical changes [4].

determine the heat evolved in various chemical changes [4]. A cryogenic boiloff test apparatus, Cryostat-500, in

A cryogenic boiloff test apparatus, Cryostat-500, in the laboratory setting. Image: NASA

From these hidden heat (or latent heat) concepts of the mid-1700s we now have the terms heat of fusion and heat of vaporization. The notions of heat and absence of heat (now known as cold), first advanced by the great philosophers, remained in a highly formative stage for the next 100 years. A primary theme through all of these developments was chem- istry and experimentation. Leading scientists of the day often considered heat to be a sub- stance (caloric) that moved about in the world.

Joseph Fourier, however, went beyond the notion of heat as a substance with his fa- mous Analytic Theory of Heat, published in 1822, emphasizing mathematical analysis ap- plied to systematic observation [5]. He writes:

"Heat, like gravity, penetrates every sub- stance of the universe; its rays occupy all parts of space. The object of our work is to set forth the mathematical laws which this element obeys. The theory of heat will hereafter form one of the most important branches of general physics…No considerable progress can here- after be made which is not founded on experi- ments such as these; for mathematical analysis can deduce from general and simple phenom- ena the expression of the laws of nature; but the special application of these laws to very complex effects demands a long series of exact observations."

Nearly 200 years later, Fourier’s basic observation remains: experimental studies, testing methodologies and thermal apparatus are central to understanding heat energy. We still do not really know what heat is, though the words calorie and calorimeter remain, but we now have the terms and equations we call thermodynamics.

J. Willard Gibbs rigorously advanced the ideas of modern thermodynamics, and hence the concept of latent heat of evaporation, through his analytical work, The Scientific Papers of J. Willard Gibbs, published in 1906. Low temperature stud- ies ensued in the following three decades, culminating in the liquefaction of helium and discovery of superconductivity by H. Kamerlingh Onnes. And it is Onnes who is credited with coining the term enthalpy that is so extensively used today [6]. The word enthalpy is a combination of the Greek pre- fix en- (“to put into”) and verb thalpein ("to heat"), serving as a reminder of the hard- to-pin-down nature of thermal energy that persists to this day.

Advent of Heat Measurement in Cryogenics

Cryogenics came about as both a word and technical field in the first half of the 20th century. In the US, the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) started a laboratory for cryogenics work, and by the 1940s demand arose for indus- trial use of liquid oxygen and other liquefied gases. These demands in turn drove the need for higher performance, larger scale thermal insulation systems for cryogenic tanks. The performance demands sharply increased again in the 1950s to support the development of the hydrogen bomb, while the space race, touched off by the launch of Sputnik in 1957, led to fur- ther extensive development in materials, testing and large-scale applications in the 1960s [7, 8].


ries and the newly formed National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) played a

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4


key role, in concert with university and industry partners, in the development of thermal insula- tion systems for cryogenic applications. The team of Peter Glaser of the Arthur D. Little Company, for example, developed a boiloff calorimeter ap- paratus for measuring thermal conductivity [9] while under contract to NASA. This apparatus became the basis for the (now withdrawn) stan- dard ASTM C745 [10].

Several other cryogenic boiloff appara- tuses were built and used to produce the sub- stantial body of technical literature through the early 1970s [11]. And thermal measure- ments of cryogenic insulation materials were summarized by the ASTM Symposium pro- ceedings of 1967 [12]. In the 1980s, the NBS again led the way in operating a productive liquid nitrogen boiloff calorimeter for cryo- genic materials testing [13]. More recently, liquid nitrogen boiloff calorimeters have been developed for the thermal performance test- ing of cryogenic pipelines [14, 15].

Latest Technology in Cryogenic Boiloff Calorimetry

Today, cryogenic boiloff calorimetry for the performance testing of thermal insulation systems is addressed in a standard guide published by ASTM International [16]. This technical guide, ASTM C1774, includes boil- off test calorimeters (or cryostats) in both flat plate and cylindrical configurations.

As an example of the absolute flat plate apparatus, the Cryostat-500 instrument de- veloped by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory at NASA Kennedy Space Center is shown in the laboratory setting on the previous page. The heat measurement approaches include both absolute and comparative methods. In all configurations, cryogenic boiloff can provide direct measurement of heat energy for a very wide range of thermal performance [17].

Part 2 of this series will examine theory and applications of boiloff calorimetry.


1. Zarr, R.R. June 2001. “A history of testing heat

insulators at the National Institute of Standards and Technology,” ASHRAE Transactions 2001,


2. Tye, R.P. 1990. “Measurement of thermal

insulation performance: The challenge of the next

decade,” Intl. J. of Thermophysics, 11(2).


Ramsay, William (1918). The Life and Letters


Joseph Black. London: Constable and Company

Ltd., at

4. Lavoisier, A.L. and Laplace, P.S., Memoir on

Heat, Read to the Royal Academy of Sciences, 28 June 1783.


Fourier, Joseph, The Analytic Theory of Heat,



Howard, I. K., J. Chem. Educ., 2002, 79 (6), p

697, DOI: 10.1021/ed079p697.

7. Kropschot, R.H. et al., “Multiple-layer insula-

tion,” Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, 5:579- 586, Vol. 5, Plenum, 1960, pp. 189-198.

8. Kaganer, M.G. 1969. Thermal Insulation

in Cryogenic Engineering, Israel Program for Scientific Translations Ltd., Israel, pp. 127-130.

9. Webb, J.E. “Apparatus for Measuring

Thermal Conductivity,” U.S. Patent No. 3,242,716, is- sued March 29, 1966.

10. ASTM C745. 1992. Standard Test Method for

Heat Flux Through Evacuated Insulations Using

a Guarded Flat Plate Boiloff Calorimeter, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.

11. Cunnington, G.R., Keller, C.W., et al.,

Thermal Performance of Multilayer Insulations, Interim Report, LMSC-A903316/NASA CR-72605,

Lockheed Missile and Space Company, Sunnyvale, CA, 1971.

12. ASTM STP 411, 1967. Thermal Conductivity

Measurements of Insulating Materials at Cryogenic Temperatures, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.

13. Dube, W.P., L.L. Sparks, and A.J. Slifka,

“NBS boil-off calorimeter for measuring thermal conductivity of insulating materials,” Advances in Cryogenic Engineering (Materials) 34:67-73, 1988.

14. Fesmire, J.E., Augustynowicz, S.D., and

Nagy, Z.F., “Apparatus and Method for Thermal Performance Testing of Pipelines and Piping Systems,” US Patent 6,715,914 April 6, 2004.

15. Fesmire, J.E., Augustynowicz, S.D., and Nagy,

Z.F., “Thermal Performance Testing of Cryogenic Piping Systems,” 21st International Congress of Refrigeration, Washington DC, International

Institute of Refrigeration, Paris, 2004.

16. ASTM C1774 - Standard Guide for Thermal

Performance Testing of Cryogenic Insulation Systems. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA (2013).

17. Fesmire, J.E., “Standardization in cryogenic

insulation systems testing and performance data,” 25th International Cryogenic Engineering Conference, University of Twente, July 2014.

Conference, University of Twente, July 2014. ■ Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4


Cryogenic Coatings for Deep Space

by Dr. Robert C. Youngquist,, and Dr. Mark A. Nurge,, both from NASA Kennedy Space Center

It’s surprisingly difficult to achieve and maintain cryogenic temperatures in space. One might think that with a 2.7 K cosmic microwave background filling most of the field of view that chilling down wouldn’t be difficult, but the sun dominates the energy balance. At one astronomical unit

(AU) the sun radiates about 1,360 watts per square meter onto any exposed surface and

it doesn’t take much analysis to show that

a sphere, floating out in the vacuum of

space and composed of typical materials, will come to an equilibrium temperature of about 280 K—similar to the Earth’s av- erage temperature.

So is there a way to make this sphere colder? More than a hundred years ago, Max Planck discovered that the sun’s radi- ant energy is primarily in the visible and near infrared (NI) regions, while the emis- sion of a 300 K object is at long wavelengths, as shown in Figure 1. It was soon realized that an object would get cold if a coating could be created that reflected the sun’s visible and near-infrared radiation, yet still allowed emission further in the infra- red. In the 1960s this idea became a popu- lar research area, both for ground-based use (selective surfaces) and for aerospace applications (thermal control coatings).

Two primary approaches to con- structing space rated coatings have been developed—white paint, designed to re-

flect mostly visible radiation yet radiate in the infrared, and second surface mirrors. Second surface mirrors are composed of

a transparent material (e.g. plastic) with

a metallized backing. Visible light passes

plastic) with a metallized backing. Visible light passes Figure 1. This plot shows the power absorbed

Figure 1. This plot shows the power absorbed by a black sphere exposed to the sun and its corresponding thermal emission spectrum. Image: Robert Youngquist

thermal emission spectrum. Image: Robert Youngquist Figure 2. Second surface mirrors were used on the Space

Figure 2. Second surface mirrors were used on the Space Shuttle Orbiter payload bay doors to reject waste heat even in the presence of the sun. Image: NASA

through the plastic and reflects off the metal while the plastic emits in the in-

watts per square meter of the sun’s en- ergy and that’s too much.

cryogenic temperatures. Oddly, no one followed up on this prediction, perhaps

frared. This approach was used for the space shuttle program’s orbiter payload bay doors to reject waste heat even in the

So what can be done? Back in 1961, R.R. Hibbard, from NASA Lewis Space Center,

because there wasn’t a need at the time, or maybe just because no one knew how to make such a Hibbard material.

presence of the sun (Figure 2).

considered this problem and theorized that


material could be created that reflected

Now, some 50 years after Hibbard,

Analysis shows that our sphere would chill down to about 170 K if we

all of the sun’s energy below some cutoff wavelength, but turned black, becoming

we have proposed uses for superconduc- tors in space, ranging from power delivery

covered it with one of these coatings—


perfect emitter above that wavelength.

and energy storage to possible radiation

cold, but not cold enough for cryogenic


we had this perfect “Hibbard material”

shielding. Also, if liquid oxygen could be

use. These coatings absorb about 100

with a cutoff wavelength of about 5 microns or higher coating our sphere it could reach

maintained on a trip to Mars, stored on the moon or held in deep space depots, it

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4

Figure 3. This image shows how each wavelength regime is treated by the Solar White

Figure 3. This image shows how each wavelength regime is treated by the Solar White coating. Image: Robert Youngquist

would enable significant mission scenario advances. In 2015, we pointed out to the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Program the need for the develop- ment of an improved cryogenic, selective surface. NASA agreed and awarded us a Phase I grant. We started the work with op- timism and ignorance, learning daily and discovering that all of our proposed ap- proaches failed. Then, at a high frustration point, we discovered the solution, a coating that theoretically reflects nearly all of the sun’s radiation, making it appear white to almost the entire solar spectrum. We named it “Solar White.”

The Solar White coating operates in the visible portion of the spectrum, just like white paint. It has numerous, very small transparent particles that scatter the incom- ing light backward. But unlike white paint, our coating is composed only of materi- als that are transparent across most of the sun’s spectrum, from the ultraviolet to the infrared. So a very broad band of radiation is scattered, not just the visible, as shown in Figure 3. Also, at waves so long that scat- tering becomes inefficient, the coating has an underlying metallic layer that is highly reflective for long wave radiation. At very long wavelengths the coating becomes black, emitting radiation and allowing the sphere to cool down.

emitting radiation and allowing the sphere to cool down. Figure 4. The line shows the temperature

Figure 4. The line shows the temperature of a sphere at one AU coated with a Hibbard material compared to the predictions for the Solar White material composed of different materials (5 mm thick except for the one at 40 mm). Image: Robert Youngquist

We located several potential materials from which to create a Solar White coating and developed a theoretical performance model (published in Optics Letters in March 2016). Figure 4 shows the predicted equilib- rium temperatures for a sphere coated with a 5 mm layer (one 40 mm layer) of Solar White composed of different materials. This is com- pared with the Hibbard material, indicating how close we have come to that theoretical ideal. Incredibly, several common materials, including table salt, are predicted to reach temperatures below 60 K.

Figure 5. This photo shows visible light scattered by a thin disk composed of pressed, finely ground, salt (NaCl). Image: Robert Youngquist

Knowing the predictions from our model, we pressed finely ground NaCl powder into a thin disk. Figure 5 shows

its performance reflecting visible light. We were excited, but this was as far as we could go under Phase I funding. In order to continue the work we submit- ted a Phase II proposal to NIAC, asking

it to verify our models using powdered

versions of Solar White and to develop

a rigid version of this coating that might

eventually be used on spacecraft. In May 2016 NIAC chose our proposal for fund- ing and we are now preparing to start the next phase of the project.

designers. It does not radiate efficiently and should not be used to cool down a heat-generating spacecraft. However, we predict that our Solar White coating can reflect more than 99.9 percent of the sun’s energy, and in some cases more than half of the infrared energy of 300 K objects. So with a proper design, objects that do not produce heat, such as cryogenic tanks and superconductors, will be able to reach cryogenic temperatures in the presence of the sun and even with limited infra- red emission from nearby structures and planets. We believe our new Solar White coating may be an enabling breakthrough permitting previously impossible deep space cryogenic capabilities.

The Solar White coating meets a different need than the thermal control coatings currently available to spacecraft

thermal control coatings currently available to spacecraft Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4



Meyer Tool 3-Stage Hydrogen Heat Exchanger

Sandia National Laboratories recently commissioned Meyer Tool & Mfg., Inc. to design and build a heat exchanger to cool hydrogen gas from 300 K at 1 MPa to 10 K. Calculations showed a minimum of 3,520 W of cooling was necessary to cool a 1 gm/sec of hydrogen gas stream to the desired tempera- ture. To achieve the necessary cooling, Meyer engineers chose to design a three-stage heat exchanger using saturated liquid nitrogen at 80 K and saturated liquid helium at 4.2 K, both cryogens available to the process.

“We successfully met our customer per- formance requirements with this custom heat exchanger,” says Ed Bonnema, vice president at Meyer. “The design utilized conservative contingency factors to ensure the thermal and hydraulic performance requirements were met, while utilizing an understanding of cryogenic fabrication best practices to achieve a compact, cost effective product. Thus the design bal- anced our dual commitment to providing our customers with the lowest total cost of owner- ship while reducing their project risk.”

Meyer’s manufacturing team performed all the machining, welding, assembly and test operations necessary to fabricate the 3-stage heat exchanger at its vertically integrated facility. Key to the fabrication of the 3-stage heat exchanger, and true of most cryogenic equipment, is the proper sequencing of opera- tions and quality control hold points. Critical manufacturing processes included ASME Section IX qualified welding and brazing, in-process cold shocking and helium leak testing, temperature sensor installation and routing, superinsulation blanket fabrication and installation, and final pressure and he- lium leak testing.

A simpler two-stage heat exchanger de- sign was considered but discarded as the liquid helium consumption was nine times the rate required of the more complex 3-stage design.

Meyer engineers performed thermal and hydraulic calculations to define the re- quired heat transfer surface area and resul- tant pressure drop in each of the three stages, selecting tubing and vessel sizes that would lead to quick convergence on a thermal and

sizes that would lead to quick convergence on a thermal and Figure 1 illustrates key features

Figure 1 illustrates key features of the heat exchanger. Image: Meyer Tool & Mfg., Inc.

hydraulic design and ones that met the cus- tomer’s performance requirements.

nested coils, an outer 304LSS 1” OD x .065” tube and an inner ½” OD x .035” tube inner

The engineers then utilized the thermal design of the heat exchanger to develop a 3D model and a 2D set of fabrication drawings. The design was compact, easy to fabricate and cost effective. It nested the three stages and a copper thermal shield attached to the nitrogen vessel to minimize the external heat leak to the heat exchanger.

coil. The hydrogen gas flows in the inner tube while the helium vapor flows in the annular space between the two tubes. The second stage requires approximately 492 W of cool- ing. The hydrogen gas continues to the third stage in a ½” OD x .035” w tube coil contained in a liquid helium bath. The liquid helium is contained in a 15 liter pressure vessel. The hydrogen gas enters the third stage at ap- proximately 38 K and exits the third stage at

In the first stage, the hydrogen stream is


K, a process that requires approximately

cooled from 300 K to 80 K as it flows through a


W of cooling. The sizing of the second stage

tube coil immersed in boiling liquid nitrogen bath. Cooling the hydrogen gas required ap- proximately 2,960 W. The coil was a formed 304LSS ½” OD x 0.35” wall tube contained within a 304LSS vessel annular type pressure vessel. Engineers added a contingency to the design after calculating the coil's length. They also examined pressure drop in the coil and found it to be negligible.

and third stage coils requires a heat balance between the two stages and iterative calcula- tions. However, as properties of the fluids are relatively constant in the ranges considered, coupled with selecting conditions based on experience, the calculations rapidly converge on a result. Engineers calculated lengths nec- essary for the second stage and third stage coils and contingencies were added.

In the second stage, engineers used cold helium vapor from the third stage liquid he- lium bath to further cool the hydrogen gas before it reaches the third stage. Using the sensible heat from the cold helium vapor reduces the helium consumption of the heat exchanger. The second stage is a counterflow tube-in-tube heat exchanger consisting of two

The hydrogen cooling process is moni- tored with pairs of redundant silicon diode temperature sensors located at three key points in the heat exchanger. The liquid levels of the nitrogen and helium baths are moni- tored with level gauges while a diaphragm valve is used to control the incoming hydro- gen stream flow rate.

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4



Braemar Creates a Niche in the LNG Market

Navigating the current LNG market can be precarious, but midscale groups like Braemar Engineering are finding success by focusing on small to midrange projects often ignored by large engineering, procurement and construction management companies.

“We are not a Bechtel, we are not a KBR. We’re boutique,” says Alexander Harsema- Mensonides, director of marine business development at Braemar. “And that brings with it an interesting set of clients. Clients that are away from the mainstream, clients that are innovating, clients that are rethink- ing the business model, clients that do not want to do it the normal way. We help them realize their dreams. We’re basically an in- strument. Our service is facilitating from an engineering perspective.”

Braemar Engineering was formed in 1993 as Wavespec Limited and now operates as a division of Braemar Shipping Services, a consultancy group that addresses a broad range of marine concerns including ship- broking, environmental consulting, port agency and logistics, loss adjusting and lo- gistical support.

The engineering division specializes in both onshore and marine LNG, working on import and export terminals, peak shaver facilities, LNG barging, LNG as marine fuel and more. “We’re basically owner’s engi- neers,” says Harsema-Mensonides. “You can hire an EPC, but if you’re not capable of reading the reports and understanding the reports that the EPC is writing, then you still have a problem…There are so many en- gineering tasks where we basically translate what the guys want from a very high level into much more operational goals.” This includes assistance with feasibility studies, project outlines, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission reports and overall engineer- ing issues.

Harsema-Mensonides first began working in the LNG market in 1999. He joined Braemar in 2008. Over that time, he says, LNG has slowly morphed from a com- modity sold primarily in bulk on long term contracts to projects involving dedicated

bulk on long term contracts to projects involving dedicated The first commissioning of cargo at the

The first commissioning of cargo at the Sabine Pass LNG Terminal, February 2016. Image: Cheniere Energy

liquefaction plants, shipping and import/ export facilities, towards a product sold in smaller volumes on short or medium term contacts.

LNG export, Harsema-Mensonides says, is currently the “flavor of the month,” and Braemar has handled lot of upfront development for LNG import and export terminals. For example, the firm provided owner’s engineering for all Cheniere Energy, Inc. LNG projects in the US, in- cluding the Sabine Pass liquefaction project, handling initial feasibility studies, concep- tual design support and regulatory support.

The key to export, according to Harsema-Mensonides, is having customers lined up before a project begins. “You’re not going to get financed for something if you don’t have customers. So, it’s vitally important that we look at the off-take side, the commercial side, together with the regulatory side and the technical side.” Cheniere’s Sabine Pass facility, for example, includes BG Gulf Coast LNG, Gas Natural Fenosoa, Korea Gas Corporation and others as customers. “We’re not LNG merchants… [but] we can point you in the right direction because we’ve been in the business long enough to know basically everybody who buys LNG.”

On the marine side, Harsema- Mensonides says there are a lot of interesting projects popping up, especially as shippers consider the long term cost of ownership.

“If you have a ship that’s going to operate for the next 30 years, during that 30 years a lot of things are going to happen with the supply of oil and the supply of gas.” Using LNG as a marine fuel, he says, is also a good way to comply with emission regulations.

However, it is not currently a cheap way, he says. But a reduction in LNG costs is something that Harsema-Mensonides foresees in the coming years as companies begin using LNG as a replacement for tra- ditional fuels. Part of this will also be an in- creased demand for marine LNG in the US, he says, including LNG bunkering, LNG distribution by ship and LNG fueled vessels like ferries and cargo ships.

Before this can happen, however, LNG must overcome sustained opposition in the US. “Well placed bad publicity does more harm than ten people out in the industry trying to downplay it,” says Harsema- Mensonides. Before a project begins, he encourages companies to engage the com- munity. “Whether it's an oil terminal, a gas terminal, an LNG terminal or a dynamite factory, inform the people about what it’s going to do for them, what it’s going to mean for them, what the upside is and what the downside is,” he says.

The industry, he stresses, has a viable track record. “Vessels don’t sink. Vessels don’t blow up,” he says. “LNG facilities will not explode…they will not poison the well."

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4 33
Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4 33

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4



The Scoop on LN 2 Ice Cream Installations

LN 2 infused ice cream has become a staple at parlors across the globe, with operations ranging from small portable single mixing stations used for catering to large stores with multiple stations. Several companies have even patented produc- tion methods, requiring new proprietors to diligently research infringement issues.

CryoWorks, Inc. offers many of the components and equipment used for these LN 2 ice cream installations, including pip- ing, valves, controllers, dewars and tanks.

Despite advances in automation, many parlor owners prefer to enter the LN 2 market with hand mixing as the up- front costs can be less, according to Tim Mast, Sr., VP and co-owner of CryoWorks.

More complex installations use pipe to route the LN 2 supply to the dis- pensing locations. Mast says that many customers use both of CryoWorks pip- ing solutions—VJ flex and VJ rigid—for such applications.

Flexible piping, he says, is popular when customers need pipes to run under the counter to individual risers that pen- etrate the countertop to reach dispensing valves. But many installations run above the counter, either right on top of the counter or overhead. In this case, a flex connection to the supply is usually made and then tran- sitioned into rigid pipe to run along the top of the counter or in the ceiling overhead. The connection to the dispensing valve is then made using flex lines. When multiple dispensing stations are used, tees branch off the rigid section into flex lines that connect to each individual dispensing valve.

Mast says another available option for overhead piping is using a phase separator, a non-pressurized reservoir device that sits overhead and regulates flow to maintain liquid level and to bring the liquid down to atmospheric pressure. Lines off the bottom of the separator are routed with VJ flex lines down to the dispenser valves. “If slop- ing is done correctly, this allows for a

valves. “If slop- ing is done correctly, this allows for a Under the counter installation with

Under the counter installation with VJ dispensing valve and automation control system attached to KitchenAid ® mixers. Image: CryoWorks, Inc.

steady flow of on-demand low pressure liquid,” says Mast. “This results in a gravity fed system that produces a softer dose of liquid nitrogen.”

system that produces a softer dose of liquid nitrogen.” KitchenAid ® mixer with dewar, SRV assembly,

KitchenAid ® mixer with dewar, SRV assembly, VJ flex hose, VJ dispensing, automation controller and mountings bracket. Image: CryoWorks, Inc.

Installation is a simple process, says Mast, whether the parlor chooses to go it alone, hire a subcontractor or contact CryoWorks for turnkey services.

CryoWorks for turnkey services. ■ Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4



Cool Pair Plus Offers Life Support To Aging MRIs

Replacing broken or aging MRI or re- search equipment with new units is expen-

sive, and so many hospitals, imaging centers and research installations turn to third parties

to help maintain systems well past end-of-life.

One of these is Cool Pair Plus (CPP).

CCP has provided MRI cryogenic equipment and service since 1995, offering exchange and repair for MRI coldheads and compressors from multiple OEMs (including Sumitomo, Balzers, Leybold, and APD) and onsite magnet repair service for GE, Siemens and Phillips MRI systems. Additionally, the company works on cryopumps and other cryogenic equipment for research and pro- duction facilities.

“Repairing and refurbishing coldheads and compressors is a very niche market. We are satisfying this very specific need in the healthcare and research industries,” says Dick Branca, director of sales at CPP.

One of CPP’s biggest challenges, Branca says, is maintaining these old systems with OEM level quality. “The customer wants to reduce the cost of ownership as best they

can. But they want the quality to be similar,

if not the same, to what they receive from

the OEM,” he says. “The challenge we face is when the equipment is as old as it is.”

Each piece of equipment serviced by CPP is subjected to rigorous quality control standards. Coldheads, for example, that are inoperable because of valves, bearings and

other interior parts, are completely replaced. Compressor cases are even sent to an auto body shop that smooths out dings and applies

a fresh coat of paint, often resulting in better than new appearances.

CPP also reverse engineers newer equip-

ment, including Sumitomo’s A3 coldhead, so

it can rebuild units just hitting the market.

“We’ve done all the R&D, all the reverse engineering, and we’re actually servicing these now and installing them,” says Sean Mykleby, CPP’s product support manager.

The CPP facility in Algonquin IL is packed with equipment ready for shipment. Customers

IL is packed with equipment ready for shipment. Customers Sumitomo cold head inside Cool Pair Plus

Sumitomo cold head inside Cool Pair Plus facility. Image: Cool Pair Plus

can handle the installation themselves or take advantage of CPP’s turnkey services.

A multitude of problems can develop

as equipment ages, according to Mykleby. “Some of these compressors are end-of-life with the OEMs themselves, but we’re still supporting them and we’re still running them through the same quality programs that we have for all of our other equipment as well. So we’re literally keeping these systems func- tional when the OEM has said they're not touching these anymore.”

But even relatively young systems have service issues, according to Mykleby. “The cryo- systems run 24/7, and right now we have a mean time between failures of 32 months.” He says the overall cryogenic system includes a multitude of parts—seals, bearings, valves, o-rings and oil filtration—that simply wear out over time.

Cool Pair’s commitment to quality and customer satisfaction is a focus throughout all of its repair and refurbishment work and ap- plies to the older end-of-life systems and the newest equipment in the field, according to Eric Padilla, CPP’s quality manager.

To help its customers better address poten-

tial service needs, CPP has introduced daVinci, a remote monitoring and management system that continuously monitors everything from helium pressure and level to room humidity, and reports this information to both CPP and

the customer. If levels go beyond a certain point set by the customer, the system sends email and text alerts to help ensure quick responses. “Helium is expensive,” Branca says, “so you want to continually monitor your equipment and take action as soon as you can.”

CPP is also in the process of complet- ing its ISO audit for the ISO 13485 standard. “For us, the ISO certification process has gone smoothly and relatively quickly,” says Padilla. “I think it’s because we have had an organiza- tional-wide commitment to quality all along.”

commitment to quality all along.” ■ Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4


Annular Air Leaks in a Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tank

by Angela G. Krenn, NASA Cryogenic Propulsion Systems (NE-M5), and Dr. Robert C. Youngquist,, NASA Kennedy Space Center

The structural failure of a liquid hydro- gen tank doesn’t occur frequently, but the consequences are severe when it does. Late in 2011, the outer tank wall of a 90,000-gal- lon vertical LH 2 tank cracked at NASA’s John C. Stennis Space Center’s B-1 test facil- ity, requiring millions of dollars and many months to repair. It is important not only to fully understand the failure mechanism of this event but also to establish preventative protocols for other tanks, especially consid- ering the vast distribution of LH 2 tanks in

use by both the government and industry. As it turns out, the mechanism that led to the LH 2 tank’s structural failure at Stennis was

a somewhat complex sequence of events.

First, engineers noted a pressure rise in the annulus, the result of two rupture disc as- semblies leaking air into the annular space from the top of the tank. Annular space sep- arates the inner and outer tank walls and is evacuated to improve thermal performance. Any breaches of the outer structure result in air being sucked into the evacuated space.

Though the pressure rise at Stennis was significant, rocket engine testing requirements necessitated continued operation of the tank. The nominal fill and drain of the tank in sup- port of testing resulted in cryo-pumping air into the annulus. At LH 2 operating tempera- tures and cryo-pumped annular pressures, all

of the constituents of air froze except for trace

amounts of helium and neon.

Consequently, tons of air had frozen into the annular space by the time engineers

began to drain the tank after testing was completed, to facilitate rupture disk assem- bly repairs. Air leaking into the annulus is often experienced by users at some point in

a tank’s life cycle, yet may not be detected

until significant frozen air has accumulated. The storage tank drain caused a gradual warming of the tank walls, resulting in the eventual melting of the tons of ingested air that dripped to the inner surface of the outer wall. Enough melting air was present to sig- nificantly chill the outer wall, as evidenced by the large ball of ice visible in Figure 1.

To minimize fabrication costs, many

ice visible in Figure 1. To minimize fabrication costs, many Figure 1. Photo of B-1 tank

Figure 1. Photo of B-1 tank cracks. Image: NASA

costs, many Figure 1. Photo of B-1 tank cracks. Image: NASA Figure 2. Bottom view of

Figure 2. Bottom view of B-1 tank cracks. Image: NASA

LH 2 tanks like the B-1 tank at Stennis have outer walls made of carbon steel. Carbon steel, unlike stainless steel, loses its ductility at temperatures around 245 K. Instrumentation placed at the bottom of the B-1 tank indicated temperatures reached less than 90 K. Those reduced temperatures

led to a loss of ductility that ultimately re- sulted in the cracks seen in Figures 1 and 2.

An extensive research effort by NASA engineers found that several other tanks have experienced or are currently experi- encing air leaks, but the investigators found

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4


no study detailing how to prevent such leaks from resulting in cracks. Anecdotally, the tanks were either removed from service im- mediately upon leak discovery or were simply operated sacrificially to failure. But what can be done when immediate removal from service or run-to-failure are not viable options?

NASA engineers analyzed two methods

to safely remove the frozen air from the annu-

lus of an LH 2 tank. First they considered what would occur if the pressure in the annulus could be kept below 0.15 kPa during the tank warming process.The main constituents of air are nitrogen and oxygen, which have triple points of 63 K / 12.5 kPa and 54 K / 0.15 kPa respectively. Upon warming, the frozen air sublimates instead of liquefying, eliminating the fundamental cause of the structural fail- ure—dripping liquid air, but evacuation data unfortunately showed an exponential drop in molecular removal as pressure decreased. Consequently, a detailed analysis of imple- mentation of this technique on a real-world air leak reveals unreasonable time-scales for successful accomplishment of air removal, on the order of tens of years.

NASA engineers, realizing that the air

must be allowed to liquefy to remove it in

a reasonable time period, then considered

how best to prevent embrittlement damage

In this scenario, the liquid air will then fall onto the outer tank wall, and if the amount

is substantial this will cause the outer tank

wall to become too cold and brittle to remain

structurally sound. Engineers thereafter de- termined that the only remaining mitigation approach is to supply heat to the outer tank to keep it warm. Through detailed analysis, they discovered that successfully prevent- ing ice from forming on the outer surface of the tank would be sufficient to prevent the carbon steel from dropping below its minimum ductility temperature.

Several methods of adding heat were considered. Polyimide heaters bonded di- rectly to the tank wall could provide more

than enough heating power. They are flexible and meet Class I Division II requirements, but they offer only localized heating. Therefore,

a potentially large number of heaters would

be required to prevent cold spots from form- ing between the heaters. Blowing warm air across the surface of the tank with fans could work, but wind conditions may counteract the

effects in some locations and other locations may be difficult to reach. Infrared heaters are a great source of heating power but do not meet Class 1 Division 2 maximum temperature re- quirements. Placing them 25 feet away from the tank wall, as required, may result in sig- nificant gaps in coverage due to obstructions lying between the heaters and the tank wall.

In the end, the engineers discovered a simple solution. If a significant mass of air

has been ingested into the annulus, spray- ing water on the outer surface of the tank throughout the warming process will prevent structural failure of the tank wall. The key is to ensure that no ice buildup is permitted at any time. This method provided adequate heating, caused no increase in hazard and sufficiently covered all areas. Additionally, many LH 2 spheres are equipped with a water deluge system, which would minimize imple- mentation costs.

system, which would minimize imple- mentation costs. ■ Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4


LIGO Collaboration Prepares Cryogenic Update

by Prof. Rana X Adhikari, California Institute of Technology,; Dr. Brett N. Shapiro, Stanford University,

In the past year, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) has twice observed gravitational waves from the merger of black holes in deep space. To make this observation, researchers must be able to measure phase shifts in the light equivalent to motions of ~10 -19 meters over the 4 km arm length of the interferometers.

In order to make such a sensitive mea- surement, the laser power impinging on the interferometers’ mirrors exceeds 100 kW (continuous). In addition to filtering out the vibrations from the environment, the mi- croscopic thermal vibrations of the mirror surface must also be tamed.

The LIGO interferometers operate at room temperature and so each eigenmode of the mirror is vibrating with 1/2 k B (300 K) of thermal energy. The trick to making sensitive displacement measurements in the presence of

thermal noise is to not look where the noise is:

the mirror materials are engineered to have such

a high mechanical Q (low internal friction) that

the energy is well contained within the narrow frequency band of the high Q eigenfrequencies. Still, the residual thermal noise far from the resonance does set a limit to how small a motion may be measured interferometrically.

In order to take the next big step in gravitational-wave astronomy, this thermal noise limit must be surpassed. We can either

find higher Q materials or operate the system cryogenically. Happily, nature has conspired to make these properties go hand in hand and the LIGO Scientific Collaboration is now making designs and measurements to enable

a near future upgrade of this sort. The LIGO

Collaboration is exploring the optical absorp- tion and noise characteristics of single-crystal silicon, how to synthesize a 200 W laser with a two micron wavelength and testing of various UHV compatible, high-emissivity coatings to enable efficient radiative cooling. The aim is to have a room-size prototype demonstration within three years.

Many crystalline materials have a Q inversely proportional to temperature. The ~150 kg silicon mirrors that will be needed for the LIGO upgrade should have a Q 10 9 .

be needed for the LIGO upgrade should have a Q 10 9 . Figure 1. A

Figure 1. A sketch of a cryogenic LIGO mirror inside a vacuum enclosure. Image: LIGO Collaboration

The remaining challenge is to build a thin film Bragg coating for the silicon substrate. This coating must be able to have a high Q (> 10 5 ) and absorption below 1 ppm.

One of the toughest engineering challenges in a cryogenic laser interferometer is to extract several watts of heat from the mirror without disturbing the mirror motion at the 10 -19 meters level. Thermal straps of OFHC copper could remove the heat but would connect the mirror to the noisy cold head. An exchange gas could also be used for the initial cooldown but would produce an acoustic short between the vacuum chamber and the mirror. Radiative cooling is ordinarily quite weak, but a mirror this large (45 cm dia., 50 cm thick) should be able to radiate ~10 W while operating at 123 K.

Figure 1 illustrates the chosen design for the cooling of the mirrors inside LIGO’s up- dated vacuum enclosure. The primary source of the heat absorbed into the mirror will come from the interferometer’s laser, depositing ~10 W into the mirror’s surface.

The design features a dual shielding system employed to maintain the mirror at 123 K, the desired temperature in the presence of this heat load. An inner shield at about 80 K surrounds the mirror. This shield will collect the ~10 W radiated away by the 123 K mirror. This inner shield is suspended from wires and springs in

order to give it vibration isolation down to the 10 -10 meters level. This isolation is important because a small amount (~30 ppm) of light will scatter off the mirror, bounce off the inner shield and find its way back to the interferometer. The phase of this returning light will be contami- nated with the velocity of the inner shield, and can potentially mask the phase shift induced by the gravitational radiation.

The inner shield will be cooled through flexible copper straps due to its vibration isolation requirement. These straps limit the amount of heat that can be extracted from it. Thus, to minimize the heat load on this shield, an outer shield surrounds the inner one. The outer shield’s vibration is much less critical since it is largely inaccessible to the laser beam. Consequently, it will be mounted rigidly to the ground and cooled to 77 K via liquid nitrogen pipes. The inner shield’s flex- ible copper straps will be mounted between this outer shield and the inner for conductive heat transfer between the two.

While radiative cooling works well in the steady state, it would take weeks to cool down from room temperature. Either a UHV compat- ible heat switch or an exchange gas will thus be used during each initial cooldown to achieve the desired state in about one day, thus allowing for frequent incursions into the vacuum envelope to make repairs and upgrades.

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4


Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4


Predicting Language Decits After Stroke

Loss or impairment of the ability to speak is one of the most feared complications of stroke—one faced by about 20 percent of stroke patients. The extent of that impairment, however, is difficult to predict. Health prac- titioners currently use structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after stroke to as- sess lesions in the cortical tissue—the brain’s gray matter. But the extent of cortical damage does not often correlate with the severity of language deficits, according to Dr. Leonardo Bonilha, a neurologist at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), as lan- guage is not seated in a single brain region but actually involves white matter connections between many regions.

Bonilha leads a group of researchers from MUSC and the University of South Carolina that uses whole-brain connectome imaging to investigate the brains of stroke victims. Connectome refers to the totality of a brain’s white matter connections. White matter acts as insulated wire in the brain, connecting one area of the brain to another. It is named for the myelin sheaths (insulation) that cover the many axons (wires) that make up the brain’s fiber tracts.

In 2010, the National Institutes of Health initiated the Human Connectome Project, a multi-year study attempting to comprehensively map the connections in some 1,200 healthy adults. Though it shares a research focus on the connectome, Bonilha’s research team was not part of that consortium, but rather is one of the first groups to use whole-brain connectome imaging to examine unhealthy brains—in this case lesions formed by stroke in adults with post-stroke aphasia. Its research was published in the June 22, 2016 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience.

Bonilha’s team demonstrated that map- ping the brain’s white matter connections after stroke helps predict which patients will have language deficits and how severe those deficits will be. The findings also suggest that connectome-based analysis could be used to inform a more individualized approach to stroke care.

“The connectome is a personalized map, comparable with the human genome, except

a personalized map, comparable with the human genome, except Features of gray-matter cortical regions (left) and

Features of gray-matter cortical regions (left) and white-matter tracts (right), reflecting their importance in predicting speech fluency scores. Regions/connections are marked in red when they strongly influence speech fluency, in blue when their influence is moderate, and are left uncolored when the influence is weak or non-existent. Image used courtesy of Dr. Leonardo Bonilha and Dr. Grigori Yourganov of the Medical University of South Carolina, who own the copyright for the image. Published in the June 22 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience (DOI:10.1523/ JNEUROSCI.4396-15.2016).

that the connectome is something that com- bines your congenital information, that is, what you are born with, plus your life experi- ences,” says Bonilha. That personalized infor- mation, he hopes, will one day guide therapy, helping clinicians and patients to better un- derstand treatment options.

The team created its connectomes through a combination of T-1 and T-2 weighted MRI together with additional diffusion tensor imaging and robust pre- and post-processing. It used a Siemens Magnetom Trio, a Tim System 3T MRI, for the scans, though the imaging used to build the connectomes could have been obtained using any conventional MRI machine, ac- cording to Bonilha.

The processing system used to combine those images, however, is not something cur- rently available on the market and was in fact developed specifically for this research. “There are several caveats when it comes to processing the images that have large brain lesions,” Bonilha says. “We made a lot of op- timizations, sequences, diffusion parameters, etc., in processing steps to accurately measure the connectome.”

Once the images were combined, the team used a type of machine learning al- gorithm—support vector regression—to analyze the imaging results and make predictions about each patient’s language deficits. In essence, an algorithm was created that could derive the Western

Aphasia Battery (WAB) score for each of the study’s 90 patients from either a fea- ture relevant to imaging of the gray mat- ter damage by structural MRI or a feature relevant to connectome imaging of the brain’s white matter fiber tracts.

This WAB score was then compared to those obtained via traditional behav- ioral testing, and the researchers found the connectome-based was as accurate as cortical lesion mapping for predicting WAB scores. In fact, it was better at pre- dicting auditory comprehension scores than was lesion-based imaging using structural MRI and only slightly less accu- rate at predicting speech fluency, speech repetition and naming scores.

The team also discovered that connec- tions in the brain’s parietal region are par- ticularly important for language function, especially fluency. This region is less likely to sustain damage after stroke, even in patients who experience aphasia, suggesting that damage or preservation of the brain’s connec- tions in this region could play a key role in determining who will experience aphasia and who will have the best chances for recovery.

“It’s important to know how brain damage relates to language problems,” Bonilha says. “But it’s also very important

to use this information in the clinical sce-


guide therapists to choose the best

types of therapy and also foster the person’s ability to recover.”


Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4


Oh, Canada! Tips on CRN and International Code

Manufacturing to global codes and standards is at times a tricky endeavor, filled with both a myriad of forms and a litany of corresponding inspections, from ASME to PED, NBIC, GOST, DOSH and beyond.

In Canada, these inspections are further complicated for manufacturers seeking to

export fittings, piping systems and pressure vessels. Companies exporting to Canada must obtain a CRN, or Canadian Registration Number—issued by a Canadian provincial government such as Ontario (TSSA), Alberta (ABSA) or British Columbia (BC)—before shipping products to Canadian clients. It’s

a process that can take from three to six

months, and it is one that is often overlooked according to representatives from TUV Rheinland AIA Services, LLC., an ASME accredited authorized inspection agency that provides multiple types of inspection services.

“The failure rate of registration is ap-

proximately 50 percent,” says Bob Price, a re- gional supervisor for TUV Rheinland. “Most

of it is common mistakes that are overlooked,

like they forget to include a certificate of au- thorization or maybe something is missing from the drawings and calculations.”

Many manufacturers are turning to companies like TUV Rheinland to help en- sure a smooth entrance into Canada and other areas of the world where regional laws can be difficult to interpret.

Price recently visited Acme Cryogenics, Inc. (CSA CSM), to conduct physical inspec- tions, witness pressure tests, take measure- ments and review TSSA documentation on a cryogenic piping system. The overall process, he says, is complicated because Canadian rules require CRNs for individual parts used by manufacturers, in this case for a cryogenic bayonet fitting used in a vacuum insulated piping system.

Acme had used the bayonet before in

smaller vessels, but there was no way to prove

to Canada that it would work in a larger vessel

without conducting new burst tests.

work in a larger vessel without conducting new burst tests. Bob Price (left) with Acme Cryogenics’

Bob Price (left) with Acme Cryogenics’ Tim Robertson during a recent inspection. Image: TUV Rheinland

Acme decided to contact TUV Rheinland because of past difficulties and a need to expe- dite the approval, according to David Rakos, director of quality and engineering at Acme. He says the company once had a CRN request to ABSA drag out for over a year “Many times when we discuss CRN you get lots of groans from people because they know what a diffi- cult endeavor it can be.”

But this time “it went really, really smoothly,” he says. Rakos submitted the documents compiled by TUV Rheinland to Canadian representatives on July 7 and received approval two weeks later. “Having done this numerous other times, that’s the first time that we submitted something for review that we did not have to go back to them (Canada) and provide additional information.”

As it did for Acme Cryogenics, TUV Rheinland can review and audit a company’s quality program, drawings and calculations, matching it against a checklist designed spe- cifically for submittal to TSSA, ABSA and BC. Its message to manufacturers regarding the acquisition of CRNs, according to Bernard Hrubala, TUV Rheinland’s global business development leader, is “get it now.”

“It would be money well spent because… once you have it then you can advertise it,” Hrubala says. “In other words you can put your product online and say here it is and I have the Canadian registration number. So that people who are looking to buy a product will say ‘Great, this person already has it.’”

will say ‘Great, this person already has it.’” ■ Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4


Novel Properties of Low-Defect Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Using Hyperthermal Ion Implantation

by Dr. Adam L. Friedman,; Dr. Cory D. Cress,, Dr. Jeremy T. Robinson,; and Dr. Olaf M.J. van ‘t Erve,, all from US Naval Research Laboratory

An interdisciplinary team of scientists at the US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Electronics Science and Technology and Materials Science and Technology Divisions has demonstrated hyperthermal ion implantation (HyTII) as an effective means of substitution- ally doping graphene—a hexagonally arranged single-atomic-thickness carbon sheet—with nitrogen atoms. The result is a low-defect film with a tunable band structure amenable to a va- riety of device platforms and applications.

Hyperthermal ion implantation (HyTII) offers a controllable method of producing high-quality substitutionally doped gra- phene with nitrogen, an n-type dopant that has potential for graphene electronics and spintronics applications where high carrier concentration, uniform doping and minimal vacancy defect concentration is desired.

Unlike other doping methods, HyTII re- sults in a low-defect implanted graphene film with uniform dopant coverage. In this process (pictured in Fig. 1(a)), N+ ions are extracted from a hot filament, accelerated, velocity fil- tered and incident on the graphene films. A narrow range of implantation energies (30-50 eV) result in N substitution into the graphene lattice with low-defect concentration. The im- plantation dose is estimated by interpreting Raman spectroscopy data.

In order to enable applications, the basic electronic properties of the N-doped graphene must be determined. To this end, transport experiments as a function of ap- plied magnetic field (B) and temperature for a variety of implantation beam energies and doses were performed.

The resulting data can be fit by existing models that reveal information about how the N dopant alters the bandstructure of the material.

The researchers used lithographic techniques to pattern the graphene film into electronic devices (Fig. 1(b)). The devices were placed in a cryo-free, vari- able temperature cryostat Janis Research Company LLC (CSA CSM) mounted

cryostat Janis Research Company LLC (CSA CSM) mounted 100 µm Figure 1: (a) Schematic of the
100 µm
100 µm

Figure 1: (a) Schematic of the doping process (b) Optical image of a completed device with the N-doped graphene channel outlined in the white dashed line. The scale bar is 100 µm. Image: US Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC

between the poles of a 0.5 T electromagnet (Fig. 2(a)).

-5.5 percent at 0.5 T. This suggests that sub- stitutional N dopants perturb the lattice less than defects, which are known to form at higher N+ implant energies. Also, when the NRL group examined the temperature depen- dence of the conductance, it was shown that the main contributor to the behavior is due to band structure changes rather than defects, and results in a bandgap tunable with N dose.

This is the opposite of other graphene dop- ing methods where defects dominate the behav- ior. Additionally, they observed a crossover from strong (insulating-like) to weak (metallic- like) localization as a function of carrier concen- tration (n) that is suppressed for larger doping concentrations (shown in Fig. 2 (c)).


• C.D. Cress, et al. ACS Nano 10, 3714-3722 (2016) • A.L. Friedman, et al. Phys. Rev. B: Rap. Comm. 93, 161409(R) (2016).

Localization is a major contributor to the magnetoresistance (MR) in doped, disordered and functionalized graphene films at low temperature. Here, broken chiral symmetry leads to intervalley scattering and electronic self-intersecting scattering paths that results in constructive quantum interference, the amount of which decreases with increasing B.

This manifests as a decrease in resistiv- ity. The effect is only visible at cryogenic temperatures. Fig. 2(b) shows the MR vs. B for a lightly doped device at room tempera- ture and at 10 K. The peak observed about B=0 is the manifestation of localization and is not visible at room temperature.

The team discovered that all N+ energies result in a larger MR, reaching approximately

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4

Figure 2: (a) Picture of the experimental set-up (b) B sweeps taken at room temperature

Figure 2: (a) Picture of the experimental set-up (b) B sweeps taken at room temperature (red) and 10K (black) (c) The transition from weak to strong localization is suppressed for higher Raman D/2D ratios, which are correlated to nitrogen dopant density. For un-doped devices and low-doped devices, the transition occurs around the charge neutrality point. For higher doped devices, the transition is suppressed. Image: US Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC

Image: US Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4


Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4


SCW Student Scholarship Established

CSA has established the T.H.K. Frederking Space Cryogenics Workshop (SCW) Student Scholarship, an award honoring our first CSA Fellow, Dr. Traugott Frederking, who generously sponsored selected students to attend SCW to help develop their technical maturity by exposing them to current leaders and emerging developments in the field.

“During his career, Dr. Frederking… mentored many students at UCLA,” said Lou Salerno, a former CSA president, on the occasion of Frederking being named a CSA Fellow. “He is both a knowledgeable and kind mentor, and has often funded conference attendance out of his own pocket for his students.”

Salerno, CSA board member Dr. Sidney Yuan (Frederking’s last gradu- ate student) and Dorothea Frederking, the professor’s widow, have funded the scholarship. The fund was kicked off this past July in Los Angeles with a certificate presented by Salerno to Mrs. Frederking, followed by a cel- ebration at a luncheon at the UCLA Faculty Club.

by a cel- ebration at a luncheon at the UCLA Faculty Club. Dr. Traugott Frederking. Dr.

Dr. Traugott Frederking.

Dr. Frederking was a professor emeritus of chemi- cal engineering at UCLA and an ex- pert in the field of cryogenics. After his death in 2001 he was remem- bered by his peers

as a humble and modest man, hesitant to take credit for some of the most seminal work in cryogenics. Among the projects he worked on in his long career were the miniaturization of heat exchangers and the development of “lossless” operation for superconducting magnets.

Salerno, retired from NASA Ames, and Yuan, senior engineering specialist at The Aerospace Corporation, inaugurated the scholarship with Mrs. Frederking on what Salerno described as “all in all, a perfect day.”

what Salerno described as “all in all, a perfect day.” Lou Salerno presents Dorothea Frederking with

Lou Salerno presents Dorothea Frederking with a certificate establishing the SCW scholarship fund commemorating her late husband.

An application form for the first two scholarship awards will be posted on the SCW website in late August, with winners to be selected by the co-chairs of the next SCW, Dr.Ali Hedayat of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and Dr. Franklin Miller of the University of Wisconsin- Madison. Funding will defray student registrations and some travel expenses for two students to attend SCW.

The 27th Space Cryogenics Workshop will be held July 5-7, 2017, at the Hyatt Lodge at McDonald’s Campus, a resort and conven- tion space in Oak Brook IL, a leafy suburb just west of Chicago and a short distance from ei- ther O’Hare or Midway airport.

SCW began in 1980 as a one-day event held in conjunction with the International Cryogenic Engineering Conference and now stands alone under the aegis of CSA. It brings together scientists and engineers from around the world who are actively involved in the field of cryogenics as it relates to space applications.

The conference paper presentations will be held in state-of-the-art Hamburger University, where attendees can enjoy a com- fortable and ultramodern business setting.

can enjoy a com- fortable and ultramodern business setting. Dorothea Frederking with Dr. Sidney Yuan. The

Dorothea Frederking with Dr. Sidney Yuan.

The 2017 SCW venue overlooks scenic lakes, lush gardens and acres of verdant forest. Attendees and their guests can take advantage of the 70-foot indoor lap pool, the health club and the rejuvenating spa, as well as the facility’s nature, jogging and bike trails.

Nearby attractions include the Morton Arboretum, Brookfield Zoo, Oak Brook shopping center, numerous golf courses and the excitement of nearby Chicago.

Detailed information available at https://

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4

InIn MemoriamMemoriam
InIn MemoriamMemoriam
InIn MemoriamMemoriam Dr. Karl A. Gschneidner 1930-2016 by Ben Helvensteijn, Ali Kashani and James Maddocks, Atlas

Dr. Karl A. Gschneidner


by Ben Helvensteijn, Ali Kashani and James Maddocks, Atlas Scientific

We take this time to reflect on the life and work of Dr. Karl A. Gschneidner, a scholar and a jovial colleague who loved life as much

as he loved his work. His joy of life made him

a pleasure to be around and to cooperate with

on his research efforts. We will sorely miss

Gschneidner’s upbeat presence.

Personally, we first had the fortune of acquainting ourselves with Gschneidner after attending a paper presentation in 1997 on what he called the giant magnetocaloric effect. His demonstrated aptitude at deci- phering the factors relevant to tailoring rare earth materials to targeted science and engi- neering purposes had attracted our interest. We explored various ways to cooperate on

developing tailored regenerator materials suitable for cryocoolers and this led to fruit- ful projects over many years while giving us the enjoyment of working with Karl on

a regular basis.

Gschneidner’s insight into materials science advanced the state of the art of re- generative cryocoolers, a technology that is fundamental to advanced, high-tech research development and applications. A critical key to improved cryocooler performance is the design of the regenerator, a temperature shifting flow passage consisting of a porous matrix with a high heat capacity that allows

for the attainment of very low temperatures. Gschneidner’s efforts greatly improved the regenerator materials needed to increase cryo- cooler efficiency below 60 K.

Our respect for Professor Gschneidner is shared widely in the science and engineering community as evidenced by the exceptional awards he received over the years, including the Russell B. Scott Award by the CEC in 1995 and the 1997 US DOE award for The Giant Magnetocaloric Materials.

US DOE award for The Giant Magnetocaloric Materials. ■ Dr. Helen Edwards 1936-2016 by Andre Salles
US DOE award for The Giant Magnetocaloric Materials. ■ Dr. Helen Edwards 1936-2016 by Andre Salles

Dr. Helen Edwards


by Andre Salles and Leah Hesla, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

Helen Edwards, one of the most vital contributors to the success of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory over its five-decade history, died on June 21 at the age of 80.

Edwards was a giant in the field of ac- celerator science, best known for overseeing the design, construction, commissioning and operation of the Tevatron, which for 25 years was the most powerful particle collider in the world. “Her vision was superb. She was a great architect—the architect of the Tevatron as a system,” said John Peoples, Fermilab’s director from 1989 to 1999. “She was terrific for Fermilab, and terrific period.”

Her work on the Tevatron earned her the MacArthur Fellowship, also known as the

Genius Grant, in 1988 and the National Medal of Technology in 1989. She also received the Department of Energy’s E.O. Lawrence Award and the Robert R. Wilson Prize of the American Physical Society.

Edwards began her tenure at Fermilab in 1970 under the laboratory’s original director, Robert Wilson. She had previously worked with Wilson as a research assistant at Cornell University and joined him at the nascent lab, eventually heading up the Accelerator Division.

Edwards was a force of nature known for her forward-thinking vision, her unrelent- ing determination to get things done and her penchant for coloring outside the lines when it came to solving problems.

“Her continuous drive was some- thing that amazed me,” said engineer Paul Czarapata, deputy head of the Fermilab Accelerator Division. “It seemed like nothing could slow her down.”

She is remembered for getting down in the dirt, actively and directly working on accelerator components, sometimes pulling all-nighters to make sure everything was fine-tuned.

Fermilab shut down the Tevatron in 2011. As part of a labwide shutdown ceremony, Edwards, wearing a cowboy hat, pushed the buttons that finally turned off the particle beam. It was a fitting end for the trailblazing machine that she brought to life.

Edwards worked at Fermilab for 40 years, serving most recently as a guest scien- tist from 1992 to 2010. Through the last years of her life, she worked on the next generation of superconducting accelerators, helping to shape the future of particle physics.

Edwards was a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering.

“It is impossible to overstate her role in making Fermilab what it is today,” said Fermilab Director Nigel Lockyer.

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4



38th International Conference on High Energy Physics

More than 1,400 physicists from around the world converged in Chicago for ICHEP 2016, held August 3-10 at the Sheraton Grand Chicago. Robert Zimmer, president of the University of Chicago, welcomed attendees to the conference, en- couraging them in the spirit of famed ar- chitect Daniel Hudson Burnham to make no little plans because they lack the power to stir people’s blood.

The conference program covered 16 topics, from the Higgs boson to neutrinos to dark matter to cosmology, and included up- dates from several experiments. Physicists from CERN confirmed, for example, that its LHC experiments, now operating at 13 TeV, had once again observed the 125 GeV Higgs boson but that evidence of a possible

resonance at 750 GeV, hinted at in 2015, had not reappeared in the 2016 data set.

Conference organizers hosted two public events, a lecture on gravitational waves and the Windy City Physics Slam, a competition that pitted five physicists in a battle to cre- atively explain their experiments with music, dance and props.

At a press event, directors from the world’s major institutions undertook a similar endeavor, summarizing with grace and humor decades of research, arguments to contextualize funding levels and efforts to attract the next generation of scientists.

“There is nothing more gratifying in life than contributing to the progress of knowl- edge,” said Fabiola Gianotti, director-general of CERN, during the event. “And there is nothing more fundamental in life than

“And there is nothing more fundamental in life than Formal opening of ICHEP. Image: ICHEP Press

Formal opening of ICHEP. Image: ICHEP Press

particle physics. It’s the most fundamental of all sciences. So if you want to understand how things work you have to study and work and contribute to the advance of particle physics.”

The 39th ICHEP will be held in Seoul from July 4-11, 2018.

ICHEP will be held in Seoul from July 4-11, 2018 . ■ Cold Facts | August
ICHEP will be held in Seoul from July 4-11, 2018 . ■ Cold Facts | August

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4



Space Tech Expo Recap

by Bryony Day, Marketing Executive, Smarter Shows,

The space industry is entering a new epoch, with players old and new com- ing together to create innovations at a rapid pace. The annual Space Tech Expo, designed to satisfy the needs of indus- try leaders, decision makers and buyers across the supply chain, was held this year from May 24–26 in Pasadena CA. Each year we strive to make the expo bigger and better and this year’s event fulfilled this promise, garnering a 20 percent in- crease in attendance figures and some of the best feedback in the show’s history.

Relocation from Long Beach proved to be successful for both ex- hibitors and attendees. The convention center’s facilities were well suited to hosting high-profile exhibitors includ- ing NASA, JPL, SMC, GE Aviation, Honeywell and Orbital ATK. These large organizations were keen to con- nect with the small to medium enter- prise (SME) companies in attendance, recognizing the flexibility and inno- vative progression SMEs bring to the space landscape. In turn, the SMEs and other attendees benefited from the sup- port and experience of primes to forge mutually beneficial relationships.

These benefits were further dem- onstrated at the new Government/Mil/ Primes Requirements Day in the Free Sessions Theater. Attendees and exhibi- tors flocked to hear leading organizations such as JPL, NASA, Northrop Grumman and Boeing present upcoming program requirements and to explore opportuni- ties for collaboration throughout the space supply chain.

In addition, the conference provided companies such as USAF, Airbus, SpaceX and DARPA a space to discuss new op- portunities and one in which to debate both current and future challenges facing the space industry.

current and future challenges facing the space industry. Attendees enjoying a session at Space Tech Expo.

Attendees enjoying a session at Space Tech Expo. Image: Cryogenic Society of America

Among the conference highlights was the SSA keynote panel featuring Michael Gazarik (Ball Aerospace), Tim Maclay (OneWeb), Jean-Luc Froeliger (Intelsat) and Lt. Col. Michael T. Swart (USAF). The dis- cussion was led by Col. Charles Galbreath,

who said that being able to integrate com- mercial and government SSA capabilities is essential to creating a safe, responsible, operational environment.

In another segment, Maj. Gen. Roger Teague (SAF/AQS) provided perspective on the USAF’s need to create enhanced mission assurance for Department of Defense space capabilities in alignment with Gen. Hyten’s Space Enterprise Vision (SEV). Announced in April, the SEV seeks to enhance US space forces’ ability to deter others from interference and attack, defend US space systems if deterrence fails and contribute to the defense of al- lied space systems.

The next Space Tech Expo will be held May 23-25, 2017, in Pasadena CA.

23-25, 2017, in Pasadena CA. ■ Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4


Product Showcase

In the interest of enhancing the value of Cold Facts and helping prospective customers find cryogenic products and services, we offer this Product Showcase. We invite companies to send us short releases (150 words or fewer) with high resolution JPEGs of their new products. This editorial feature is open to all companies and related manufacturers.

Le-tehnika Oxford Instruments SRI474 cryocooler OptistatDry Le-tehnika specializes in the development of minia- ture
Oxford Instruments
SRI474 cryocooler
Le-tehnika specializes
in the development of minia-
ture cryogenic coolers, from
production and assembly of
components to integration into
complex systems.
Their product range
includes miniature coolers
based on the Joule-Thomson
effect (self-regulated, fixed
orifice, actively controlled, fast
cooldown) and coolers based
on Stirling cycle (rotary drive). Their cryocoolers are designed
for cooling IR detectors or superconductive materials to cryo-
genic temperatures (below -150°C, -238°F or 123 K).
The new OptistatDry
TLEX model provides
cryogenic temperatures for
applications at tempera-
tures from <4 K to 300 K.
Its sample cooldown is less
than 45 minutes.
The company recently developed two new Stirling cryocool-
ers. The integral rotary Stirling cryocooler SRI421 (0,25W@80K)
is designed for smaller devices. It requires little power consump-
tion, has low acoustic noise and provides an expected MTTF of
15,000hrs. The integral rotary Stirling cryocooler SRI474 (0,75@80K)
is for larger devices. It was developed for use with IR detectors
that need higher cooling power or temperatures lower than 77 K. ■
This new top-loading
cryogen-free cryostat is
ideal for customers whose
samples are not appropri-
ate for sample-in-vacuum arrangement. Some samples are
not suited to a vacuum environment due to poor thermal
conductivity, including powders, or because they are in liq-
uid form. For such cases, the sample-in-exchange-gas op-
tion is a better solution. In addition, those who are running
short experiments and want to maximize the throughput of
samples will find the new TLEX version even quicker for
sample exchange and just as easy to use as the OptistatDry
sample-in-vacuum version. A range of different designs of
top-loading sample rods and sample holders are available
to meet customer needs. ■
Cryotherm is a sensor short circuit or sensor wire breakage. CRYO LC®: Level measurement and
is a sensor short circuit or sensor wire
CRYO LC®: Level measurement
and control device for
cryogenic liquid nitrogen
Cryo LC works under different pres-
sures and can be applied to all sizes of ves-
sels and systems in which its level probe
can be fitted. It consists of the basic device,
display, operating panel and housing.
The unit has two functions: level
measurement and automatic level con-
trol. An alarm is set off, both optically and
acoustically, if the level of liquid nitrogen
falls below the lowest level or rises above
the highest one. Alarms also occur if there
Whether installed in a control
cabinet or as an independent device,
the Cryo LC can be operated concur-
rently with a minimum of two displays
and operating units for both local and
remote operation. The unit provides
modular construction, fast assembly and
easy operation in addition to individu-
ally adjusted level controls and level
probes. Cryo LC also features switch-
on protection, a safety measure against
manipulation and faulty operation ■

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4

Technifab Products makes the TechniSwitch the most efficient and safe unit in the industry. Vacuum
Technifab Products
makes the TechniSwitch the most efficient
and safe unit in the industry.
Vacuum Jacketed
Technifab Products, a designer and
manufacturer of vacuum jacketed pipe and
custom cryogenic equipment, recently in-
troduced its vacuum jacketed TechniSwitch.
The TS-VJ tank switcher is ideal for use in
laboratories or medical settings where
cleanliness is critical, low noise is preferred
and an outside liquid nitrogen tank is not
accessible or possible. Added benefits such
as low heat leak, minimal nitrogen boil-
off, no condensation and touchable casing
The TechniSwitch provides a con-
tinuous liquid nitrogen supply by au-
tomatically switching from an empty
to a full dewar. Its password-protected
programmable logic controller (PLC) en-
sures accurate cryogen control and saves
money by reducing downtime during
tank replacement. The unit also features
an alarm system that alerts operators re-
garding tank status, thus minimizing em-
ployee man-hours during tank changes
and effectively reducing operating costs. ■
ILK Dresden Customized cryosystems ILK Dresden designs, develops and manufactures customized cryostats, es- pecially
ILK Dresden
Customized cryosystems
ILK Dresden designs, develops and
manufactures customized cryostats, es-
pecially non-metallic units for various
applications. These cryostats are charac-
terized by a long holding time of vacuum
and hence exhibit a very long storage
time of the cryogenic fluid. In order to
use the cryostats in any arrangements
and structures, they can be designed and
built as completely position-independent.
including helium cryostats with cooled ra-
diation shields (not LN 2 based) and vacuum
multilayer insulation; nitrogen cryostats
with vacuum multilayer or foam insulation,
single or multichannel mode; and custom-
made cryostats, metallic and non-metallic,
pulse-tube or Gifford-McMahon)
ILK focuses on a range of systems
ILK also develops and produces
a large variety of customized cryosys-
tems. At the Joint Institute for Nuclear
Research in Russia, for example, they de-
veloped a helium refrigerator system with
cooling power of up to 300 W @ 4.4 K. ■
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. 240 series sensor input module Lake Shore benchtop instruments are trusted
Lake Shore
Cryotronics, Inc.
240 series sensor input
Lake Shore benchtop instruments
are trusted throughout the world for
precision cryogenic measurement. Now
the same measurement performance can
be achieved in distributed PROFIBUS
applications using the company’s 240
series sensor input modules, which are
currently available on a pre-sale basis.
convenient solution for precision moni-
toring of Lake Shore Cernox™, platinum
or silicon diode sensors. Temperature
values are communicated directly with
the PLC master device, eliminating the
need to use additional costly analog
conversion equipment or complex PLC
programming to generate temperature
fusion reactors and any physics or in-
dustrial cryogenic process control ap-
plication employing PLC-based control,
the DIN rail mounted modules offer a
In addition, module-to-sensor cable
runs of up to 300 m are possible using
240 series modules, making them ideal
for cryogenic temperature measure-
ments in hazardous environments. ■

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4

People, Companies in Cryogenics
People, Companies in Cryogenics

A new approach to gas exploration has uncovered a huge helium gas field in Tanzania, a discovery that could address the increasingly critical shortage of this vital yet rare element. A research group from Oxford and Durham universities developed the approach, together with Helium One, a Norway-headquartered helium exploration company. The team discovered that volcanic activity provides the intense heat necessary to release the gas from ancient, helium-bearing rocks. It had previously used mass spectros- copy to measure the quantity of noble gases present in North American natural gas fields, speculating at the time that reservoirs of he- lium “almost certainly” exist in the Rocky Mountains.

lium “almost certainly” exist in the Rocky Mountains. The US Food and Drug Administration issued a

The US Food and Drug Administration issued a consumer update in July warning against the use of whole body cryotherapy (WBC) as a treatment for a range of conditions including asthma, chronic pain, fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and weight loss.

The warning follows an informal review of WBC related medical literature by the FDA. “Based on purported health benefits seen in many promotions for cryotherapy spas, con- sumers may incorrectly believe that the FDA has cleared or approved WBC devices as safe and effective to treat medical conditions,” says Aron Yustein, MD, a medical officer in the FDA’s Center for Devices and Radiological Health. “That is not the case.”

The FDA says there is not enough infor- mation available regarding the physiological effects of WBC, including its impact on blood pressure, heart rate and metabolism. But risks, it says, are readily apparent and include con- ditions ranging from frostbite to eye injury and even asphyxiation.

ranging from frostbite to eye injury and even asphyxiation. Sainsbury’s , a major UK-based retailer, has

Sainsbury’s, a major UK-based retailer, has become the first company in the world to introduce a refrigerated delivery truck cooled by a liquid nitrogen powered en- gine. Dearman Technology and its partners designed the zero-emission cooling unit dubbed the Dearman Engine. It is expected

to eliminate all emissions associated with refrigeration. It will undergo a three-month trial during which time it’s anticipated to save some 1.6 tons of carbon dioxide, 37kg of nitrogen oxides and 2kg of particulate matter compared to a similar sized diesel system.

at Cornell University and currently works as a scientist at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (CSA CSM).

The PAST awards will be presented at the 2016 North America Particle Accelerator

Conference, held in Chicago from Oct. 9-14. be presented at the 2016 North America Particle Accelerator NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center awarded Timothy

NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center awarded Timothy Martin, director of engineering from Northrop Grumman Corporation’s Aerospace Systems sector, with its Robert H. Goddard Exceptional Achievement Award for Engineering. The award recognized Martin’s work on the MIRI cryocooler for NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope.

Martin’s team successfully completed the development, fabrication, integration, testing and delivery of the cryocooler to NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) last year, where it underwent cryogenic tests. The cryocooler is now back in Northrop Grumman’s Space Park Facility in Redondo Beach CA where it will be integrated with the Webb telescope’s spacecraft.

will be integrated with the Webb telescope’s spacecraft. The IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society Particle

The IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society Particle Accelerator Science and Technology Technical Committee (PAST) has awarded Sam Posen the 2016 IEEE PAST Doctoral Student Award for his contributions to the development of niobium-tin super- conducting radio-frequency accelerator cavi- ties. Posen conducted his doctoral research

cavi- ties. Posen conducted his doctoral research Sam Posen. Image: Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

Sam Posen. Image: Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

Sam Posen. Image: Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Sumitomo (SHI) Cryogenics of America , Inc. (SCAI), a

Sumitomo (SHI) Cryogenics of America, Inc. (SCAI), a CSA CSM, has an- nounced a joint collaboration with Synergy Systems Corp. (SynSysCo) for the distribu- tion and service of Sumitomo’s Marathon® CP Cryopumps across North America.

SynSysCo’s support of the Marathon CP line includes the opening of Synergy Cryogenics at SynSysCo’s facility in Montrose CO. The 6,000 sq. ft. facility will support the sale and distribution of the complete Marathon CP product line, including stan- dard and low-profile cryopumps, ranging in size from eight to 20 inches, plus helium compressors and related accessories.

20 inches, plus helium compressors and related accessories. Jeffrey Parrell , 2006 recipient of CSA’s Roger

Jeffrey Parrell, 2006 recipient of CSA’s Roger W. Boom Award, has been promoted to president at Oxford Superconducting Technology. He formerly served as vice president and general manager.

. He formerly served as vice president and general manager. Air Products , a leading industrial

Air Products, a leading industrial gases company, recently offered a free webinar that explains the fundamentals of liquid nitrogen based cryogenic grinding. Exposing material to liquid nitrogen can help prevent melting or decomposition, or help achieve embrittle- ment, resulting in a higher yield of particles in the desired target range, more uniform par- ticle size distribution, higher production rates, improved product quality, and enhanced process safety due to nitrogen’s inertness. The webinar is available for replay at http://www.

at http://www. The augmented reality phenomenon of Pokémon Go has made

The augmented reality phenomenon of Pokémon Go has made its way into the world of high-energy particle physics, according to Symmetry Magazine. Its players have been detected at laboratories across the world, from

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4

Fermilab to CERN, accelerating across the landscape in flavors of red, yellow and blue, the
Fermilab to CERN, accelerating across the
landscape in flavors of red, yellow and blue,
the three teams of the Pokémon universe. “It’s
kind of fun playing with everyone here,” says
Bobby Santucci, an operator at Fermi National
Accelerator Laboratory. “It’s not so much
about the game. It’s more like messing with
each other.”
we continue to focus on lean initiatives and
operational excellence given challenging
energy markets,” said Thomas.
& Events
Applied Superconductivity Conference
We regret to report that William Beale,
founder of Sunpower Inc. (CSA CSM), passed
away in his home on July 24. He was 88. In
1964, he invented the free-piston Stirling en-
gine that subsequently became the foundation
of his company. Prior to founding Sunpower,
he taught mechanical engineering at both
Boston and Ohio Universities. He is remem-
bered as a lifelong inventor, philosopher and
September 4-9
Colorado Convention Center, Denver
12th International Workshop on Low
Temperature Electronics (WOLTE-12)
LEGO is officially reviewing a commu-
nity proposal to create a “Women of NASA”
set. The collection would feature five notable
women from the agency, including astronauts
Sally Ride and Mae Jemison. If produced, it
will include several easily recognizable vi-
gnettes, from a mini space shuttle to a tiny
reproduction of the Hubble Space Telescope.
A decision is expected by January.
September 18-21
Tempe AZ
Global Helium Summit 2.0
September 12-13
New Jersey, Doubletree by Hilton Somerset
Hotel & Conference Center
The Science Coalition, a non-profit and
non-partisan organization of more than 60
of the leading public and private US research
universities, awarded US Rep. Bill Foster
of Illinois’ 11th District its 2016 Champion
of Science award. It recognizes members
of Congress whose actions and votes re-
flect a belief in the importance of basic sci-
entific research and the key role of federal
funding in its facilitation. Foster, the only
physicist in Congress, was nominated for
the award by Northern Illinois University,
Northwestern University, University of
Illinois and University of Wisconsin-Madison.
It was presented during the 38th International
Conference on High Energy Physics held in
2016 North American Particle
Accelerator Conference (NAPAC2016)
October 9-14
Sheraton Towers, Chicago, Illinois
7th International Workshop on
Cryogenic Operations
October 25-27
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia IL
1st Asian ICMC and CSSJ 50th
Anniversary Conference
November 7-10
Kanazawa Opera House, Kanazawa, Japan
Image: Maia Weinstock
3rd International Workshop on
Superconducting Sensors and Detectors
The recently published Handbook of
Measurement in Science and Engineering,
Volume 3 (ISBN 978-1118647240) includes
a chapter from Dr. Ray Radebaugh on cryo-
genic measurements. It includes a review
of commercially available sensors and
discusses the modifications necessary for
their use at cryogenic temperatures.
Chart Industries, Inc. (CSA CSM) has
named William C. Johnson as its new presi-
dent and chief operating officer. He joins Chart
after serving as president and CEO at Dover
Refrigeration & Food Equipment, Inc., a sub-
sidiary of Dover Corporation. Johnson suc-
ceeds Sam Thomas as president, with Thomas
remaining as the company’s board chairman
and CEO. “We expect Bill’s addition of opera-
tional and strategic talent will bring enhanced
value for the company and its stakeholders as
The National Conference on Weights
and Measures has adopted new rules for the
sale of natural gas used as vehicle fuel. The
changes will affect regulation 2.27 in NIST
Handbook 130. Moving forward, CNG and
LNG will be measured in terms of mass
and sold in units of GGE (gasoline gallon
equivalent) for CNG or DGE (Diesel Gallon
Equivalent) for CNG and LNG. The move
will standardize sales across the US. Prior to
the decision, gasoline liter equivalents were
also acceptable. Many organizations lob-
bied for the changes, arguing the adoption
of DGE units was essential for making LNG
comparisons to diesel fuel.
November 14-17
AIST Tsukuba Campus, Japan
Pittcon 2017
March 5-9
McCormick Place, Chicago IL
14th Cryogenics IIR International
May 15-19
Dresden, Germany
27th Space Cryogenics Workshop
July 5 – 7, 2017
Oak Brook, IL
Get your people and company news
mentioned in upcoming issues. Email Brian
Dudley at
today. ■
A full listing of upcoming events is available
events is available at Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4 53

Cold Facts | August 2016 | Volume 32 Number 4


Index of Advertisers

Acme Cryogenics, Inc































American Magnetics.






















Applied Superconductivity


CAD Cut, Inc .































































. Cryo Industries of America,