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Bridge Launching

ISBN 978-0-7277-5997-9

ICE Publishing: All rights reserved


http://dx.doi.org/10.1680/bl.59979.347

Index

Figure locators are given in italics if not in main text range.

abutments axial prestressing 69, 195


curing area 168169 antagonist tendons 204
Eberspacher launchers 55 bending 191
friction anchoring 49 rear deck region 208
hollow-plunger cylinders 46 rectilinear beams 115
load transfer 4344 space-frame decks 305
PC bridges 140, 196 web thickness 216
short bridges 170 axial stiffness 292, 314
accelerometers 129130 axial stress 84, 8687
Adige River Bridge, Italy 19 bottom slab 337
adjustable jack bearings 109 corrugated-plate webs 317318
adjustable launch guides 176 launch bearings 184187, 254
aerial casting cells 155 prestressed composite box girders 311, 321
aeronautical applications, steel 314 steel girders 269273
aesthetics 138, 157, 294 time-dependent effects 193
Ager Bridge, Germany 2, 3 Azergues Bridge 156, France 24
aggregate-to-cement ratio, concrete 188
Amiens Viaduct, France 184, 193, 204, 206 Bakelite 166
anchor bars, launch noses 8991 balanced cantilevers 306
anchor beams 201 balancing frame rotation 65
anchor blocks 93, 197 bars see anchor bars; prestressing bars; stressed
anchor boxes 85, 86 bars
anchor frames 97 Basrah Bridge, Iraq 29
anchor nuts 45, 8687 Bayindir Bridge, Turkey 31
anchorages beam on elastic foundation (BEF) 180182, 321
external tendons 203, 214 beams
internal tendons 213 composite bridges 225
transverse prestressing 215 incremental launching 28
antagonist tendons 203205, 206, 216218, 219 launch stress analysis 113124
Arbois Bridge, France 306 launching over arches 32
arches, launching over 3235 steel girder launching 9
Aronde Bridge, France 59 see also continuous beams; cross-beams;
Arroyo Las Piedras Bridge, Spain 232 oorbeams
Arthur Ravenel Bridge, USA 277 bearings see cable bearings; elastomeric bearings;
assembly yard organisation 246251 xed bearings; jack bearings; launch bearings;
Auenbach Bridge, Austria 30, 258 roll bearings; sliding bearings
automated launching 50, 56 BEF see beam on elastic foundation
axial forces, rectilinear beams 113114 Ben-Ahin Bridge, Belgium 21

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Index

bending launching 1011, 25, 2829, 312314


composite bridges 251, 259, 265, 266, 268, 271, long-line casting and launch 152, 153
273, 287 nosedeck interaction 74
corrugated-plate webs 317, 318, 322, 329 nose design 82
decknose connection 8892 one-phase casting 145
envelope of 119, 127128, 207, 260 orthotropic decks 255256
front cable-stayed systems 97 rear deck region 209
front deck region 211 rear thrust systems 53
launch stress analysis 111, 115, 126 rectilinear beams 120
nosedeck interaction 75, 77, 7879 rotation 22
nose design 8182 shear 127, 304
PC bridges 299 single-cell 137, 179
piers 108110 stiffened-plate webs 309314
prestressing 194195, 215 stress corrections 6972
steel-composite bridges 251, 259, 265, 266, 268, temporary piers 99
271, 273 torsion 178
time-dependent effects 191192 tow systems 4849
twin I-girders 232234 twin box girders 239, 240, 338
see also negative bending U-girders 235239
bending moment braced launch noses 18
girder segmentation 245246 braced towers 155, 157
launch stress analysis 118, 119, 123124 bracing systems, piers 110
prestressing 194, 208 Bras de la Plaine Bridge, Reunion Island 306
steel girders 271 break-even deck length 170
bi-dimensional frames 126127 breakaway friction, piers 104, 105
bogies Bredts equations 179, 183
cable bearings 255 BS 5400, vertical axial stress 269
concrete forming carriages 283 Bubiyan Bridge, Kuwait 305
roll bearings 253, 254 buckling
trusses 274 corrugated-plate webs 314316, 324328, 330, 333
Boivre Bridge, France 94, 95 I-girders 336
bottom chords, trusses 274 steel girders 252, 260268
bottom ange stiffened-plate webs 309, 311312
composite box girders 310311 buckling factors 264
U-girders 236238 buckling modes 264
bottom slab buildings, corrugated-plate webs 315
case studies 337338 bulkheads 149
longitudinal axial stress 337 butt joints, steel/composite bridges 250
Neoon pads 185
prestressed composite box girders 310, 336 cable bearings, steel girders 254255
rear deck region 210 cable cranes 32
two-phase casting 164 cable-stayed systems 9499, 106, 259260, 264265,
bottom webslab node, box girders 310312, 329 276, 278
box girders 307308 see also stay cables
bending/shear envelopes 127 cable-suspended decks 3539
cable-suspended decks 3536 cage prefabrication
corrugated-plate webs 314341 casting yard organisation 142, 143
cross-sectional efciency 306307 launch prestressing 197
exural stiffness 177, 321 long-line casting and launch 152
friction coefcient 66 one-phase casting 145
launch bearings 6263, 179, 184 short-line casting and launch 149
launch prestressing 200 two-phase casting 157158

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Index

cage transfer, PC bridges 222 Coast Meridian Overpass, Canada 3738, 97


cambering 253, 263, 280281, 323, 335, 337 coefcient of thermal expansion 115, 121, 132, 140
cantilevers Cognac Bridge, France 333, 338, 339
curing area 169 cold pressing, corrugated-plate webs 333
incremental launching 31 columns, piers 109
launch stresses 7172, 7477, 92, 96, 107 compact sections 268
prestressed composite bridges 306 composite box girders 1011, 29, 304, 312314
rear deck region 210 bending/shear envelopes 127
steel girders 259260, 263, 264 corrugated-plate webs 314341
time-dependent effects 187 friction coefcient 66
cap tendons, top slab 213 launch bearings 6263
cast-iron roll bearings 253254 rear thrust systems 53
casting bed 290 stiffened-plate webs 309314
see also directional casting; in-place casting stress corrections 6972
casting cells U-girders 235239
anchor blocks 93 composite bridges 225298
deck segments 119, 142 advantages 225
forming carriages 281, 283 conceptual design/pre-sizing 226242
in-place casting of segments 145, 146, 168 concrete slabs 275295
launch prestressing 196 girder segmentation 242248
launch/lock forces 67 prestressed 299345
long-line casting and launch 152 truss launching 274275
prestressed composite box girders 335 composite deck launching 70
segment extraction 165166, 167 composite grillages 3536
short-line casting and launch 149150, 154, 155 composite launch noses 81
time-dependent effects 188189 composite slabs 279
twin cells 162 compression anges
two-phase casting in 155161, 162164 twin I-girders 233234
casting cycle, incremental launching 290 U-girders 238
casting yards compressive forces, steel girders 264
geometry 58 compressive stresses
in-place casting of segments 145, 169 PC bridges 6
organisation 140144, 335 steel girders 9
simulations of casting processes 163 computer programs see software programs
two-phase casting 160 computer simulations, in-place casting 163
Caynarachi Bridge, Peru 260 concentrated loads
CBC (chemically bonded ceramic) 300 circular beams 122
CBG see conventional box girders rectilinear beams 115116, 119
cement hydration, concrete cracking 286 concrete
Champigny-sur-Yonne Bridge, France 184 cracking 222, 275276, 279, 285287
Charente Bridge, France 334 creep 188194, 201, 309
Charix Viaduct, France 158, 159, 220 elastic modulus 309
chemically bonded ceramic (CBC) 300 linear elasticity 187
chords, trusses 274 modulus of elasticity 130131
circular beams 120124 pouring sequences 147
civil structures, corrugated-plate webs 315 shrinkage 132, 188191, 222, 275, 279, 285286,
Class 1/2/3/4 sections 294, 304305
local buckling 268 strength for stripping 150
local launch stresses 271 see also high-performance concrete; lightweight
Clifford Hollows Bridge, UK 227 concrete; prestressed-concrete bridges;
closed-form equations, lateral buckling 262 thermal expansion
clothoid spirals, launch 258 concrete-lled pipes 341

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Index

concrete slabs 275295 concrete cracking control 287


construction methods 275 concrete forming carriages 284
full-depth precasting 276278 full-depth precasting 278
in-place casting 278289 girder segmentation 242, 244
prestressed composite box girders 10, 311, half-span segments 147
317318, 319 incremental slab launching 293
steel girder launching 910, 226228, 253 jacking/skidding 24
technology 290293 launch stress analysis 125
thickness 226 launching 2, 8
trusses 241, 274 left-in-place forming systems 280
twin I-girders 231, 235 light superstructure launching 44
U-girders 238239 precast segmental highway overpasses 170
connectors prestressed composite bridges 308, 332
corrugated-plate webs 322323, 333 prestressing 195196, 200, 203204, 208, 213214
anges 338339 process simulation 162
construction joints rear thrust systems 54
in-place casting of segments 144 reduction of 1
incremental launching 27 short-line casting and launch 148, 154155
internal tendons 201 steel girder erection 226, 260
monolithic segments 142 stress corrections 7172
segment-to-span ratio 141 temporary piers 99
see also joints two-phase casting 160161
construction stages, launch stress analysis coupled tendons, PC bridges 141142
111112 couplers, internal tendons spliced by 197200
continuous beams cracking
analysis, see reduced transfer matrix method concrete 222, 275276, 279, 285287
composite bridges 225, 238239 controlling 285287
incremental launching 2829, 31, 294295 joints 198
launch stresses 71, 73, 113, 124 width of crack 276, 287
state arrays 118 crane use 157, 247248, 278
static system 117 crawler cranes 247
temporary joints 205 creep 188194, 201, 302, 309
time-dependent effects 191 crippling of webs, patch loading 328329
vertical misalignment of supports 177 cross-beams, twin I-girders 231, 235
continuous openings, incremental launching of the cross-fall shims 281, 284
concrete slab 291 cross-fall variation, incremental launching 40
conventional box girders (CBG) cross-frames
exural efciency 307 lateral torsionexure buckling 266267
self-weight 307308 nose design 81, 88
see also box girders three-dimensional models 263
core form, short-line casting and launch 149 twin I-girders 231, 266
corrosion prevention 310 U-girders 238239
corrugated-plate webs cross-sections
design of 331333 decks 6872, 111, 127, 137, 138, 208209
fabrication of 333335 efciency 306308
prestressed composite box girders 314341 prestressed composite bridges 304, 306308, 321,
stability of 324330 337
stresses in 317321 symbols 139
costs curing area
cable bearings 254 Eberspacher launchers 58, 169
composite box girders 236 in-place casting of segments 168169
composite bridges 228 launch prestressing 196, 198, 211

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Index

curing rails design charts, corrugated-plate webs 331332


long-line casting and launch 150 design standards
short-line casting and launch 152, 154 concrete slabs 227, 275276
curing supports, launch/lock forces 67 corrugated-plate webs 323
curved box girders 120 creep 190
curved bridges 167, 174 geometry tolerances 249
curved decks 50, 63 girder segmentation 244
curved girders 233 instability forms 261
custom-written programs, launch stress analysis 126 launch prestressing 207
cycle time local buckling 267268
deck segmentation 141 local launch stresses 272
one-phase casting shrinkage 188
two-phase casting 158, 161 twin I-girders 231, 234
design validation, deck monitoring 128132
decks deviators
alignment, lateral guides 63 light superstructures 5051
cable-suspended 3539 service prestressing 215
case studies 340 directional casting rotation 22
connection 32, 8894 discontinuous slab casting 282
construction simulations 163, 165 displacements, steel girders 258
cross-sections 6872, 111, 127, 137, 138, 208209 distortion
curing area 168169 circular beams 122
depth 139 launch bearing misalignment 178183
downhill launching 106 rectilinear beams 115116
geometry 125 torsiondistortion interaction 320321
jacking 177 distributed load
launch noses and 73, 7480, 8894, 184 circular beams 121
launch stress analysis 117, 119, 125 rectilinear beams 115
launching 17, 1819, 39 double blisters, integrative tendons 212213
length 141, 170 double casting cell, two-phase casting in 158161, 162
monitoring 128132 downhill launching 44, 4950, 6364, 68, 106
orthotropic decks 239241, 255256, 275 draw cables 4647, 4951, 58, 59
prestressed composite bridges 303, 304305 drawbars, light superstructures 45, 5051
prestressing 207, 208211, 214 drying
rotation 2122 in-place concrete casting 279
segmentation 8, 140144 incremental slab launching 294
soft damage 169 DSP (densied with small particles) materials 300
temporary piers 99 ducts
time-dependent effects 111, 188, 191192 internal tendons 213
twin I-girders 231 short-line casting and launch 149
see also curved decks strand pushers 200
deection recovery transverse prestressing 216
circular beams 124 Dunaujvaros Danube Bridge, Hungary 251
elastic 94
hydraulic systems 259 Ebealbach Bridge, Germany 19
launch bearings 76 Eberspacher launchers 5462
negative bending 79 abutments 55
segment extraction 167 curing area 58, 169
short launch noses 77 front deck region 211
trussed launch noses 73 launch stress analysis 110
see also vertical deection surveying longitudinal axial stress 186
densied with small particles (DSP) materials 300 modulus of elasticity 131

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Index

Eberspacher launchers (continued ) extensometers 132


prestressed composite box girders 336337 external prestressing, PC bridges 6
reinforcement 221 external tendons
stress checks 187 case studies 341
stresses in piers 107 launch prestressing 196, 201203, 205
eccentricity prestressed composite box girders 323
bending/shear envelopes 128 rear deck region 210
loads recent trends 216217, 220
incremental slab launching 294 service prestressing 213215
launch bearings 178 extraction of segments 165167
prestressing 195
stresses fabrication requirements, steel girders 242243
analysis 115 failure modes, corrugated-plate webs 328
piers 106107 falsework, construction on 338
support reactions 322 fan-shaped tendons 215
edge axial stress 193 eld splices 244245, 249251, 335
edge tensile stresses 194, 208 nite-element methods
efciency corrugated-plate webs 315, 319, 325326, 328
cross-sections 306308 launch bearing misalignment 183
materials, composite bridges 225 launch stress analysis 113, 124127
elastic beam differential equations 113114 vertical axial stress 186
elastic deection recovery 94 xed bearings, segment extraction 166
elastic deformation, concrete 190 ange clamps, friction launchers 62
elastic equilibrium stability 311 ange plates, corrugated-plate webs 318319,
elastic supports, temporary piers 116 333334
elasticity ange stiffeners, launch noses 8384
concrete 187, 309 anges
modulus of 109, 130131, 309, 317 L-shape connectors 338339
elastomeric bearings, lateral guides 173, 175 launch shoes 291, 292
elastomeric blocks, steel girders 256 prestressed composite box girders 310311, 312,
elastomers 322, 329
Neoon pads 171172, 175 steel girders 244, 255
sliding bearings 256 thickness 329
elastoplastic large-deection analysis 272 twin I-girders 233234
electro-hydraulic launchers 54 U-girders 236238
see also Eberspacher launchers uplift 255
electro-hydraulic winches 43 exural capacity, orthotropic decks 241
Elorn Bridge, France 302 exural efciency
end pier diaphragms, temporary joints 205 launch stresses 71, 72
end plates, launch noses 85, 90, 92 prestressed composite bridges 307, 337
Enlace del Cadagua Bridge, Spain 260 exural rotation
envelope of bending 127128, 207, 260 circular beams 123
envelope of shear 127128, 260 decks 192
envelope of torsional moment 125 launch bearings 175
epoxy joints, deck segmentation 140 exural stiffness
Eulers critical load 108 box girders 177, 337
Eurocode 3 concrete slabs 292, 319
lateral torsionexure buckling 266 corrugated-plate webs 316, 320321, 329
local buckling 267 launch noses 76, 77, 8081, 98
local launch stresses 271, 274 modulus of elasticity and 130, 131
twin I-girders 234 prestressed composite bridges 340
Eurocode 4, twin I-girders 234 U-girders 238

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Index

oorbeams, U-girders 239 global buckling, corrugated-plate webs 326327, 330


forces Great Belt Link, Denmark 302
launching techniques 43
piers 104105 half-span segments 146148
rectilinear beams 113114 HDPE pipes see high-density polyethylene pipes
see also launch forces; lock forces; thrust forces hemi-symmetrical component, launch bearings
form stripping, segment extraction 165 181184
forming carriages 281285 hemi-symmetrical loads, launch bearings 180
casting bed comparison 290 high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipes 204, 213
incremental slab launching comparison 293 high-performance concrete (HPC) 300302
left-in-place form comparison 278281 highway bridges
foundation beams, in-place casting 145 incremental launching 4, 8, 28, 226
friction jacking/skidding 24
incremental slab launching 294, 295 launch noses 72, 74
losses, integrative tendons 213 launch/lock forces 68
stresses in piers 106 light superstructures 44
transfer, light superstructures 46, 47, 54 SPMT platforms 18
friction anchoring, abutments 49 steel thickness 139
friction coefcient web thickness 138139
launch/lock forces 6668 highway overpasses 169170, 200
PC bridges 175 hollow-plunger cylinders 45, 46
piers 104 horizontal joints, two-phase casting 155, 157
steel girders 255 horizontal launching see uphill launching
friction launchers 55, 57, 58, 6062, 64 horizontal rotation 21
front cable-stayed systems 9499, 259260, 265 HPC (high-performance concrete) 300302
front cantilever HuberMises ideal stress 273, 328
lateral torsionexure buckling 263 hydration effects
support systems 259260 concrete cracking 286
front deck region HPC 302
launch prestressing 207, 210211 hydraulic compression, friction transfer 47
time-dependent effects 188, 191 hydraulic cylinders 51, 52, 94
frontal splices, launch noses 8688 hydraulic forming carriages 282, 284
full-depth precasting, concrete slabs 276278 hydraulic guides 176
full-span launching, PC bridges 24 hydraulic jacking systems 23, 99
hydraulic launch bearings 174
gantries hydraulic launchers 43, 54
Bubiyan Bridge 305 hydraulic systems, deection recovery 259
self-launching 27, 28, 32 hyperstatic effects
Sylans Bridge 305 concrete creep 193
geometry front deck region 210
adjustment, forming carriages 285 hyperstatic stresses 177
casting yard 58 hyperstatic structures 1
constraints 3943, 89
corrugated-plate webs 316 I-girders
decks 125 assembly yard organisation 249
imperfections 110, 140, 266, 329 buckling 336
launch bearings 177178 concrete cracking 286
tolerances, design standards 249 corrugated-plate webs 315, 331
Ginzan-Miyuki Bridge, Japan 334, 341 girdersubstringer systems 230
girder segmentation, steel/composite bridges instability 260263, 265267, 268, 271
242248 launch noses 7273, 8182, 259
girdersubstringer systems 54, 228230, 278 launching 252

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Index

I-girders (continued ) interactive buckling, corrugated-plate webs


multi-girder systems 227228 327328, 330
segmentation 245 internal tendons
stress checks 273 front deck region 210
transverse prestressing 289 launch prestressing 196, 197203, 205, 207
U-girder comparison 236 prestressed composite box girders 335336
see also twin I-girders rear deck region 209
Ile Falcon Bridge, Switzerland 42 recent trends 216217, 218219
in-place casting reinforcement 221
concrete slabs 910, 278289, 293294 service prestressing 212213
MSSs 26 spliced by couplers 197200
segments 144169 spliced by overlapping 200201
twin box girders 240 investment in special equipment 162163
inclined bottom slab soft arrangement 185 iron metallurgy progress 225
inclined framed prop, long-span crossings 100
inclined launch surfaces, nose/deck 73 jack bearings
inclined webs, U-girders 236237 adjustable 109
incremental launching 2432 temporary piers 99100
over arches 32 jacking 2324
cable-suspended decks 38 Eberspacher launchers 58
concrete slabs 275, 285, 289295 front cable-stayed systems 98
edge tensile stresses 194 incremental launching and 17, 294295
nal articulation 3132 launch bearings 176177
geometry constraints 3943 launch noses 76, 86, 94
in-place casting of segments 161, 163 light superstructures 44, 45, 4849
long-line casting and launch long-line casting and launch 152
one-phase casting longitudinal prestressing 288
PC bridges 4, 78, 115 joints
prestressed composite box girders 317, 321, 323, cracking 198
336337 deck segmentation 140141
reinforced concrete 56 edge tensile stress 208
reinforcement 220 internal tendons 199
scheme types 196 steel/composite bridges 250, 293
seismic design 3132 temporary joints 205207
short-line casting and launch 148 two-phase casting 155, 157
single span launching comparison 18 see also construction joints
steel girders 10, 226, 239, 268, 289295
structural conguration 2831 K-frames, girdersubstringer systems 228230
technological maturity 5, 17 Kufstein Bridge, Germany 4, 5
time-dependent effects 187, 191192
trusses 274 L-segments, U-girders 249251
two-phase casting 155 L-shape connectors
U-girders 235 anges 338339
instability prestressed composite box girders 335
launch stresses and 260274 labour costs
prestressed composite box girders 311312 composite bridges 228, 308
twin I-girders 234 prestressing 204, 213
instrumented sections 129, 131 rear thrust systems 54
integration constants, launch stress analysis 121 reduction of 1
integrative tendons short-line casting and launch 154
external 213215 stress corrections 72
internal 202, 212213 temporary piers 99

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Index

labour demand launch stresses


launch prestressing 200 analysis 110127
minimising 142 correction of 68103
steel/composite bridges 248 PC bridges 137, 195
labour specialisation, two-phase casting 158 piers 103110
lateral bracing steel girders 226, 245, 260274
girdersubstringer systems 230 U-girders 235
nose design 8182, 88 launching
three-dimensional models 263 advantages 2
lateral guides 6266 techniques 4362
PC bridges 170187 time-dependent effects 191194
prestressed composite box girders 313 two-phase casting and 164
steel girders 256 left-in-place forming systems 278281
lateral torsionexure buckling 252, 260267, Leie River Bridge, Belgium 22
336 lifting batteries 177
lateral wind, launch guides 64 lifting jacks, pier-cap gear 176
launch bearings 6266 lifting trusses 149
assembly 172 light superstructure launching 4454
deection recovery 76 lightweight concrete 303
downhill launching 49 limit conditions, launch stresses 68, 69
incremental launching 40 linear elasticity, concrete 187
length 175 live service loads, CBG/PCS 308
local stresses 184187 load dispersal, steel girders 269
nose design 88 load effects
PC bridges 170187 CBG/PCS 308
prestressed composite box girders 312313 corrugated-plate webs 317
skidding 30 incremental slab launching 294
steel/composite bridges 251, 252258 launch bearings 178
temporary piers 99, 103 prestressing 195
vertical misalignment 177184 rectilinear beams 119
launch forces 6668, 294 web crippling/yielding 328329
launch gradient effects 66 load reduction, concrete forming carriages 284
launch noses 7274 load testing
cable-suspended decks 36 corrugated-plate webs 319
case studies 340341 launch noses 92
connection to deck 8894 load transfer
curved bridges 174 abutments 4344
design 8088 deck alignment 63
front cable-stayed systems 9798 orthotropic decks 239
incremental launching 41 local buckling
local stresses 184 corrugated-plate webs 324326, 333
modulus of elasticity 131 steel girders 261, 265, 266, 267268
prestressed composite box girders 336 local eccentricity, support reactions 322
shimming 194 local modes, web instability 311
single span launching 1719 local stresses
steel girders 252, 259, 273 launch bearings 184187
stresses prestressed composite box girders 320
analysis 112, 117, 124, 125 steel/composite bridges 268274
piers 109 local yielding, prestressed composite box girders 311
time-dependent effects 192 lock forces 6668
launch prestressing 196211, 220 lock systems, light superstructures 49
launch shoes, concrete slabs 291, 292293 logistics, PC bridge launching 8

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Index

long bridges movable scaffolding systems (MSSs) 2627, 32, 33,


assembly yard organisation 246 146
incremental launching 28 multi-girder systems 227228, 266, 278
orthotropic decks 275 multispan cable-suspended decks 38
steel decks 241
time-dependent effects 192 naval applications, corrugated steel 314
see also long-span crossings Neckar River Bridge, Germany 32, 33
long launch noses 76, 78 negative bending
long-line casting and launch 150152, 162 circular beams 124
long-span crossings 100 composite bridges 287
see also long bridges deck rotation 21
long-span trusses 274 envelope of 128
longitudinal axial stress front cable-stayed systems 97
bottom slab 337 launch noses 77, 7879, 81, 88, 9092
corrugated-plate webs 317318 steel girders 259
launch bearings 186187 time-dependent effects 191
steel girders 270, 271273 twin I-girders 232
longitudinal component, piers 104 U-girders 271
longitudinal direction, launch bearings 178 negative moment, bending/shear envelopes 127
longitudinal exural stiffness, corrugated-plate neopreneTeon (Neoon) pads
webs 316 incremental launching 4, 65
longitudinal forces, prestressed composite box launch bearings 171172, 175, 185
girders 310 launch noses 82, 94
longitudinal load, piers 106 pier-cap gear 176
longitudinal post-tensioning, concrete slabs 278 prestressed composite box girders 312313
longitudinal prestressing 6869, 287289, 294, stresses in piers 106
318 transverse clearance 186
low-friction losses, integrative tendons 213 two-phase casting 161
low-friction support, segment extraction 166
Nizhnegorodsky Bridge, Russia 260
macro-defect free (MDF) materials 300 no-warping model, corrugated-plate webs 326
mass matrix, launch stress analysis 127 non-compact sections 268
masts non-linear nite-element analysis 328
front cable-stayed systems 9798 non-participation, left-in-place forming systems 280
single span launching 20 non-prestressed composite bridges
Maupre Bridge, France 334, 338341 HPC use in 301
MDF (macro-defect free) materials 300 launch stresses 70
metallurgy progress 225226 stiffened-plate webs 324
midplane of webs, vertical axial stress 184 see also steel girders
midspan closure, incremental launching 31 nosedeck interaction 7480, 184
midspan hinges, time-dependent effects 187 see also launch noses
midspan sections
launch stresses 128 Olifants River Bridge, South Africa 28, 61
service prestressing 211 one-phase casting of segments 145155, 162
two-phase casting 157 optimum prole, corrugated-plate webs 332
Millau Viaduct, France 61, 97, 99, 259 orthotropic decks, steel girders 239241, 255256,
misalignment, launch bearings 177184 275
modular RC temporary piers 100, 101 orthotropic plates, corrugated-plate webs 326
modulus of elasticity 109, 130131, 309, 317 outer forms 155, 157, 248
Mohrs circle 187 overlapping method
monolithic launching 89, 55, 170, 293 antagonist tendon splicing 203
monolithic segments, construction joints 142 internal tendon splicing 200201, 213

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Index

overloading, launch bearing misalignment 178 twin I-girders 232233


overpasses, highways 169170, 200 positive moment
bending/shear envelopes 127
parabolic prestressing 211212 nosedeck interaction 80
parametric analyses, circular beams 124 pre-sizing steel/composite bridges 226242
Parana River Bridge, Brazil 241 precast concrete slabs 276278
Park Bridge, Canada 229, 230 precast I-beams 32
patch loading, web crippling/yielding 328329 precast segmental highway overpasses 169170
Pavilion Bridge, Spain 20 presses, corrugated-plate webs 333334
PC bridges see prestressed-concrete bridges prestressed composite box girders 304
PCS see prestressed composite sections bending/shear envelopes 127
peak ground acceleration (PGA), lateral guides 64 construction of 335336
pedestals, launch bearings 176 corrugated-plate webs 314341
pendular temporary piers 102103 friction coefcient 66
PGA see peak ground acceleration launch bearings 6263
pier diaphragms launching 1011, 312314, 336337
temporary joints 205 rear thrust systems 53
twin I-girders 231 stiffened-plate webs 309314
pier-cap forces 104105 stress corrections 6972
pier-cap gear 176177 prestressed composite bridges 299345
piers prestressed composite sections (PCS)
box girders 25 exural efciency 307
end pier diaphragms 205 self-weight 307308
front cable-stayed systems 98 prestressed-concrete (PC) bridges 137224
launch stresses in 103110 bending 299
left-in-place forming systems 280 braced launch noses 18
longitudinal axial stress 186 cable-suspended decks 35
service prestressing 211, 215 composite bridge comparison 225
temporary piers 7172, 97, 99103, 109110, cross-sectional efciency 306307
115116, 155, 211, 259 decknose connection 88
two-phase casting 157 deck segmentation 140144
pivot pier rotation 65 design validation 128130
plane sections, corrugated-plate webs 320 development 1
plastic settlement/shrinkage 285 Eberspacher launchers 58
PLCs see programmable logic controllers elastic deection recovery 94
Po River Bridge, Italy 241, 251 external prestressing 6
poly-tetrauorethylene (PTFE) 103 friction coefcient 66
nal articulation 31 front cable-stayed systems 96
in-place casting 145 full-depth precasting comparison 277
launch/lock forces 6667 girder segmentation 242
Neoon pads and 106, 171 HPC use in 301
skidding 23, 255 in-place casting of segments 144169
steel contact 166, 175, 177 incremental launching 4, 78, 24, 2627, 29, 40
steel girders 255256 lateral guides 170187
polygonal tendons 212, 217219, 323 launch bearings 6263, 170187, 253
Pont de la Corniche, France 337338 launching
portal cranes 247 advantages 2
positive bending methods 79, 43
envelope of 128 over arches 32
front deck region 211 technology 19
launch noses 88, 9091 nosedeck interaction 74, 78
steel/composite bridges 251 nose design 8182

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Index

prestressed-concrete (PC) bridges (continued ) rectilinear beams 113120, 124


prestressing 194220 rectilinear box girders 179
rear thrust systems 53 rectilinear girder anges 233
reinforcement 220222 rectilinear launch noses 41
rotation 21 rectilinear strands, prestressing 195
shrinkage 304 rectilinear tendons 201203, 216218, 221, 305
steel girder comparison 259 reduced transfer matrix (RTM) method
stresses circular beams 120124
analysis 115 launch stress analysis 112124, 126
corrections 68, 7072 rectilinear beams 113120, 124
piers 103 redundancy, incremental launching 31
temporary piers 99 redundant variables, launch stress analysis 117
thrust systems 336 Reggio Emilia Bridge, Italy 3839
time-dependent effects 187194 reinforced concrete (RC)
tow systems 44, 4849 blocks, launch noses 92
transverse prestressing 289 elasticity 187
yard organisation 140144 incremental launching 56
prestressing 194220 launch bearings 172
prestressing bars plates, piers 109110
launch noses 84, 85, 88 temporary piers 100, 101
light superstructures 44, 47 reinforcement of PC bridges 220222
prestressing jacks 49, 51 relaxation of steel 190191
process simulation, in-place casting of segments resistance factors, corrugated-plate webs 329330
161165 Rialto Bridge, Venice 20
programmable logic controllers (PLCs) 56, 5861, rib frames, steel form panels 155, 156
107, 186, 336337 ribbed slabs 3536
PTFE see poly-tetrauorethylene launch stresses 69
one-phase casting 145, 146
railway bridges PC bridges 137
cable-suspended decks 37 rear deck region 209210
incremental launching 4, 8, 2829 rotation 65
jacking/skidding 24 vertical misalignment 177
launch noses 74 rigid rotations, launch bearings 182
launching over arches 34 Rio Caroni Bridge, Venezuela 2, 3, 195, 201
monolithic launching 170 Ritz method, tangential stresses 326
prestressing 196, 211 river bridges
single span launching 19 cable-suspended decks 37
slab thickness 138 Eberspacher launchers 59, 61
stresses in piers 103 launching over arches 32, 33
trusses 242 rotation 22
twin I-girders 232 single span launching 1920
web thickness 139 structural conguration 28
railway transport, steel girders 243 trusses 241
RambergOsgood strain-hardening model 328 see also individual river bridges
RC see reinforced concrete rocking frame, steel girders 256, 257
reaction beams, rear thrust systems 51, 53 roll bearings 253254, 258
reactive powder concrete (RPC) 300, 317 rotation 2023
rear deck region 207, 208210 creep deections 192
rear segment, long-line casting 151152 incremental launching 40
rear thrust systems 44, 5154 launch bearings 6465, 175, 179, 182183
rebar grids 220 launch stress analysis 118, 123
rebar jigs 142, 143, 149, 222 pier launch stresses 105

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Index

rotationtranslation, incremental launching 40 prestressed composite bridges 303304, 316319,


RPC see reactive powder concrete 320, 323324, 326, 329, 331333, 335
RTM method see reduced transfer matrix method prestressing 195, 204
reduction 214, 215
safety steel girders 259, 271, 274
incremental launching 17 shear bolts, launch noses 8687
launching over arches 32 shear keys, launch noses 85
PC bridge launching 7 shear lag, U-girders 237238, 263, 272
Saint-Venants theory of torsion 320321 shell elements, I-girders 265
Salbris Bridge, France 314 shimming 194, 281, 284
San Roque Viaduct, Spain 260 short bridges
Sart Canal Bridge, Belgium 103 assembly yard 246, 248
Sathorn Viaduct, Thailand 204, 205 costs 170
Schnaittach Bridge, Germany 29 time-dependent effects 192
Schrotetal Bridge, Germany 29 short form tables, long-line casting 151
screeding 189190 short launch noses 77, 78, 97
segment-to-span ratio, PC bridges 141 short-line casting and launch 148150, 162
segments on span completion 152155, 162
casting sequence, concrete slabs 281 shrinkage
deck, casting yard 140144 concrete 132, 188191, 222, 275, 279, 285286,
extraction 165167 294, 304305
girders 242248 prestressing 196
highway overpasses 169170 two-phase casting 160
in-place casting 144169, 284, 285 wet joints, deck segmentation 140
incremental launching 290 simulations, in-place casting 161165
seismic design 3132, 64 single casting cell, two-phase casting in 155158,
self-launching gantries 27, 28, 32 162164
self-propelled modular transporter (SPMT) single-cell box girders 137, 179
integrated platforms 18, 1920 single span launching 1720
self-resisting construction 67 Sinntal Bridge, Germany 29
self-weight sinusoidally corrugated steel 314, 317, 324, 333
bending 191, 194, 215, 265, 266, 268 skidding 2324, 25
CBG/PCS 307308 incremental launching and 17
limiting 299, 304 launch bearings 30, 173, 175176, 252
Serio River Bridge, Italy 59, 194 long-line casting and launch 152, 153
service prestressing 211220 short bridges 170
service stresses 71, 137, 195, 246 steel girders 255, 258
serviceability limit state (SLS) Skye Bridge, Scotland 7
front cable-stayed systems 98 slab construction stresses, steel girders 245
girder segmentation 244 slab thickness, PC bridges 138
launch bearings 173, 175, 184, 187 see also concrete slabs; ribbed slabs
launch noses 82, 8687, 92 slender sections, local buckling 268
prestressing 195, 204, 207210, 213, 220 slenderness ratio, piers 107108
steel girders 272 sliding bearings 255, 256257, 258
time-dependent effects 194 sliding frames 107
twin I-girders 232 sliding sledges 5556
shape connectors, corrugated-plate webs 323 slope stresses in piers 106
shear SLS see serviceability limit state
envelope of 127128, 260 softs
integrative tendons capacity 213 decks, damage to 169
launch noses 82, 88, 92 incremental slab launching 291
launch stress analysis 110111, 115, 123, 126 vertical axial stress 185

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Index

software programs, launch stress analysis 112113, truss launching 274275


125, 126 see also steel structures
space-frame decks, prestressed composite bridges steel form panels, rib frames 155, 156
303, 304305 steel girders
span sequences, bending/shear envelopes 128 bending/shear envelopes 127128
span-by-span casting cable-stayed systems 94
launching over arches 32 concrete cracking 286
MSSs 26 concrete forming carriages 283284
span-by-span precast segmental erection 27 friction coefcient 66
special equipment friction launchers 62
girder segments 246 incremental slab launching over 289295
investment in 162163 launch bearings 6263
splicing launch noses 7273, 81, 86, 92
antagonist tendons 203 launching 910, 29, 43, 226228, 252274
assembly yard organisation 249251 local launch stresses 268274
corrugated-plate webs 335 orthotropic decks 239241, 255256, 275
girder segmentation 244245 rear thrust systems 53
internal tendons 197201, 213 segmentation 242246
launch noses 90 stresses
see also frontal splices analysis 112, 124
SPMT platforms see self-propelled modular corrections 68, 70, 72
transporter integrated platforms piers 103
spreadsheet application temporary prestressing 288
interactive buckling 327 tow systems 44, 48
launch stresses 119 weight considerations 244245
nosedeck interaction 80 see also I-girders; U-girders
stability steel plates 243, 291
corrugated-plate webs 324330 steel structures
elastic equilibrium 311 cable-suspended decks 36
see also instability front cable-stayed systems 97
staggered couplers 199 launch noses 72
state arrays, launch stress analysis 117118, 120, launching 2, 5, 19
122, 124 PC competitiveness 1
static system continuous beams 117 temporary piers 99100, 102
stay cables see also steel bridges
cable-suspended decks 35 steel trusses see trusses
front cable-stayed systems 9499 steel webs, composite box girders 10, 309341
launching over arches 3334 see also web . . .
rotation 65 stickslip effects 294
steel girders 259260, 264 stiffened-plate webs 309314, 324
stresses in piers 106 stiffeners
temporary piers 102103 launch noses 83, 84
see also cable-stayed systems orthotropic decks 240
stayed masts 20 steel girders 269
steel U-girders 238
PC bridges 139, 190191, 222 stiffness
PTFE contact 166, 175, 177 circular beams 122
relaxation of 190191 composite box girders 235
steel bridges 225298 launch noses 91, 109
conceptual design/pre-sizing 226242 orthotropic decks 241
concrete slabs 275295 prestressed composite bridges 316
girder segmentation 242248 see also exural stiffness

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Index

stiffness matrix 126127, 266 Tagus Suspension Bridge, Portugal 251


storage area, steel/composite bridges 246247 tangential launch noses 41
straddle carriers 247248 tangential stresses 69, 82, 84, 86
strain gauges 129130, 132 corrugated-plate webs 318320, 324327, 330,
strands 331
launch noses 88 PC bridges 187
light superstructures 44, 4546, 4849 steel/composite bridges 273
prestressed 299 Teon see neopreneTeon . . . ;
pushers, ducts 200 poly-tetrauorethylene
relaxation of 190 temperature, in-place casting 144145
temporary piers 103 see also thermal . . .
Stratford Regional Station Pedestrian Bridge, UK temporary front cable-stayed system 9499
242 temporary joint prestressing 205207
stressed bars, launch noses 8687 temporary piers 7172, 97, 99103
stresses aerial casting cell 155
analysis 110127, 294295 launch stresses 109110, 115116
checks 187, 273274 service prestressing 211
correction of 68103 steel girders 259
corrugated-plate webs 317321, 324327, 330, temporary prestressing, steel girders 288
331 temporary tendons 202203, 218
incremental launching 194 temporary towers 248
launch bearings 177, 184187 tendons
piers 103110 case studies 341
steel girders 245246, 268274 launch stresses 70, 89, 115, 125, 130
see also axial stress; compressive stresses; launch PC bridges 139, 141142, 152, 162
stresses; prestressed . . . ; prestressing; tensile prestressed composite box girders 323,
stresses; transient stresses 335336
structural conguration, incremental launching prestressing 195205, 206207, 209220, 289
2831 reinforcement 221
structural efciency, prestressed composite bridges rotation 22
308 space-frame decks 305
structural non-participation, left-in-place forming span-by-span precast segmental erection 27
systems 280 time-dependent effects 191
strut-and-tie mechanisms 89 transverse prestressing 289
stud pockets, concrete slabs 290 tensile stresses
sub-panels, corrugated-plate webs 331333 concrete slabs 276, 286287
substringers see girdersubstringer systems incremental launching 194
support jacks 58 joints 208
support rails 150 PC bridges 6
support reactions steel girders 9
concrete slabs 292 tension-to-compression ratio, temporary piers
damage to deck soft 169 102
local eccentricity 322 TGV high-speed railway, France 24, 28
prestressed composite box girders 312313, 320, theodolite use 129
322, 328 thermal effects, launch stresses 131132
steel girders 254255, 269271 see also temperature
vertical axial stress 184 thermal expansion 115, 121, 132, 140, 286
support sections, circular beams 122124 thermal shrinkage 279, 286, 294
surveying, design validation 128131 three-dimensional frames, launch stresses 126
Sylans Bridge, France 305 three-dimensional models, lateral buckling 263
symbols 1116, 139 three-span bridges 23
symmetrical component, launch bearings 181 thrust cylinders 54, 62, 150

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Index

thrust forces transverse reinforcement 220221


curved decks 63 transverse stiffness, prestressed composite bridges
Eberspacher launchers 56, 58, 221 316
light superstructure launching 46, 47, 54 trapezoidally corrugated steel 314, 317, 324, 326,
longitudinal axial stress 186 328, 332
piers 105 triangular corner stiffeners, launch noses 83, 84
thrust systems, PC bridges 336 trusses 241242
time-dependent effects concrete forming carriages 283
bridge launching 191194 launch noses 72, 73, 81, 87, 93, 259
concrete slabs 276, 280, 288 launching 274275
deck deections 111 lifting trusses 149
internal tendons 199 multi-girder systems 227
PC bridges 187194 temporary piers 102
time-dependent strains 132 tunnel forms 147
time schedules tunnel forms 146147, 158
two-phase casting 158, 161 twin box girders 239, 240, 338
yard organisation 141, 144 twin casting cells 162
Tiziano Bridge, Italy 152, 153 twin I-girders 230235
tolerances, temporary piers 110 concrete cracking 286
top slab corrugated-plate webs 315, 331
antagonist tendons 206 instability 262, 266, 268
cap tendons 213 transverse prestressing 289
case studies 340 two-phase casting
prestressed composite box girders 335 antagonist tendons 203
rear deck region 209 in double casting cell 158161, 162
time-dependent effects 189 prestressed composite box girders 335
two-phase casting 164 in single casting cell 155158, 162164
torsion
box girders 178, 235, 336 U-cages see cage prefabrication
distortion interaction 320321 U-girders
launch bearings 179, 181183 assembly yard organisation 249251
launch stress analysis 123124, 125, 126 cable-suspended decks 38
orthotropic decks 241 composite box girders 235239, 336
steel girders 252, 260267 front cantilever systems 260
tow systems 43, 4451 incremental launching 268
trafc volumes, full-depth precasting 277 launch noses 259
transfer-matrix method 112, 114 launch stresses 70, 92, 93, 261, 263
see also reduced transfer matrix method launching 252
transient stresses 67 longitudinal axial stress 271273
transition curves, incremental launching 4243 multi-girder systems 228
translation, incremental launching 40 segmentation 245
transportation 243, 278, 334 U-sections/segments
transverse axial stress 321 cage prefabrication 157
transverse bending two-phase casting 160161
corrugated-plate webs 318 U-shaped tendons, web prestressing 216
steel girders 273 ultimate limit state (ULS)
transverse component, piers 104 girder segmentation 244
transverse deck equilibrium 63 lateral torsionexure buckling 266
transverse direction, launch bearings 178 launch bearings 184
transverse distribution, support reactions 313 launch noses 82, 92
transverse jacks 49 local buckling 267
transverse prestressing 215216, 277278, 289, 340 local launch stresses 271272, 274

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Index

prestressing 195, 200, 208, 218 waterproof membranes 287


twin I-girders 232 web alignment, composite box girders 312313
underbridges, jacking/skidding 24 web cages see cage prefabrication
unstiffened webs, steel girders 269270 web casting, two-phase casting 164
uphill launching web choice, girder segmentation 245
highway bridges 68 web crippling/yielding, patch loading 328329
lateral guides 63 web inclination, U-girders 236237
light superstructures 4445, 48 web instability, composite box girders 311312
stresses in piers 103, 105107, 108 web panels
urban environments, assembly yard organisation 251 buckling 311
steel girders 265, 267, 269270
V-joints, steel/composite bridges 250 web plates
V-trusses, launch noses 259 composite box girders 309341
Val Restel Bridge, Italy 42 twin I-girders 234
Vaux-sur-Seine Bridge, France 2 web prestressing, U-shaped tendons 216
Veitshochheim Bridge, Germany 34, 103 webslab interaction, corrugated-plate webs 320
vertical alignment, extraction rails 167 webslab nodes, composite box girders 310312,
vertical axial stress 184186, 254, 269271 318, 321324, 329
vertical component, piers 103104 web support reactions, steel girders 254
vertical deection surveying 129 web thickness
vertical displacements, steel girders 258 axial prestressing 216
vertical ange stiffeners, launch noses 83 launch noses 8283
vertical joints, in-place casting 144 PC bridges 138139, 184
vertical loads prestressed composite box girders 329
corrugated-plate webs 317 steel/composite bridges 252
front cable-stayed systems 98 wedge brakes, friction launchers 62
orthotropic decks 239 weight reduction, launch stresses 71
piers 106107 see also self-weight
vertical misalignment, launch bearings 177184 welding techniques
vertical prestressing 216 corrugated-plate webs 334
vertical rotation 2021 eld splices 250251
vertical shear, launch noses 92 stud pockets 290
vertical steel plates 291 transverse bending 273
vertical thrust beams 47, 48 twin I-girders 230
Vierendeel trusses 242 wet joints, deck segmentation 140
Von Mises yield criterion 324 wind considerations, prestressing 195
wind load, lateral guides 64
Wandre Bridge, Belgium 37 Wumbach Viaduct 33
warping, steel girders 262, 272
water, decks over 37 yard organisation see assembly yard organisation;
see also river bridges casting yards
water lling, launching over arches 3435
water-to-cement ratio, concrete 188189 zigzag corrugated steel 317, 324, 326, 328

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