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Theme 2. Airworthiness standards

Lecture #2(14). A total characteristic of airworthiness standards
1. AR creation history
2. Typical standards structure
3. Loads.
4. Proofs of strength.
5. Flight loads.
6. Design airspeeds at determination of loads.
7. Limit maneuvering load factor
8. Gust load factors.
9. Control system loads.

1. AR creation history

Airworthiness standards are the arch of mandatory requirements to the flight

validity of civil aircrafts (CA), their drives and the equipment directed on safety control
of flight. CA are airplanes, glides, helicopters, balloons, airships. Airworthiness
standards of Civil Aircraft - ASCA contain requirements to strength of airplanes, which
traditionally is named strength standards. One of the ASCA's functions is to receive the
justified extrapolation of gained experience by development on constructions of new
airplanes. On the first steps of the aviation airplane constructing was based on imitating
to the first airplanes which have made flight, as there were no data about exterior
loading. This fact did flights the extremely dangerous. In 1910 in France 50 % of
catastrophes were the results of airplane breakage in air. It happened because there did
not known to what strength requirements should to satisfy airplanes. In 1911 at the
international congress of aviators in Turin it was agreed to place the value of load factor
n=3. This value was assigned without due experience and only its representation has not
solved a problem. The value n was increased because of the big number of breakage in
consequent years were.
In 1912 it was increased up to 3.5, in 1914 up to 4.5. In this phase premises for
origin of strength standards as engineering discipline were created. In the USSR
professor Vetchinkin has begun researches of strength standards in 1918. Milestones in
development of domestic strength standards were:
In 1918 the first researches of maneuverable load factors in flight were carried
1925-1927 years - the first strength standards were created.
In 1926 on the basis of activities of CAGI (Central Aerodynamic institution)
strength standards of an airplane were published for static tests.
In 1931-1934 years of strength standards were updated. The value n uy was
entered for the first time not only from category of an airplane, but also from its weight
and a maximum airspeed of horizontal flight.
1936-1937 years strength standards are revised. Entered:
1) Limit load factor;


2) Factor of safety;
3) A number of new critical load conditions (gust, deviation of ailerons);
4) Distribution of aerodynamic loading according to the theory and experiment,
instead of approximated diagrams;
5) Requirements on a flutter and a reverse of controls.
As a result of that different CA categories show different requirements, for each
CA category were developed its own AS which are joint in a system of standards. Now
in the world exists three AS systems: in USA - FAR system (developed by FAA). The
system particularly includes:
FAR -1 Definition.
FAR-21 - organization of type certification, the CA developer and the CA
producer are regulated.
FAR-23 - requirements to light airplanes for local airlines.
FAR-25 - requirements to transport airplanes and airplanes with jet engines.
European system JAR is joined air requirements (developed by JAA). The
system includes:
JAR-21 - analog FAR-21 taking into account the European specificity.
JAR-VLA - Requirements to airplanes with takeoff weight not more than 750 kg,
the first edition in 1990.
JAR-23 - JAR-25 are similar to American FAR-23 - FAR-25.
The Commonwealth of the independent states CIS has AR system aviation
rules (developed by IAC - the international air committee). The system includes: AR-
21, AR-25, AR-23 etc. - analogs of standards of system FAR. The Commonwealth
includes Ukraine, Russia, Byelorussia, Kazakhstan, Armenia and so on.
2. Typical standards structure

Part 1. - Requirements.
Section A - General provisions.
B - Flight. It contains requirements to flight performances of stability and
controllability of an airplane.
Section C - Strength.
D - Designing and structure.
E - Power plant.
F - Equipment.
G - Operating constraints.
Appendixes A, B, C, F, H, which contain the simplified methods of a rating of
airplane loads and its units in flight and during landing (A, B, C), requirements to tests
of material samples (F), the form of documents showed at certification (H).
Part 2. Methods of correspondence definition (MCD).
Requirements to airplanes strength are contained in sections C and particularly in
D. Airworthiness standards establish strength requirements which aircraft structures
should satisfy. However they do not contain an account of mathematical models and
methods of calculation of loading and the proof of strength that is methods of obtaining
of the demonstrative documentation. In section "General provisions" of the British


requirements to the flight validity of civil airplanes section S - extra light airplanes it is
underscored that these requirements it is not necessary to consider as a modern air
science manual. The understanding of requirements assumes presence of knowledge of
the fundamentals of air sciences ". Notes entirely concern to other standards.
Field of application of standards:
JAR-VLA. It orders airworthiness standards for issue of the type certificate for
one or a two-seater airplane with a reciprocating engine, maximum takeoff weight no
more than 750 kg and landing stall speeds no more than 45 knots (83 km/h). These
standards are actual only for the airplanes making daytime flights. JAR-VLA, AR-17
standards are actual only on airplanes of a non-maneuverable category. Non-
maneuverable kinds of operation include:
1. Any maneuvers intrinsic to horizontal flight.
2. Drop except for a figure a bell.
3. Horizontal eighties, fighting turns, turns with bank angle no more than 60 .
FAR-23 There is airworthiness standards of light airplanes of normal,
multipurpose, acrobatic categories and airplanes of local lines (or transient category).
1. Airplanes concern to a normal category with number of landing places,
excepting places of pilots, no more than 9, with maximum takeoff weight of 5670 kg,
(10000 pounds)and intended for non-maneuverable kinds of operation.
2. To a multipurpose category airplanes attribute with G kg which may
have limited acrobatic applications including: spin (if it is authorized for the given type
of an airplane), a horizontal eight, fighting turns and turns with bank angle no more than
60 .
3. Airplanes concern to an acrobatic category with number of places no more
than 9, G 5670 kg and which are intended for use without limitation, except for those
which will appear necessary by results of flight tests.
4. To transient category (or local lines) airplanes attribute propeller airplanes with
several drives and number of landing places, excepting places for pilots, no more than
19 with maximum takeoff weight G kg and intended for non-aerobatics kinds of
operation are concern.
The airplanes, which are not appropriate to a field of application of standards
JAR-VLA or FAR-23, should be certificated according to requirements of FAR-25 or
analogs such as JAR-25, AR-25.

3. Loads
(a) Strength requirements are specified in terms of limit loads Pl (the
maximum loads to be expected in service) and ultimate loads Pu (limit loads multiplied
by prescribed factors of safety - f).
Pu = f Pl
(b) Unless otherwise provided, the specified air, ground, and water loads must be
placed in equilibrium with inertia forces, considering each item of mass in the airplane.
These loads must be distributed to conservatively approximate or closely represent
actual conditions.


(c) If deflections under load would significantly change (>5%) the distribution of
external or internal loads, this redistribution must be taken into account.
(d) Unless otherwise specified, a factor of safety of f=1.5 must be applied to the
prescribed limit load, which are considered external loads on the structure. When a
loading condition is prescribed in terms of ultimate loads, a factor of safety need not be
applied unless otherwise specified.
4. Proofs of strength
(a) Compliance with the strength and deformation requirements of the subpart C
must be shown for each critical loading condition. Structural analysis may be used only
if the specific structure conforms to those structures for which experience has shown
this method to be reliable.
In the other cases the confirming static tests should be executed. These tests
should be executed to the ultimate loads, if only will not be agreed with the FAA, SAA,
that in each particular case it is possible with help of the tests up to smaller loads to
receive the equivalent confirmation of the sufficient strength.
(b) The structure must be able to support ultimate loads without failure for at least
3 seconds. However, when proof of strength is shown by dynamic tests simulating
actual load conditions, the three-second limit does not apply.

5. Flight loads.
(a) Flight load factors represent the ratio of the aerodynamic force component
(acting normal to the assumed longitudinal axis of the airplane) to the weight of the
airplane. A positive load factor is one in which the aerodynamic force acts upward with
respect to the airplane.
n n y (1)
(b) Considering compressibility effects at each speed, compliance with the flight
load requirements of this subpart must be shown:
(1) at each critical altitude within the range of altitudes selected by the Applicant;
(2) at each weight from the design minimum weight to the design maximum
weight appropriate to each particular flight loading condition;
(3) for each required combination altitude and weight, for any practicable
distribution of disposable load within the operating limitations recorded in the Airplane
Flight Manual.
() Design envelop is a boundary of possibility points on a coordinate plane
"airspeed-load factor" for maneuver load factor and gust load factor. Enough points on
and within the boundaries of the design envelope must be investigated to ensure that the
maximum load for each part of the airplane structure is obtained.
(d) The significant forces acting on the airplane must be placed in equilibrium in
a rational or conservative manner. The linear inertia forces must be considered in
equilibrium with the thrust and all aerodynamic loads, while the angular (pitching)
inertia forces must be considered in equilibrium with thrust and all aerodynamic
moments, including moments due to loads on components such as tail surfaces and

nacelles. Critical thrust values in the range from zero to maximum continuous thrust
must be considered.
(e) Where sudden displacement of a control is specified, the assumed rate of
control surface displacement may not be less than the rate that could be applied by the
pilot through the control system.

nly B
nly max man



nly min man H F E

gust load factor
maneuver design envelop

gust design envelop

Fig. 1. Joint design envelope.

6. Design airspeeds at determination of loads

The selected design airspeeds are equivalent airspeeds (EAS). All design
airspeeds make sense on height H=0. Estimated values of the stall speeds VS0 and VS1
must be conservative.
V EAS V H VH (2)
(a) Design cruising speed, VC. For VC, the following apply:


(1) the minimum value of VC must be sufficiently greater than the airspeed VB,
which is described below, to provide for inadvertent speed increases likely to occur as a
result of severe atmospheric turbulence.
(2) in the absence of a rational investigation substantiating the use of other values,
VC may not be less than (VB+81) kilometers/hour (for H=0). However, it need not
exceed the maximum speed in level flight at maximum continuous power for the
corresponding altitude. VCVB+81(km/h)
(3) at altitudes where the airspeed VD, which is described below, is limited by
Mach number, VC may be limited to a selected Mach number.
(b) Design dive speed, VD. VD must be selected so that VC/MC is not greater
than 0.8 VD/MD, or so that the minimum speed margin between VC/MC and VD/MD is
the greater of the following values: VC0.8VD
(1) from an initial condition of stabilized flight at VC/MC, the airplane is upset,
flown for 20 seconds along a flight path 7,5 degrees below the initial path, and then
pulled up at a load factor of 1.5 g (0.5 g the acceleration increment). The speed increase
occurring in this maneuver may be calculated if reliable or conservative aerodynamic
data is used. The maximum cruising power is assumed until the pull-up is initiated, at
which time power reduction and the use of pilot controlled drag devices may be
(2) the minimum speed margin must be enough to provide for atmospheric
variations (such as horizontal gusts, and penetration of jet streams and cold fronts) and
for instrument errors and airframe production variations. These factors may be
considered on a probability basis.
(3) at altitude, where MC is limited by compressibility effects, the margin
between MD and MC may not be less than 0.05. MDMC+0.05.
(c) Design maneuvering speed VA. For VA, the following apply:
(1) the airspeed VA may not be less than the value VS1 * sqrt(NLmax) where
NLmax is the limit positive maneuvering load factor at VC; VS1 is the stalling speed
with flaps retracted. VA VS 1 NLmax
(2) the airspeeds VA and VS must be evaluated at the design weight and altitude
under consideration.
(3) the airspeed VA need not be more than the airspeed VC. VAVC
(d) Design speed for maximum gust intensity, VB.
(1) VB may not be less than the value VS1 * sqrt(Ng) where VS1 is the stalling
speed with the flaps retracted at the particular weight under consideration; Ng is the
positive load factor at the gust flight with the airspeed VC (determination the load factor
at the gust condition is described below); VB VS 1 N g
(2) at altitudes where the airspeed VC is limited by Mach number:
(i) VB may be chosen to provide an optimum margin between low and high-speed
buffet boundaries;
(i1) VB need not be greater than VC. VB VC.
(3) The plane meets a vertical equivalent airspeed of a gust of the maximal
intensity Ude = 20,1 m/sek = 66 ft /sek in horizontal rectilinear flight with an load


factor ny = 1, thus of lift coefficient of the plane Cy p is equal to maximal of lift

coefficient of the plane Cy max p:
y p = y max p.
Greater lift coefficient Cy p can not be physically from conditions of
The maximal size of lift coefficient of the plane Cy max p it is possible
approximately to estimate on the maximal size of lift coefficient for an airfoil
Cy max a.:
y max p 0,95 y max a..
The lift force from the gust Ude = 20,1 m/sek with airspeed VB agrees AR is
U de V B C
ny g 1 K g
16 G S

20 ,1 V B C p V B C p , (3)
1 Kg 1 1 ,256 K g
16 G S G S
, ,

0 88

where - damping factor of a gust;



2G S
Mg - is the mass parameter of the plane;
b C p g
G - weight of the plane in kgf, S - area of a wing in m2;
kgf sek 2
- density of air at ;
b - mean aerodynamic chord in m;
g - acceleration of free fall in m/sek2;
C p - is the angular rate of lift coefficient for a plane at 1/rad.
The lift force of the plane at action of an impulse Ude = 20.1 m/sek with speed
VB through Cy max itself is those:
V B2 V B2
Y g C y max p S C y max p S . (4)
2 16
kgf sek 2
where = 0.125= 1/8
m4 ,
On the other hand, upon the load factor (3) these lift force is equal:
V B C p
Y g n g G ( 1 1 ,256 K g )G . (5)
These sizes are equal, hence


VB 2
C y max p S G 1 ,256 K g V B C y p S . (6)

In result we have the quadric equation:

0 ,0625 C y max pV 2 1 ,256 K g C y pV B p 0 , (7)
where p G S - is specific loading on a wing.
The designations are entered: = 0,0625 max p, =1,256g C p .
After transformations the initial quadric equation it is received:
VB2 BVB p = 0. (8)
The decision of this equation:
B B 2 4 Ap
VB . (9)
The physical sense VB has at a sign plus +before the radical:


, (10)
where VB in m/sek.
At accounts it is necessary to take into account, that in the formula (8) with is
sign "minus that is under a root (10) actually stands the sum.
7. Limit maneuvering load factor
(a) Except where limited by maximum (static) lift coefficients, the airplane is
assumed to be subjected to symmetrical maneuvers resulting in the limit maneuvering
load factors prescribed in this section. Pitching velocities appropriate to the
corresponding pull-up and steady turn maneuvers must be taken into account.
(b) The positive limit maneuvering load factor "NLmax" for any speed up to VD
may not be less than the value
n ly max N l max 2.1 ; (11)
G 4536
where G is the design maximum takeoff weight in kilograms of force; except that
NLmax, may not be less than 2,5 and need not be greater than 3.8.
(c) The negative limit maneuvering load factor NLmin:
(1) may not be less than -1.0 at speeds up to VC;
(2) must vary linearly with speed from the value at VC to zero at VD.
(d) Maneuvering load factors lower than those specified in this section may be
used if the airplane has design features that make it impossible to exceed these values in
a flight.
8. Gust load factors
(a) It is supposed, that the airplane is assumed to be subjected to symmetrical
vertical and lateral gusts in level flight. Limit gust loads must be determined in
accordance with the provisions:


(1) at the airplane design speed VB the positive and negative gusts with
reference gust velocities of 20,1 meters/second EAS must be considered at the flight
from the sea level to the height 6096 meters. The reference gust velocity may be
reduced linearly from 20,1 meters/second EAS at the height 6096 meters to 11.6
meters/second EAS at the height 15240 meters;
Wi m/s

15,2 20,27-0,83110-3 (m)


6096 15240
Fig. 2. Gust Ude=W from height for VC.

Wi m/s



6096 15240
Fig. 3. Gust Ude=W from height for VD

(2) at the airplane design speed VC the positive and negative gusts with reference
gust velocities of 15,2 meters/second EAS must be considered at the flight from the sea
level to the height 6096
The reference gust velocity may be reduced linearly from 15,2 meters/second
EAS at the height 6096 meters to 7,6 meters/second EAS at the height 15240 meters;
Wi m/s



6096 15240
Fig. 4. Gust Ude=W from height for VB

(3) at the airplane design speed VD the reference gust velocity must be 0,5 times
the value, which is corresponding the flight at the airplane design speed VC.
(b) The shape of the gust must be:


2* * S
U s 0 ,5 Ude 1 cos ,
25 * b
for 0 <= S <= 2H , where S means a distance penetrated into the gust (a depth of a
penetration in the gust, meters);
Ude - the design gust velocity in equivalent airspeed, which is specified in
paragraph (a) of this section;
H - is the gust gradient, which is the distance (meters) parallel to the airplane's
flight path for the gust to reach its peak velocity.
b - means an average geometric chord of the wing (meters):
b = S / L , where S - the wing area, meters ** 2;
L is the wingspan.
(c) At absence of a more exact method of a calculation, the gust load factor should
be determined by the following formula:
Kg * C
y * U de * V
n 1 ,
16 * G / S
0 .88 * u g 2* G / S
where- K g , ug ,
5 .3 u g
b* * C y * g
where Kg damping factor of the gust influence decrease, determined by the following
where V - equivalent airspeeds of the airplane, meters/second;
y - derivative of the lift factor of the airplane on a angle of attack (1 / radian);
G - the design maximum takeoff weight in kilograms of force;
- the density of the air, kgf * second ** 2 / m ** 4;
g - an acceleration of the free fall, meters / second ** 2 . The values Kg, Ude, S, b are
described just now in this section;
ug- is a mass parameter of the airplane.
The simultaneous action of the gust loads on a wing and a tailplane must be
considered for determination of dCy/d at an exact calculation. It is admitted to use a
derivative of the lift factor of a wing on an angle of attack.

9. Control system loads.

The maximum and minimum pilot forces are assumed to act at the appropriate
control grips or pads and to be reacted at the attachment of the control system to the
control surface horn.
In the control surface flight loading condition, the air loads on movable surfaces
and the corresponding deflections need not exceed those that would result in flight from
the application of any pilot force within the ranges specified in this section. Two- thirds
of the maximum values specified for the aileron and elevator may be used if control
surface hinge moments are based on reliable data. In applying this criterion, the effects
of servomechanisms, tabs, and automatic pilot systems, must be considered.


The limit pilot forces and torques are as follows:

Maximum forces Minimum forces
or torques or torques

Wheel 100 lbs (45kgf) 40 lbs (18 kgf)
80D in.-lbs (1) 40D in.-lbs
36D kgf*m 18D kgf*m


Stick 250 lbs (113 kgf) 100 lbs (45 kgf)

Wheel (symmetrical) 300 lbs (136 kgf) 100 lbs (45 kgf)

Wheel (unsymmetrical) 170 lbs (78 kgf) 100 lbs (45 kgf)

Rudder 300 lbs (136 kgf) 130 lbs (61 kgf)

(1) D - is wheel diameter (inches or meter)