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1 (de) vizualizări11 paginiRequisitos de Aeronavegabilidad de las aeronaves

Sep 25, 2017

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Requisitos de Aeronavegabilidad de las aeronaves

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Requisitos de Aeronavegabilidad de las aeronaves

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Lecture #2(14). A total characteristic of airworthiness standards

Plan:

1. AR creation history

2. Typical standards structure

3. Loads.

4. Proofs of strength.

5. Flight loads.

6. Design airspeeds at determination of loads.

7. Limit maneuvering load factor

8. Gust load factors.

9. Control system loads.

1. AR creation history

validity of civil aircrafts (CA), their drives and the equipment directed on safety control

of flight. CA are airplanes, glides, helicopters, balloons, airships. Airworthiness

standards of Civil Aircraft - ASCA contain requirements to strength of airplanes, which

traditionally is named strength standards. One of the ASCA's functions is to receive the

justified extrapolation of gained experience by development on constructions of new

airplanes. On the first steps of the aviation airplane constructing was based on imitating

to the first airplanes which have made flight, as there were no data about exterior

loading. This fact did flights the extremely dangerous. In 1910 in France 50 % of

catastrophes were the results of airplane breakage in air. It happened because there did

not known to what strength requirements should to satisfy airplanes. In 1911 at the

international congress of aviators in Turin it was agreed to place the value of load factor

n=3. This value was assigned without due experience and only its representation has not

solved a problem. The value n was increased because of the big number of breakage in

consequent years were.

In 1912 it was increased up to 3.5, in 1914 up to 4.5. In this phase premises for

origin of strength standards as engineering discipline were created. In the USSR

professor Vetchinkin has begun researches of strength standards in 1918. Milestones in

development of domestic strength standards were:

In 1918 the first researches of maneuverable load factors in flight were carried

out.

1925-1927 years - the first strength standards were created.

In 1926 on the basis of activities of CAGI (Central Aerodynamic institution)

strength standards of an airplane were published for static tests.

In 1931-1934 years of strength standards were updated. The value n uy was

entered for the first time not only from category of an airplane, but also from its weight

and a maximum airspeed of horizontal flight.

1936-1937 years strength standards are revised. Entered:

1) Limit load factor;

1

2

2) Factor of safety;

3) A number of new critical load conditions (gust, deviation of ailerons);

4) Distribution of aerodynamic loading according to the theory and experiment,

instead of approximated diagrams;

5) Requirements on a flutter and a reverse of controls.

As a result of that different CA categories show different requirements, for each

CA category were developed its own AS which are joint in a system of standards. Now

in the world exists three AS systems: in USA - FAR system (developed by FAA). The

system particularly includes:

FAR -1 Definition.

FAR-21 - organization of type certification, the CA developer and the CA

producer are regulated.

FAR-23 - requirements to light airplanes for local airlines.

FAR-25 - requirements to transport airplanes and airplanes with jet engines.

European system JAR is joined air requirements (developed by JAA). The

system includes:

JAR-21 - analog FAR-21 taking into account the European specificity.

JAR-VLA - Requirements to airplanes with takeoff weight not more than 750 kg,

the first edition in 1990.

JAR-23 - JAR-25 are similar to American FAR-23 - FAR-25.

The Commonwealth of the independent states CIS has AR system aviation

rules (developed by IAC - the international air committee). The system includes: AR-

21, AR-25, AR-23 etc. - analogs of standards of system FAR. The Commonwealth

includes Ukraine, Russia, Byelorussia, Kazakhstan, Armenia and so on.

2. Typical standards structure

Part 1. - Requirements.

Section A - General provisions.

B - Flight. It contains requirements to flight performances of stability and

controllability of an airplane.

Section C - Strength.

D - Designing and structure.

E - Power plant.

F - Equipment.

G - Operating constraints.

Appendixes A, B, C, F, H, which contain the simplified methods of a rating of

airplane loads and its units in flight and during landing (A, B, C), requirements to tests

of material samples (F), the form of documents showed at certification (H).

Part 2. Methods of correspondence definition (MCD).

Requirements to airplanes strength are contained in sections C and particularly in

D. Airworthiness standards establish strength requirements which aircraft structures

should satisfy. However they do not contain an account of mathematical models and

methods of calculation of loading and the proof of strength that is methods of obtaining

of the demonstrative documentation. In section "General provisions" of the British

2

3

requirements to the flight validity of civil airplanes section S - extra light airplanes it is

underscored that these requirements it is not necessary to consider as a modern air

science manual. The understanding of requirements assumes presence of knowledge of

the fundamentals of air sciences ". Notes entirely concern to other standards.

Field of application of standards:

JAR-VLA. It orders airworthiness standards for issue of the type certificate for

one or a two-seater airplane with a reciprocating engine, maximum takeoff weight no

more than 750 kg and landing stall speeds no more than 45 knots (83 km/h). These

standards are actual only for the airplanes making daytime flights. JAR-VLA, AR-17

standards are actual only on airplanes of a non-maneuverable category. Non-

maneuverable kinds of operation include:

1. Any maneuvers intrinsic to horizontal flight.

2. Drop except for a figure a bell.

3. Horizontal eighties, fighting turns, turns with bank angle no more than 60 .

FAR-23 There is airworthiness standards of light airplanes of normal,

multipurpose, acrobatic categories and airplanes of local lines (or transient category).

1. Airplanes concern to a normal category with number of landing places,

excepting places of pilots, no more than 9, with maximum takeoff weight of 5670 kg,

(10000 pounds)and intended for non-maneuverable kinds of operation.

2. To a multipurpose category airplanes attribute with G kg which may

have limited acrobatic applications including: spin (if it is authorized for the given type

of an airplane), a horizontal eight, fighting turns and turns with bank angle no more than

60 .

3. Airplanes concern to an acrobatic category with number of places no more

than 9, G 5670 kg and which are intended for use without limitation, except for those

which will appear necessary by results of flight tests.

4. To transient category (or local lines) airplanes attribute propeller airplanes with

several drives and number of landing places, excepting places for pilots, no more than

19 with maximum takeoff weight G kg and intended for non-aerobatics kinds of

operation are concern.

The airplanes, which are not appropriate to a field of application of standards

JAR-VLA or FAR-23, should be certificated according to requirements of FAR-25 or

analogs such as JAR-25, AR-25.

3. Loads

(a) Strength requirements are specified in terms of limit loads Pl (the

maximum loads to be expected in service) and ultimate loads Pu (limit loads multiplied

by prescribed factors of safety - f).

Pu = f Pl

(b) Unless otherwise provided, the specified air, ground, and water loads must be

placed in equilibrium with inertia forces, considering each item of mass in the airplane.

These loads must be distributed to conservatively approximate or closely represent

actual conditions.

3

4

(c) If deflections under load would significantly change (>5%) the distribution of

external or internal loads, this redistribution must be taken into account.

(d) Unless otherwise specified, a factor of safety of f=1.5 must be applied to the

prescribed limit load, which are considered external loads on the structure. When a

loading condition is prescribed in terms of ultimate loads, a factor of safety need not be

applied unless otherwise specified.

4. Proofs of strength

(a) Compliance with the strength and deformation requirements of the subpart C

must be shown for each critical loading condition. Structural analysis may be used only

if the specific structure conforms to those structures for which experience has shown

this method to be reliable.

In the other cases the confirming static tests should be executed. These tests

should be executed to the ultimate loads, if only will not be agreed with the FAA, SAA,

that in each particular case it is possible with help of the tests up to smaller loads to

receive the equivalent confirmation of the sufficient strength.

(b) The structure must be able to support ultimate loads without failure for at least

3 seconds. However, when proof of strength is shown by dynamic tests simulating

actual load conditions, the three-second limit does not apply.

5. Flight loads.

(a) Flight load factors represent the ratio of the aerodynamic force component

(acting normal to the assumed longitudinal axis of the airplane) to the weight of the

airplane. A positive load factor is one in which the aerodynamic force acts upward with

respect to the airplane.

Y

n n y (1)

G

(b) Considering compressibility effects at each speed, compliance with the flight

load requirements of this subpart must be shown:

(1) at each critical altitude within the range of altitudes selected by the Applicant;

(2) at each weight from the design minimum weight to the design maximum

weight appropriate to each particular flight loading condition;

(3) for each required combination altitude and weight, for any practicable

distribution of disposable load within the operating limitations recorded in the Airplane

Flight Manual.

() Design envelop is a boundary of possibility points on a coordinate plane

"airspeed-load factor" for maneuver load factor and gust load factor. Enough points on

and within the boundaries of the design envelope must be investigated to ensure that the

maximum load for each part of the airplane structure is obtained.

(d) The significant forces acting on the airplane must be placed in equilibrium in

a rational or conservative manner. The linear inertia forces must be considered in

equilibrium with the thrust and all aerodynamic loads, while the angular (pitching)

inertia forces must be considered in equilibrium with thrust and all aerodynamic

moments, including moments due to loads on components such as tail surfaces and

4

5

nacelles. Critical thrust values in the range from zero to maximum continuous thrust

must be considered.

(e) Where sudden displacement of a control is specified, the assumed rate of

control surface displacement may not be less than the rate that could be applied by the

pilot through the control system.

nly B

A C D

nly max man

VS1 VA VB VC VD V

0

-1

gust load factor

G

maneuver design envelop

The selected design airspeeds are equivalent airspeeds (EAS). All design

airspeeds make sense on height H=0. Estimated values of the stall speeds VS0 and VS1

must be conservative.

H

V EAS V H VH (2)

0

(a) Design cruising speed, VC. For VC, the following apply:

5

6

(1) the minimum value of VC must be sufficiently greater than the airspeed VB,

which is described below, to provide for inadvertent speed increases likely to occur as a

result of severe atmospheric turbulence.

(2) in the absence of a rational investigation substantiating the use of other values,

VC may not be less than (VB+81) kilometers/hour (for H=0). However, it need not

exceed the maximum speed in level flight at maximum continuous power for the

corresponding altitude. VCVB+81(km/h)

(3) at altitudes where the airspeed VD, which is described below, is limited by

Mach number, VC may be limited to a selected Mach number.

(b) Design dive speed, VD. VD must be selected so that VC/MC is not greater

than 0.8 VD/MD, or so that the minimum speed margin between VC/MC and VD/MD is

the greater of the following values: VC0.8VD

(1) from an initial condition of stabilized flight at VC/MC, the airplane is upset,

flown for 20 seconds along a flight path 7,5 degrees below the initial path, and then

pulled up at a load factor of 1.5 g (0.5 g the acceleration increment). The speed increase

occurring in this maneuver may be calculated if reliable or conservative aerodynamic

data is used. The maximum cruising power is assumed until the pull-up is initiated, at

which time power reduction and the use of pilot controlled drag devices may be

assumed;

(2) the minimum speed margin must be enough to provide for atmospheric

variations (such as horizontal gusts, and penetration of jet streams and cold fronts) and

for instrument errors and airframe production variations. These factors may be

considered on a probability basis.

(3) at altitude, where MC is limited by compressibility effects, the margin

between MD and MC may not be less than 0.05. MDMC+0.05.

(c) Design maneuvering speed VA. For VA, the following apply:

(1) the airspeed VA may not be less than the value VS1 * sqrt(NLmax) where

NLmax is the limit positive maneuvering load factor at VC; VS1 is the stalling speed

with flaps retracted. VA VS 1 NLmax

(2) the airspeeds VA and VS must be evaluated at the design weight and altitude

under consideration.

(3) the airspeed VA need not be more than the airspeed VC. VAVC

(d) Design speed for maximum gust intensity, VB.

(1) VB may not be less than the value VS1 * sqrt(Ng) where VS1 is the stalling

speed with the flaps retracted at the particular weight under consideration; Ng is the

positive load factor at the gust flight with the airspeed VC (determination the load factor

at the gust condition is described below); VB VS 1 N g

(2) at altitudes where the airspeed VC is limited by Mach number:

(i) VB may be chosen to provide an optimum margin between low and high-speed

buffet boundaries;

(i1) VB need not be greater than VC. VB VC.

(3) The plane meets a vertical equivalent airspeed of a gust of the maximal

intensity Ude = 20,1 m/sek = 66 ft /sek in horizontal rectilinear flight with an load

6

7

coefficient of the plane Cy max p:

y p = y max p.

Greater lift coefficient Cy p can not be physically from conditions of

aerodynamics.

The maximal size of lift coefficient of the plane Cy max p it is possible

approximately to estimate on the maximal size of lift coefficient for an airfoil

Cy max a.:

y max p 0,95 y max a..

The lift force from the gust Ude = 20,1 m/sek with airspeed VB agrees AR is

those:

U de V B C

ny g 1 K g

16 G S

20 ,1 V B C p V B C p , (3)

1 Kg 1 1 ,256 K g

16 G S G S

M M

, ,

K

0 88

g

g

53

g

2G S

Mg - is the mass parameter of the plane;

b C p g

G - weight of the plane in kgf, S - area of a wing in m2;

kgf sek 2

- density of air at ;

m4

b - mean aerodynamic chord in m;

g - acceleration of free fall in m/sek2;

C p - is the angular rate of lift coefficient for a plane at 1/rad.

The lift force of the plane at action of an impulse Ude = 20.1 m/sek with speed

VB through Cy max itself is those:

V B2 V B2

Y g C y max p S C y max p S . (4)

2 16

kgf sek 2

where = 0.125= 1/8

m4 ,

On the other hand, upon the load factor (3) these lift force is equal:

V B C p

Y g n g G ( 1 1 ,256 K g )G . (5)

G S

These sizes are equal, hence

7

8

VB 2

C y max p S G 1 ,256 K g V B C y p S . (6)

16

0 ,0625 C y max pV 2 1 ,256 K g C y pV B p 0 , (7)

where p G S - is specific loading on a wing.

The designations are entered: = 0,0625 max p, =1,256g C p .

After transformations the initial quadric equation it is received:

VB2 BVB p = 0. (8)

The decision of this equation:

B B 2 4 Ap

VB . (9)

2A

The physical sense VB has at a sign plus +before the radical:

B

A

p

VB

2

4

A

, (10)

2

where VB in m/sek.

At accounts it is necessary to take into account, that in the formula (8) with is

sign "minus that is under a root (10) actually stands the sum.

7. Limit maneuvering load factor

(a) Except where limited by maximum (static) lift coefficients, the airplane is

assumed to be subjected to symmetrical maneuvers resulting in the limit maneuvering

load factors prescribed in this section. Pitching velocities appropriate to the

corresponding pull-up and steady turn maneuvers must be taken into account.

(b) The positive limit maneuvering load factor "NLmax" for any speed up to VD

may not be less than the value

10886

n ly max N l max 2.1 ; (11)

G 4536

where G is the design maximum takeoff weight in kilograms of force; except that

NLmax, may not be less than 2,5 and need not be greater than 3.8.

(c) The negative limit maneuvering load factor NLmin:

(1) may not be less than -1.0 at speeds up to VC;

(2) must vary linearly with speed from the value at VC to zero at VD.

(d) Maneuvering load factors lower than those specified in this section may be

used if the airplane has design features that make it impossible to exceed these values in

a flight.

8. Gust load factors

(a) It is supposed, that the airplane is assumed to be subjected to symmetrical

vertical and lateral gusts in level flight. Limit gust loads must be determined in

accordance with the provisions:

8

9

(1) at the airplane design speed VB the positive and negative gusts with

reference gust velocities of 20,1 meters/second EAS must be considered at the flight

from the sea level to the height 6096 meters. The reference gust velocity may be

reduced linearly from 20,1 meters/second EAS at the height 6096 meters to 11.6

meters/second EAS at the height 15240 meters;

Wi m/s

7,6

6096 15240

Fig. 2. Gust Ude=W from height for VC.

Wi m/s

7.6

3.8

6096 15240

Fig. 3. Gust Ude=W from height for VD

(2) at the airplane design speed VC the positive and negative gusts with reference

gust velocities of 15,2 meters/second EAS must be considered at the flight from the sea

level to the height 6096

The reference gust velocity may be reduced linearly from 15,2 meters/second

EAS at the height 6096 meters to 7,6 meters/second EAS at the height 15240 meters;

Wi m/s

20.1

11.6

6096 15240

Fig. 4. Gust Ude=W from height for VB

(3) at the airplane design speed VD the reference gust velocity must be 0,5 times

the value, which is corresponding the flight at the airplane design speed VC.

(b) The shape of the gust must be:

9

10

2* * S

U s 0 ,5 Ude 1 cos ,

25 * b

for 0 <= S <= 2H , where S means a distance penetrated into the gust (a depth of a

penetration in the gust, meters);

Ude - the design gust velocity in equivalent airspeed, which is specified in

paragraph (a) of this section;

H - is the gust gradient, which is the distance (meters) parallel to the airplane's

flight path for the gust to reach its peak velocity.

b - means an average geometric chord of the wing (meters):

b = S / L , where S - the wing area, meters ** 2;

L is the wingspan.

(c) At absence of a more exact method of a calculation, the gust load factor should

be determined by the following formula:

Kg * C

y * U de * V

n 1 ,

16 * G / S

0 .88 * u g 2* G / S

where- K g , ug ,

5 .3 u g

b* * C y * g

where Kg damping factor of the gust influence decrease, determined by the following

formulas:

where V - equivalent airspeeds of the airplane, meters/second;

y - derivative of the lift factor of the airplane on a angle of attack (1 / radian);

G - the design maximum takeoff weight in kilograms of force;

- the density of the air, kgf * second ** 2 / m ** 4;

g - an acceleration of the free fall, meters / second ** 2 . The values Kg, Ude, S, b are

described just now in this section;

ug- is a mass parameter of the airplane.

The simultaneous action of the gust loads on a wing and a tailplane must be

considered for determination of dCy/d at an exact calculation. It is admitted to use a

derivative of the lift factor of a wing on an angle of attack.

The maximum and minimum pilot forces are assumed to act at the appropriate

control grips or pads and to be reacted at the attachment of the control system to the

control surface horn.

In the control surface flight loading condition, the air loads on movable surfaces

and the corresponding deflections need not exceed those that would result in flight from

the application of any pilot force within the ranges specified in this section. Two- thirds

of the maximum values specified for the aileron and elevator may be used if control

surface hinge moments are based on reliable data. In applying this criterion, the effects

of servomechanisms, tabs, and automatic pilot systems, must be considered.

10

11

Maximum forces Minimum forces

Control

or torques or torques

Aileron:

Stick

Wheel 100 lbs (45kgf) 40 lbs (18 kgf)

80D in.-lbs (1) 40D in.-lbs

36D kgf*m 18D kgf*m

Elevator:

Wheel (symmetrical) 300 lbs (136 kgf) 100 lbs (45 kgf)

Wheel (unsymmetrical) 170 lbs (78 kgf) 100 lbs (45 kgf)

11

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