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The first and the foremost thing to do prior beginning to prepare for presentation, ask
yourself: 'What is the reason behind making this presentation?' Is it required to report,
convince, amuse, coach or trade? Your purpose should be understood by you, if it is to be
cleared to your spectators. A statement of purpose not only depicts what you wish to
achieve or fulfill, but also assists you to know whether you have accomplished or not, at
the end of your speech. You can categorize your reason for presentation into two parts:
Commonly or Precisely.

Your common purpose can be further divided into three sub-categories: to instruct, to
convince or to amuse. An instructive presentation at the new employee orientation
program or another enlightening presentation to explicate your project status or type is
usual presentations that have an informative purpose. Sales presentations, presentations
by marketing executives to persuade sales representatives to be more passionate about
product that has gone down in sales, etc. fall under the second sub category- to convince.

When you prepare a particular reasonable statement, you have to indicate whom you wish
to persuade, what you wish them to ponder or perform and when and where you wish
them to perform it. For instance, if you wish your superior to accept and acknowledge the
internal proposal or suggestion that you presented at the time of discussion then at the
end of your presentation, you have to devise your particular purpose statement with the
four 'wh'- who, what, when and where.

our purpose statement should obviously specify indicate the aspired result of your
presentation. For instance, in a training program, when you are delegated the job of
amplifying the characteristics of Microsoft Excel to a group of fresh staff or workers,
your purpose statement would be 'I want all the individuals of this group to prove that
he/she uses all the features of Microsoft Excel with effectiveness after my presentation'.

Presentation Skills

Today presentation skills are required in every field. Whether you are student or an
executive or the Chairman of a big name organization, you will have to make a
presentation at one time or other. In order to deliver captivating presentations a lot of
input and work is needed.

The Presentation Skill Guide – the importance of having the right tools
The term ‘presentation’ is capable of giving butterflies-in-the-stomach even to veteran
managers. This is because while making a presentation you are exposed to your
audience’s judgment and this is a frightening thought for most. While experience and
command over the subject can make a great deal of improvement to a presentation, a
quick reference to the right presentation skills resources can make a great difference.

There are many styles and many ways to make a presentation. Many times the manager
fails to make the right impact because he/she adopted the wrong approach or the most
common style. This is why it is important to be prepared not only in the subject of your
presentation, but also the style and method of delivery.

Many times the right style of presentation can clinch the deal or reject it. There are a
number of presentations skills resources available online for the reference of the busy
manager which can add verve to the delivery and style of the presentation. The
professional of today will not be happy with the ordinary run-of-the-mill styles, and to be
frank neither will the audiences. Hence, the time invested in perfecting the art of
presenting and adding the right technique and innovations to it, is actually time well

The emerging trends in presentations skills

As the demand grows so the will the supply grow. There are many training organization
and institutions, which specialize in conducting capsule courses on presentation skills. A
great deal of information is available in the form of books and e-books readily available
for sale on the Internet and offline. As a constantly improving professional it will be good
if you keep updated information on the evolving techniques and styles by reading the
current material and/or undergoing periodical courses on this aspect.

The big names in the corporate world are realizing the importance of the presentation
skills of their managers and now many have incorporated this aspect in their in-house
training programs not only for their sales and marketing personnel, but for all other
departments including the accounts, HR and other similar back-end departments. It has
been observed that when the presentation skills are developed the employee becomes
more focused and goal oriented then before. They also learn the art of motivation and
passive and active communication skills. Overall the performance and self-esteem get a
big time boost.

Presentation skills Guide for students

The presentation skills can be cultivated quite early in one’s career. Colleges and other
schools are incorporating this method of dissemination both at teacher and student levels.
It has been found with the help of focused studies, that students who have to make
presentation in the class become more assertive and focused in their studies, personal
lives and later on in their careers.
This is because they learn to control their audiences and sell their ideas across. The effort
of judging, measuring and delivering a message across can really build the character of a
student into making a complete person and professional.


1. Use visual aids

Using pictures in your presentations instead of words can double the chances of meeting
your objectives.

2. Keep it short and sweet

There is an old adage that said – “No one ever complained of a presentation being too
short.” Nothing kills a presentation more than going on too long.

There are some college professors who will penalise a short presentation (most lecturers
see no problem in droning on) , but for most people a shorter presentation is better. Keep
your presentation to under 22 minutes if you can.

3. Use the rule of three

A simple technique is that people tend to only remember three things. Work out what the
three messages that you want your audience to take away and structure your presentation
around them. Use a maximum of three points on a slide.

4. Rehearse

Practice makes for perfect performance. Many experts say that rehearsal is the biggest
single thing that you can do to improve your performance. Perform your presentation out
loud at least four times. One of these should be in front of a real scary audience. Family,
friends or colleagues. Even the dog is better than nothing.

5. Tell stories

All presentations are a type of theatre. Tell stories and anecdotes to help illustrate points.
It all helps to make your presentation more effective and memorable.

6. Lose the bullet points – don’t put your speaker notes up on the screen

Bullet points are the kiss of death for most presentations. Most people use bullet points as
a form of speaker notes. To make your presentation more effective put your speaker notes
in your notes and not up on the screen.

7. Video yourself
Set up a video camera and video yourself presenting. You will see all sorts of mistakes
that you are making, from how you are standing, if you are jangling keys, to how well
your presentation is structured.

8. Know what slide is coming next

You should always know when presenting which slide is coming up next. It sounds very
powerful when you say “On the next slide [Click] you will see…”, rather than than a
period of confusion when the next slide appears.

9. Have a back-up plan

Murphy’s law normally applies during a presentation. Technology not working, power
cuts, projector blowing a bulb, spilling coffee on your front, not enough power leads, no
loudspeakers, presentation displays strangely on the laptop – all of these are things that
have happened in presentations that I have given.

Have a back-up plan. Take with you the following items – a printed out set of slides –
(you can hold these up to the audience if you need to), a CD or data stick of your
presentation, a laptop with your slides on it. Just in case it goes wrong.

Guess what? When you have back-ups – you seldom need to use them.

10. Check out the presentation room

Arrive early and check out the presentation room. If you can make sure that you see your
slides loaded onto the PC and working on the screen. Work out where you will need to

Do you agree or disagree with any of these effective presentation techniques? Have you
have any experiences like this? Add it in to the comments box below.



While fear pervades many aspects of business, presentations consistently drive it

to exquisitely high levels. We use the term "presentation" to include any
important one-on-one meeting, small group discussions around a table, or speaking
before an audience of thousands.

We are talking about a particular kind of fear. Some fear helps motivate you to
divert time from the pounding surf of your daily schedule and prepare for your
presentation. There comes a point for most of us, however, when the fear is no
longer useful. It has crossed the line from excitement to dread. Instead of
driving preparation, it now impairs concentration and kills energy.

Fear has a thousand faces, but we have only three basic responses:

1.Ignore it
2.Evade it
3.Transcend it

Ignoring Fear
Merely suffering through your fear is the simplest and most common response. It
requires no learning, effort or practice. Negative consequences flow from this
path. In addition to being very stressful, fear tends to break concentration
during preparation and disturbs other obligations.

Perhaps even more importantly, these enervating fears can also have an extremely
negative impact on your performance in delivering your presentation. Fear robs
your ability to casually walk to the stage and be yourself. It tends to kill
excitement and block the ability to connect deeply with your audience. Fear can
make your body stiff, your breathing labored and your physical movement unnatural.

Evading Fear
Usually the first step in dealing with your fear of the big presentation is
figuring out how to avoid the fear. Even if you are looking for a longer term
solution, at least temporarily avoiding the problem is a key step in creating the
space to fashion more encompassing approaches.

Transcending Fear
Creative visualization is the first step in removing yourself from the scary
thoughts and consciously guiding your mind to a new space: actively imagining the
desired end result.

Professional and Olympic athletes spend time imagining the desired end result and track
the measurable increased performance that follows the creative visualization sessions.
Fear stems from the unconscious repetitive thoughts and feelings about failing.

The key to successful visualizations is simultaneously feeling the emotions that
would naturally attach to images that you see. To drive emotion, the most
powerful vehicle is music - - music that stirs you. Often it is high energy
music, something like the Rocky theme, hard driving rock, or passionate jazz or
classical. The key is that it drives your energy higher, actively imagining the desired end

In visualization, there are two distinct ways to envision yourself: either looking
at yourself from the position of an outside observer, or seeing the whole event
through your own eyes. While everyone is different, it is usually easier to start
by seeing an image of yourself from the perspective of an outside observer. As
time goes by, many find it more effective to do the visualization through your
eyes as a presenter.

Imagine the room in which you will present. If you know the room location, try
and visit it before hand so you can create the exact setting of your presentation.
If you can’t see a remote location, just imagine the kind of room it is likely to

Imagine what you will experience prior to the presentation. See yourself walking
toward the spot from which you will present.

As you see yourself approaching “the moment of truth,” can you feel where in your
body the tension resides?

As you continue walking to the front of the room, see if you can exchange the
feelings of fear with a closely related feeling - excitement. Fear is often a
part of excitement and their affect on the body is the same: pounding pulse, heavy
breathing, a slight shake in the extremities.

Feel the empowering sense that this could be your break-through moment. This
could be when you reach to a higher level than you ever thought possible.

Imagine yourself now in front of the audience facing them, looking calmly and intently
into their faces. Take a big breath and feel relaxation welling-up within you.

See their faces. Are they interested? Do they need something to enliven them?
Take a moment for some “in-flow” of information before you begin the “out-flow” of


Now that you know that a lot of people have stage fright, here are some ways you can get
rid of the fear and the anxiety.

Be Prepared

Some people do not have stage fright from the very beginning, although they develop
stage fright because they are not prepared for a role or a piece. Take some time to
memorize your lines, know the cues, and internalize your character. Don't throw yourself
too much into memorizing the entire script, because you can end up confused and even
more anxious. Exercise discipline and dedication whenever you prepare yourself for a

Take Deep Breaths

Breathing exercises are a great way to help calm your nerves. Breathe long, deep breaths
right before you respond to your cue in the performance. Breathing exercises can also
help you focus on your part, instead of the reaction of the audience. A trick is to inhale as
deep as you can and as quickly as you can, and exhale very slowly.

Use a Mirror

Many stage performers keep a hand-held mirror handy to practice lines from plays or sing
a few lines from songs. A hand-held mirror is not only a good way for you to practice
gestures, but to gauge your confidence. If you're confident about how you look delivering
your lines in front of a mirror, you wouldn't have any problems delivering your
performance in front of an audience.

Things to Avoid

Some foodstuffs and drinks can aggravate some symptoms of stage fright. Right before a
performance, it's a good idea to stay away from these calorie- and caffeine-rich foods:

• Coffee
• Candies
• Cola, soda, and other carbonated drinks
• Tomatoes, onions, and other acidic foods
• Salty foods like chips and fast-food items.

Some actors swear by a potent alcoholic beverage, like a sip of whiskey or a glass of
wine, to “calm the nerves.” It's a better idea to stay away from alcohol right before your

Enjoy the Performance

One of the best ways to avoid stage fright altogether is to have fun and enjoy the
performance. Nothing will really change if you miss a few lines, give up an easy shot, or
stammer a bit while delivering your report. Put your best foot forward whenever you go
out on stage, and enjoy every bit of the performance. When you have fun, you can put
behind all your worries and anxieties, and deliver a flawless performance. (For more
information, read Top 10 ways to fight public speaking fears)

Stage fright does not have to get in the way of your dreams and opportunities. Now that
you know how to get rid of stage fright, you can take control of the stage, and have fun
delivering the performance of a lifetime.
Tools for presentation:-

Power point slides


Things You'll Need:

• Microsoft Power point

1. Step 1

Add more photographs to your slides. This might seems like a no brainer, but I've
seen many Power points presentations with one picture or no picture, just a bunch
of bullets with information. Everyone learn differently. Some people by audio,
some people by visual. Some are both. Just plain information is boring and will
not attract a wider audience. Make your design work for different learners.

2. Step 2

: Add borders to photographs or certain information to your design. Adding a

border to your pictures is highly effective and attracts viewers. Not sure what
color to use? Go by the color of your photograph. If you have a picture of a
yellow house and greenery all around, make your border a similar shade of yellow
to the house or a dark or lighter tone of yellow. The point is to create colors that
matches a part of your photograph. That way you can't go wrong. Avoid extreme
hot pink or neon colors unless you know how to utilize color well.

3. Step 3

Add a background color to your slides. It makes your design far more attractive.
I've seen many Power point presentation with just a white back ground. Adding a
background color does not take a lot of time. In fact it will make your slides more
powerful. Color makes the information on the slide jump at the viewer. It creates
depth and dimension. If the border for your pictures is yellow, do not use yellow
for the slide again. Try a different shade of yellow or a whole different color. You
can adjust the light and dark of shades of your back ground as well. If you want to
get really creative, you can even add shade gradation.

4. Step 4

Be humorous. Add animation to your slide. Your slide does not have to be too
serious or boring. It doesn't matter what the slide is about, you can still add some
animation or humor to attract your audience. If your slide is about the subject of
mileage or cars, you can add a clip art of a car from the Microsoft website or even
find it in your soft ware. Then, add animation to the car by selecting the animation
tools that Power point have. You can make the car appear in your slide at a later
time, after your text.

5. Step 5

Add audio to your slides. A lot of people I spoke to who uses Power point were
unaware that they can add sounds and noises to their clip art or their slides. This is
extremely important to do in your slides to make it more effective. Using the car
clip art example again, you can search for engine sounds or sounds of a car
available on Microsoft website. Some are already available in your Power point
software. So, when your animated car comes in to the slide, there will be engine
sounds or car sound as well. That will make the visual and audio learners more
appreciative of your presentation.

6. Step 6

Add credits that roll after your final slide. This is a final and special touch to your
presentation. You've seen movie credits after watching a movie. This is the same
thing. Put who made the presentation, the title, and any other reference as credit.
In Power point there is a credit tool to let you create this. Make the credit roll up
by using the animation features. This will create a closure for your presentation
like a movie, letting the audience know that this is the end of your presentation.
Though doing this might take you extra time, it makes your work more
Audio visual aids
Importance of using audio visual aids in presentations:

Visual and audio aids help your presentation make things happen. Visual aids help
you reach your objectives by providing emphasis to whatever is being said. Clear
pictures multiply the audience's level of understanding of the material presented,
and they should be used to reinforce your message, clarify points, and create

Visual and audio aids involve your audience and require a change from one activity
to another from hearing to seeing. When you use visual aids, their use tends to
encourage gestures and movement on your part. This extra movement reinforces the
control that you, the speaker, need over the presentation. The use of visual and
audio aids, then, are mutually beneficial to the audience and you.

Visual and audio aids add impact and interest to a presentation. They enable you to
appeal to more than one sense at the same time, thereby increasing the audience's
understanding and retention level. With pictures, the concepts or ideas you present
are no longer simply words - but words plus images.

Types of audio and visual aids:

Flip Charts

Overhead Transparencies


35 Millimeter Slides

Audio-Slide Show

Flip Charts:

Flip charts are quick, inexpensive visual aids for briefing small groups. The charts,
felt- tip markers and graphic materials are readily available, and with a modest
ability at lettering, the presenters can compose the desired visual aid in-house.

Flip Charts:

Help the speaker proceed through the material

Convey information

Provide the audience with something to look at in addition to the speaker

Overhead transparencies are useful for audience settings of 20 to 50 people and can
be produced quickly, easily, and inexpensively. Any camera-ready artwork, whether
word charts, illustrations, or diagrams can be made into transparencies using
standard office paper copiers.

Most manufacturers of paper copiers offer clear and colored acetate sheets that run
through copying machines like paper, but transfer a black image into acetate for use
as overhead transparencies.

The standard transparency size is 8=" x 11''. The only piece of hardware required
is an overhead transparency projector.

Overlay transparencies provide a good cumulative presentation.

Speaker can use an overhead projector with significant light in the room, thereby
enabling the speaker to maintain eye contact with the audience.

The projected image size is sometimes too small to be seen from the back of a
large room.

Often, the image does not sit square on the screen, as the head of the projector is
tilted to increase the size of the image.

It is difficult to write on the transparency while it is on the projector.

Sometimes the projector head gets in the audience's way.

Some speakers feel captive to the machine, because they must change each
transparency by hand
35 Millimeter Slides
35 mm slides enliven a presentation for virtually any size audience. They can project
a professional image, are relatively inexpensive to produce, and if necessary, can be
produced quickly.

Slides have high credibility with audiences because viewers looking at
photographic slides taken in the field often feel that seeing is believing.

The only hardware required is a slide projector and a screen. Slide programs are
easy to package in slide trays.

Changes in slides or in their sequencing can be done rapidly to meet changing
conditions or audiences.


Slides cannot be made using a photocopying machine. Therefore, they require
more time and money to produce than overhead transparencies.

The lights must be dimmed more for slides than for overhead transparencies.

Slides require a great deal of preparation and rehearsal.
Videotape electronically carries both a picture and a sound track:

Its features of sound, movement, vivid image, color, and variety hold an audience's
attention the way film does. Videotape can be used to program an entire
presentation, or to support a speaker's remarks by highlighting certain topics.


Videotape productions can be expensive to create and require experienced

production teams. In large meetings, the audience may not be able to see the
monitor. (If resources permit, video projectors are available.)

Audio-Slide Show

Audio-slide shows are self-contained programs having pre-recorded sound tracks

that are coordinated with slides by use of electronic synchronizers. The recording
tape includes electronic signals that activate a connected slide projector so that an
image appears simultaneously with the appropriate voice message, music or sound
effects. Audio-slide programs can serve audiences ranging from a handful to a
couple of hundred people.
For a fraction of the cost of films, audio-slide programs can achieve many of the
program needs.

They can impart considerable information because color and a wide array of
audio-techniques and visual images can be used.

If multiple projectors are used with dissolve units that allow images to "fold" into
one another, even a sense of movement can be created.

They usually can be produces in-house, equipment is accessible, and they offer a
presenter the flexibility of changing slides to meet the needs of specific audiences.


Time must be allotted for developing script, sound-track, title and credit slides,
visuals, and for production.

Each presentation requires securing and assembling proper equipment
synchronizer, tape recorder, projector(s), screen(s).

Good maintenance must be given to slides so that a warped slide doesn't
malfunction and throw off an entire presentation.
Advantages and disadvantages of audio visual aids in presentations:
Advantages - Simple, very easy to use, no audibility/visibility problems, can depict
of information, lasting reference, inexpensive.
Disadvantages - Can be a distraction, low impact, don't enhance actual
Flipcharts and Whiteboards
Advantages - Simple, easy to use, can be pre-prepared, can be annotated via
Disadvantages - Visibility can be a problem, low impact, takes time to annotate,
OHT – Overhead Transparencies
Advantages - Very common equipment, easy to use, easy to interact with, can be
prepared quickly, transparencies can be stored.
Disadvantages - Requires power supply, can be noisy, can absorb the presenter,
light can distract, considered low-tech.
Slide Shows
Advantages - Professional, good at getting attention, retains interest, can have high
Disadvantages - Requires power supply, expensive to produce, requires set-up and
practice, can be noisy, requires low ambient light, prone to technical failures,
Audio Recordings
Advantages - Very effective in specialist role, inexpensive broadcast equipment.

Disadvantages - May need specialist recording skills, can be time consuming, only
duration use.

Video Discs and Tapes

Advantages - Very high impact, common broadcast equipment.
Disadvantages – Production requires specialist skills and or equipment, takes time

produce and can be expensive for professional production, may compete with