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Du.nc- \Y........

"I"nold
The Early Episcopal Career of
Athanasius of Alexandria
OIriIrilnil)' and Judaism in Antiquity
Owlcs Kannengiesser, Series EdiICr
Volume 6
1HE EARLY EPISCOPAL CAREER OF
ATHANASIUS OF ALEXANDRIA

by
DUANE WADE-HAMP'rON ARNOlD
~CI99I~
Uni...m.y otNoue oa- Pre.tf;
Nolx n-e. ~-465S1l
AD ri&l=I ,.... WCIIl
~iad>e ~SlIIQ:ot AmerQ

e-.. w. K.

"----
AmoW,
T1Io urtJ ~ __ of _ ... 01 Aio........ 'b,. e.- Wodo-
P. ..... - (Cbri>Iionil)o and J........, .. .,.;qui!)' : . 6)
whol.. biblia....p/licu ,d.,_.. ond !nol...
ISBN o.261-OOnS_2
I. ""'-I... Soma. Polriu<h of Ak<m<lrio. t1 371. 2. Sp'lOII of 't)ft. L
Titk. tt. s-t..
BW~7J 199.
nO.2"'fl92,....c1c2
(Bl 9O-4H96
.,
=
To

ARTHURMIQiAELRAMSEY

rtquksaJI ill po
Bishop, Teacher. and Friend
ConYel1i me ad AlllIDaIiunl ~
~ -.mi. et er.il Yin Idminlio
lelIlIil. lit lib eo di..elli _ p(ll$im.
141 duo:I ciIU; b1lrol.a.a- C.....ilet::
IIUIIqlOe. irI prinlo Oulik ~
. , . ill o.u. K dmna
a ......... _il_.. _
*i _1'l, ==mri .....
~ . " ; ~ u ~...
1M' - . .. priIniI a
IS a fl''''
_ l . di.... _ _ .....
"""'-- paao ...-. LtP"
llr'liK _ 1ilIrw ad _ AriIa,
_q' I et ~idc
~ ... . piecIlk rdlo::u;
- . III IilliI _ tt&i-
'n a,qd_opericmtm!
poail. ~ ... IilRns
~'Iiri.u ~
lUJn _limwn, ......baWIi. di:pa
poOCckl,qllPlll _ _ lI(hirencur
CllGt'iIlIr, ~mn_
talISAm.1l1 cIi&n futott, lICit
tunClaliQIIC l1liul: haera1Iobltuiooa
;\& aperit. quit, ~ftlJlt. IIftlaQllt
SaIptwnrwn ..-ncrua cnodnl. UI
eIlSitiaoi tillP lec:lione lIIItI pouim
Quid f1)wn.1 SLaUtl apud me CIIIlvcrte>ldo,
iJllOll ac COIlles~ homini dtbitis lTItis!Tlt
lO\tIrn dedete: I; ClIIid otii $lIJlpedi~
jIIIIllttO: nihil onIIlIllUIlI cklwlllllt
Hlubriul, llIillil ;",hiu, ~pcriri ~
IIDIIAIllItr tdf""""vtrinl.
AMBROOIO TRAVERSARI
nFdnwy 1&24
CONTENTS

I'le&l:e _..............._ _............................ Ii


Abbr$"iIotiou __ ............... ~iii
11M!WorbotAdUnasllJlalAk.undril ~ii;
JDIlPIlI1Iand.ser;. ~i;;
DIctiorIlril:s tnd LuJcons ............. ~v
IlllJOduction ............... I

""'"' I
ATH.I.NASIlJS.: ~ CI1Ol.A1.AC1'Bl ANOo:m:xr

I. IniliaI 0 'f _ _ _ _. 9
'2. ilwelpa:aal ","""p._ _ __ _ _. II
2.1 ,.1t4oden~ ..__. .__.._ _.._ II
2.1 Ni I dK 1_') CoIIlpill'" _................... I.
2J CwIUII Views _......................... 20
3. 1swef; in DispulD 2.t
3.1 Aakkmirocationallbelssuc:l 2.t
3.2 ~udlbc:C ., nciaIle-oou., _ 1S
3.2.1 " . .....iMC:O'- Pnl;licaia_
o.aolAIt. " . _ __ _.__. 36
3,2,1 f'JQpIr . .lI51popel' I ole M'
.-:I C . ' '11lei:IDl Uld a.if.cmc.
. . O;uoei of ro:-. _.._. .. ..._. .3
3.'2.3 Ii! I Ij,.Iavd_" _ .It.,...".
E.."...,..-I E of AD 321 _...... q
3..l TheMc~_1.ondoII1'lpynof191 62
3 11M! Onulon 01 Orepy or NWan_ 89
COnc:ludin& ConsidetJIjoas ..... 9S

"''''""
ATHANASIlIS M'Onr!Sna>(lFT'o'U

I. TlM:lw.:tjpvuiidol SJftDClolT)re _ _ 10l


1.\ At' riUSII ~ AD 1111332 lOt
1.2 lbr. Concem_ L.iby-. AD 3l:loAD l33 118

1.31lle"'-iut~.AD)))'AD))l 126
lA TbeSynodo(Cr ca.MuQlAprll AD 3301 m
2 S)'llOdof~ .. _ 10
2.1 .... CallinloI .. S)'lOdofTyn,A03lS ............._ 10
2..2 P1OiA41leIAllAallloriI)' S)ftOdof..r' 1M!
2.3 n. ~ II . . $)'Mld of T)'Ie. July.oaotler
AD 33S _ __. IS)
1.4 1bI~~"'~AOl35 ..... 151
:u ne 'w1pn' II T)ft. 0I:dIer AD m ......_.._._.......... 160
Ui TbeRIPIOC.....
AD))S _.. .
!' _EWe.~bcr
__.. . 163

Qwt" _ _ _ .._ _._ _ m


AW""i': t..o-Ooa ~ 1914 _._ _ .._ _ '"
B~l(lIlt ._ _. 1.91
I'rimuy SounleI 191
Ednw _ T. l rl ., _ .._ 191
c .M." of Allc:lelu Soouce DaculeuI .._................. 19'1
8 _ _ 19'1
$egq1,., Sourca _.................... 19'1
IId:::r. 131
PREFACE

nil book, .. hic:h kpn .. I Ph.D. lhesil fot 1Ile Uaivenily of


DwlunI. EJI&Iand. hu been written in .. Ill_lit 10 darlty lIIe many
compk.s eve.1S wllicll look plxe durial IIle rl/1t "veil ye&t$ of tile
"9......... of AIJluwiaI of ",Lou"".. lUId 10 uplain Ibe ImpllCl ot ......
~ upon __ QnI\QI al'llltr$aadiai of lIIe biIhap. Tlw: _ _ of 11M:

book, d1ue:bc. ' - been d' d finl, by 11M: _ _ of lliIaxiop f


.... ~..,.dll:da ....... 1Ilq ....,. ......... "-,0,2 ,
. . . U IIoiIllop 01 AleullClria ill AD 32110 q bu. by !

C . . . . _ AD US. W'otio lbOta-xol_,......,. _ '.


_-co ,',,1'I'iIbAO ;'''lawWI AirboaPlbr.etranlllft.ec.
. . . 10 ~_ . . ~ 01 daoz doqa w>lhin I JWtIc::uIw period <:L
~ ic *-Id k.-.d dI:M~ <:Llbr. Ie: =yjeer WIft. ~ II J wiIbiII

1Iow.... I bft -eht 10 pi-. dll:dlii. .


_u
"'irbIiI.,............._..
..a --.,. <:L or!!inp It . I ' IUrllber at)IICIIS. Whe '0' N'

CrrtailI odle:r SI}'llIUc feawft:s <:L IbiI ~ sc.dy ....., bee .


Tlw: fader wiD tal tau publisbiaa; mtormaIilM b III of Ibl: _ _
Ihis lt1Idy ko IIle bibIioCr1Iphy .... willi IlooIa CllIlu ~ whidlllaC
been cms...l&d ia IIle COlIfse ot raeardllUld tOlllld ad.... Abbrevilltioros
. . . . . lie III&d tar 1Ilc ~ <:II A........" mq bee tlUld in lbe pn:lilDial')'
PIleI of dols wart, u '*.. /Or IlaIllbI1l WCIIb of re(ertno;e, joMnaIs, eec..
Small panjces of \his boot ftt1t IIppeMICI ill SadiiJ PlIlriIrIu, Ol21.
pp. )71313. Earlier ....sites olmaerial ~ here 1Ibo . . 1O bee fOlll'ld
iIIlhra! Il\kleI. ill (Apllt Cb,tll RmClt': "AJbnuiIll end lbe Mdetians"
(mi. 10, IloO. ): "AUlllothy rnd Proced..... II the Synod Tyro" (vol. 11. no.
3). "AL!wIa.llan Hi1lOrioaraplly" (vol. 12. no. 1). 1 ....01111 like 10 IhIll1t Ihe
Pecr.ers nrm In LeUeIl. publisher or Studla Palrist/ta. end 1hc editon of
Cop/It Clwrtll Revk.... tOt lheir pcnnis$ioo 10 allow lIlC usc or lIIit m.armaI.
__ tevW4. ill !be 1ft'CII'.su.ty.
.m...... I wo.Id IW: 10 LhaIlk "'ose whose &llOOIII1llt-_.... Id.ice, IDd
aldtd 1Ile mearclIlIllI writinl of this ~ WOIk. 1loere Ioa-e
beelI _ y pmtonIwho hive influenced my ..cIelSIandinl of AtbanaI1uI of
AIe.undrit. tlr Loa lI\IlIY 10 mentioa ill tIlit briel JpICe. SonIe.llowe_.
1IIon M!IIred 10 ~'" of !heir tme and e>.pelti_llw I _11 ba mnia
101 10 _ \hem.. 10...... special debt of IJ'IliUlde 10 .....y willlla tlw:
d.,
h . --..iJy d 1hc u.;voen:ity d DurbInl Ol>'\lo ....... me .... ~
...,. ud p""ided bdpllOI ~ ckriIl& ~ lime
ieMtxM- 1kIe ~ iIodIIIl-.1t& RL Ru'd SIqIIra 'N. S,tcI., Mr.
I cti. ltw

GeraIcl 8oMu. Dr. C.TJt Haywud.. ud Dr...... ' oWe. M, ~


dlIl*s iI aIfOc...... to Dr. Oaridnomu. wbo pided.., . . . . .
.... .ealmol""",;olC..... , d l a . '_b1 .. , ~ 0 1
"*'
.... Udee;M erdoic-ws..
IJI .... """"";"1'DlIlIIUlily bc)'Olld Ihe Ur.Il'f'llnil, of o..blIlhe:te
bne beea "'""71llben who 1IPe. . tee! .., IelCM:Il b)' tbcir IIlI'ricc flld
ditec:tioA. 'Ik h,,'d Or. WIDi= C. weinric:fl flta dinlC:lIlll_ to lie I(udy
01 AlNnMMW ud - . ~ to $IlO'OI ifu.eIulla
0arItI: 1:.. s"
.,..-Il..
has ..""ir:b1l1dpf1llllllelfCCiDn" ~ TIle
Pnll.

... RL Rc'd ILP.C. ~ whik ~ wilh "'*"" 01 ..,


~...... tk'= pooidtd as;,;bIfal toe.., " c. _bcr ..
triIal ..... oI ~ wilbia ItliI ~ . . , . TIleRto'd c...
PJol. w.... iMu toOt IiIK rn.. a bDs)' ' .. to n:acI . . "an-
.... dIaD rn.. wtlOcIl ..... tIoo* came .." It.enbJ euam IIll: d!IaIlb ...
srati&u* or.... ..-to.
I tc:eei'cd toUneou . .is&ante from .... UIIrariaaII ud IlaIT of Ihe
Ma/llIsalpIIlollIII and Re:adUI& Room or Ihe BrIWll Libnry: Ibc libnricl of
lIMi IIftl"eISl;lQ 01 DwlIIm. Shefrldd. NOlIe Duncl, and Detroit: and llle
Wayne SUllO UalYCtSk, Ub<:ry.
For the atIIdcrn;" ,ean 1\1lll-191lS 1 ...., Lbc n:clp\ctlt ollhc o.eneu
Raean;k SIIlClcnI A... ard beswwcd b)' .... Uni~ ICln.clonI'. Comminee 01
Vice Owlcelkln and Pmc:;p.b. This ~ ....1I'Il eIlIblecl me to cnp.ge
in the llUdy ... hit/I IlandI behind ibis p<UelIl work.
FinIlJy ., I wrilC Iheloe ~ftll ooe petfOlIwho befrieaded
me durin, my time ill DllIham -uu forallOSl In my hUrt ...... mind.
Al\lloIIi~ 1Ii1 dmdI ... clelUed opponunity at Iharin& lllil final rallIt
of Ill' ._11 wllb 111m RL Re><'d Mel RL "OIL Lord Ramsey 01
CIntrrbury .... III eumple of lboolcgical inlCJrit, flld lNe spiritualitY a
waI' pea -.qCIllCIllICl me. ill my WOIt IlItouP lhllOCl\llK olooun'lo:u
~. It .. ICl BIsIlap tMidlaelIllli lhiI book II dcdicIlM.

D.W.HA
2 FdlrIwJ 19!1O
TIle FI:u. of lbc PI ........
AIlIlRYIATIONS

nrwcrisfJ/AI........wafA~

M""'''''
A/IW
All
c....
M __
Episto/# tid AdtIpAi..... qi'N'p."
t:pisIo/4 ad A,/roI
Ap%fI<J tld;",,-_ _ CCWUUIIi_
M
EpUIoIa Gil D,/Xt1IIti_
Ail q. MI. " Lib. EpiwJ4"""Jioutlrt>" M~"~
,..,w
_.
j
AilJ_."AM.. Epi_b_J_.,ANi....,.....
AtlLaq':
M __ 111 E? ...,,,,,0. ib_ , ..

--
!

E? ! ._ :~ ,

Ap:>'"..._........
ce_ """""' ~
o._ Epi'" tie dtcmis N ~ rJI'ftIdi
o.fop Apa'".. tIe/qIJ ,..
0. .....
__ ~tlek:oa i_
f't>"rroI,, _ _ Nii
0. _ _
Epi-ola _ .......... DioaJ#ii1piK:ofll
0..,.. EpiJI4 ., ~ AriIoiloi J~ " S4'1ncMt ia
fsawitJoWb ..",
Of ""p. fhl'irJUi_
Ep.PqCL EpWoIa ad"?JC"IW~
Exp. ,~ ,,"- E.xposifi_, ill "sa/lOtOS
F,no/lA/u" &Jot, lA/""
HiJ/. NllUI. HisIorltlA~"'"ad_1ooI
Or.C.N....n O,atioM,_o Ar/Ivw Im
Or. c. N. IV OroM aMUlJ AriIlIw IV (PJwdo."........)
S.rop.l.lII EpistDIM GIl Suapic>o Im
T-. ad.AN. T........ ad NllilrtflOS
Vi/o AIIl. VI/o N%M

JOIInIdJ aIItl &m,

AIIaIIIl~
..........." ... J_NIJ fJ/ Mdul Hillaq

...un;,. de /itJb~ d!,;,,;P"
8'P" ..
1'...6.;....... 'hitxWfl
... $otilq ~ D-dl
CbrclI ms-, (Tllt"";";1ic:M
...."
o.q,w~ ...
..... iptiIas .. Bdla ' - <"-iI)
D.m_OIIl:r~..,

,...
Die piocma.e.
cnra. (dml
E. Sdlwa:u,
dris:"..'"
J~ Leipli ...s
Sc:WittItdkr de

G,~" kltri/tell. ooIa. llUld


4, cditt:d. by W. ~ and H. D. Ak.l:ndcrl,
Ikrlia.

IlerliIa, 1m. 1960.


HT< H..--dnt.llDriarI RrtWw
J"' JMrl>d fib ANi..tc IIIId CIlri#,III-. ErIJn:r..
""i"bmd
JEA JDIInIlII of EDJIlida ~
JH JD<II'IIIlJI ofEat...i.ricrJ H~
In' JD<II'IUIi D{JIIrisIic l'''''''''u

"
f lU
JTIIS. NS
JDlITNII D{ RdiI;-
IaIInIIII ofT1vtJlDIfaIl S"',. 1899-194~
JowlUll ofT1vsJJJJ,wM $DldUJ, _1lCrieI, 19SO-
..,.", A Sdt Ubnry of N!ceae IUld Potl-Nic:efte
F.tbers of !he 0uUtl1ll C1lutc:fl. edited by P.
Scl>arT and H. WIU, New YOfk. 18991900;
Rqlrinl ed. GfW'od Rapids, Michi,III, 1952-1974
HAXG Nederlands <Veldt!_ Urt~J(~1IIs
NtUl<T NedciDNU IMoio,ucll d}dIclfrl/l
HGG Na<:IIri&hlt" """ tkr K~IIi,Uc/w.1I G,ullstlql dIlr
Wimo:/UC!t<.1I :w G6UiJtlfll
H" N,... r .... _1Il SllIdiu

""" o4IluI""';'OI W'TU, h"J' 1m Aurtrll~ der


KircbeDYller-XODImlulOIl du ~\IUIsc:1>el:I
Abdemie del' WI iidoJlerl. OIl. 1. 1-180:

_m.
(Vii f '""
Die Apol",i,". edited by H.G. Ocri.... 8etlin.

""
""...an.. W....... ~ ... A~der
ICitdoen.I!UI>Ollllllluiooo doer Prt,,; ........
Ahdenw der Wi MfKa, >Oll. I, 116:
U.I 1- ... Gnc"kW . . . . . . . . SftiIu
J/6-:J2lJ. ediIod by H..(l. Opicz. BeNt. 193'
Cft<l'# ~"M '.
~ e.- e-.... ScrioI G-.
161 'IOls.. ediled by J.,P. MJ&-, ....... 11S7.

''''
ABBREVIATIONS ..
PC Pau<Jkls:iaea.n... CGapleq. ScricI LUoa. 221
...... edie:I by J.-P. Mlpe, Paris, 1~1-1164
ro '''''"*Cia QrieataIN cdiled "" R. Clnn"i. - ' F.
Nu., Paris, 1!lO7-
ItnSIt It~.,. ~

...
"" ~4~""U . rir-
ItHf'1t ,II,.... ~1risItlUf ,we "W'I,dli-su
ItSLIt ,II...... is JIIriI. 10_ _ ~
,IIodt<J Itnd.,,:... ~
Be omxa_ e4iIal by H. .. l...ot.:: aad J.
SaIIR:a
C S PaOI.I"'I_
B" $I....... f'"uufi.. ..... purOlUld III die
~ em . . . . . . PatriItic Slda bdd
on.. C1lottcl.. 0:danI
"nJ ~"""l'Irie
T~
j ".
_ U I l _.......... o-lIid,... dcr
IllclriIlIicbea LiIInlw
TLZ Tl\a:IIo,...,..~

"'"
TU,
TIIS,K,
nwo:..,uu.a~(TlIbmp)
TItuJIGricfJl Silidill
TMoIDIUl:M Siuditn IIIld KrlriUn
T'" TltmloliuNI 'hitIC/v(I (Ba$Ic)
,C VltiliJJ< C~
ZXG Ztiudrnfttw K;,r~IIJ<No
zm uilxlvifl filT 1:iuJIDI1IC/w TIwiG';'
ZNW Ztil.lClvift fir tU IW'wt _fIIfJli< Ito W1J:JDu<1tQji
wtd ~ KIl1IM .... "lenl KIr</w

OACL l)iclimuttJin 4'lJ'cltltW>li. <Wfl..,.. ef


1i'lUlie. edited by F. CabJoI llId H. Lcde.q.
Paris. 1903I9D
DC. A Di<tiDAtJry cf CIv/rlWo IJlt>l"'PIoy. UU'IIfItT
Sau. aQ Doclrilw." YOb.. cdimd by W. Smilb
- ' H. W..,., Lcndoa. Im11I7
DU'" OicMIlJUJir. 4'1I1"oi" .. d. liol'''''''
taUsitufiqau. edi.llld by A. 8aIDillKl, PIli$,
1911-
A f'~ C,m LalctM. ediicd by (l.WE.
Lampe,040d.19I!i1
,,.,
A Crcd - EqlWl t ........ 9dI cditilIa. 0xf<Ird.,

17woltl""
t...ri<:t.. fir 11M K"tlttt. I. cdllica.
cdiRd by M. Bcloberp. Fniblq. 19lG-193I
..,
Luiam fW TMoI",ie """ KiTelut. 2d CIlia"".
edited by J. Hllfcr Illd K. RalIlIet. Freilxq;, 1957-
MiWcI",~ unCOil AlbAlJri""...... ediled by Q. MIl1ler,
Bcrm, 19.52
ODCC no. O>{QId Dicao-y (Ij w C/WtNM ClIrvdJ.
24 ediliOll, odlwl by F.L Croa IJtlI E.A.
~ 1..oaIIc-., 1974
lttQ1wa- f'r JuWU ud CNUi"eNaft, ediled
by T. K1mIa', SruII.prt, 19S0-
~fi'~n-q .. 1lIOd
Xirdw. 3d IilUl, edlaed by A. Hau::k, Lcipzir:,
1896-1913
A e-cr.: Coptic 1I11is11 Luicotl. aliII:d by R.
Smilh, Gnnd bpids, Mic;1I... 1m
INTRODUCTION

In. work publishecl ill !be early willlU of 1981. !be Iatt. R.P.
Hena. ...... dle tollowint <otIIti .1Iion -...;", . . _ of .... dm<:h in
~ tourdl decide of Ibe fi:u1h oenIUI'}':

lkGredl:1 i'", EaRn Ifld N 'e...... i'" w_.-


of __ ChriIdIIl Ctwn:b . . _ he " . lor. ~ rift. ... lk
_0I"_l!IOIjWiI'lIi~1lhe""'a:ineofAn-..
n . '"Jil
t.Ws poW Ibe ....... e-_iJi bid .... to:Ulod. lk chicI
~ _e lbe iltrip 01 Euscbiu of e-w.uDOPk, llIe
OPPOO' of Jo1iuJora-,Ifld.... , 'of A!IIInIIiu of
A ... 'iI. . . -.dIe ....
_ _ ......1
JedFa ... lObe

TIe'I;"olofA" IO . . . . . ~ . . . . . . . _ _
___ __ of I.h= bru;k bel: _ _ ui Md I.h= Wc:a iI AD:WI
. ,of"'_ _ __ riicJl.,
'4_e.tr~ ,,_I
_of ' i I _ S~of~ MdIkIli.lllcp1
." .. ~
tI,L'
, I ..
KDdy 10 .....
........
, "" Olftn...... 1111_ ,.pow of
.. deuIJ dle eutr !:p', : , . 01 A& villi &-c. kill
tlIe...-
ICU ill AD mill lUI r. . ".ik ill AD 335. TIe a1kplD of
"""-. ciled Ibowta, ' - beeolM win
Po ~ y COil o ilIterprelIlioI oflht: -tr _
bo_" Iht: ..... oIltIis 1ladJ.
01 AIbn&siaI WId
ha.lbudore. ereoled .,. MIld br. bl1wwd 0fId eriDeII ~ ofll'lose
~ _ wllicb Jlf'O"Xle lI!Ie bilIit ror 'ljCh IlI.IemU!. This
lbIdy _pulUdlllfl ~
Bef'ore the eJlplol~~ _ IIld the COIlIIrUl:u.:. or IIfl
hisaqic:oI I\IInIlye untuin. ~poe Lhe S1flOlI or Tpe. IIowcYcr, it i.
importanl 10 ll(e ~ the preoel>I opieiolll concunln. !hi: w1y career of
Alhinuius ~.uo 1hemJel'IU' pan olllllllJllrlcal prDl;CIIwhictl ClMot
be .;ewe(! ill iIol.tioIt, Fot 1lI1.1 reuon $oction I eJl.... irlu wAlhanuius:
Questions of 0lIrIc:kt and ConteJl." Willtilt llIi. IIIlCtioti II'Kldem critical
"I'll"OI'Cba 10 Aihllllsius tr$ oompared 10 nlllelellnlh-OOll'y ""oIuations of

IIlP.c. H_. TIw S<JIIdI "" 'Iw c....... tJoarW '" GGtI, EdiJl'-IJI.
1931, V1a2.73.
,
die ........ arder D NiU. t.si<: 1Iiibicc>...., 01 C 'a, Illd
. . .~p;nry AU e.
JaotieI. Alth""&I' iI il; ioop-H=b'
lid. IloIdr tel be "blaine <- ..,.
lie uboat '""l1 18~
UKMd III . . .....:n;J, fie .am ..,. be -.z
01 toe " y III ..tIicllllle.
..........._ _ 10 ...... ni. . . bra. UctaI
- , . . TIe , . to. 01 drc Iir1t
....... -'Y_ol ... dTni.. widl ..
_
;. de..-.i Ill,.'
01_ ...

~''''~
I I.,. ;
___
,kwp I 01 _lxr 01 ~ _ ..lIidIlIIMlS bdlia:I_
dr:tIIlied dw ___
Thul: apa. 'I. . . . of ~ _ ~l bavin, beeII
.....;.&rnd, k g D
Mh'_'. ud lllC S~
"",.ides. Ioi.sIoricM lIIlTIli... Il'Id ua'
ol T,re. o...;q 1M .-...m -t of R.
II)
of 'riga

L.areu. lI/llCllllll .-JIe4;" die mIaIinI 01 ......... 01


, - " , k IIu beeII poaible to ~ . _aaa'_a
FuuJ
01 __
""."'e',
_ nil:hled ID ... f ....sj,,'s finI aa...1 Sar;h.task truto Iided by
1M ediliac oIlbs S,n.: Iadu. olllle FUIIII La8 ..t.idl_ widaukea by
A. Mu1iII ... M. AIbcn ..... whi<:h hal ptO'fidcd I _ I w ,eoised

T_. Ot.
2.. lMeIu.. 0., "'~~ OilLa/uflwiq w AI ....
_.b_ _ ~_YOfk.I_3Ol'l'.Tho~or",-
,ito, _ A~'

FUlIi lAt, boo _ . do......., ora <JI.1IIody,'II ....... - , . Adililionol


iot_
..... 11 "0\"
11M daIinf; 01 dIa 1&1
found in lh<. [olio..;
w.1l ..
,Ii
IU."""
info""......
lnNIlnl<lao: W.
CW- TIw Pu~ Ld",,,. of A,,""-ri.... u-Io IS-I ( Ib.. _p1<t&d
_ or "'- 5)'ri... l<uus); """ La';" InZlllatioo or Il>o IoilMI modo II)' e.u-
...., bo fo..... In I.P. Mlpo. PO 26, eok. \)60.\....; H. S TIw F I
_1Motpoo-_
EpU!1u., 5. AI~,,'ri .., Odord, 1"5, """,_ .. Eoo.Ii'h Iorioa !'oie~
oolditioDal S,n.: fnp>ona for I!>o.-h 0Ild ~ 1oUcn: A.
M.... S.... ,..._iI .inidM /m_. No Pcum Blblk"'-' 6, R-. lin.
_ _ InIM/w S)'rioc odItio11; eum.." InI\O.IolioIo io f...-l in P. t.u-, OJ.
F...~ W ~ Al._ri.. Loip<ia. 11$1; . . _ ..... of aw..,.. "'"
_
Art
0IMl ... _ _ .. A. II::'
L'Il'P.
s.Ioa
I>l. 0WIr4. 1"1 ~ .... Or
"''''''v. -'" tM_. '"
.....
w-;aq-. Itl5), ~~]; L.T. ~-. !. A"'--H,' f.;IuIu FuuJu ...
___ ... c.o. CSCO 1'151 ts<> io .. C.",nd -r- 1'20). ...
I~; P. )I ,. U& .yo ~....
O~i.tfir 1915. o--w.:t.
J 0--- _ I ' _ 1M Copo:iI: \oQon; "-10. w;.. '" 1M

......... _ . . . . . p_ '. . . . w.An-t".,..,


lIP .... . . . .A+ _
........_ _ T.
"I; ... c.,-
$

.... __
" pI
Ii.nI< _
-,
.-..:
rar;...6-1(1915.1m):

_ _ .Lc...-_E.I
Low. f _ ....... <P_.
'ni,..
B.N_ C.,. 11') (PI.
M
III
o,;"....Ji.
._..,.. ..
un.-
IA oM , . - . Il (1912): 1J7_ICZ: _ Cupdo: _ ., . . . . 19. l,
_.1 wioJI. r.-. I". if po;"' c;:.q... -L- '-'U FaoeIa
.... +._lC"C1101~ U._~IH . uW ipiIFAO.e-~
(J'\Mdooo X), 00" s. ~,...-w.U (1-'): UJ-U."
,
chronolop at " - eweIIU pm:.edin& Mel 1llnOI08di., IIle Synod of l)re.3
Much of lhlt wort ba. of COUl'Ie.lIlQuited ecOi ,'~;..uo. of doc IWldlInI
A1IaMwrslIrl chronolo&Y wfliell was ~;Ihcd by E. Scll~ ManIoYer,
die Synod of T)Te, .. well. dlose _ _ wIlld1 boIh peor:ded IJId followed
iu .. _ilia. Iou ,Clnaincd _ 1 l I t enitJuUo:- QlletlioDl - . iii..,
~ _1llIlIlnJ .l)re
..iqIoila'" WIoelIlef or _l!Ie rllllll~
llP'e'"
bceIl o....toobd or ddw" I ..
bildinaor...,.
ad ...., lou abo """'oj..... -.dear. h illlopie(\ lhallhis ........... will be
,odI l wiIbiII " c:ocr-. 01 dlir 1Ddy.
n. p_ijMI clif!kdy wllic:tI ca lIM 10 0 e:: _ .. wriOnt: JIUdy
ofcloe~,op ,+I_olAr' ;"" paIlIapIdoclllllil
. . - wtI, _mmr' aocIerJI ~ ~ ) olllle baIlCIp'" JCl
~tia ill cIoe _ I&I'Id ...,.;.,. ol Ilw. _....... A11:11oaP

A
~.
..,.. lUlly
~.
~isu'
~r I ~' ...
ns~;ad;:.:g;:As~~;
botIl earl)' 1lId~,
oJ;,,_
-...cI1Iu:ir _ _
..

'-IdY ypoa . . ol AN'ri," IliJnRIt' 1llI1..,.. ~. pra=. T'IlIM:r


IUm)W pti ....... tiw. 0. dw.odIetllancL iI Ill_be. : :: . ell lIlaa l/w..,._
~ of PIliklIb&iIllIlld dle . . worb al s-...
ol Hcndu, .. -u
.. !he ANn fqJOnI 1ndocb;l;1l dle worb of ~ tnd Epiphanj,," _
be flOIlIltllpll'liaJ IIld ..ay ~t 11\ equally cmm-ained pDft or~.
la tile ptI*M lWdy, '-'-"'U, MIenUon Iw bua cellerai upoa
qNodu willlia Itle _'" ~of IIth'A"' 'frllidl .......
DOl doe Ieart ol1llt$e beiailloc bilbop'. eoDcc,ioo oIdoolmrP" pre......... ia
~;. _...w,' Be)'Olld the _ clllld ~, Ioowc_ special effiln

'A. 101........ M........... HI6oV~ '''''~ .. 1>Wla ~ dG UIfTa


F_ _ i'N""-I'Al&woWlo, SC iI7.'..... I"'.
.,.... _ .. etu-1011 of SdIwltU oM 1M Ino~ of .... FUltd
' - -.... .. I _
1 r as
m. a.fuo. 19S9.

_'_e
'29 Q:w Ouc/oJdll. HI ~ U I. N(;Hf; 19001) _ _, bo GS IV.
'*
~ _.lho
B.w." 1'160. 1\1 ("Zln ~ ..
/19151: 12'I1J7). Allhool&h IIWI)' 'l"'U"- __
FUUIl t..~ _HUlOd "" SdI
p... ........ V.I'tri. ...... 0. Io.....r.
doo to J - ZNWI 24
"'-... '*'-lofJ/
""'"' poi.- 100ft lot-.
_lOll 011
'Aro_',,.,.. _..... .._ f_"'''''''
r. ~- M._).l (I~I): zt.I6: Mar. Lofon. -1M _ .
A. . . . .- ......... --..
. . .dr.- 19 t19$)): "16S6; .., T. D. B _ 10M , """'' ' ' "I
P " _ oriwlj _ or ........ ill ""' .....ww or A. M ..... H~ ".IT/IS. NS
)1 (1916): S76--m.
S,. .. P"'l" of ODld)r looo' j ' .. of
K.o.ep;a. .,.or . ; .. ..
U....~ ........ L'.. ~_ . . ~wMt (.. ~_
~ n. IIcrlio .... I,.o;pda, 1m u:. ), __ >ala . . .
_ . . . . . oflho""'''' _ oM 0.11oo; ; _1IIa
.-... Ir.od __ Iloo.-ll of ..._ ..... ....,. alibi
-"- dL I.......... ; I "" AD:ua _ HIO'" _ _.

Ills been ....... ID wllect ~_lhe 1IU.IleIt.,.,u.;'" a1lnrOfll'llu... eilJoer
_lain or mm:IJ probIble. ",Ilk' 1IIi&bl emllle .. D m ... _ ~

,.aflI es"......
ud ~ picbR ollhe penonalitJ
or IIis Abo. patIio;ular
lien: at AlIIInaslus Ia tlie-'Y
limI hili bII Ii- 10 _ _
upccu: Or Ilia _ n o o . 10 IlIe ~l III 1M. MdeIlaM. 10 Ihe
~ IUmlUllclln, 1M SytlOd. 01 Tyn whil:1l blIe - . ,eceioed
Idr~~f . . . . . Mol 10 _ _ . . . . . . , ~ 1lIs_~
beaI rll1lr ~ irllO ~ A.... ;,1IIOIticI.. TloeIe aoe. 10 _ .
I'cw: Ale.uoDiIIl" iMMI pr.-a afIu die e-nci' 01 ,"au: die
I.,C _umber of MeIelilM _110 pve l,brir Illqlanoe 10 AlJlMuiId
'01110 _ aka: dle siIIlllIr" $ 01 eoma IdalM II) ItIc
10 . 01 111... til AMio:d: Ibe e/lo::t 01* r.-- ~ ......
E(ypliIlI ~ 0Ilb; 1M lid 01 ""- ~ EcP bet ea AD 328
IllCI AD lH;.-I dlol paBibie 11_....... ." ... Of L.-bI """',..
I". Ia OPt 01 tile C(IIl(1I$ed tdiaiou lillOlCioll ill EI)1Il duriIIl
...dna,,;'.' ...,.' ... :; r

!be . . , lei ~"'J thea pMieIolar poiIQ. eapociaU)' 1l:l6 wert oIlU
Bell 01 I ...... hp)orn un_, Ul: bII ll.pJiJhIeCl b)' die. fol.lowiq
alt",aall 01 HMIoIl:

..... AD JS1 (Gu<-'Idoo tUr aIttIn:~U ..... U ....-l ediIioot. I'niboq.


19\., 61), SinoihIr .. ~ hod _ pul forwonl "" A.. R.h "'"". UlPF.
- . I - - . 001.. 91."'" "'"'-l ....... portIan "' .... _ to AD HI. R.
kllot ..Joe..." "'............... dMiDI tod _ _ I I _ 1M ..lin ..., ..... d>o
'OIol, 01 ..... '-'1 yurt of eel;... _ _ tkioo r iluIaDDo of _
boill& "'~Iu'. ~Io .. Nt... "" _ toIlowilol S1""d 01 T1ro ;"
AD 315 (.4'.......... A,NJo.... ~,. "',iMOW. flIT. bill","" ONIlhlW"",
[Dloo TIlIiII,,,,l. pc Iobf, 1932, 1-32). P. hriorJ ~ doo . .lior .,-..
01 B............... p<>ioDq II> ... pc tl oddi_ 01 ell. 19.90 ("C
,'''''''6o
t

.. A_ _ T)'r _ill: ,ted' . ,.".. M '_lrlf-:'.u.n. '- 10


_-* .. ~ot-u.
=_
. _ Mi l-.s .. ~ ~ ..No S. .... :100. 11.).
___ 10 Iloo of Bon:IooIIoo_ lo0oi _ _uaOOd ..,. T.
O......,i. w\dI . _iIlo boa_ 10 <OIIocI ... r.. lh&
- " ~ ~ ...... _ cu"le ill AD ).t6 _ ddt"," \IDdy of
........... _ _ AD 3~2Ill3. TIM eMiN - " "'.,. &Ir
diariblMioIo widl ......... 01 do. 90 .. AD:mm6 ("S.u' ApIloiPo_
1 _ ""-I'" Aa--'o "'..... ' ...- Ao,. .'"z,,-- IS [19m SoI-J6).
v. T _ , M '.Opiu, obo....,. b ... -.yfll ... _ _ ........ _
01 ... . - - _ IOVolml_u.-o.. __ "'''''''IO _ _
~, 4' ... ..,.AD35' _ _ .diLl9~_b7'
_ _ ~ _ 0< _ " " " - " AD )11 ... AD n'll w-<oLi.....

T _ , ~_t 1912, I). ...-p ....... fIl "'" . . " ' - oI .... -.!y,
OpW,', .......... of 1M
ohIooooP
'n'-.I \llo ~ fIl AD 3"nn _
r.. 1lJ"" ~ of Iii larJ!O _
-.......
1'.
of
lop 'M"" TIM ... ..,.... of ' ~ "'~.M.
....... Iidk 10 tloco "'" - - " of 0piD. ;TM 0.. 01 "'" Apai<>sia
. - . Ari_ o f " ' - ' - '- nu, tiS ~ [ltul: W.227).
,
H.I. Bell lIN publls/led the plpyrIIS .. bidllluowt: ....,;hI lwidlilflt Oft
the bchavlDw of Alhanasilll ill hia _: IIloup lIli$ _ publw-cd
nearly ID.I)I yeMf IJO the sisnif_ of it Us noI Jet Junk in
f:..er,wl...... .. It llSlOIlishinl 10 lead dlc..ue:k in TJlE on the Illbjec:t
oI~~ by MuUn Teu...ntu .. _II, .. 1977_ fdld no
~ 01 Ihb clocunIenl, III IJllpDrUDt for 0\Il' atilIIuioll of
Jilt '.' ctIa""...'
ne. coma iaIapoewlu- of l!IiI ~ ill viuUy iftl90nMl 10 __
. .in ' . 01 1M -'Y ~ tl&Il ...dl ......... II will kobiowA
hoWCICl ... die CDnIIl of !his alldy, dill . . JlIIIllant ir.lup ," I wtlir;JI
hu beea &U:jMid by " ' - - ill <Uan "OlD NIl, (llllln, boa IIIllda

_.iI.......
I)~~,,_of_ L)Mddlrity,'
It - ' d be ouweaIisIlc: OI(X 10 ICQ:pI tIoIt lhctc'C!I i" lIlUdI dla iI
~ QV;"ial ~ iIllbe career 01 Al!lIIIl$i.... n;,
_y.IIo.,,,,,. II: ~ iIIlbe hope Ihal by I.eaa-d ....... a;iI 10 !be:
~ -.::a. new""",""'*'ioll oIllle -..at, dIInr;Ier, -.llCtiouol
ltle early """M"a...ill -ae.

6 H _ "'" ell., u. AII/IoIoP H_'."""", _and .. lhIo molJ ....


IIoblt I ""'" _ 10 hMt<I ... I1o .... \ooclJ of lloo IU~ I "*v_
...""" _ Ihio r_ wort ;., obo _1lIOiCa. II .,. be
.-..od, 100 _. Ill.. H..- " I n .. oodM_ of AlkaoI......
I<IioN III 1M .." ,._ <1I1Iio epiocopolo ......... ~ ... obo '
"'_-..1
_'ria of
obo " " _. . . of obo ..... 1II11io -UOl .. -n.. I *,," of .w..-i..~
<.,. ~If. n9.m~ H _ - . . It _ _ ho 1i>1.Iow'o, .... loa.- Of era-

of U' '911 (",. dt~ 2j2-Ul) Wid!...,. IiIalo <ritl<oI


h if. - - . oil ... _ ~.., IlloI in _
...,..iI
. . - . ... booIc po; "ri, , <11 ",".olOdor1l crilb _ 1M.....:Ian! ...............
ol ' -.
.-tIooo . . ...".. D ... <JI.
AltIlIrIMi.- (." riI. n..,.) ... . - ........ """ SdI. . . . . . . po
ot .... biatIop. ~ ... .a_Ill -., 0fIIa'IIp0_ poUlld-. IMl _ _
'M;",

...... * ' -(.'


Sch.._ ' ,
a.. 1:121_ ... -Jl _ bo ...-...-.. .. r_
(W. .,;,.). .. ItIia .. _ ,_. of . . IIiIllop. H - 11M
.....,. ....a __ .....o<:ooriJa .... _ _ """",odo '"
'ip~et-l

.....'M_
~ A Ir 'j' of U' t9t. I io"
II ,o........

....,..,. - .
_ doll IIoIUl ..,.. of
IoU ~ ...... -..<
,.. ,.,..... ill "'""
~ ulllJ ~
---,.,.-1 . . .,. .. _ -11 " b ... ~ ...--
" ............ can-.
.... _ fIl H no'. cb
lior.-., ~' -_.
c.. ell. 2S2. IlL IJ).
~ b_


SECnONI

ATHANASIUS: QUES11ONSOFCHARACTER AA'D


OONlEXf
SECTION I
ATHANASTUS: QUESTIONS OF CHARACTeR AND
CONTEXT

In ...........Ir;;n. a lOpiI: sad! .. T_ .", Ep4wpal C.,.u of


AlIwoaJi"S fI/ Akmadria. AD 32S-AD m.
two d~, ... imoI'l'tllI-
IIiaory UMIlbeoion. Ilocb IiwiplillM are .... 01 COUl'Ili. "'&II.allJ ucla
aiYe. and au ...... _ Dlhor. nis is we es:pccallJ wi1h qanillllbl:
dlancttr IIIId ana 01 Alb........ fcc bill:lOIin Iifa _1bI;ped bl' &be ...
1llrbI_ 1M....... btad&be fll'SllbtDt>qliiiiiI&' oldie r-u. e:t:rIClrJ'.
DwW. . . floil_yeand_ 1- . . . rm:a_S.. "I1l .....
* - d a""" Wida, t 01 imporiaI ~ III it reIrIa4 I) I '
IbI t Iia IlOd jM!& TIlis Iou ofIta ol:ltI:ved IDe
(Joe. Ileal ; - ... drol manc:aI 01 C_ ....... lid III
A" '.'. fin!; aik .. AD 33S. Iobw.a. ,. 1'4 w-sdf_ a
dririaI fore... 1M """'-":ia1 ~o'Q"'" 01.,;, . . _ II .. ia _
wriciD.&s IIbaI _0;.- f!zld ...., 01 lbc.-c:c _ _ . . . . _1IIIICr __
. . Rd.S+
pkl,.sbrnftlo.q:ett..,~t.isu _SOCna::L nc.
tiDe .... ~ ~ iae&rily _lhcIo:IIQP:aI j I it _the. wi Itinp
oltllc ~ 01 A.lc""""'*'a .. - , 1hia indca1. It .. fcc tIIb _ !bat tllc
I!ocIuIbtf\Il obIenocr MUll t<ml III CQIcb:aMii'll -..:rlalI1It anJ attempt 10
_ I tile LIlcdclt:icaJ and historiaI etboI 01 the. culJ fpivopw 01
Alhanalilll.
We rnlUt II." liMIe"",", take IIOIe in Lhe bi$lQrico.llpl)Ioaetit: worD 01
Al/laIwiu, of Lhe subjective clements which mlllY n:Illcr, tuloe found MId
compare Lhem .",lIh .imllar subjective eJemenl.l which IUJ bG ro~nd in the
tlther writing. which report the events under d.lsI:uulOll,l Thll i, especially

In..-ue. of oahjo<ti.~;" d>t. b;', i..1 wri<iD.. '" " ......1.. ku


_ ....... poiM oJ ,;", lor _ _ .-:hDIon .... _ """"" ID .<lno<t
"""'""1 .,01 ............... oflho _
of .... .w
wbIdI ,... 1M _ of
Ibo of Alo.-.
i. is ~ .. _ .. IloU woiIl<Ip of
Alii , _ . _""""",, ill ~ ID 1M ]IOfUclI1u '-Iapel! _
_ i.IIieol 6 . _ is _ _ .... _ FI ,"" - . . L M.., of ....
"
......... "....x..u1O undcnl&I>cIa>cI .... " at IbtI ,,"...... of
e_..tlidllod frooa At ........ ,,.. .. biltIqJ of .k>;. . . . .
AD 121 III _ \IIIlnlIoncclI; by iIoc """"'.. C w" ..
~ .. -.Ie _ _ d:iffi::aIt t.:auIIccenaia ...... j e = _ t f
AD l}s' SlKIl.
."
of _ _ u-~qIit3litoitdlbe--"ofAt ....m.p.
r

. . . . dIcir d:cplidIlllllpllll . . . !bey paceive .... .;-;rllbly ~


01 W-Iiunry ri-iDIal::II .. _ pIft of Ihc lIUhop of Akx-
dria.1 ~ r.:.. dlis~.COI"Iect . . . ~._;_.. 1be
.... ollila ""' 1Il)' ,.idcrlcea-..ilable IDa illlllaClOOOne ofRCII ..
eum a. "Ire _ _ be.1ItD ll(IIllD ~ . . bdllCll:rJ
petIO"!f1ilicl eitber oar OWII ....... PfKlIlGol" or lIiol: ~.' ' .. QIfTaII
ill _ 0 - time. i:ll order tnly III udu _4 , , ~.. we _ aDow
tU.l1ll1pCIk frooa lIi.I_o ...... rinPrim ta Illat lUll, lIIl(lCIml Milas
lIrIc plIced 1lleir own lft"wmrim. up:III ... biIbop of AIuInoiia. ~
g"ijy in n:~ 10 IIle -'Y ycon of bis ", '" Me CCf1lIin _ _ 01 a-
IemplIO'.-y llisuJlioplplly ..lilt abo k llIldenaten 10 dixooooer Ilow htb
Yicws IIr<oe ~ in ~ IiIIICL
III MKninJ IbG ~ view of ArhnMlI' aid lIaB aIIty ,.., of
MI epl. \ .... II is of !be. IIlm01l ~ roo uy .no.. IIlldy 10
.w-, IIwf# .. is possible all of dle - * ~ wll/d lI*ie ~ nl
~ Iho ~ 0IIll0c* .-4 'M"'k'W..... Kdvlliel of 1Ilb J*'lica-
la1y ~ bishop. One 1Ilu..lllerdooe, ~ 1lle ClwllCltlf of Ihe
_ , both ... dlll/dUIlIIl .... as I wrIIor. I'tInhennln. oneill..... aitQlly
oYll_1Ilc irlup of AIIlana$ius whidlllas bee, cn:.1IId by c_~_
sllip. Only 1llen ~ ODe ptOtC:Q!lO ....mllle Ihal WIlled web of ~nll
which ICIIbe ~ bishop of Aleundria IIpl)11 hltjollmcy 10 Trier hi !be
early wlrllOr 01 AD:m.

~......ci_" _ _ "'p ", .""


2. oonPRETElS OF ATHANASIUS

'0. s-. ""'-


clI. Prior oolll.lkq: _ _ s-llllod been "",,*,od
.. .--10 _ ",. o.nllr 01 Ope.- wi . - . ..... e - i l 01 ,...... AD
)1.... wWdI ... ro-. _ 01 _ . . . 11 " " . . \10 "'""'"
.1oIdo _ _ 00 C " ~ ...... -'ia..... _
_ lIio ; __ ' . . eo.riIfIIH _
_ ~
Ia<t-J __ ... ~ 01 fora<ry ....... A"
_ willi ..... ;- Apia, .......... of
........... _ _ rt- Be
_file--.
Cf. S........ DO. ....,.,~ ~ "" . - $",. ..",. FoncJo..s_ Dr
........_ I! _ _ Ilo>V ........ 1, r
19O't: HA 1 " " '. .

11_-. - ...... 0; lEA 2 (l~ n6S; L Jo;Ioo'. ~ ...,.,....


_ ....-. f"~ &I....... _ ~ (Dioo.1"Io.,..1. r-..w.r.
1!JJ2. )9-40..
'0. s-a:. c ' r ... <Iu U_ _ . , _ _ .... to. s-can. 1920-
1m. 2OItl'. """ "'2: <t. o. s-t. "'\/.---.-,- )3-3:'1.
" TllE E.o.J.LY EItiO:'ALCA'fD OF AntAHASMi

t.sic 10Wad AtUlMilII _1UIIIeq..-ly IIkI:a "p by .....ber


01 Olber inulllC1llDlln who, ~0lI him. Noll dle leu. - . lbcK
_ Edllllll $cti ta.
11101 ~ 01 Sdlwaru ID A'h";. IIUltia 11M boa
__ ~ . . . c' . ,I pt>; doc "pIpon . .riIoGd by
E.cs.-dSdi'.C<1O dleN""lritMtIoolIMOIMi. . '" d ) .. 190( =
Mel 1911 ............ c. III -'10 - " dlI: bqi:NIiDa ol, . . en- ill
A" .-die&.' 11 is .....,.-IO-. eoU.dIItSct'.lZ,bym
ediIln' "M ..........M:d ... tItM ' - r.
'~_dis-
7
- . 11101 ediIgq ol $dl....a eM wu1" Sc""""" -..10 IOflen 1hi:I
~ .dJ&IIllr by iftclil:ll6q dol. Scbwara', II&aCb _ direaed IlICR
apiMt Ibic halo or aueoIe 01 hoi;..... JuI1UIIIIdiIlt AttIanaIlIlll'.1aIqe I/QO
IOpilIII llil ~ p""''MS'' Ne~ it IIlUJI be ..... ill<d IIw.
Stllwaru'l ~ or A1haDIsiw illhal 0111II ~ Ind powocr-
lIcla&:rl ariaQl PR'*, IIlOliattd by - ... Wille rut MdlI.- wllo - " I
IftIlte _ d. .., _ _ 10 Ills ~ olllle dudI ioo EI)'lll..-:1,
if poaiblc, dlI: donlmarim of_ odler lnC:iaII. -'II "CD.' The MtillIdcof
setI_ ~ AtI\aRuius bas been IlIm-'zed wdl by N _ II.
Baynes; '"To Sclrqnz Atllanasius *8 a1~ and in Illl ~~_ dle
lIIIben"inlI hletarch: ambilion. I rutIIlesa ..ill, and I pUSioon for J!O""'tt we IIts
CQl\SIlInl tlw1lCteri.ttiu 10
5ch",om, lhmfore. although IlOl inclined \(lICCCpI llle dll1,e5 of
(oraery II'IJdcllgainsl AtbanasiUl, did. for irUWlee, dil;mln !he .. hole of
AtlwaIiuI',1IiMrical and apoloi"dc:al "'OI'b .. "~propqand.l.11 ~
Ilej8ll\lC "il:w of Ihcsc worb has 1llbIeque~t1r been tat... up by .,bolars
IlICh u Ii. Caspar, K.M. Seuon.....1. mea ;lllllorwlIlr. by Han..ce<q
Opill, _udenl of Sd>w-. "'110 b.u provided lIS
11I011I of Alhana$illf'l hisIarico-lIp)loaetic:aJ .....w...p.12
wi'"
dlI: criiJcll od/tioI of

Lecturing in 1944. FL Cross rpote or (/Ie COllIflbution of 0pilJ. lO


AIhanuIIn 'ludiel.: "Arising .... ollhe diJcU$SionJ wIIk:h SdIwanz ,tim....
laled. and porlI,.,s ban1Iy u:oond in Influence. ... btc:n &he new edilioa or
Alhtn..;.'. CfIUVSIed by &he PruiSWl Aadcmy l.O Or. Opiu ,lid lhc: n>-

"''It.L
0-. no. s:.#J If... ';0 Od..... I~ I&.

" .. Sdl...u, Z- G- ' . ' . 4u 4M

I .... EMo... _
ScMI/!_ 01 Sctto<-.
H.O. AIM '
~ ,.;.
.w'.
as m. ....... 1959. oi:: <f.
f... IiMir pRlooo . . . . a... . . - I
'SdL..-. ~ In
lo".H.~., ';"'$l"'_Or_~.~I9U.367.
IIs-....aslD. IlL
12 19 ......... of eup. ... s- _
It Coopor. fhaltidt. 4u
'''~I, In:_k..... s-.C~ _ _ ... iJ .
F_e-,.~ .. s.r..-._."i ... ""'T....
19011 <..-..""' T.... 1961), n.
B

.-:lIes 10 wtIidI it IIaf JiaI';'" 813 E..... lbe_oIllle seca.s Warld


W. _ iIle IlaIIiIe _ cl rdcioas bel eea OIaIBrillitlMd GcnDay
1lOIIkI_~PtQf CIoar... ~""buulOllIelli&W7~
iolc lIbour -tudI 0... Opia . . .'pmded.-" eM cn&llClllIdi.... _ _
-v. "Ibe "'h'M . . iII ..lIicb .. r _ I i oIlkllUt wiI sund
$

10 _~"" - r 01 .... _AD""",,, evidc:oIcc. I~ 11: ...........


10 - . boweffi.1bI dle alillOlkalOpiQ; . . , k ~ , Ida.
billry, Mil:uio: ....... f(llCe or Alho differed -,.liw. rra.n 1bII 01
Seec:t IIld Sdl-.u. Acc:on1ia& 10 Opitc, AIIlanuiIll .... "l!nIa&b md
lI>touP powcr.W!,py ptl'JClIlIiity.'l.'I
Alt!lcMp Opia.'. .. ia doe editinI olllw. a1tQl Glioa. W.
Set ........ 4c.' , fnlra lbe aw-'*'"
oIlli& _ _ ill .....,.-.
be . . rxrt' ,~landC ...!io.....lIOU"""IM"''''''''''''ol
Atkuiuitl. ~ by I!Ie pedomiaalldr Germ. gitical tdoool.
.. I wllbo __ iIle biltIop 01 Ale 1 11 .. . - ~ iInol*

in IIlnlIIJe for ,"lai...ie" -.l paliric" powu. S<:kee kllcr_


-wa Ibe 4. >IS,"" Ibc ~ -.ortJ, pIaiIlIy ~. picalre 01
!be *ivtft _ 01 AdlIllIrius. Iris _tilNIIlrLIrla- _ Ilis mMna lOr
power,"" 0.. 1ll_1dmi!.lIowcver.1Iw. Sc:hIleemck... &i~ Alhaaasius
the.""benerll of !be doubl" by ascribina: Itis lIlOlilltion not aimply 10 bIaUN.
",llinlet'Ul ilIoIMl but"so 10. t-ic: ml!UlldUJllndilla 0I!l iIle pM of tile
bishop concernin. Ihe Il'ue nature of the church. Accordina to
Sc:lu>etmclcher, Athanasius emd by selling ulde Ibc 'P.,llne COIJCepI" 01,
eommunlly of faith in rl_ of .new
which 101.. I1Ie cl"u'l:h .. ", ref..." 0;
sancwary "in Wkh WVltloo Is 1UpCIYised,..-.cl1l roo IonJa the COI1lIDunily
of !he JuttifIcd, iIle Body of Chrisl raised up by !be SpiriL_17
11Ie QSUDlp(Iona: 01 Scbwau, Opia.1Ild $dlDcemekher coneemin,
1M rvthIcsJrIeII or AlhInuiw:'. chanacr and his willinpeu llllll~
pencqs &IllI1tYemI h:ave brJdy cdo:d Ibose ofSteek and Illooe (:l)rIliD-.l1O
UCtt IIlIlllIJ infIlJe~ on = 1 ,""'""lln Itodiu. ni, is dcspilt. tilt
fIICllhll \hc.lO-C:IIIled rQrlCriell of S=i . . . Iont Anta been rtIl:lOgftizcd as
ItolWlOt tl and tbu. Sc:1lwatr.1\inl5tlf bas illite beta Jl""'OClIO 1Ia..e been;"
enur 011 waYenl imll(ltW\l points.. ~I~ Thae t~-.ca of prllJIqancliziD,.

-
hoklillJ power 1t ....1 t(lSl, cIcccptioII, and rodIl_ 1Iawe, however, COlI
tribultld and IenI aedtIlot to vc:ry partkular .......1<Priont of Athlna$illl in .........

I 'c:-.. n. SntIJ ... "


I.JWL
;'" I 0.

ISo,;... 1}l.l)9. I'll. lOl.


I""'.,! II .~.. _ _ ...... '''.11ooeIoop_alo
J:~.~ ZNW., U9SOI51): 2:S1.
I'k''',- _ . """'lSI.
"cr. I'll. 4-
190- 100<. till.
,.
Bd",,", - - . . . 10 -=/I sprcifie .,........ Ilo~oc it "'... _
lIdpf_ III ItwI en.. d. A'b- . '. ~ Illd tdiaiWly
..... _~bJClOII"IIIio~... +.J ...... --.preri-
. - D ... _ .... d. Seect _ 1lII: .-..: . - criIicIl dlooI 01...."..
l - . OI ..u.I ..-.r..

Z.2 NiN~."e:-v-u-s
WrimI .. IIU, JA Moehler. !be ae.- __ eM"'ir bioI-
...... d. At' . aMkI speaI< .. a ~ ~ _ 01 doc
II<sIlap ...... _ _ dImq dae a- tIL ... 1'O'IdI. au; i.. 1& .-..n.
aUy""" Aft ",'sowa ..... ......,.01.
ea1y f1ioMois11ip widI "-1.
BeJo-d lhiI. ModIlcr. in - u d CGIlJ'Ut D ' - (lama tdIobn/lip,_
wdeM IDfahJ IIld ope. _pasiaI as IIID ~ 01Iloo 01
AdlMaIi... F. r.... ~ " piaun: 01 ........... _chi or powt:r_
IIunwY ~ Mod>lel' lIMeS IlaI.
all l/Ige. .110 lIacI1lloe ................. II> bow Altwnn&'1 wdl loved. 1Iim
.... dlooIc lID wbonl be _ ~ II8d " IQIrhm, .....h_1 III IWn..
He blew how 10 Ift:ll$1lIu lIioe wartII 01 ~ .ad IMl hiply pr!)-
claimed dlIt ...... He *""ed INIdl iJldld~ lor Itum.m. b ..
ftA . . die QR 01 111M _~ -iMs III ~ 011 bitll: be
prden'Cd 10 lUlhlilltt IlIe tJ1Idl wllid !lad t-n .. ~ ill .jlb
faItdooocl. IllCI be !mew -r
_U Ioow 10 dQcon:r ... InIcrior f.w.
conlaine4 ..itllin an alerior DC crmr. When be lIad completely
unduIltIOd I pcnDn" cI>arKl<:l ond I'llOOllnhcd tlllIl the penon WU
inwardly ~ be defended that petIOfl .,.w-..t III t1anclu. &0:. time
!hili hoi wu fllfC(ld lD .... i1l: ago.iul. men 10 whom he ...... loyal. h.
foo,hl their rille principles. buI rduxd lQ &iWl\bdr lIIOI1,",:1

Hlvin. a:!v... 1hJI auessmml 01 A1h1llAS;\IlI'1 pem:pt!_ IlI4 eoUeaial


d\anaer, MQd>1a' lloct Oft 10 IIl'ri.Ie tha! AlJwwi ........ ~1'Il)t" man who
COILCuIed dc'ai1 formulal WbliviDI biIh.- 22
AeconIina 10 MochlcI, ","""lSj"." ...........<aen'fd priIqrily for
**
........ _Il1o -.e tile ._in
""'IUI ... duclI wbo Iud b<nme iAC~ by decay AIld wbo Jen'Cd
1Iledlwdl wittI ~ jUjIOSi(4. ~ F<UtIIet.1le '"''''''''IIlJI7'''
ollOGlJ. bCluiPt by 1M blood of JaIlS
eMA. -13 CoN:emia.!be.... N- . . . . . . . . . AWnaiot ... T)Ie ill
D-

2OU .. _ . Ar l ... ~.r~ __ ....... _...,


r.-"'e--."'~""_~""'IMt.l,
101.
21/1U.
2'l/IU.
2 3 _.. ..,~ l, 109.
"
AD m. M'r"'" -.dy _
IIle lJIKlIII, A"
....
' . . IIle lal ri::tia. 14
all_
-'wed .. Ddid .aanol
MotWDr . . ;oo.:d ..... p;U;i ... OW'aisaI 01 A* .. .,. Job
Kow7c..-..1P.= FLer-... ' _ ........ _~ ..
_ '-..,. t who. .. die lira..., ollllc'b c.IUlY. bid I
~~Iodcil:ol A'''' . ... Newmaa.-2:l ~ ill fKt. f1edJ
....iftId Wtt Iris __ ld'P- ~ bolIl-..s MIl r ~ .....
....,. or A'! : 26
To Nc.. "*'..........
, lIIe bi*lp ol .............. ill
~ IIca't, -:/I _ ""b cMmpir- ol"-''''' He is "tbe ror-IloeMaI
~n ....

"'h.,_ I .ilII ~l. __ IlI.Plic bL 1 _)0 I. N _ ' I wriciDp


~ is doe dllltdI Ca4Iotic'. aeqlI:u P" UIIc1t. OeIc:ribill&!be

dklioa, dear, _wtiecl, difta...-.


~'. IaktIl . . . . . . . NewmlIII _ t"- AlQnuiul ~ ~$impIc ill
tla$tii:. -.d alloe.u.
~bncIa'.-3' "'albeolDgia, allishop 01 " ......... ill c:omlaalded for
rolled.id1

beilIlOOMId &BIt .. bolb ~ aid 0lrisliUl


Nt..
U1Idi'"
n AcconIilI&"
A'''_'m is I!le ..i-W 0wi$Iiaa, for wilen !be paMLWld
bittIclp ill ~drt_ en. biI Oart:h,.. lie '"1uta all 0.' idcwn !lis Iloac.
rn.. Tit_I:) E*iopia..n Eui........... icI pniJeoi Ad 'w.pertIIps
NewlnuI'I earl, __ in ~ 0I1lle biIIlo(J ot AIr'MdrilI fro-t1llc L."..
AfI4llolica bell _ up 1lle np.usions of JOolII' ud _ l u i .
Wtn 1 (hb!;l don:

Whu sIWI 011' nonhmI OIl11'<h her champion_.


__ II)' dim ck=e,
10 tlIIdd Ihe IIlCler'll TNlb lIIe O'MI kannl..
l.Ike hInI "'00 1lI~ tho arm,

14ModIko-, ",. ,iI. n, 11--11.


25e.- ,.....11.; AIoo _ _ ~ OIl llllo "'1I;eeI b)' O. o.
DniM. -e.-._ Md TradiIicID: ~_ A-"", ....... 0 . . - .
Onlodl," 1_"..' 10 C~ _ S...u.... oltt. foIp. Mambo<" 1980
(I.... 1 bo .'"."ri...~ ;" ," T..,.", 4/ 11. AI'" ";.,, Lo-..
1910. 11S.11I),
~. P"'f-IO Soleo:r T...ua., sr.......;",;" c_ ., .......
At>-. l - - . 1..1. L ....
21Sdotf r...... u. ...
7Jc:_s.-f{e.-II_ L--. 1m. 111.
D,' .":..)1':':'" ;-.,: ..,S ,... YO.. s-: . , . Nu.., ~ Nil . . . . .
JOJ.H.N... = L,...~ "(I~"'l"-'IM7. Ill.
]l.s.... T, w...... dr..
U.s.... T_Il2S0.
]]J.H. " ' _ M ED., _ 1M Oft"; of c.....;." 0........
u..Joa. 19'1 290.
nu;EARLY~ALCAFfltOFA11lA.NASIIJS
"
oIly... _lJO"I'O". Illd ltaaiul'llItIphitI,-.
t __ .isiallllClS:r, ......
1b& ....,. ataialldon: _ iIloI-IriI*.
Lad d. _ wodd'llIN feast.
III . . dirt aip.1llid!be 1IIiaI.' .w .cn.
He axJd, doN boooal bcfm:,
. . Holy MysIeriea.-k Ibcir _ l i p ,
welII< Cad, )'el drriDd:W

A." CO"""" ......) 01 ~JoIln MIIOIl Neale, b"


poet, Is 01 primary ~ ill doe ...-. _ I fa m ..iautdy
i . Itld

caIJ,
?
_leA. .' '
"d hiAory 0I1be pIlriIrdoIlcs 01 dlr. Eantn dudI wIlidI, lJIIi-
obl1l. III wriIiac "'c:twoU;le oldie ...
01 .... " ... Ne*IOQt;~oI.Mdllild_... _oI~
tundInl ""'Illd !ifth<er1WJ dlu'c/Illisilaraa r-Iudmt: 1M S) ....... 01
PlliIllIlor&i,") as _U all !he ~ Cop6f; ..... Syri& llistorie&. 35 In rEI,
Neale _ able 10 ...u "" 01 almosI all tb8 _ availlbic ID Ihe modem
tIllaldl hblOriln ae-t fioIIllbc men reteQt crilical ediliou (ecqltilll til
IltU'. '-dolo P"PJri 1913-J914. whicll wu ......1:ilabk lIIUillhe 19201).
~ rault of WIlI'tilIt willi JDdIIn3Zriab. Neale rum dlc _ _ lIlC:icIu
..... Ihe ~ modenI 8CX-X- apinst AihlnasiulIO be 'Withoal feat.-
dMJ(:m in tbe .Vllilahle evidence.. 1DstelId, AlhanNIllI is pitnnd &I "'boly
cCllI(cssor,"36 ...1Io has ~justlJ~ claimed "llle m~lllhatriO\lOl plAce &lllOI'lI
!he ConrcslllOfl, and" i. ''known in hi! ChW"Ch by the title ollhe APOSlOlic
Patriarch."3? As ",pnI.IlO ...y r.cgative uiliqlle of lhe bishop of ALe...c1ria.
Neale II only ... illinlto ollte in his chronicle 01 'ella I!IaI ...e M".., JUspccl
IJlII A!huqjul _ not I lIIIJI of 1ll...:11 pllylical CO\II'lIC~ Auonlina: 10
M

!'bk, howe_.lbU IhcNld 001) ad Itt -.0 lldmirc !be pace wille" elUblcd
him 10 Ji...e 10 Iant: -.d .. "OU'-. pmofol nnl _*Yl'.K
A~. ~ laIer, Henry M.",m C; ... tkin _ ..hat_1O
~ Ihe IlaIldarcIIUI ror lIWI) rem (:OIICCmlai'lbe Atian ~,.
A111loudl k is 1101 withal>! ;11 critics. as i. Ihe ~l "'OIl< 01 0"," and
Groll." S/1IJiW of Aria.olIoo. r... published in 1182 {wilJla -=end ~

"J.K. " ' - /.,Jr- "" 111. 5

lSUI. Nu:&. A H~ .... H~ u-n. C~ no.- r~.,


A~ Lo.loa. 11<I7.1.Y\-.tiiii. ThoIHaIo-. '" f-. IOU _ " , ....
""""'- '_ ", "'"I .... _ ... _ '" _ ., rtf _
_ .- _11'. 1.1. In
~ . ar.. 1OCI.
31,...
""" . ar. I".
_e--U.u... ",.
) f A . _ ......... ", ...
_01 ..... t _1=...n",C..
-+. ,-..1 ..... .- ......
"
Itdilia ill 19(0), 1Ilill,;", aloiply .til........ "'OIlme tiL 1.$ " ...
c.enlWJ aiIic:I.I.-ardI _ ~ evmlS c11lrc fwnlI c:elICWJ'. 0wMtia, ..
c-. be _ ~ .... 1lII: prdrc:e tiL Iloc ~ ecIiaoIl.lXIt ___
... _ be c . , ad as ~ bl:* raa:rdl fIllliJ cla1. UaIib ModlIa'.

GwlIlkiB 1I 1ll rq;a:d Ad .. I - - . .. . But wl!a

ClCllllU Ill'" =
do d!o: 0I'aIIll IIllI odilllilJly of Itlt
biIaDp 01 ............ a-tia, ta !be MsiI tiL .... &val. . . . flI Ute
~4\ .m- III llle fllllclooriq: .............
A. . . . . . _ before III dlillll I ..,. ...... wtIok Ii!e __
-..ced. III llin&k purJIOIIe.. If it _1peIIl. ill ~ , .... _ ..
IBCO'I! ~ if 110: ...... 100 eaJily Illibe JlCrieI dd
IliaIIlf l/Ie MIll ".; , ILis ~ II III __ ClC\lIItd by Ihdr
lIrOCioat Ireldlay. M far Ibc r;harze tiL pcrxcution. M: ....... ill
uplicir. <ttnW of lIoa EcJlli.m hi"""
r-... _ qUasI. lbo; Me"';" -.too JCIQk lIlroup EPl:NaiQ 11K
And i t " like ialo _
hiI GWII plcQ fi;w ~ a<ld die _~... tMnlY of Ills d4

- . . . . . . . ., - .oQ
.'! .
;r~...,;I 01 tile COUllciI tiL ... "".arwtria, _ mUll 1I""N""1Ql' die
dlup.1IIlpOOOIS. If we CIlIIId &qet dI 01 hill tioIdI. T)Ie.

O-*iJI ..... ply Patel_


WbalIUlIklcrin, \.he many coateIIlpenry ~ IpINl Al/IaRuiua,
-l!lc. peninac;a.. hand 01. ,"' ... ~ by
!he enlhusiaItic aclminlion Dr lIWI)'.oo4J

_roph bl' ItC. Gre.. lIIId D.E. Gfoh, EM? M ~ v/ow of s.J>"'~
U>ndon ond PlIllodoolpkl.. 1981. Ore" on4 Groll ...,.u: of """'" ... ponm....
l!Io mi" or blu," bo'...... ortb<>do'J ODd .....,., (0 Ihl .. ri",,.,.ol
l>o<mMou1lc of --. pony ""fon mol:iDs judi "" tl). Tloe .~llIot. ~
th.ol ddI 1.1 <lirr. ... 11 .....,.... beer.UlI -Iho , of lllw 01 ArI...lom" is

...... .. ,lit
_ Ott...... c""" pleoo IUl.
01 -.utAka __ MD
0.-.
- .... ~ qalIu' pnciMlJ 1I>Ck. _.....,. ('~ h io .. Iloio oIli>K-."
willi J.M. H _ loN.D. K&1ly
of _lutlll, (33, f 31).
Hotwi_ _ 1q _ ~ . . . . - lIIb60iJnpllic ......01 of ~
~ - . _ 1M Ali.- eam-....,..
f _ Y~ plooe-. Owo4iB',
~ 0{ M ~ ."qti+ "/J II, ...,. t-. - - ' - .. "'"
M., ,(Jf .w. v-. F_ 1'1_ CAN: L ' 1m. )),).
& ... 'ly, Owd:\o.'. dIo ' 10 , . _ . _ _ ,: ....... diN

.,e-t.
_<lI.," _<lI ....... _F.' '''LP.c.~.nus-d
,. .... a.u.- Du<rioo F'W .... 1....
Sro4io:t.,""-'- <-- ,.. ) ........ 19O1I. n,
~ .. <IOtI.w.
~I
0--.
olo.o,-', primory _ '., _ if. OWOlltia.
~..~ L
~'lo.1IIklot, riI. 14.
10........ riI_ n.
"
Yet ~ Ieic DilllUlelltlo-a:Jllury esc"'M,
of tK dwKIer of
Alhrn'l'"",,, br AIdIibaId Rd>r::i ..... biIDop of EI.eIa' Ind ror-
_ _ III ~ Coaqe, DurtIaao..iI. 1M iIIlI'c l few 10 die wriciap of
Ifte . . . . of Akundna I'or'" sa-
UbnrJ of lIa. . . . 'OIH'~
FUwt. tJ/ IIw CIlrlJrIa CA.d. F"1Ql pabllsted .. 1191. it4Ila. . .s
........1I1Wld. ill, . ' QXlllIlic'io....... olSocdr. pIIlIli$lled...,
ti~,..... .....'" AIXOdi"IORubaI:aM,~

hIid die -ol 100 .........._ lift of ......., !be ~ oIlhlap. A


Fat aiIlI_ flID)' 4'Ptciaced II)' ~ be -'-.ys_ ~ wtl=
principleilltl*'-.l or u.iItd as. ..1otte die boN! or 1M di_..."....
_lIla'dy la:ldcallll. WIIlh AriaI ud Ariulisnl .. com~_
., bllIlouCbl at: IllllIIc did . . fail lID dl!tinpl* .... -U, _

been llldcleltlible. So Ion& as tile alble ...


" , _ iaIiplifit:am. So br~.... ...
..... Ili.. on II .j11I, C'IaI ......... dldr cond!oC! - . d ~ialIdf!llld
lid"""".
be aclmibed IIlaI be .... Iillk .oocI ill IUs OWO'.... U;; bill _ _ ...
C'o'iclcaa; it linpllrty .., I iin.Ibl:r$ .... Iluk FOd to - . Tbc
j1G~
It...,.

kIdcn oliM AriIII iDt=R _ ~ - . d\lIa' bi_ IIOCI


.... "ir, fanItg like $>', ..... and MIriI.. or _ otltll poll....'
1llocIIocbnt. lib Eu:lcbiusolN"...........tj Valcat. Acxius, wllo IIctocI
~lilbu _lIleSL II/lUlJ be Idmlu.ed IIat be Id.... I(lll!mil tmlr
in tail Criencls. HillllIIa IlliaBce wi!h MarttII-.IliIIIIIYJI'yi"l rdoual
to 1I1~' .yllable of CODdemnatiool of him by ume; hit rdllSlll In
_ . ,"en Pb(Kinus, wlillo: ya uposin,tbe enor __ 1IUed ....illl II;'
1\InlII; hi, suppression of 1bc _ <Jl Apollinarilll. rVCII wilen wrilinJ
lllno::tJ)' "C.illS! him; aU this ....1JI inlnsiSlelll wit/lltrlcllmpanlllhy.
--.t, 110 do\Ibl. pIacod hillId~tS I*lly lJIlhoI ria"l. BUI;I ...... the
plJtiaJlly of enero.as ItId Joyal sp;n~ IlId he could be &er>erouJ to
perlClnal enemlell if he "''0' in them III 'ppr1).lmlll!D11 10 him!lelf in
principle..
Tbc Allan wnlJOveny ..u LO tAlbanuiul1 100 bIluJr for
eeclcllMtItal power ...,,- for IIleoIocical uiumplL II ..... ldiliouJ
aiIi$ illvolviDJ lhc lQiily 01 ~ and mkmpuo.f'

Funher. ~ ..... 1hM -iIIlhc ....... 01 oar ..!noM boowll>lile 01


lllirtifc,, AAmri- fa fn:n IteItinIIbr.HlaNid. 01"__ power ..
1M cllo:tdl,
weir-
*'"" -. IlaIIxt of xM-iNmM. 'I"k dorY 01 Ooclud Ibr.
oll!Ml ClNrc. ilbalibtd .... lWly. aU 'lime&: -44: T1lc JIClfvaiI 01

"ct ... 2. 0. s-t.


~jA. I.e'. _ p " k . _ ... m -"'"- ., s,,1t ,.;,....,6 .,
AI' . . .. - . If.u= 06 ... U<Pf. _ _ - - . "'"'- 4. 1191 ...
~'Itu. nil it. _ _ c ., .. I _ -'"Ir wr- "
t

H._I"1 lid,
it
/I
dloroaori"- .. DO J. Cab .. "tlio petkl.....
iuoWn doli ~ ..... ~
d .,

~.., r",,_
"
_.
~
~
"Wiled bl' Robensoo bean IiuIe. if uy, __ blancc 11;I tblIl.
COlllcmp<nry Seect., allJoou&b, . . . . boIh _
' InIklq lISe of dle _

Similar >ie..s' 0 "'AK,g lbe ct.1aer tL Al!laIasillS _ dismisAl of


dle IIlD)I rrumg IIIaIk IIpiDst him CIII be roo.md i111/1c. wrUIp 01. llIIY
IIUllIbet oIll1bet nineIocaIlI<aIIIIr)I Alhmopn ~ ODe. _ill oaJy
m

ba-e 10 c:onIlIk. -.iclilioa ........ sources ........, IiboYe. !he worla of


Nea:Oa. kaye.. I::llner. OJ Brip!-.g Orlpin. similar oWoot. ... ~ be
blIlId l:Il*' 1lqJ......... suDes DfFmka, R ~ Sail, OJ lbe w=sive
IIIOW:lII'IJIbs OIl lbc life of A'b ....ciD' by SlIllley ill 11M: "'jd.ni ........ 'b
-\at')' F..... aJ lbe c.1 of lbe cmllq'.49 I_ dle last dec::Ilk of \lle.
niwnlll oeJIWI'y ew:a Hamad< pI.)'I ~ 10 Adwasia bJ COlllf8'itll:
bim to LIM: ~U:ro' of !be RefonnMioB. M.niII LotIlcr. 1Wi"i WI
~ ~ jClinod /lands wil/ll Lallier ICn:JIIS tile cenlUriea."'II Monxwcr,"
-m, IUIll of MlUmnl is sugested in lilm.et's Ldrb-elo tin
o"pw..,udidU: ill ..11k.. be irw!jnrrc ilia AdI:lnasius _ r. rrom being
polilical oppxuanisl; ;1 .... mleIy ~ In !be bisbop'l inapity lUt tlle
church _ Avcd rrom Ibc: mara of poIilial power fnIl bmIme _ ..
III Minslitute or salntion, ..ilb !be pre.:hinJI: of Grist M prionary PJr-

Iu>IIS'QIIlI~jKII.t~ W~nd~ (..... bya. Rubbao:b). 0 ......10<1'. 1976, 301308. i:I


"bith "tII..,..i". it de.crib<d IS oI...y. placinl por.orul od..nla&o ""or tho
dooJrinoi """ occluiu<icol illllCl of his tim..
47 fot on _ .. i,tod li,' of Roboruon'. oou:cu. ... Robertson, op. cil.
oi_,iii. A.oin, ~ it irnponant to - . th.oI ""it'- RoboNon IIOt S_k Ilod """"..
lO Hoi. Bell', Londan P'pyru. 191... 0... ,"usa, II>o<do.-. ... \IIM. om&in depu
0( .~.il)' <xl I!lo J>II1 of beth ..m.... for Ihom to Iu "';.<4 ......... yll')'V>a
""""hoIiono - . . . . . ..... of Alh.....i .
'C/. A. NeaniSor. ~ Hi<17 '" ,11II C IM RIu,iM _ Ci0M'd4
(If_. by I. T......,), 5dilobufp. lUll...... 1, sow, I. "0)'0, W...b '" J_ IC~
........ 1176. 73rt; LA. Dumoo-. History <11'11II o-~ '" ,11II Dodrilv '"
... " . _ ",avu. (1rODL by P. s.......), ~ ItII7. vol. '1, 1.292-306.
3311.).1;6. 350-3Si; and 'Inc puDcul.u pi__ wri,... ..,. w. Bript.
~"""""'l... Die'''''''' '" ~ .;.,,..,,.,, a.-. 1m..... I. 17\1
2Q): "';"b t . '" $._ " ' - . ..... ~ ..,.r- .... No-.. 0d<>Id.
I..... l-ci; .... ' - ! ' - wu_",n-e- FMJw.. Lor-. 111I1. I
". .IICf. P. fioJoa, s.u. ~ p.n.. U77. UNI1O; HJ. Rqw>ldo.
4r riM" His U/I ... JI'.n, L - . lUll. )\I.j1, il(l.i": Row. B8Ih. 5,.
0," riot Hislc" r-. no. Foolotn tot E.,.1iolt.-. ~ I ....
tll-IOI. 2U..ZU: J>J. sto<>ky, u.avu _ ... H ~ ., ..... ~ C~
I ' 1161. 2.53)01: .... F.W. F.... u- '"
Uw
CIIwd H~ ...;",-..,. E4iIoburJb, lUll...... L <WS-571.
'.Un.
flee.... '"

4<r DIo_adoi<*l. Frcil:aq, I~..... 3.


'i. JOA. H..-k, L ' I
'"
_.nRabu_'.
~~Sl Sirailar~' I' ,,*ol~_~;"1D1hc
.ty ~ ~ tilt twe1lIEIh I:l:IIlIIry in lIle bi~ .lIJdieI b)' lalochon.lllll.

to.... 01111 It ~ lIle c:bracIcr 01 ~ ~


_ .. Ibc . . . . rJI cloc _;cny 01 JdloIai. ",C';OIlllIO'" _ , d
EaIe (rilical lidicicM ..110 fgllo eel Seott., IIOd &til',; b'hQoe ot 1Ile
10"d0- PapynlJ 1914 ioo I~. ~ Ill'" of Ik diu.- of
At it

lou _Ille mpm IIIllI ....... e'IaI d. .... nolXl_ ted.


tber _ III Ilila lIle it,- olllll!la 11 -.w _ pretba. Hex
onty Ofqllry or ID Epiplw.i\l$, .. ~ or I C)ril. al..Wa ar
Iiolll, llOl Galy MmIf."C'O" and TIlbnoaI, Newman _ S......y
pay aibuU: 10 ILiIn as 0risliIn hero. Seaalar III "Idl .. QIurd.
IliIIarias rau \ODder lIle spdl otitis penllftI/ity. IIlCI _ GibOOn 1Ilys
IIIIiIk bIs "IoImuI ......... 10 IIIcl I III At . "lIoe Gfta

AI. *-iI poln!, _ may WClIdu ..tw has QUXd. or KllWty saad:I
bdliDd.lIle daMp ill aaitude .bid! ... I.IIkaI place U RptdJ I/Ie dlInaI:r
of Al/laIwilll in tilt lwealielll CltllWfy. A Iimple. e><planeMr ""&1M be lIuoI
just.1Ile. n i ~ wriIUIwcre c:aplive 10 lIle IOnlC..1la11l)rlLMtic
rdiliowllfld lilelW'y DIe of thU' day, IllClIr. who have fClIla-...d. Socd:: have
boell CIplic 10 the equally tran$itOr)' erilial spirit of lheirl. Allhouglllhis
would "plain 1M m()livWoa. behind. 1M 1_ leU of wrilen, it dt>e:J not
Mly like lIIlo ~ Ibc CfDl'Si_ 01 f>Cw IIlJlOl'lcal _ fNJIor new
"IeIIlodI uJed in tilt i n ~ olllldl Ullal or ~ ID-ws,
In,crpn:lUions, however. by wit vrzy 1IIWn:: lend 10 be IUbjeaivC
nlLller m... objcctlvc ill lheir auetnpted pe=plions. In \be cue 01 AthJna.
liUl.1h.II1Iat re.Allt.ed in lWO aAUSmemslinLerJlRWi(lll.l whkb now IIlarad
.ide by lido. One i.!be Slal>darlI hlllOl')' of AllwIUillt which view. him. ill
lhe main, III bqioJraphical fllute. The Olher il U almost hypercritical
view oJ Adwlulus whicb Ie>\dlIO ~ boIh hiI chnclct IIld conlril-
tioL BOtb. however. clainl eenala IOUn:e ............. cviderloe for IheiJ
~JDiIions.

2J C_ 1I.w....1
111 lIM \aslIWO clcx-wdro _ _ >0 0WMi.. ..;e-.s 0Ilh& ~ .-l.
,..litbililJ 01 AI/qrq;',. Iort<e boca;o;..co by .Ihinlllld _,,*....,
~, lIllCIII 0I11loq1lL SdootIn IIKII I f 1aI~ W. BImInI, frInca
Yf3IIllI. IIldo. ~ SIeId IlIvc rome !O. rme...ed ~ 01
"
Am-wius ill III. or wlllll!leY _ u IliI _y rallll and roibIe.I tbc-
CJlo&ian. bil/lop, MIl biJ\OrilfLS. Anol1ltr ItUIllpk ollhill oenai-.lCbool 01
AIhuulan IWCfieIII !he (lemwlldlolar MWI Tea.. '" _ ~ "Zar
B ~ da "lIMN.- 'I'OIl AIuaIldrien, ooSS T_ caDI b radic:aI
reYisioll 01 tbc crWc:al vft 01 A1JlIJwlus QIeIl .... lIlIen lIalII ap die
... ceuury. He 1hII AltlINIi.. war -.:lIoqlIy ....ocuMd widI
!be iIJriMM _ _ IbM 111M)' ..adenI1l:idIrs ...... carlI(110 ~ - '
dla SCripIIft. -01 per--.l or pol"....' ialri.-, _ be. _ . . . _
DaIIlI _..,.;'" IiIc:Ior ill ..... ='111. _.56
". - . . _.w"' rell.JlliIilIUou or AdlaI\uiu'l _ . . r
..,;w,p ...... bcca lIkaI .. by et/Icn.. .. 1961_ A ... I" I... !

J-w. NibIl ..... 01 "the .... - . I u...:1Cf ol .. ,t ....... ill ....


iIlOIlCSJ'" TIw Liz'" ~dw Woril-.d -.e4 lhII r- 1IIc.-..aillble om-
dmcI M&>allIiJb _ _ II. .... _ , i_I . IODnllodoa belids 1ft
fQ1l, obI;pd III 'oW ...... !be -.-.51 Pleliba 11M lIIa,;o;-t III dlis-r
poUlioe _=enl 01 AlllInui.. bJ ...... bU or t dleoIo-
....

pat.lmOnI ..... _coulddllC G.I'1orowJky. T. Tomllce, G.D. Dnps.


ED. Mo...d" V. T'womey, aDd R. PI71oft..S'

~ l,..w. 8.-.1, " S - " , - . . 1Ioo ~ SdIi:n .. Em-.M s..w


1'~. 1t11 (TU liS). kIiIt. 1915. 399~; .... w..n. .... lIM. I ......
S....M 1Al-. 3t (1977): 4t1-U1. _ "pe<idI,
llIa _ ...." 0' 11..-.1 ....
A!lYn.ooi.. _ ..............]1; - ~ Mot.iuo SdUmI .. EJYIII..
lEA $9 (1915): 11)'19: wl "'T_ ,...,... 11'. ........ I. AIlIanui.'
l!JoWon .. AtdItNItIop 0' AkJ.on<lriA, 1. '"'" ~ S............... l!Ie
Elqllcal ....... 01 lIM EuPd'" 81ahoJ-~.~. 0 4 _ ' . 119, 5).-
ct.
a,e"" .. 1 (19"15): 346-351. Abo F. Y.....,. . dr~ " .... ""...,.n..J1y
..........11Id;". _ of Alb.wIuio.. n,ll; Mod <I. O. ClIrio S....
...........- Dk -uta. dJ _/db .m.~ Cod. A. Dlllu no). I
(1913): 123...,2: 1lIa Thal.. of AriIIf "'" "" Totdmon, 01 ...1IwYo - flU.
NS 29 (1m); 20-5'1. _ ......W1y "'" .......u ... A_.iua, ,.: <f. SUod'.
oritiq f A"'_i.', _Ihod or __..Ulticm I. -1UHo..... oI MOlbocl in
A_..l...- ve 30 (1916): 111_137: -F~ 0( .... Will""" .... Arion
e-.O)',- ,~
101_, .,." :MJ_2.n, _
e""..",,_S_',
..pecially
{F ",,1It /i< H.iNK~ lMrrioJ,
A.dun..iw,'.
po~" wrltinc. 2So& If.
~G 90 (19'19): 3G' &
5<50, d. 337. &: </. "Obco nit ar-.u.: Dor.,.. T.....
Id A M * - . . A _ Al.UMri - %Nil' 66 (l97S): .lloI-222;
Mm. _ .....
...b.. - * .- T-..,IM." "-'-1*'1\ W .. J.orl.. (1977):
n. ))).).ol9: onol -""' _ <IX EJ.Mi' .... 1:-' Z- & . t
B~ .... 1Clrdlar.....- znx'l (.9101): HoIl:L 196-11'.
n l. ""~ TIor up. 0( ........1,1, ... ...., 1-.. /., wly C...-
r...., ... Now Vool. 1M1. n.
q..... O ~ ..,..e.....,..
T'...... ..... ~Or-..
Vlow. ""' V""'" .96&, 10-13; n.. u.o... F - . 0 ( " " - e_IrJ, Pwio.
c....,. '"
1931: -no. er.uc;.., io S_ _ -!nooIiIoI (TU ,_Iori<o V,
WilliaIII Scl>ioeenoelcller. all/looIil' maew..lnj. cauliolIl 10M, <:onIinueslO
_ polilietJ mollw.uon. alOd IUbIoquem cleuJlliOllI i.....y 01 tllc
~ ~6ol_ AMil Manin 1Iu IUlj ~!he lGaoflheMcJo.
tip Ir;lUIlIl IlJId iu poa.ible wen,th lind popularlly u II a1TcclCd
~'18UIIuily (... lid of il) w;.,.\he Ea)'IItiD clollldl. is
Mlldl _ coaJd t- aid ............. all of tlIe ae-e ..LIoon,-.d

~ aoape. dAllIUdy. iI.,


Ie'fmIlIllbm II wdl bal. ~ will t- treq : rderellCellll -=tI1lItlClIII
pa' PI bcA 10...,. __ 11I-' III
IhoK bIueI IDd . .ia _ _ of <:oalelltiol teprdia, dloe dLadaa" of
A t : ...-:ll1\lYe IClCCiWClllIldlI9Jt It iaIaal.

6olW. k _ _ .. IoU A'~


,.,;.a..
_.'c
iIr".Is ~ _

_--
.Is Xi 0. !oJ AcIoku. Tho....;o; l"'~. IooJ .-...I ....,.
.. oDow .... ' ._
_ oIkJrw_ _

......... ,.-"'
.w... ...
~ical _ _ I o ~ Ii _
._~

Iifa ...... t...,.


'*"- '"
.........
..... k... ek _
~........ , ;" 00iI .......

.. u
""- ~.~ ..... ~ (12S:3l3).- '. . . . . . . """,,w.
"
3. ISSUES IN DlSPU'T1i

.1.1 AAldn~ t/"lsuu


A _O."".;e. ollbo Iilc aad ~ol'" 'a b,. FI3nCCS
Y-s ....00" d cum:llI,pj \ I -"iM bidqlol ... lou""rilllllll Us
iNljr=ned " - ...m.as w1lidl bcfIia6 oertaiJI or dle _ YC
....lIo1 . . d ......... y _ . . ~_ID becn.
pkiIe$$ -.ak.~ Alblnasius"l-dlai-=r-e. be.-.ed 10 riel: :l 10
.-...e biI_ CllClI ~ ialpIlal b,. pxxI dI=Il of ,. idalcc."" 11. is rIII1Ia
IMja,,"'" lila .... COilOtid wilb I!II: It' 'ci. Itllin .. I!nDl. ,. ,,,....;...
~did _naple 10 . . force .. !iii o1eaJinp willi dlis r.rwi:~. rUUIIIy.lK
_ iI , . . WI -deplIIsilio- T)ft _ buc>4, _ ..
...... ~ tau IIpaa IUs IIliKonltuct Ia E&;)1lL IludI is
cenainly riatn .. "'" ."I .... *= 1IoIlile . . . . of ~. . lK
C,'l 01_ JIIII)'ri. WId dlc ~ tIoII ~
l O _ Ill", lilic, _bcwhi....., ia l!le . . . . b It&ts ic.l
!'kri-_fdt. bl

-~
y-.: ~ refuslO. RCeat JID:ty bf William Ruc;h in wlliclllle
e.umine$ ....... _Iokb lie Itrinb _ be COI\$\IIIQlIn lhe COUInICIian of
..... hiSlOrical picl,,", of AlIIanlEioas.69 The Wee pIIlicular ,!emS
",1tidI
R~h leu II beln, of imponana:, aIon~ 1M lllhcr ~~ -..:eo for
such IItislcwy. a. LhoM::
1. 1JIe rqIOfU of \he rtflh-centllfY church hlSllxian PhIJollorzius. of
...hleh WI pos_ only frqmenll Incorponled in !be ninth_
eenlUrY Epilo,"", oC P!Iotius:l0
2. London Plpl'fUS 11114, fllllnh-oc:nwry EJyptlan Iemr ..tlich
e:ame 10 li&bl in !be early ,....... LieIh ""'Ill)' and wl:I edilCd......
1IIDUlaI, WId publisbed by It!. lieU In 1924;71
3. kWvll oncion 01 Orelory Naz.iaftwlln ..hlcll the life IltId
rbeolorical ~ d AlhanIshIlIn "'*'Ilzt(lln(\ defended..72

66p. V-..."....~ 67.

6., .
"JtN.

59 18Klo, ." riI., 16Hn.


10n., . - - EqboIr.. I i eI . . _ ia .., E. Wolbd,. n,6
Ea:/aWfc-.l H...." .,
........
"_.Ou. ..--.,/001
F_M.., J. B-'~!
JU5, .:l'lt.
~ tr-iood
n...-
........
"'-'.j; an.. IMI.
1.. HJ.Id\.J....'_an-. .. ~ ~ It2ol. n.l1.
na....,.,. "'"ri-_
11M. ,.210 c _
0 . - 21 ... LNPf'. _
b&lidI"'!_~
......... J. Odard,
TIIoo Gr-a. _ io " ' _ .... io J'(;
lS. col. 101 H 1:za ..., ~ ....... _ dM _. io SC no C.... J ..... ,~
Poria. 1910. 16019).
"
TOIelhef, tile-. tbtee _ _ 1tIose ... ~ ror u.. _ pan. ....,
COAIIibeJed 10 _ cri1bI m isio>is ..,..,.., fJI: . . life ... c.!lalacaa at
A........ W"-1lUcd III ~oflelllalil&",- I fJI_o... c:rilicaI
.-.ol_ dle _ _, _ iai . , "" s.d, II " well .... IllI: -.ealIII fJI:
po 1"'i!y lID - . dle cI. A........... .. - -r
diIIerax rn-
IllI: uti.. II! iIDIec d. .... "lIS IIIr. OraL 11', mw...u,
.-:ll.l'IdicaI ra-.liIl op;a..iI II> be ntr aIWld". aorhl -.1..-
~jgdIiced' . .~ of eacII ollilelll: ~ _ _ be ......

J.2 1'~,..tMd.C4Aurr. . . e-oOj"


h ill d'i-ed "" IlJ.&II d!x !be EaXsillslictil Hu., fJI: ~p..
w-taiaed ill . . ,i,...oe of PIIotiu. aiAm~..,. palrial"C:ll oC
C.....r ri ....,.. ' - pi I hoi. a= iee IIIi.JlIDrial II '" jew ...-......
1+"'. 1'0$, albeic of _ltIOdCa tiJod..73 Hol . . . . P-I .. lIlis
en oN'" F. V-., IoIld. LW. '*-d. wiIlllKII.. : 110 this
pi' ....., ""tic.... "" W.H.c. Fn.t.l.f 111 f.a, ~ ill pan. D IX __
flueD;e oISeect aid SdI.al1.....,. modI:n I' .... bPI: leaded lID m.
1RSl die IO-aIJed on!lodoA 8IlUrU:S fa lhe biIlory 0( 1lIi1 paiDd. K.M.
GinrOIIlII.II ~ IIX:h anIIolkD. _ ....... lUlinr Jidcd
M .....

pro-AlIw oj.... poiot of view." Tb;fllu tUlllIed i. -u.odm.-.ca


"lCdviJl pater lIeaI of aulen<:c 1haIIlhey mi,hl IX*iblll dcxrvc on lbe
basi. or bol/IlnlunalllIlI a.ranal cvidmce. L W. BIIlIad lOCI" far 10
1III1lIelil lila! !be lfldiliool l.IlK I'hiloslOfglllS ...., use.ntially an Arian
apoIoJisl b lllCOlftCl. a1l.llouP Ibc pauaga cheel from LIlIIl Eccl~n4lf;cdl
Hislorf by 8amatl11O prov1llhis poiJ!l soc.... in Illil aulllor'l opinion. mere
likely \I) ""... bee./I !be IIlIetpOlatiau of Pboti....16
PhilostOfllu', Il~. wriuen betWCII:II AD"25 ...... AD 433, bas
lOll' beelI =lniUld ", 1_ apoIozy for the UlrelllCl AriBnilm or

nRutdl, ._ cifM 161, 162.


UC/. P. V-.. ...... tit:: LW. Boraard, 'Two Ho4u ""
O.c,. 4\ (1913'): ,.... ~ ..... W.H.c. ""'B.urn...
nd....._ _ui..,w
E&Jpoico
Load in .... ", e-r,o,- N_ Cd~ (1t7~): 24, Fr<ad.1Mo
.....; Ill;' ; <Jl PloiL ... '=e-",.11 i$h ""'" .., _
CNdi _Il, 110 Ilia ducriplio:lll Dr "-...1 _ .. Tk ... D{
C iaIUr), NhM;", 19101. SDI'!.

. ,. _I.. . . _.IDlty_
....,

""

<krc-DrE
7Sk
7'LW
Oir

_ -.
cir~ Sol..
n.._ ..
lll., _ _ ...,.. . . . ~
. . " . dlW ~
.1D1 ...
~1
An. OJ :

. - is
~1ao_.N'
:1 .... " . . . . . . . . . _
t: (Ill:. :,,); I.t; U)
_
tclu_iftl
Ilo'

H~
i
:
witlF.T_
l'

_ .......
1M
1O""""alI E-ita ... .' .....
(Of) _ ~- (f. Y _ "p. ril,)OJ.
-
>I_ius. 871 I'tlOliuI bimItlt describes ~ U in . . roll<>wiq

RQd Illc IO-CaIIcd ~ HIi:I7 by ~ . . AriuL,


Illc spirit olwhidl is diffmm &0- IbM of --" tll Olber ea:1eIl-.
licaI ~ ~ CUlls all AriIq, . . . . . _ Imalls IIlI !he
~ 10 dlilwut is _ 10 _ldo .lIiIuy pmqyriI;: of
lllellu lIIIIl tu;. ~ IItKlI: ...- _ 01........ His
~il:e', "r IlisdicWotBj .. el *-sb_IO~_~
.110 be ICIlious llI' aaJ He His r.,....uoe _ of ~ it """
e.p-uaioc Md mala Illc ...... hodl plcuuI and ~ 110 rad:
......._
___
..., _be1ljohtd e'fa 10 _1Il.. .
ho.eo 1llca fipes _ o'#Crtlold UId r... ktehcd. IIld
of beills l'ri$iel MId iJ1.tDod. TIle IIIlpIce is
llIe -*' ............lioIJ
rdldlllmltltillvct..... in. disIgrouhIe abl!turity. I.n lIIUly mo_
Ihe IIItbor illU'Oduo;cs IIpplOllriIIC lllOfIi rdlet;tiont or !lis own. He:
--.rI tI'am II.- di:YotioII 01. AriId 10 tbol h=Jy aDd ill lint becil'lllill&s.
IUId cal:I willi Lhc reaII at lbe imp. . Aealll. nil Awu .....
....-d fitq bisorr..... by 1lisbn.Uerllc"1IC00s since/w.l*ldid in
wUcd_. as Phiklstor$i... bim$df un...utiJl&ly _ r - . & .....
ret:allcd IIld welcomed by tbc impious Jll1latl. TM biStory, in one
volum....d III boob. a(le.l dowllto lIIis period. T1lIl autbor is. liar
ItId tbollWTllivc oftt;n rl(:utioul.71

A1l/lt)u(11 PllIloMcrp... Ny. in ract, baWl '*'


_as 10 1tlrrI. AriIII ~
llOW Io5t to III, It lIlust be Idmitted!hat tha fnIamtrlll .bich rtnI*in Ulllltlt
only blued, but, in many plaui. patently lJt.ccu...1tl as ....11.79 lhil II
upIlCiall)' tnIII of tboIe ~ iIll'llilallOrllw ~ COiot:em AIMpOS;'1I
In tile fncnlenl& olPhibstorliu&'. '"kdoJricuJ 1I'-7 .. uu ..... by
I'botha& ia t1Io: pIIQ ...,. only tWO plIsusm m.b difCd mrrftlU 10
AIhanuiIOl.1O TIle r_ or IKz pI:ISII(II clailnllO I In K'iOoum at 1M
~ of Al!lInIsiUl following lbe dealh at A1exuwkr. The.,;:md
P*IAiC RCOIIUIi iIIc evallI .....id\ \e.d 10 1M leuam or At/wIaWI 10
Akoondria folirJwinc .. rUll Wk. 0l1lleK tWO pClIliaDo olPloiIollof$iu,
. . lana I*DI& . . lIICI:i", dle peAIl' = . .. .. -..dl for . . 1ri5-
IOrbI Alina_", far it alb iftlo qonrim dlr. e-euJ Mtid SIillooudtxlllle
.leo.... of Alhlnas:illl to lbe ~ of SL Mark. 11 .... calb iIm QU"'im

71 L On "'Oi> loa. -'-P- 1m. m."1.


1I/WL
19,. QIaoI* .".. ""_. III U2put., 01 1'lIi. .-.i.. ".. ...
. . . . .8Tllot 0 0 - _ .. bo....- .. tWo _ .... " ' _ ..
...... II
toq.
r-" "'" !Ul.
fto. 70.
tIIIe -.:ley vi A"'......... ill lois ...,.....,. vi bodl ku:: iali<io - ' I!IiI
II& dtr- al)nlili AD 3ll.II
f"olloIIlllrpII'. ~ ollloc _ .,.,......,.... M ' ... vi

_ ..
At........................ by I'lIclim falIawI::

'Be _:' _ ...-i_ r:L Iio:I (.....~ ~,..l Iftrr lIoc


dIIiIIIl vi An..... bilbcpd. A 'e nm., ... __ ot ibe.1ftlal:I ~
.. . I, - ' IbIl dIoft ..... I di-.ilJ ot 'hen: 1I'Id .... I
r:L a- -.t Iltlt2. IJI"IIIl .. ~ tbr. di..ise
CC 1 , 'e _
AIh_ ' . (........... ;t..........,........ /y "I'P*cd _ ~
iii Ibc churl::II called Ifla' DioII~.oad fbM:linI dIcre two EID'l'li-
llilhocll. rln'llly d(IIIcd I!Ie doan widllbc ~ ot _ vi hill
tollowen, Md m ... onbillcd Wy<l.....t... by Iheta. thooop
-&ly ........ Ibc wiD ol die ~ Fot I po-et tronlllboYe fell
u.... lloclll, Uld m UIIlSInincd tllleir wili _ powmI . . . . . . . .
AIIwIaIi... wished cIcme U lXICe. PloiIoIcortiIll..sdl. IIw. lllc.
A:IMindcr r:L Ibc iii prueId ~ AlhIuIi... an
KalUIII vi dIi:IlrUlSKlioa.; -:l _Ihc liller, hlvm, r..... lhorvol&hly
~ Ilia taUIt. idcIIcs:sed 10 Ille em~ c;zrWn IcIRQ rdainc
10 hill ontiflIlian, illllle _ of IIle mtn -.; 'lid that die emperor,
thlnk.iD. tIw tbc lcllaS ia 'luesOon oroae wrillen by Ibc aucmb!y 01.
tloe A\e.aaftciriaoI, mirocd VraTO.fIIo') lba deo;tloa willi hill
Af\(rwuda. howe.er, IIJlO'I Iin. InI"omocd 0( lba cIclalll olllle
.'' 1' ' '11..
lrIJIIKlX:la. M Rnl ALhanasius 10 Tyre, I city 0( Pboeloicil, 10 Ii... III
lII:WUIlI ollhe Il\IIlC:f before. 5JI'Od .. hic:h .... -..bIod.lhIn.12

Accordln. 10 PhotiLlS, PhiloslOrJ:iUl ICJe.I an 10 ducribe tbc e""oLs


whIch lOOk pllCe It lhe Syl'lOd of T)'Je...hera. 1,llIa K~ln, 10
Ph!IoIlorJ'lIS. AtIIInasi\lS is said wba"" been Il:CWOd vi f..ud, inv!lenlilY,
ilkpl onSillllian. IIld !he oft.reported violeOCfl '8ainJt IlIe IlKIIled Meletilll
prieu. lIchyru. PhiJoswpulllOCl an III URtt Lhat ~Athlll""i ......hQ hid
bapod 10 ete:lIPC lrlaI alIOICt/Icr, ""all IWly IIfw
dooble crime, lOOt _Iy In illepllll"dinalion ( . r
hlvinL':: ClOIIYic:lCd vi.
"'!pO",,",fI;!,
II1II_ I bII ~y; IIftd 80, by the ........... ~ oIll1l,. a;pltJiW 01.
dqICIIitDl ... p.ncd ....... Imn. "'J
PbiloIU:qius further swes that fill" thete r _ Ath...uu ....
1'''0''''' ' 'M by. aec:ond liuiqof dlesy1lOd -:lib-. it ..... dQ time.
(I AD llS) lIIIt Grepy lba ~ .... ~ - : lO
Air 10 W:a Ai.nPsi... pIaoe. S4 TlIe IIua _ did ba.

'Iq:""... 3-.
12""" .... HE.. n, II (8-.. . cir. 'J2.2J).
13,....
u,'"
lUe pillee mlil AD :Wl.1IIlCl t.b<Il it ...... 1M td>ea 01 !be S}"lOd '"
Andocb.. 15
How Ihca .e _ 10 eYaIuaIe !be .........1 01 Philon:q:i... CI)D.
oeniaa:!be d' roM _ _ Ofdlraa!p 01 A""""'" rnl, we .... ..., lha
die -e<9- 01 Pllibupa _....-. ... wid! die lldlet h' iQ 01
Soa-. IN So. . . . tIID bllIIdred ~.ncr _l:'I'ClU .....
r
.-1 _ baed lIfI(WI ~ - . " y _ . bOued A n . , - . 1 6
Sel d _ _ al lpolha 1M _ _ vlPWololqiu
is c.ly - . ..... _ y -.II ""-. E " M -.I M" _ <atlkIl
_ D Ila.. tIeetI.ndcIy ~ foIowiIl& dle demo 01 Ad 'w Del
wbidI CIIled iu:I qnrim Illc 'O"I1iclilJ 01 ""'_Qt'1 dot.... Illd 0ClUI:0a-
_ II hi*lp vi .. In-'riIL AI" dlalI - . I......"". IlOIlC 0I1llc&
_1Ilcak>i .I.,ee.cilberllaa:a . sa~ __ 0 1 _
or ia .... ~ d=ilL
'The d1arc:h hislOriu SaaueI. usinl. il would Itppcar. _Iy
..dI"ma ..-ialI .. Ilia ~rI "'-.s
ia IllI E:~~H'-7 dial
I IiIorI titne. ilia" dIcir fUlIn r... uile (I.... roUowial NiI;aea), 1be
FIlM"

objeelcd to llte crl1iaItion 01 AtMlw:i.... J*lIy .. I ~ lIn1!'\lfthy


(baf/OlIl ot lIle prdll:y. aIId p.nJy ben'. !I.e
cfilqAlifed pnDIlJ Cp>! 6ly (,ri d(t.o~. Bw...- A..,MiIlS
'*' *"dcI;taI by

had shown himself ",peri<x lO W. calumny (tor ""vUle AI$Ullled


COOlI'OI [IyKpaTWl or lhc churc~ of Aleur\dria, hi: trdenOy corllGllllod
for lhe Nioenc CI'oed). l/lIeft E.lxbius UU\I!d h;mJclt 10 lhe ullllOSt
;ftSidioosly 10 _ tile. remova! 01 AIl!arIQIUlI and 10 brirle An", bid<
to ,I.Je.andriL p

y~ llAOt.hcr YUSiOll of lhe deletion and ordinatioll vi Alh3Iwl... is


found in .sor.o.-.I ~C~"""'-fi'l HUIDry,I9 III h i I _ oflhe evenu
IIlmIIIlIdInCIllc devaUcm of A!llIIlIslIII. So_ _ 1d1s 01 how AlbIDMill.l
-cJIl to "a'fOld !his honor b1 nicN. Iau \hat l>e.allhlNp btlnB lIDwillirc.
... ~ C(JIbOa..ed b)' Abander 10 -.Ihc bisbopric. -90 Ahcr
c:c.r-m, lIle Iboe Mdt !Ix "';_1 01-. MApcllliaaiIat I!Io:

&Sso HE.. m. Si S _ HE.. n. 10: l ' I ... HB, Il, J.


"cr. Q . . . .~ IlL DI.
11 Son_ _ Iill"" __ <If "'" ~
...... of AD JJI..,. .y.L 6, S-6 (OpG 90. ~1t3.
u.- of 11\0
I~).
q"o...

. .Son HE. I. 2] (f{; .,. 1]111. C9-1~1, I~ &,po. _ _ \..NPI'.


_ 2. 2IL
19s. HE. Il 17 Q. _-. SC )06" , . 190. 2'M, 'JO.n);
~ Ir_ M I!. WoI!<o-4. <if. (_ r.. 1'0). 7.. q:ab of .... _ ....... 00II
b)'~..;a-.M
9O'NoI.
"
Syrian.~ Sozomen provides us 1riIh all a1lemaD"C Arian acalUDl of die

""""" TIle AriaM....., IhaI aftellbl: dcIiII of ..............,. the IapCCtivc


fo/b'=s of 1hII bisbap.-l of MoI.li... held ~ ~, and
fifty-folir bisbops fnxII Thdlts, aDd otbor partS of Emx. .......bkd
qetbef, 1UIlI....,.el by aIlb I<l cIIcoR. by I POO'motl - . . . lIM:....,
wbo CCIIId ~ -dmiei..... t!IIl 0IardI of Aln.,dria:; ilia
1lla _ ollbc bisbaps, ia ~ of <heir oB. aDd CXlIdnr)' II> <he
opllion of ail. xcrctIy lllI!ainr:d A'bon-j"s: aDd . U l !his ...........
- , of IIle pccIple and 1IlaQ1 of IiIe E.,,1lliall der&1 radcd l'rom
f;ORlIIlunion widlllim.'1

s-en. ho-e_. _lDdismUs .... ~ oIlhis AriIa aa:auna. He


_"'For 1111 1*\.1_ wnvinccd!hal ii_by Divilleappoinuacnl (oUr
GSul II'llpo'.l,llr!9! 111. AlhaDas...... oca........ lD tlIe h'p-priestbood
(dp)(l~ and pocwk 1O,...1ol the winuel of AlhIna$i.... So-
Ulmea ends his llamllivr. of evmla by rellli", lhI: 'POC:I)'llIlal 93 SUlrJ of
A~hll'l "boy bapcism, his SlIbseq""nl RNa in tile hOUKboId of
Bishop AIe1arIder, ond his I'rit:rIdship with St. ArItatly.9ot
T""O funher acl'OIlntJ of the election of ALIlanasi\lll as bishop of
Aluandria are provided by ~iphaniu, of Sllbmi,;n the PllMrion." Most
likely complell in AD 377, !he PantJrion live.lwO some..,1w conflicting
narrntlvcl COIICernillJllhe elevation of AthanasiullO lhe throne of SL Mark.
The fltIl of lhese is related in. <!iscU$$;on 01 tlIc Melellan schism in Egypt
and il concerned with whal appears 10 have been an 'l~mpted MelelWl
oswpaticn of lhe see Df Alexandria.1 tho time of AJelWlder', death. The
~e_lhI.l

AJeunderol" Akxandria <!lew near LO dwh _ .oer lhe lJ"(lClwhicll


"-I taken pbcc iii Nicaea. iklt Alb.".;"" _ DOt pIl:SeQl alW dealh
of A~. for It IlIat time he was AIeurIder'. deon and laid becft
_ III a meetina: (..l'TTdrooi. Alen...... had ordeRd IIlaI 00 ODe
dIould be appoinlcd 10 sa:cu:d IlinI b\II. Athuasius aIoae; 10 Ihis
anqemeal ...... ........ ma:ry dem. "'" IIlI: wlloIt dll.Jd1 hacl borne
wiuo::sa. Takia, Llrisoppclf1llail)' [i.. ~ of ~sde:lllll.~.
lhe Melaians iDsWIal bisIIDp of EcPl. owiII, 10 mete now bciD&

91WoIford, . cil~ 75.


91 /bOL 00. . . . . . ril. 2Sll, 7l-1.).
s--.-.
9Jw&!fotd. . ril. 75. 76:</. IlIl'"..... HI!.. ll~ - ' HE:. L 15.
"W.u-l, ..... ciI.
9Sf. .... aiIied lUI, <f. K. HooII, EPip+i. , - - . H_. u-. CCS.
LciJ>rif..1933. TlMEDp.a. ....'. ~1Ill' ........
~_ . ciI'~ m. 311.
,.
IlO bishop 01 AJeur>clriJI 0-.... AIr"ndrill_ QcI t_bidIDpI.
0Il0er dlia ... ~); liley, Illuet'on.. in-.1 or obcyiDa IK wi1I 01
.. lor....... jnstaQod bi*'P of Em- ..-.l ~ fto after bc:irlI
ill om:c dlIa -m died.. AllluaIiI&S ~ - - . _ 1oDl.rtt:t
~ cbdI or ThooIlas. and h.- lIliIR ~ IVUIld Iboul S)"IOd 01
_ ~ pdlmd wbicll ...1IcxI bi.. I~"'J ad pYC IIiIOI
dle _ _ .. a_ -miry (~ attM. no W an.tJ bela pqwed
by God', .... i11 (ni>' ~.., ... aIId tlIe wialea Md
or
00llllIllIrllI I*-d ..n.",

"H_ .7(Ho1L . riI.I.,...I7). T... -......polM_,.....,


by [pi,,-- bo IIIio P"'OV Fino io "'" ...........,. tor oM cletJ1, J. _
~ ....so.q-. Second 10 Pli. e4i1Orial <:ammctI1 ...... pon 01 Itlo , _ I'or "'" eI<ctl:nI
orioil w" "'.. "..... ,-:trio .....r hod ' , [, io
0 bl,hopo .. ol!lu lola< h
......_ ....II' ""'Ill EplpluoWo by ohi. _~ lthiD Iho
pobUrcbal _ -.. 'Y"'- 01 ..,rr...._. 1I.be> - . ""'~ l/w
1M woo - - . ' " ' _ 10 Nd <Me oIllw. di9i-.. cIwor<b ............ _ ..hal
Epip/l1nlllO -.>Id. il "'TO. h........ idcred o<hllm.1ic: lhollop or rival
bl>hop. In.." llIi, ... \IId nol luve """" 01 ......."dn.. rOf It II
pn>Ooblll ..... 1M ""loCi.. ,dWm ...,M au, of Me , III.-pill. of Bishop
"".... uUoariIr ;" .-..a....... tad ~ (<f. K. 8-. -Mclni.. 01
L_lil," LT~. <II. ,; W. Telfer,
S_ _ in!popc.- KR 41 {l9S5J; 271-m; 1IMI1..W
-104.,..... L,
01 i 110 Epi~
"'So.- Noca
....... MdotLuo SdWIII in ElJpl. s...o. I'IJUUtiu 1'1 (TU II)~ 8erlin. 197'.
ci.,..
)99-4Qj). n- -.copt .f
Cypoi....... _1o)'Mn
ow,
~ 10
1Ioisllop ill .....

,.,Il1o<>1:)'_10 _ _ ,",' 04"41.. ' .....


'" E_lMa (HB .. I). 1; ,is. . . . . Aq".. '0 10. CljU). PctIuopo
Iet......mc .....
pn>lII_ of . - ........ _
10_.
followina 1tIo ......... 01
_ _ 01, ; ."ibililiu r.. lbo __

IDQI """"'" d ....


.. ~............. _olaF .._.
fI_ ,. LW. _--. "T_ - . - "~ ],., aD _
_ . fi _ lIN M.. _ . CIIOUia AdIiIoo.~-

"n.,b. B....-... I - 14. ra. 91 _ ) , lllo OW io _ _ ....


........... ,....._ 01 ""' ... ~ ....... n.. """ lolelod_ _
..... _ .. ' ' f , . . . . doc:Oonl fII'I<'OD .. ~ -W _ -...... 1M
e-oIelHioMo "' f , . . _ ........ 011,..-'"
0 ,

.... _ "'-01 .. _ _ _ " ' - Oinfdoo. ~,..,;dtI ...


, . .~..., c1L, $01. _ _ ""1",,_ ...
kod __ .. " ,
"
.. die ~ Clbjocliw dill Adlillas ... Ilisbop of A....tria bd_
.:I _.,.. ........."",.100 1111..,. ca&. 1bl: ~ it foDcIws:

pIKe io" _.'*'Iabcc:8doe "'b


.... _ . Ariat ,..... 1M
_ , . . . dial ...... Mer _
~_1DQIl;
10" reat
lie . . 1 1 by AdIilIu ( _ nee.. _ - ..aDtd by die
Mttet,_). no.. Achi11eo .... bc'c-.1liIItqI b _
.. h IIty _~Alt.. ". MKl ad benI .cIcIl:m
-.1 t.l, ... dullBe. bel:-. Krlt Ily'" 11). ~I)"~ lei
..... Ab"*,,... ben tie _ Iixlc liO die., bel onImd dlIr. lIIe
~ IIIould be p-. I l - . /10...0. iI>c CIIMOo'II in "!n'ndria
. . 10 delay It& iaN'''';'''' of bisbopI after It>& cIca\II d: l!Ie prerioIos
a"'"
1lWqI, buill) "'"~ thiI dorIe jm""t<!iHe'y for !he sake <:II pl*C UId III
frkliga (...,..l'JIIMrl - . IhB I*'P1e. ....
wut Illil_ Md ot!Ion .... one. So out olllOlCWSity. ber-.. <:II
14

~'. J h,!hey instaDcd Adlillas. 8111 IhB Itlrone ......


jWietdMlucl (k~ b.s boen ..e. .1td kIr _ _ (Lr Art & ..,
. . . bid been c:alkd by God (T41 h ..00 ft~) 8IId lIiId been
~ ! by the bIcIad AIcuncb. Ilea"
, Ad.viM .... __ .....
.... ""'tailed. _ bIorw_ ........ zmIous Cot lbe Caidl ud i. IlIc
ddaa ollbe chwdl.
ollha KKl'Ued MeIcWns (Ille I
awl,.
ldIisnIaIic plborinp bepn lO Uke place
'P of Mdetlu we.llaoe Meady
RMcd); but Alh"n"Ns. for !hi: reauI$, IlIlCd Iboe. delirerJ I!II mUy
of die dividIId cburl:h. lOI

Wore lumillJ III Allwlasius'. own ac:coont 01 IIi, tJeetion and llfdi
..-.Ion III bisllo::lIl 01 AI.nndri". tl!<:rc .e )'Ct two Olher IIl:l\IJII 6clII:ribiJIJ thil
CY(n/ whlch Ire of inlt~ ond impcrtanc;e.
ThIl rU'$l of tht.sclllll'O iOUtCCS is Orqory Nal:i.-.u:ll'1 oratlorIlft honor
01 Athanul .... CommDnly "'fermd to .. OT~I",1I21.101Lhis~)'ric WU
deU-aod II CortsaMnopte by Gregory at llClmfl POinl bc:tWOCll AD 379111\d
3B1. 10J Allhoo&h Orat;01l 21 contains .. disp~lCd panaat C(lIICemin,

..,. ... ccald we ,.... '; ="", ;" Lha olctioB .. dl&
..... "'AIu-.a. fiMdIis ..... io _ _ ...
,.1', iI...,. "'-ly

......._._Df..
-.. ~ _ .... ~ 0<fUIIfly _ _ ' " ...

..._io,. _Ec7lB-...,..
__ __
pM ........ ' " A.
~""'",", w-. __
M_ ill. ~~ . . . . ,","'
.. ' .Io .. . ' - " - ........i.,
1M" . '.' .fJI_iII. , _~_ .... _

'OClLw 1-.t,-r_Ho_- . . rir_l-SO.


'O'H_ ". 1J (HoI.._ dr.. 161. 6-Zl).
'02,. . . <mi..1 ...... _ J. M.....,. sc no. ,.....
u.lioIo _ UN'. _ --. """- 1. 29.210.
"'191. ',.0.
'01C/ w-o,.. ~iI:_ 9t-Un, fw... co . , IM.DeI
. . . . fJlO-O-11. - . , . a:o:I _ _ lho ... _too,-
"
d * p .......... Att.";' dill. S)'Mld. clT)w (wllidI clwJa: riI be
eumil!led in a.ucr (OnIU1). it is aI pQIt;r inIflorWa. dlis poiJIIlJl our
AlIdy Ig eaaminc .... pMicn fJl dill. PI"tIYril: whidl delcribes l!Ie dection
_ .... ol~.bisllopol1n dliL Glepyfir-..ys
of ~ , ...OIM -10 dlc pi , I (ucIlD" tpi......,.-.) ... -=
_-.........cl-*yd*'balJal'rlCe_ .......... , . . . dIIvIIP Ole
erUc II:rieI olllrllel'$ ( d _ ........ ~ "" '0'_ &r(t~
he _ (10 cnakc
_
-.y..,. sbon) etllI'IISIlld wid!!Illldlief" (~6pi'p)
dill. people..11" Qrqor)o tbI:a lOCI c-. 10 speak .,c:1r1Cllly IIIllIltir!:ctIr
0/"* 'II" deaiooIlO..-t iruullatioa ill. Ifw we- 01 SL MId<..
PoIIibly . . . . IQ _ GOt tbe S".... lAll6l1{ tJw ErJPfitut 8Wtt.>p
II{ AD .llI. IOS Grtpy ....

'" _ - . flIllle people. (~ 'I'Oll Aoro6l .......lrl. IlOl in


!be evill'a*bl wlIidlllas since pre"led, IlClf by _ _ <II bblclshc4
ad oppI'Qlion (oW ~ 'IT .,,1 ~-.d1s) bat in ..
ponolil: ...., 1piri1Ul _ . lle. is led lip ID Ihc w..c qL SIIiDI
Md. 10 ~ IliaI ia pieqo .a Jaa IllIa .. offige; .. die taller
iadeed It I pal djsqnce lrOlII bim. in IlIe r.:w-. wllidI is ne of
IUttcSlion, foil_inc lIim tlolely. For \Ill;')' IJI cIoc:!riM dcsa\res
Illllly hi offICe: and. rival adIcr ""II clI' ri.... 1hrone (d.....t~:
Ibe one ialhe Ill'" in fUJil)', Ibe other M in ~ For 1111 oot
!he 11Kl1lder. bUl !Ie 1II'hcse ri&hl! aN inlnlded upon, wbel II ihc
I'M'fi'SSOr, I>(N ihc tRw b,uker, but 1M Ia",rully .ppoinled (d
1I'pq!,l",""Is- I~), IIllIIhe ...... 01 conuary opiflions, bat IhII .....
of Ibe laIlIe f,ilb; if this is 110I ..hal _ mean by IUcceuor, be
IlIl;ecc>d.1Jl1be DIm sense all diseue to 1Ieal1ll, darkness to light, SlOl111
10 calm, and f,tt1,y 10 soon<! _,lD6

The IeCOad 01 ~ l\WO -.n;u hat its b;a;it i Ccpdc cnI uwliliDa
.. hit~ Ut foancl iIf .... y inlo pzristic: IiIr:nl1lre in tile ApDp/".,,_f.
!'WHo 73)01 A1lhouf;h dill. ezact Drip, Illd d.e cllbe rwnti .... Ia qIIa-
tlCIn II more di/fll;a!t 10 ltICe 1hIn unain of the QtIllI" rail .tOch """'" been
ted above, baIIl the 0DlllICll1 and IIIbject mmcr point to ill beillj Il!lCOl'll of
.. iIo;:lclc.tu ...mctI to<* plaI:e ill EcYPt ~ the .. ' .-'!e
S-1dIolIn.. v. T'w<mey. I\aYe aJu&Id to let. dIIe Jliablly.ner die
of AtIlaasiuI.
lkadt of ~ (AD mj far dIit leU, a!'",1lliI 11 ~ _ _

oayiDa ... u w. ;... M_


.,._.....1.. ,.Mllm).
31 lIO _ ].fl. _ _ _ U.

I~o<_ 21. 7 (Moouy. . . doM In 1, 1.10); b&li* - . um',


_ _ .......... ." DI.
105.y.o1." $-6 (OpiEz. 92.:zo..n. S).
1060-0;",. 21 . (N<:G., , dr~ llo&. I, 1ld); qlioIII ..... Utl'f'.
-~.
I07 PG Ii. Jdl, 89-1S; "'" ~l;ot\ _ . if.}' 0_
"
1ain,Iot This I*ticular UTIliYe - . too.""a, pW;:ed III I more deUWwe
Il;lwallndi6ol witb ~ inclll$iofl i1l1he '* rIflIt.ntury eompIlarioa at !he
~Itt,_ 1'--. ~ --... oIlIIlIICIl_e:alllll: lbo doancr ....
cension is il Onoo*, Ibl: IoIl&<o" ill S)'ric. lot The GfuIr. lUI ~ ~A.t Ibis
.... cenain hcn:liCI ~ 10 AlIbI Pllulea. and IIley be,. to IPQk IIPlIt
!he .......""" aC A ......ma, for lbe1 dlinw:d 1IlII1lI hid reiwed CIflIillIlO
&0- Pfutl)'letl (..,.~_
'-'P'. tAn"'. al1ll& sa- pMn
'xn rr- the S,... . .
~~IIO .. E..A.W.
u . _ poisl.
ct::dlliq pit:ob,ltibol rill'';'' ill . . hi .. e_ _ &er '<llqJ Illd
- . &ora I!Ic Iim.ilocd ~ at dle.1Ul, ID be dftI:ed ..... Ille ..kilo:
p' .... _ fII"'lr~ Ilodp - - . . IhI ~ ill. folIo.,..
illc: -..:r. "'CcrtIIia ....aica eaJllt. GO _ !m 110 Abbe Poeaw:a .-I
IIley bepa ID ~ lIle Aocf!tIi..... or ,. -'ria. ... III IpClIt eYiI
IhiIlJJ COllUJlli.., .im. and tile, ~ 10 PfO'I'C IhM u dIq (1IIc
..... 1 ,-J
llId,ecci\Oiidco......... &twa !he ..... dIoe)r
lite (odlerl ~~1l1
wee.. alii

=~~ .....)._., _ _ ;.~. .raCdleltlw:i1tal .aodlJ oInibup.'.


, II _D .. llle ~ of llle 0IlM:r lIial:aiatw . , wrilen QIed
Iborc,..., Ill. . IllnlIO __ OIll, lbe..tiea. 1IIlII'" 10 Ille _ coqJIele.
l'lCOO'd of ~ C'f'eftll ..bidl utrOIMdcd l!le 1decdGt. ani_jew, ....
~arioa aC AIhIllIIiaI .. ~ot "lnndriL T1tis Is I) lit; ro-t ill
!he ~ S)ooadal UIW c{11w EOPfi"" ~", AD JJIJ..nictI
is lllclllded by ~IIS '" Ibe ApoI6,t. ....,"""".. i'f TIw AtIIIJImi...
loimJeJl' . . . a-vup !he letlef in detCncliaa: hifutlf IpiUl _ I a of
~ It .. hboul dclub(, OrIc IIlIUt abClldnl1t,
Ulltr c{ AD 3M ~ 10 be the IeSlimon, ollila am -001, lyaod
hDwe_. tbIt tile SJIWdoI

asselllbled II Aluudtllo, OUt of UP!, IlIc Thcb,l., LII.,., ud


Ptnlapotis. ~1I3 FunIIer, tha lY"od -&hi 10 canflrfl\ lhe Inllllflllaeu 01
\lIeir KCOWlI by lIWiq; tbIt Kof aU 11111 (I.t., 1Ile elactiQa. mlClOCllnj ....
MIllt:Ue$, IDd. 10 II tilt. whole til,. arwllhe "'o>,b.... 100. KII. We _ ...
. . Lhal t ' - pl.hcmIlI.lh" t)'1IOd _ well 'CQ',ej"'N! willi die ~

,oav. T-,o. ~ nv-. .,. ell. 5)6. AIOooo.. T-.y


. . . lhIt,.....ADns. . . - . y " 'tt oI._.O"' . . T.IM ...
...,.....u,'
'(1m): IK. ,no
I... ""E.W.K_B....... ~ . "... ''''~JEJ/

'09Jr. ...... 01.""'001..... rf. 0--..,.. dI~ m. I .... ,n.


110r0 '" "1. "'",': ["poIl_. io " ' 1 _
"'.Aw. Imp. no , of lito HI>IJ F. . .,. Lcw:loa, 1901. '"
to- ~).
112,y." ,-6 (Opita. 91. 20-91. J). .,.,. ' . . . . ~~
<I{.w J1I felIo...... lila doli...... 01. o,i<l. _ " . , 5,-M _
Me t JJI, Opb. 19.
'""

113..,..3. I (Opib.". 1.2).


11.,y.t '" (OpiQ, 91. 201-25).
'*
....-
"'bich bom InIdr. by Ille E"..........MeLocian ..I'-'e . . . . Al!IoImlIilll
-...Inc _ dc...... IPd ontinMioD IPd ..-.. Ibariln., 'O'UJ .. ach pre.
1*'lldIa!li.... l1II. of1lloe..-_,l '4 ,...,.. ..

TIley 1E..c_ Ille Fncbi_1 prejDdic.ed llle E.paor ...... kiln Ii.....
A... '1111;.,. fro. lily dw I _ willi o-cik; a t . ' -
IIRmbiod T)re; IIld III d1is dIr Ibcy . - . _ III __ ..... _ .
MIl _10 H J '4 lila 1lley IMllIiIId r.II willi 1m Ipp"'i-_ III

....
YiIifJ1IIiI_ dloi .
lIa.coa. 1lIoe 'O'UJ ....
..
Ille Fphonpw ~ ~ _ _ of ..., tlleire-iry S'ld ~
dlllira,~~~~~::tj:"~.: :':CI:..:.b
'
dle de (Mp;a ol1berdly
wt1id111lley _ _ . . . . . lIcI
bal CllIIYicIIheiI" f(nDCr _ I I of beinl hbr"oadl, alId. IIIC:I'e
alIlSpiUq apiIrI hinl. Ale Ille, Ia)'. dw "afIa' Ille delIIh of Bisilop
,,""....... a ecrulJI kw1laYilla muililwoCld Ille _ at At .zz,.,;..
01" _ 8isbclp1 declallIim dr' . If .. a _ ptaa::'" .-I dtis
...... lhey ...- 10 Ille EmpaOlS, 1Iavia& Il(l PUjlIoI about IAICfIiII&
die tmlLe$l ral...baacls No-.. Iha1 Ille "'1laIa lIIuJtilude CIII all IlIe
people ofllle Ca&haIie Cburtb (6 Mods" rill" .... /iIlW.on1r Iw",nr)
wembkd ~ .. wid! 0Ile lIIiztc1l11d body'" erial..... , ....
AdlanasU shau&d. be Bishop olllle.. Outctt. IIlIde Ill.. IIle 1IIbja:1 (II
1lIeir plbllc pnlrm 10 ChrisI, and COIIjnred 111111 gran it for man, ~)'S
and IIigbts. neilher <leparlinl themsel_ from lhe Church. nor sulTerlnl
us tel lIcIlO: of IIllllit we . . witnusel, Ind 10 il tbc wbola cily. and
tile province 100. NO!. MlIll did they JjlCIt apinsI hilll. IS Ihcse
petDIJ ~lIIIcI, tNl gavc him 1lle IIlO'lll1OClJenIlitles lbey coulcl
devl.c&. ,.1Iinl him lloocl, pIoul, Christian. In ascellc. a lletl~ine
Bithop. ArKIlhlllle ...as e1c:c\elll by. majority (...... Iowrj of(lUl" body
ia tile lighl IDIl willi KCIamatiIIIIs af aU Ihe people. . . woo e1cdecl
him abo lC:IIiry. "'00 arc rurdy lDOJe CIIIcIibk w i _ ItIaA lhca
who _ lIOI P"*ftI, mel _1jlIaId Ibae talle _ I U

Ollly fw1hu rde=cc we: br:'c 1UlUI'lIl", abjeclioq 10 tbc cleo-


1iIIo...,TheCOI.... aian al Ad
11
. l.biItlcp of AJeuncIria_ rn;n tbe
CJwtMiaM AlOe,;e ... ' II>d IN)' wdl ba ....... 1Cd by al'ClU:t iIlllle
1caa"alC' rljM wlriclIllqaoet by AIbmasiuI ilIIheApolo';''-III'1e
III ... CIv""iauo ill Ihc eompikl alllle fcaalleuer$ _ m. ia AD )0.
))1 " . . . ., .,

IlS,y.t. .. J.-' {(::I,a. 92. 1129). &,litll ..... 1.JO'F .....


... 4. 103.
II'ufPF, dI.. SOJ.
enemies ..... 11IM lie 1llId been .ppoinleCl wtlea 11)0 fOUII&. He ....
pcIfed [beforeConswllilleI, _Iboqhl wonhy of ra-.r ..... Itoro,
lnd~wbeoIlkl~JfMt_ .... rrllUoell.lll

It is PDl$iblc IhIl iI .... this illcident .-hldI CoftAanaiae Ud ill mind wbm
wrilillllO'" pellIIk of AJeuMril in AD 331.332. 111 Conmmi. JlIWI
IhK A. . . . . ." -us ....-ecl befofo Iriln. _p'mint IhaI -.a ..
c. II 100 old; saA .. _ II ~ 11: 1Ile offici !ltQ,p ID 1M:; ill is ....
ID - . .o.:e it II tIteII ....y 6uIl bini. I wiD p i I _ III ........y iii*,
. . II-. I riI . . . ._ wi\.II .y po"'Cf 10'" w.,-Ut
....... 10 dll:Ie ~ _.., Ill
0-..-',
lid dIl:iilioo _.,. j r p 1 of1lle
_ ...... ...., lhM "'lXirs!A .;.., _.01 is IDe _ ~ of

""Y, IUppOI'1IId .,. ~ . .fa! an- wtIido .....uJ kb'c ID


Ie. -nil
It we _ 10 ditcxM:t. wiIlllllly dl:1IJIle III OMIiIolY, w".a.Dy IOllt
plIce
ol All..
ill...........,."""""'"
'm
ttao. _ wtlit:b ...-.decllfle.eleYltian
10 Ifle lbrone of SL MuIr; in AD 321,. cricic:II, Cll'tfal, IIId
impMial ....._ ol aD ol1lle ~ - ' a l l IBut be IIlOllenIl.M. 11Iis
is o l _ ~ ilnponll'lCe. if we llr4 IlMd lIefcn. we wisIl lD CIII
inIo .._ ... \be lISe ol PlIiloltora:ius reli11l11_iInca In _ -a. far
Ibe IlisloricaI AIluMsius. n.. Ik ceauaI ponlon ol f>!IlIaIDrpusSI<CDIIDl.
ot AiIlIIIaIiuI il COllCUI'Ied widl ,~ e<IIIl$Cd e'a:lion _ _
IeCI'Ilion is _ wllic:b IeIds 10 yU. runner diIf"1tU1I q ,....
(I) ~AlIIIrlItiaa~.~ iaw dl\lldl ol 10k (2)
pn:IpIlr Ind in..... methods of co........ 1fld c:IIlllllCIl fcoiliolllfld cIIri-

1I11~i<I.
II'A,.I. 61.62, die uri Uclnt ot AD"2 I'.d....... f rloio
\."-' (/. 0pitL 1.1, _ 2 , TIob it. - . . - ......,. _Ii. 6atiq
..... AD Dol. _hOok iii ...uOOll<lll by '.R.
ColooMo.",_ _ . _ s...." _
C~ c~ .., u..-.. lll66.ll'l.
1I9A,<>I. 62,' (Opim. \.2"): EII1dI ....... uqp,.,.. ciI.. 133:
..........iIi ooSoSod, ........ 01 A........... 1M Ii_ of 1Ilo " ....
~
Alb
'" ... "" 1_ of _ . . . , . A. hi..... _
:" ...,. Ir-.l ...... bIaI,...."... _ "'" c
"'" ""i,' ....
. . . . . ot <hirf)' (willi
m _ II "" f)'IOd 01 t'o. ... '1I(3:lO .... !If, . h 01_ ... fa<
"" . . .; II) in -....._ ot'" Maioifolo,-.,.. clI.. n'I: c/. -A... oripa
... I' lito oopM: L. ~ ot If ......1= .. ,.' i ' _ EQpoc
(!"... V" ._~ Ia _ ... ', !OJ ij (1"11: 3S-S6,.oIoo IIy A. Iobrlioo..
A10I 01 ~
;" OJ!, H=( ' .. -I n-.
LN..........' ( of . . H'-M
.:tIec!_. '"
p<>iIf 01 ,,_ _ "'" ""' . . . oIllb
do
1&Jef!".sJpda.- Gorlok 2 (I_I:
_ . ot ..... =.=..,
.

~ ~
t

!cola _ ," SC ]11. \91" .... W.


~ II _ _ -r '-0 _ _ iIoin]' _ _ fJI.,. .. ....,
.....". ~ hl . . _ 0 1 AD]2t,
\ IycoI. 62.. (QpIQ. ,on.
1(1.11); I!qtiol ..... UfPP, ......~ ,n.
"
rlCaliDa u ~ at Nicxa. IIld (l) Mdeliu Invol._ III ltIc
AIc:uIdiaa.. Coacil
... e1.aion of AD 32l.

J~.l 1',,A~ C ~ I. 1M Cbtd f1/


A'.....",.... TlilltlWsl .. "e .-",/luI
__ 'd rd __
. . al ,10" II "-. WriUItc 1ll19S2. w. Tdfu ~ c. ..
01 lUll freD J - . Fpipbniws & - ' -.d E\Il)'dlIDs.111 . . . .

odIln. lIlM tile IJIWD wlar:br "'" bishop al le.......... ekalId IDd
_ _Ied by lIl& AIc.uAdriuI poeIbyIus lei aslock 0Il1y '"wtlcoI
AlllIIuIi-. deIICllII III ...... awW. ...' . . ;. tile w-.w oJ SI..
Mlrt,.1%2 ~ ID Tdfer iI . . 0IlIy a raak alibi: rc.dt.- of
Ihe 0--;1 01 N.QaoI%J Iba dlis c:t.q,: a.e . . . . . III IIld .... _ _
in. . . prcbUili/J 1I1!R111le oW _ . . "",",""IWbecI...-a " ' - '
dIM A'r dle 1m AIt........;... JIlIP" II) lab off_ widIooII: . .
impolllion alii epixopaI Unds .-1 d..a _ order came in widI
A1UuJi.... -I~ Wrilin&"" similar _leU in 1955. Telrel" lIpiD_
lhal. '"lIDliI Kae&. Eosxl- ideal Oft jo! 1...: ! __ poclItiiIr" all
lUI Mafter Nic.M:I lllom is Ml re-. ID ~ ~ ortloocloa ED'fII
avpcrilllpoled .... requirmooma al_ N"1CaIe e- .. dle lndiliolW
EIYJllia ptIllenI in thea Ill3UeI1-115
Telfer's view hi been 1ICOeple4-.d <IChoedby H. NordberJ...110. In "
IIlOIlOi"Illh publishe(l ill 1963, scalCld that ..... ben BiI/Iop AieJ<ancItf dim. be
bad "!reIdy rude arralllC"""'lI in t_ respecu for lhe dcaion 01 bil
.........qor. F'lI'Stly. he bad !be eleaion pnxedllRl chInJed, .. dIM Ibl:
Atd~ .... 110 lonp:r ro be cllolen by IIld within ltoc ~ler'
collqium in Alcundri., bill jointly by the Blshop.l of a1llhe ccderiuck.1
prOYlnccl,"llS Nordberj is of ,he opinion Wllhll chana' was mille
"mainly In vlew olllle Mcletiam," .... hom be bdic"llI wCft\ sellO Uftllllc.

nit.... ~ U l.t~. polriordI 01 Ala1 AD ,n.iN).


122\\1. Tolf., "pio<Iopol S 'bn in Eo'\Il.- lEH , (19:52): 10.
12Jn. rou.u. _ of Council _ Niu&o._ ....... BiI.Ilop JIWI ...
....... by 011 (lMlIioIlopol _ ~ (puoirooo); il' doal iJ _ ~1IIo ..
_ ot ..-.. ilJ. eo .. _ of'" !nil'" of jDw::w... Illtet.
(WoMpo) 1M alt.olI - t . . . _ _ 10 , . . . - <JI. k-'o
(_ ..., ,..... __ no-&.Oliool
.r .... Mo _ - - . "" -=10.-107.10 ... _~ : '

_.
CJ. HtI.t.. A Hill.., tJf ... C
Ediooloot.... Ii'll
ot ... _

IUrott.. ""E~ S
1,311. It. _
.-oIA1u.

' ...... :0.11.


1aoo C-,Is (tr-. "" W". C~)
F'
wlI.
01 lIM ~
' e- .... _

,t'l
IUr..... "1W
...~."". N ' .. ~.t
__
f

-._.........
.t l, I r - .. <it.., 236. U'I.
c
xxx. 3. H...iftI:i..&lfi:qfon. 1963. 17. It M_
n

_ po awful atrain 0( Ibe EcJpIiIoo dudl. 1%1 ...... dba. alb


_ I, ~ Ale...... bd apeatr upn:ued 1M .;u !hat
A'hM=ri--...wbe.u .~I2'1a" . irc ... ...,.oftilDe
bmo _ _ ..... oIBiIllap " ....." ... (...... lie ~~."*'"UJ
IIefcft E.o..-,l29 . . Ibl: rlrcrinD of to:' ' . a.IJ_ m. ,........
_ . . "il: ilI ..... _ "'!be ckrTU- baidellhB ...... of" _
~ ~. Ioolt pIKe UDder e~ COGditioq.-l:lO It ill
ioIlpDnD. II) _1IlIII Nodbei, rejIIca die eIrl, ~)' of Ibe .)'W)daI
Ieuer of 1M EIYPliu biItlcps IlId. falklontl 1M IeIer AriM """O'w,
_lIOi.aed .. Sec_Ill IIIlI ~ n 2 '"1fte deaioo
ilIdf (h of Al!lIaaIlIu) .... IIDDillruiftl, elf1ed bf .. ilJipificut
....""bet of "is' pI I ..... or two._W Aa:onlinIItI NOillb.... k .... ror
lhete _ ilia AlIlInasilll _Pi-rltlftlllioll 01 lib dectioII fl'Olll die:
-ptJOr ~ Illd dlca 1DaIk .. ~ lOoIrot his ad I' '1*1-
ill Gf'deo" WI plJIlbe WlMll .... l1IaIc ~ IlOI pekIlIlII Ale ....... Ibc:
lime 01 bis ~.I~
L W. ~ writina; ill 1975, is _ Q1d1ll ill billiII<ldllnf; of die.
.nilabM eYiduca.l:U ... ri&!ltly rejeas the ~ lheof)' olTdf...

127,..."....... .,. clI. 11. II. Thio of _ ......, ill '"""""-


..w. N.._,"............ ill lIIis _ ........,. Meloli. . . . . .11
........, ...... of &Jp6on _ poti<,. ~ ..... modo <t.Iq .... lin, r_
docodol; 01 "'" ro.u. .........,..
121NunIbq,.,. <11 L'.
119N..-.. .,. d,., II...... - . . cf AIo..-lrl. died .... :a I'lumo\llbi
(11 April) ill Iho forqr.,.,."." 'JUt of DiooIctit.JI (AD 321). ....... "'" "_1 t..n..
I~ _ _ ..... 00... Ic>r .... _ woo ulobtOlOd 19 _-.hi (I" ApiI).
F,_ lIob1o ~ ;,. appur. '110, AIll I.. w. . .l!w'o_ m
Alt.."drlr. \.. PIIal (l1_> .. Ibis ...... JUI". Ct. FUIiIII-..x. IJ'NF_
..ria.01. to. m 'OJ.
1)0.......... ""'- riI.
Ill" HE, Iln.
In",~.... HE.D, 'I.
InNaodborJ, _. ril,
1J4"'-.,.. C . I ..... M;,,'. - - . ..r_ _
fIlllu tN.c ..., _ . , . . . q T.JII-
I

c "')'
" . , . . . ." " . . . . . . ' " ......= r i M . .
.......
_
C
no.
~
'""",-,.
_
r.. Iloi:o ==6 . ;
i
, ,.
t.
"I ly ............
_ _ k ...... il
r- drlo _ '"
..,. Ginnltt 11.__"""""....... 3f). ;. . . . . '"
, , rhl po ..' Pw (aloCoI. cit. n. )IIt). no.
- , .... ooIIIor p>iMo _ ( .ad), .. _1iIool7 . . - "'

.......
.....
_
- -.
.... I f
'

w . . , _ I U604
7io _ _ of _ _,_..,-nIoo

Ill:...w, Il~ "T_ N-. . ell. J.W..ll6.


31

l!oII MelcWn bIslIop ......ed JoIuI AIdIIpI .... pIOIpOCti rilJlu 10 ..... III
W A"'andriI rollo'nl& IK deal), 01 Ale..undtr \lte. IUlIIlI 01 ..
...- !"'wUII()wwt..jgc~lheu-oINe-.I" b-.d.
_ dIM -rdler', ;"'0" ~ will _ bear crilicaI iD.w:aip.
.x. RSIinI It does. mailllJ OIl DlIII;.c_ <ahef IbM _penry "'-
o-:e.1'" BamInl ckx&, .... we.... _10 roDo.TeJta _l'bdbo:l oal
.-ber at CIIIwIr poiIu,' "~q lila ollbe IlH:IIkd _ ' 10 .M. ~
~ _ . " .'IO _ _ dI'aa.lhe . . . olA... ' .
a.r-.t c::o-....... llIIt -A lid_ he dild.1Iladc...
AtM-";"""1 e""'*'- _ rgr Ihc d' 'Ptl oIlIle ~ l ~ oU'
-q: b'

Makiq . . rJI ~ ailNlar 10 11><* 01 Nordblq. BImInI, MIoouP


_
41,. ! oil'
.. __
caI;lliool: .. biI ~ I Ital
~=:':.,n.n ~ taWD
of Ille ~ CCIIlIUI. doa
lhedec'riW" til A . "..",.

8odI8Ir-.l ancI NclrdbefJ __ 10 . . . . beeIl eidIcr _ ' 01. or III


bavc let aAdc.1ll& imparunI c~ oITdfd'. poPrio" _,~.... lIIe Pft'>
...... ' . ~ pqQiI;e:s oIlbe dlIrch 01 ~ made by E. W.
Kemp ill 19S,.loMl FoIIowill&. ' _ b _ dllc9 Tdfer ...... _ 01
nriaus lUll, wil/I ~ ....nOm beia, ail'allO' ditpud pmqe from
lavnte 011 tile AIeuadriIn IIIC\hod of COIISOCl.tioo>.141 Kanp "",tty palm
10 lhe flCl 111'1 Telfer "plal;a mare wel,lll on \be e~klcllCC lhIn It .nn
JlI'OPlII'ly bear,-'2 FW'Illennc:R, <:oDVIIb:llina on lhe ~se ot Epiplwtilll as
In ~ witness of LIle IIIcieDl pral;Uca oIllle ebun:1I or Alexandria
..u.'viz epia:oc-l ca Mion in ~, IIld tIIII 01 AIhanuius in particu-
lar, 1Cclnp renwQ thlII l.menIIllislotIan" Epipharlilll~. IlOI vay ~l;.
Ible and 1II1. particular 1IIIlemen," conecmln..... thanu;u'. election and
Aleundrlan C(InHerauon CUlIOms ~s IIOlltrcn.tbened by IlIe conllllll in
which ;\ appears. -'''J AflU $l>OwiDg lhe"""'1 ;MllCww:la COfIIained In
EpiphuUllJ'. M_d ",*,M acoowulU 01 ..... deaiDn 01 AlJlanasi"'1IId

U6q, Toll'., "'M_ 01. l, r ljo M <if. m -' L............ol,


"T_ "'-. <if M 3. :m.
131........ ""- N.
l'Ha..-d, "T_Nooc&. . riI~ 3oU,
l*a-...,.. ~.. riI.~
I~.... K...,"1lidDpo _ " ......... Un ' ~M lEN. (I"~):
125141,
1.lct x...,. . 0.. 127.129:: ... ToIfcf, .r,' ral S _ . ,
do.",.
1.1~ . c'I~ 129.
I.:J~ dr. In.
IUfl'l1I H_.69.II(HaIL . C1IM l4I).
"
\be SIIpllOIled ~ (J/ im~ .w"tFO'\.loU Kemp riahlly qua lhat
.................... be K'CePlOd ......... independent IUppOI1.1'"
111 Tdfer', _rwneal lIDl clIaIlp in llDl .x. pw:Oua IDIll< pba:
81l/1e Ii_ ot A .... nder'.~. Kemp ICCb lO _rlflll dillpUllIlI passqa.
IIIdI _!hole in Epip/lInivs. t.,1he .... of lila ..... wriws. 141 spoci.l
,cIenllQ . . . . 10 1M -ott of E~I)'C-hl\ll. dlc McIkJIe pallioooiJI or
.......... (AD 9Jl-943). abo tno-ll. s.'1d lbol BaaiI<.. 111 ............"
~1lI...se. ... ~ dIinI:

nd no.- oll/le l~ poabyten of AIf" d illpplliIlti..- lbe


pMriudI _ ol1lltoQd_ eo M' , \iJll/le IiIDC of Ibe. puriardI
~. w!Io . . of lhe line Ilunlhd Illd """ lie fc:IrtImo lIIe
......,.,,) tu<ll1Cl1FP'liM lbe ~ IIId ardI:ftd dI.II . . . . . .
pMriard._"'lbe~~" ,*_~I""'"
HeordaiJled. _to.a, thM M. ~ !her IIloUd dect DDt:
"', r I and ~ _ f1UII..,. pin olllle land. wtIo:lIioa". ~
_ollber.dwci(y ~ or ..u W-I*ria'e" T1Ica
oeaKd lbe MCimt CU$OII olltle putl, 1ClPlI' ,.... llle. pacriacll.
ad dleN lOOk itt pa.,. l/Ie " . of the palI'iudl be. . madt by IIac
bisliiopl.ll'

KaIIp, ......... 1Iu poiIIled _ dial "il: is ~y llplIld tIlaa EuQUi..


... _Iponnt IlId blWlderin&: *l'ilu. Uld ""idcnDl:
whicb ""pc:lIQ (IO"!he
firJt time i. IIi. Mull U/lllOl. be relied upon ... ltll an)' dqru of
=taiII(y. ~ I019
Kanp malts llimilar .-ernenLJ in rqillll II) Tclrtr'. handIi"l of other
NIeriaI U _II, ""II lIS !be Vii" /'wll~ and Ille wrilinp of Se-... orB
~151 and Severusof AIIllacb.152 Ma/lyofTdfu'. argumml5ano

1'3nw, ~ 01 "ioft '" AIu-.. boiq _


... ...
_.,_~.
~
tII$I<Im
...._ .... _ or _...."." .....
TIoit iJ -dirlt II> pi,' . ... d1.
doo ... u. 'i_'""of.....
!lis

1~._.riI.
'n.u.,'t(.Telfa,-rr' .ooJsU<U......- . dl,.6,l.
l'IQoooMod "" Ie..".., ,iI~ 1)7\).; e.~Ioi. ~ p(J Ill.......
,1:2.
'.'lCMIp. .
dr. 13
"0Qy.o_ OI)lkI . . 1' ,.tri .. -. ,... r.ir__ ~ ..idI ...
_1 et.Ie II> Alu_;".., ...,. ~. cit. m. '7). TOlIf.... lao: 0 .
...... <II Old, Do;. ......... _ F 1 IoJ AIu.~("Fpi pal
5' - - <it. 1). C/. KuIp, ._ 1:W. u.
.. ISlT"'f.... ~F,.. ; to 5
" "'lor.If. ('"Fl
L"'. I ...... ..,.,..
,;""... til. ..1; ~ ._ <if. 132-

pol ' - ' ~ d . Il_.a""" _ .... _ of


ONiu.... .c .. Eorl)' lloloopo <II A"... ' ;-." ITU 'l
.
....sHlen\d by Kanp 10 be ~~ ~W Nl-.ollllc ~
fRRnWl by Tdfer appe:ar to jUiJy IIW _lasian 111M ~ ~ IlO Ionia
_ rOt doubilluil _IJ IJOPI'I of A....Mrb !Cd. ottooc wilhtoul Ik
. , .. .ol~o(lJIblr__ ~u"
TtlW'I' ir;ilyol t" eel j ....ail
is ilIlpIied Ilw; - . 0 aaaaIIy'" dwoIp Ille. _. olllle.
IlInds ollhe ota.t bishop ~ 1110 per-. ol bls p -= is, .. TeUCO"
IllmlClf Ildlllili. '"coajecllll'al.1~5 Telfer. lIooo.. o , builds ~ 1IliI
_ jm Illd ......Ins 1hat bcdlllriscuu_., die pr8Ctice olJlr"-
byIcrial .... wcnlioa. ~ ro:r.aifted ..iii ... ~ 01 Awn 1 .....

prcb hi!'" 11 IIaM tile old diall'tlcd _iii N"caa. dla


........,... _ IK Iaa AInMdriloc pDIR 10 IaI:e office ..,1IlouI Ik
ill II;''' of Ii...... epiLupoollundiJ. and ~ . . . onltt A.e ;" widI
AlIliInQia.-IJII '" rcpIJIO tudI aa ulnlll'dlMtJ claim bu:4 ~ IUd!
dubicut -.lCCIIlp IIleR:ly COllailClIU, I1le ~ will. perllapI. _rid-
111M Ilae cmjactIn ' - .... rar heJ'O"d IlIc Iilllia 01 rdiabIe eoiolwa:>. _Ul
Kenlp.0Il rJle ~ '11_ Ii "'
1IllI; t ' I .... if JUdI _ _
* .. ioIwa:>.Jia:ltc!)' rtjecuTclC...'llbIcry
II bel KllIIQy been .. fon;e., tbe:r
hed _ IikelJ uated IollowiDa Ille. f1liKOpO'" of HCI'Kl&I 01 Alcundrill
(AD 133.49). U, F\aRhet. "tJI ..;ow ollbe plIce ..1llo:II .....andriI ornapies
in 1M I'ourttl ""lury it is YUy rclll&lkabll: lhat ftO conlC.Q1poraty or _
OClnlCmporal)' rd"etetICe IJIouId !>aYe AiI.I"A!. if Ille. ~ .... _lNdC II ~
u Ille lime 01 N'aI!II ... ..ntI1be eIecIiorI of AtllInuiuf. -159
II .. de... WI .put fmIn one dispuIed pusaJD i. ~ lIIe 0111,
0lIler clear M&1<.IDal1 .... haY.. COl !he UllCI time and e~ of lUCk
clwlp iI"1O be found in an inaccutllw: 0l'ri.1Cl of llle.W:lllh century." I.e., In
lhe Anll~l, ot EUljchiul,l60 A1thouaJI Kemp IJloWl' the possiblllty!hal
I!Icr'e II Mevlcle_ ollhe lUI'Vivall1 Aleundria 10 IIlU diu: than cbewf>ete
01, plUb)'1eriaI callc:.c willi rpi,...1 powctI.-I/w;.......allhnosl <ilhiJ.-
I\lfMlII ir lIlIllUdI. c:oIIeplUll WU no bIJer Ulr.;waad 10
bOIhap ia I/w; c:.l, dec*, all/w; foIlnh D!D.1lIr1. 61 I, "'llIIicL ia r-. be
"_..,le 10 IUlC IhM 1hc lISe at tlldl con.p\ll1l !lad Pf'QbIbI, c:eutd 10

(lMI): 612, 61]. I' ia clur. _ _ Tot(. hoi . ._ _ 1OUi_

"'_ - - . q. 1:_._.. .
r.- ....... _s.-- _ _
15]~ ... C'fI 1)(,
131.
.-y

1)6,.....
15s-r_, ....1 pol s.-...... <iI. II.
U6.......
U7~ d.l]6.
15'~ rio- 12&. 129.
1J9&:a.p, d~ U9.
1601lIU.
161 .. _ _ ....."
UIJIVWi~f <ffH HJ,p
~~!n ~h~:~J'l~w~~~r;alfH'l{ I!,HI.
~lill' ~
~'l [
It H'~'f"'[ll" Cjl'th:l~ l~n ~ ..
! l'.t
:I! ~I ~~'r8 . rllrl .' If! i-iil~ ~lll 111,. I, ~ I il
i Ji'
)0

~~II ,'1~ 'f;'~ljl",i f Iirl.~h


oiH!
ou. ~
~
~ t. a;li.'!
~'" ~ s! .I ~'G:tll.
j Iii ~
I! h~~,J;H"I,tlj!~t~Hf;hdw!i J~~n!r
II' ill ';H i:"

~p, .. '!~ihJ U,F~h .. q;'1 gi"t nJ~ ~


~i}f!
t
I'H~ hJW!
i' !'rlJ'=tH-1 ~'""~iII'I.r.~lf Ijl[r
I:I;j [Hi
!;, Ulfl~lIa;!iii:J~b'i'lli'lig~r
' J~[i
iU!'.l r.r l~~!: S
~,~l
u{~
i
I~C 1t!!.:~lre5- ~R:![;i'I"fl:ftl I,[:t. ; 1 ~ ri
1:: 1 i-'~ljn HiHiHli~~gf!I~.H l~I:[il ifJf
II .1 ,.if.~ I.I~f!i~llfrJ.rl~f
I~Jff'
. ~ h !~.I~'i~~.I,r!hf
.l ft .j al'"~~' dlJ" .. r
,h'
u 2,'
! r'I" fiU "
"-p II followtal iIo Illit pIfUcuIar jlidpu:al by J.l..enyer.li4 who
IPlll:ia dlls D Ihc Ak'wdr:iIoI: . . . ~ y bnI ia IIle
""""".,...,. 1 ' _ n ... ciKd ;. ... _--.IU ..
AriIn ......... _ ..... rejm CH.. ~'.Ibeory IhIl _ ........,bop
n_;'~ ail

beioI. -=.-.:1 II ThoopIttlUl I66 &fld rouo. Ihl: ......... or Gore IiIIt
Pw_ _ u-Iy I well maHjstw! ~ \Ir"" A.D '''.lt1 T1le
alI;cr;t or eMion -'4, lkitkft, _ Iitdr be cilllef A1hr.
01_ I N' ". Pte. Fn:n . . .u...:.01~ill 1lIS_",
die _ ' . Tdfer lkpet 01..0 ..... WI dla ...
dllbQtql"ll..-l ,eiocd ordiIlIlicla ffOIII plab,ItlS.-16 nil YEw, ......
_.doesROl U4 iPlo 'ftIlllcS,nx oasiDn 01 .. ..,. wf\idI5PCib
oIlhc~or AJe iDlhe,...I" de:Irly~IIle
anin udllnp k:tUir::ll ~ ill 110 U . . K:Cqlt Gore',
dull 01 AD m ror Illis rlarY. it an IiItd)' _ ... pIIIllllK or
dlolilander _1WOf"Old. FiI1l. itflU)' hae baeII _110 CUI aspeqionl on
tile mclllOl')' or Athanasiar. who had only ~tly died In AD 373. Itld
Mcond, itlllay bric IlJII&hlIO CI1I inIo 'I.QClIGI the vlliltity or arden COlI'
femd by A",aP'$ wl1il:. _Cll oporrQ'o'C ill 0I'lh0d0a E(ypt. AIlhouP
Ihl: ICOrJ _, a.c IIId it! ariaiN ill tloc _ tIirlaM partcooce..... 1be p.
c1CIII method or IppOinIinf bUhopr or Alculldria. it Ippeaq rrtm tile eY{.
delICt that tlle..., ..u no basi' in fact 10 opply IUCb IUur 10 L1Ie memory of
A1lIanarIus.
Ftom III or L1Ie abo'o'C we may 00I1Ia 10 cenaUt reo_lbl$ QOnI;lusloos
conc:alIiIIt IhoI ~ Dr Lhe ple-Atharwlan COII-oon pnctica of Lhe
cllurtb 01 AIcunOria. TM rlfSt COIICluslon II tlIat Tdfcr', iqoenio\lr Ie-
COIIllNCtionr _unablc LO be maintained Itf'I<kr Kemp'. c.....,M ICt\ltitly.
belnt bued upon eiLher lIIVcliable ...filUi far fl:fI'lD\IDlI in ~mc rrom the
tCftU bela, 0lIllfid=d or IlpOII "Cf}' dti... UId Illghly dirpulcd pa<Uiu
rron. ..IR ~ - . Sc:t::PId, we may fllld 611>11 willi the _

I'-'J. LkItyto."lAo I'toMhn cla ~ 'Pl_.....- II..i. ~~


...~ ott u U (l\l6ot): 2S6. 251.
IUPO u.)1;,. 119.15.
l"'q.... II 77_.e.tLT__ ........... <i'U.
l61c. Oano. "'010 110& 00 r ' "' ... E.t,. ai*>po of ,u.. ' ...- HU
, (7902): 2'l9. uo.
l"'r.ll , roll

_m
- <>1_11.
," II' V IfIMH""F_ <i'~ ..l ..
-......,(l.
--.-_
. ",..
Ai7'7 jel
""AiM 7 : elA'" 7io
7..-
....,I_
__
'lib

Ll Lhe Orock ioft 1M -....tic.- ,i..,,,, -.,..ok q;.... ~


(r.... w.rO') lIlo . . - - . . . _ _ a ill "'" ....... I";.. I ri= tIIoy
8_10") -"' 1... h.hop _ ...".. ... i IlIiqJ
( . ._

.,hilL- Ct.
C' , ..

I'G "', )1;1. ",IS; 8 ........ rir.


_ ofbath Nalcllei, and B.amard 111M a ne'" aoclllod 01 COidtlCl.u. came

..........
about OIlly afIet !he cadi of AJeunder lind dllrillllhc aubaoquen, ekclirxl of

Finally, (l(JmIJ>enI . . . . .1 10 be made conc:emin, ,_ ol IIIe ICxIS


IrleaIioned ..... wIIidI __ ,O';Yf> IIJllPlll'IIO Pbilolu:lrPus'I-.a!iYf>
~ !be _!ltd dlsplltd declO! of ""*-i-. .,.. .... we Ide dw
~"'-..d AriM- _ I I I of A~'I dcctil Ji- bJ Epipbanilll
(lI'IdI IIOlIJllPlll'IiIt IIecwideace e . _iDedI11 Hill ban: . . oaly __
filled IIisIoric:aUy ('.... lie fxI 01 Adlillu l1li'0'\11( boa ..... ~...o
.. at , .........,. bat it iI abo appw_ rn. IliIla' ;1lI ollk facu lei
1" 0 - pd' "epimt dIa E9ipllafthts, .. ~. b:I . . fitIl:bud

..,...:e ol e-.
IU)''' die
_!!dill. A,....,,-,_
ao...k4p 01 eiIller Ibe attul t-.-:tI 01 . , ~ dourdI Of IIIe
dIe,1etlioa 01 A*
foacI ilI_
',. Siolli!utT, we
73 ia ill pRlpI:f
.......' .,. via" AriIllIlalld 1Udio per'. *no uc- -era folk
len tu
.....,
III as IIlOlie I ca1&lt

1lIIt.,.
q.-bl 01_ 'IIlicliIr 01 ~
onkrs 'OItIldIllid Ibtit toun::e ia dle ,{ ,ol
w. -.y. It due. ""'~.... ~ wtIidl..,
ele"" ol AlIlInIsIu 10 Ibe IlIrooIe of SL MIlt llId
.Iius.
un:ulCled !be
w ' -__ ..
t

do wid! I dlu&e Ia ~ ~ prXlioea, if, ill aa,1UC:


diIpaIe lOOt p4xe. all.

"'Of'"
1.1.1 <lIf4 1..",...,- /tIttItQds of e-trOli<M IINJ CIIItOItiaJI
If.tIIisIl1Io <lIf4 CI<vf'r=i<M all~ C_iJ of ~~_ T1IiI is-... follows: 11K!
iI ~ ... itll, Illt ql'eSlion ollbe pre-AUlIllIIian COIII<UIlion jla:tit:e.I
of the clIlIIth or AUandrilat 0Ul IboYe. T1III polnI I I . diIoctlr rclau:d
10 lbe KCoynl of AtIl.,uiYI1 elecaion IIlCl ordinali"", provi4ed br
Pbiloslorlilllln Ills EultJiasliJ;QI Him"l,l12
h, the ~ of ~Venll of Antioch, I 1i11ll0(:1I:I\1I11)' MonopII)'Iitc
biJlqI 0I1!Ial-. PlISAit- bas como 10 lijIIl 1lIlIlclIlmpliellhlll'ft'lbyle-
rial eon-.ioa oonlinued in AlelUIIlC~la ylIIil IIIe time of the Council 01
N'1C:al:l. In the COIlf1C of 1/1 arpmeIII dial old ~ " r IlOl be rcuintd
followillllaler J)'IIOclIl deaeeI. Se_ _ )S.

on. biIhop abo ol1lle cilY. lellOWlltd for ill ol\loodoo faidl. ollbe
AIe..a.IoUiaeI wlllia old tae.1IJIPOOn1Qt bJ prab)1cn: buI in lIlOdl:n
tiInaI in ICCOIlillac wiLllllleQliOll ...1lidI1Iu pR:VIiJed '.ur.....'" IIIe
...",... insti~ of Iheir bishop perfOl'l'lllld bJ I! I : an:! DO oae
mate.lilbl ofhaccwue plClice 1M! ~ in lbe holy d1o:rd1es

llIH_. 69. II.


In Pli.......... HE n. II,
8lld reean '" 11M: e.lXr oondiIiaII oIlftiIlp. W'IlCllll:al I i - _y '"
1lle lID dear 8lld ~ delibtt-.lIIld ,priIwoI injulEtions. 17]

Teller . . . . _ 0I1IliI: ..... '" ~ lIiI . . ._ 0I)Ka ..... 1lle Iae


dl&oI.dwlp ill ~ CDUR:Ci . . . . . . . w;:ticu.I'U Ke.>p, baooeoD,
poUu 0Ul tloK ""1lle S)'IW: ...... 01 Se-.t -.ay ~ well be .tadaill, 1lle
Gred< ~ nidi is itsdf antI;pous wmI ucI c. _ c:idla
lI;ppI;IIiaI 01 . _ 01 bad\.-115 '- My ca.., 6t rc:.n;e oI.sc-'I _
_ ~ _ .-:fI c:honF .......... raolI oIlba rc.dII c.- 01
Nlcaea. Itearp fincII em .. 01 !be fOlII1Il_ ........... AI ""1lle word-
ifIc of 1M ~ . . . . lloaI il ............ b qUe IIIOlba pot ..... dollIllO
briq _ cblp is saul:ll<d lD .. ~ "'"' we! .. AIeaaID:ilL-I n
Apan &onI dliI ",ge'"'' ax 01 die _ , S ~ IIlII1 .. link ebe 01
__ ~ w _ ~ 0 1All' .;.... W_or A1r.ndriL hll.
~ ~'I" d llle f<uIIl _ ~ II W:u .. by Tdt12
. . IIIppOf1 rot 'iJ,menIllIesja. lie PlIO far AI '" _y IIw - ~
ElYJlIlUperiIllplllllllle m[nire""",1S or Ihe Nicenc. CUlOIl upon \be Indi-
tioa&I&rpt1InJ*1"nl' 11I illmau.end I'. :.!1~ Ebe~,
Tetrer ... ~ tUc IIIe fourt/ll cano. -appcail U lOIlIelhinl _ . i. lhc
EI)'Ptlan c11l1fl:h.l 19 ON: wouI6 pcr/mpl be wise, IloMvcr. II) reprd lhue
]llSIllalemenll more .. eJlJlfUlioni of T.lrcr'. own lheologlc&l OIIllool< than
u_nlldfa<:t.110

173S.W. Broob. TIIo SW~ &loot <J( 1110 kl&ct


4/-'-...._ I/o "" SJrl- Vo..... 4/ A........ 4/ N~
/A,,.,,, of $ P<Jl,iM<~
1903. YOl. 1.
2U (D. 3).
17.,..u -EpiKopol S'
i7SIC....... .,." <ii, ]u.
"'-
\71,..".

17'llr.u.......
.
", '. l)\l.

17'T...r. -MalotI... of L~
pol s ;",
W

w
"". 'II. ..

rir. :D7.
rir. n.
\lOa., - - . ... _. ... ...... _ el. cll-&- " -
~ 10 '1" $ el . - . . ric- Ia Alu_ _ (I......... _
. . . 01 N..... _ l><~ 1'" - ..... 01 ~). T<lf.. II
~ """"" i 10 _ _ ..jIo<Ied . . - - , . '"
.. I t "'_ ~ "'''-* by....,. .. ..IoM
_
; oljo 1'aOo"_cl..-ioo .. _ " ' "'.... ......
_lIuocl II,- 1M _ II" F cl C- INa, .. 1"1
t witlI lie I I
01 "...,.,. o-..rl. _ 1<tloo4. .. wloido _...., -PwM- """ .....
,.., I'aon 1M -k' I e-.a _ _ I r
S- e-iiclN o. T r-,.,..
boat. """ .nor "'" .......... e - aL NiI:_ A+..... _ II,- lie

r._.
a7pl;-.....,... _ .. _ ao.u 01 mot.- ..,
0.. '
~
- (TIorCAwdo4/u,'-' _ _ C_.Ner-,.D<-*._
'"
1m. JO; ~ - . . , ..... __ . - . T<IJ.. _ . ~
.,
It is CD I/IId I doIc:re:um1naioo or bollIlhe oonwnMd lk inl<:nl
or foun/l_ i$ ~~ The founll CIIlOIl or JIlic8ea '-. follows:
A bisbop 1lIoul4 II\Oil eenaialy be clIMca (no.'"'"......) by alilbe
0lIl [hisIqlIJ of the province (, ....p,rl.). But if 1lli5 poJeI a
dirn.:.tly. d..lIfprIt Ileed. 0' hr". or the IenclIl of l!Ie
I
.Jour-ey," Ill'" three I'b'*Jps) 1Ul1_1II_1*ce. Md willi
Ihe _ or IIao: ~ briI'I tIoee- ., ....$
d ill wrilirt&. l!Iey
PaD jOWO\:tQllO "'" ,.... ~ ." nr.llCIllf"rtulica 01
wbat hal bectI doole.. bowe_.
bel"" ill ad! fII'O"ina: '" 1M
lKrllpCIliula ~q,p=::ollyv)"'l

TbM d l i I _ b . . u "..l priInIrily willi ~ \lie ru- or praent


procedoInII far1ll&;or. bitlIopol .. k or AD m ilC'O'ict:a
ra-n.
.. iI:J WW)' aMI b'e.. Had it .-iIbcoI1D im d>IlIp ill I well-
t-Jl t . - or .. mDmI. - . -may _d, _ lhIlllle _ WllUIiS
.., bel:tI r.-cd ..,. Iba a;lIIDI;ilill WIly ....... '" CMlOIlI 6...s 7. ill wtIidI
_II au ... spcciJ'lGIllr IlaIMd.II2 AlID Tdt.'I" ptiwI thal this
'lIlCM baI iolIrodxed iliIlO'llion. ir. -&bl be. . . . _ lID Dr lIlIIllbr.
counc:iI, by 1bI: .... or lftiJ...-.
JOlI&flt lei eJa-ifr end codif, idcap:....
~ wllicb hacI U'ady belen ill dl'ect tor -m-,ll:l
In __ or -tr dIIIIdI law,tIIl four1h_ orNlc:8clIlld. p1.......ut
ill the lWelllielh ~ of !be Synod of Ariel (AD 314), -,. line lI'11Jus
epiJ(Opit nuUlII qNropua ordiJletw. -I" wllidl ...., weB 111_. dr-...... 011 )'I:l

l!II' lJI .... do:J'. _ol loellof w, .o\ld ~


of !'i'ioc: "1he:
_.Ioa.u ~blo r..... OIl _ of -.-.0llIa '" loyiq ..
'
0' 1wIdo.... 1110".,.~ of laJ01j_ w ~U .. beyn (T.It.., -e,' oroJ
S.......IN.". 01. 12).
!lIn. ClnK _'10 foo.ood!a 1101..... n...... 1.321. Tl>o Irm"M;",
It IlMl .. I/loo _ .
l':!c/. Hor.1o, . cit....... I. 311 \"*- ') . . ~ (~7). "'.....,
' ..... jIn .. _ofl/w.d ' _Ale' '",~"' rp>koaof

(...........)_-'"..-..,._._7.
;. I _ir.. _ .
IUn.. I'M! - . . . . .
Similuly..... IMiotII n,"'"
'n _ _ Itiq lMoIoctlooIlIld M
of .... _ ...... or A.oli.o.

_
of bioIoopo wIoido . . . .nee..... NI<... _ '" 100 ~ 1IIIirol, ;. I
d1_ of -""<io r- dol joiM ootrrea- 01 " . , IIld .....".., '"
... "'. . . 0I ... ~ 0 I ............~te-4). 0 - _ - " ' _.
w... _ _ ........ _I' ....... _ _

_.
. . . . jolM_... oI

- .....
It\ ~ otpoeiolIy io !':or. _ I' :.... ! " ' " ' po;.,

--.. .
_H...... T,.C-. c....ril.~AD,.J,:At ' .......

,_......
E.l)'lN ';

..1Iloo"'_,.-
.,c_'-,OJonI,lm~ ... io ....... _ .
-..--,......."" ... __ (,..,..; ,.'; $0 _ ~-

_ ,....;.....- ioIn _ _ - . . _ _ (Hoof : ..... 19$). ~


. THEEARl.Y EPISCOPALC"'EfR 0' A1ltANASIUS

1I$c/...,.. lila . _ , or ~ _ bishop ._101 bo <:Joc.<n


"" 011 lIMo , . . . ("'" ~ f<III .loHP) mol "" "'" .....,.
_ _ "'" ~ ...... II)' oil .... ~ 'IrUIoo$lo _ ba.........bI...

_
...,.
(TIoo ~aPG< T'l>dili<wo.lll. \.2, 04. O. DiI, Loood<>ft, 1961.2,'1. n..-.a
III "i~
"'" _r-
bo '" . . . _ UrnpcllUDl
b '" o.Iy '-"'1
, . - 'b"M'
'
ir .. rIC
01 S)'rio ..., EQpo
( do., ,. lao l1li)' ~ _ _ - . . 0;.. fII ... m1......... c. lID
2U (op o.uoil) ...... _ _
..... ~ ::"t..;.!<lrud-
is"'" -&10""'" ~ T..-- ..
.. 01 ~_01 PO--', ',..
md. : :of....:.~ ~

1111W ck, ... eiI'. m.


II'lTtlfc. ~ fit Lj i ,..- . . . . . m.
IltP!oj' ..... HEll,ll.
1HiIoN'. (Wol!ionL ....... ~l9:B;doQ, n.n); I' ';'od<W,
It0r...r.. ""';'
dr. Je.
,'5 '.- <p 10; B.--.s, .,..,. ""'_- ..-

191 .......... - .-.:cf- Moo....' H " ' .... ~ ....


"*-_ _ ,,,,, .. _ .. _1IUIIopo.",_ dr. ,I..
NkMa~"" 1Ile Cl.1jficMj"". 01.; ..-J ,'moll'l,ln II ........
-':'eoQlle II) b s" dolt Ile wc.ld ~ ~ 1M ~'"

~._: ... siI:lpIa rtpQI't dille ""two t I , . .~ Ic a ceDll'II


".. 4' 01 aaIilliIiIy ill . . .'I!i... olPllibup-. ilil 11)' -o_1lIc
oa/J o!irtlOdly ... 6ads ill IIIis -rued Illd ~ lQl. E_ ...
ci..... ot 1Ile 0MItdI or o;o.ysi... u dle lox.... fof A"..",ui.',
""'inn-, for CIlCD;*. IU7 . . be IE I rI widIa.I Ii is. ..
b<t, p(II(ibk _!be __ ollllis c:t.dl _lItea b1 PU<-.Jia fn::m
die lisliaj: 01 dw. dlcrcheI: of A!exo""ria by EpiphIlriuI.ltoI 11M: CIlurdI 01.
Diorl)'Sius _ _ lQ /\ave OIl1y ,-","!:10m del\nkely . . u .. cpir>p'l
, . It ., ud dlcII '1_ ill AD lS'1 ....... it oc:cupiecI b7 ~!be
AriD iolnlder,l9S FIll1llermare. niJoslClrli asrcr1lc. dw -!be
, . It, oIdl1 ~ dlea 1ftSCI'I-,.....
j All' I' If 011 -=--
ollbis nnsano.,'l6. Ibe fart:a!. anmM",'M ,.. -0 IllRD" ill..,.
ocher ecm.. _.ues Arhea..;,.', 1 " _ 01 EITIJI. __ 'fUY
t

lID1ikdy. i I _ ialpwsible. l91 TIle 1iKIher(bi,n _ die , ........... Iarl:r


,ont"lnIled by CoaslallliM, aD upiaioa 'oUe *Od 10 yano.s dqKcs by
n....ro. Olnnlet. and NordbcrI oa \he Ilft:Ililb oI1't\i1oslorPIlI. _ _ 10
lla~ its bQls In I cry unreliable a'ld possibly tOtJld Aria document of.
IQIncwhlt lilt. date. I" "Tho: entire Kl'0lllI1 if fllnbef compJ~ by
PlIiklor,illt'l complete lack of hi!uorical Kelll1ley ill recounting !he EverllS
EUfTOIIndin. lIIc Syr.od of Tyn: ond his ronf\lSion concerni", the ... bscql>elll
inb'U$lon of Gcorp Lhe Cappadocian inlo the lee of AleundriI.I99
We lI'IIy, tbcI'dore. conclude with some deS'" of l;:(!rulnly Ihll if lhe
clclctiolll "'" ordiftltlon 01 AtlwIasius was in lIlY w.y lnnuenc.ed by Ill..
fourlh _ of Nata. iI_1d hive been 10 QUa C"CII peller ~ and u
\(:lltioll i111/lt; fo1krfiq oIlhc inslnoaioDI: ronllinod In Ill6 ~

InCf, doo clIoc ";",, o! 1iIlio,.,. ..


I!o..".
19lU... _ _ "MeIoriIu .... poet ''Ii 11Io _ .... of ~ ~~
(..,. riI. I. 310'), ~ Iionhk l\>oI A - " " _ bold ....
.,...,.w ..... lor ..hldl ... _ alicia 11Io M.Io' el_lon, mel _
immo<l.iol&\y _ w...u' .. - . . of '", _ ..... vory
__ . . - _ ..... booa _ _ Iot_ ...... dM~1

I"H_. 109.'
(Moo&. <iI~ 153).
I"H~ AcopM:o V (I.Nl'f _ _ ............. ~ " " " ' _
.'.'_.'.'." ... ,.,.. cf. "'t.. P ' . IikIoo .. ".. . I 1 . . . . ' No.-
. _ 4u.iMI# ...,"";6.. lO (I!IIW): 212, 211. "' . . _ of lIlio.-
_-W~ .. """ ofA.C_an,"'I _ _
... 11 _ _ .. IIoo ..r.
I""',
t

U.
1",,,' ' ..
H_ 6-
ItltJ ....,. <iI~ II; Ginrioc, ...... S6.: .......... -r- - ..
. riI~ l46. AM cf. .. .... . .. " ' - 1)01.
199Philao.....- . ciII.
.
1111 im~11O _dill. apa'l fionI ~ 110 odla allllll ........
eidlo' ~ or 0UII"i&hll1 _ _ ~ ... of violotiq \his ~
CIrlOl\. We...,. ~ SlIIt 1tleIe boen. '*"
ilIl"loc:l fOr..,h. _
ca, ftre -ad hawe bel:JI yOil ~ OM t IO~'" no wouk1
_ have betII ~ ill lk a. 10 . . u:lI. dIIrp!.
In 4eaIinr 1rilh llledisc:i;*y ~oI"'lowUI_olNicKa.
iI woald _ re tbIr to follow I!lC judp I I of Hade. lllM -Mdeli..
.... ~1 lbe occac. ol dlIl c:a-. -100 It II III ... MelctiIa
;,,01_ .. tlle "K111ed a" n ~ _ _ of ".,._,;"" dW we ..lSI
_ ..... __ , i .. I dlird ltifflcoll)' .............. lbc olllle
_ _ oIADl2I.

J.JJ IIt1.tlia/ll""""'''' ill , . ~ ? :IIPIII ~ II(


m. TIll; MI'=C".,. ftisaI ill EcYPc ol.diIp!lC ..... brole
AD
~ IIl& _
.no. pnr'
dill: !liIW. peIJllt... T1ais -1c:acthY IIld
wt\idIlIle ClIriai& dIlRb bd encIlnd . . inUiIIed by
Dio Io,i ill FebnMry.AD 303. 11 ill AtlDud d1c-..
portGI oIllle~ In Ibe w-.. pon;o.oI dle empft. adcI" M....;..

prumuIple Ibe pcnoMion or. indeed. odlcr _lee!


and CooI"plh", (tile fllllu of eo.$lAIltiae). ""'Y link .... duDe 10
iaued by Dioderi. 201
la EI)'lll.lroweer,lhe ~ _ ialalsc 8lld InIn)I'doM . . c:aamcn.
Upon DioeIeUn'I retirement in AD lO' lbe ailUtioft btaaJe ftWtedIy
or
_ _ ..illl Ille .,.;asion Oaleriul and bil .ppointment or Maltilllin as
e-r 0_ the dvil diocese of Oriens \lIhicll included EIYJlIIOd 1hc:
Pa1cstlnlaJl and Syrian 1I110l"l.. The JeYaily ot IIle perxcuLion ill EIYJlI coo-
tiflUelI W\&bIUd IaIIkr Maximin apan (rom I briet ia~ in die """"
or AD 311 .. Ollai", him".' .... c11inJ. Maltimir,Ilowe_. IUUmed his
clforu I&Iinsllhe dll1tdles in lbe _111 I!le 'UIUn\fl ol .... _ yar,W2
The Plft:\Cuoo. in EvP: filial!)' came 10 WI end In AD 313 afIa" Licini...
ttiuxlllD'IUOl oIltle empUe in lIle e-.
lIllbe o:GUIJe of IbeM -u. _likely duriq tbe.laller ponioIl at
pi-. _.Ieaer
AD )Q5 or.-if ill .... 0 306. -wa oIllle bisIlopI ...1lo - . : bein& bcId as

""""n"'"
liJ, . . . ..,
10 complain Iboou 1Ile IICllons 01 Mel i'" ol Lrcqx>-
bbbop who Mol l'l:p1Iced ApoIlDnl.. tLL~ wbo
hid ,popKmd,20J The lour prisoner bilhopt;. HQyd!i... hchcmius.

1OOH...1o. .... ciI.


201q.T.D.a.-C_.... _u.-.u..b, 1"1.11. _ _
~ 01 - - . _
_ _ 01 . . . - . -
bbq ~~_
..-01011 ... -.W.
io 1M W
~
'-foioo Diod
.if

.. ~ '"" """ ...Ioolo "


101<>_ _ . _ . - . " _ . . . . . 01 1 ........ 10_.
tiw . . . . . . . . otAD Jll. Fot.o..-nHI'" _E.o-'HEI.
n. IlO;" LociIt_ in ~ Dc /It_~ 34.
1OJc... LX <riOul IOU .. F.H. " - - . "Dol' _6 . ,
$ . . . . . ...".,...,- ZHT"W Jj (lm~ USI". Fot. Iii of .oj" .
"
ThrIodoI~ .. Uld PIIileu. 4i.-ed IIQ 1_ 10 Mdellu IPlIIlItlf IIld qucd
lba he IIad Iaten liber!i i. oodainifIC prieau i. lIlc:ir 4loc- d...... Ibc:ir
....._coila.' 10 Ihe calUUand_..2OoI 1lley L'wW:r IlWIld lila ibqr
.., IIlIde "'oqoMe provlslollb !be people at wir d~ cIuriD& Ibeir tiIne
or ...... -lIlrouab .,... ot'"viJilorl.~20S
Allbollp Ibe IIn&uI&e olllle eucr -1lrOftI, IN biJlIopI did UlraI
Mtk:liw .. -dlkao t:l COII\lIllniRo in Doeillo aDd II . . . _lIppCIr IlIlII
M

bad.,
-
tIlt 7 iRIenIiooI ol bratiaa ..... wilk 1Iia,- ne Ic:llco' wouI4
-... 10 be bellI:f .duAood - - . whidlllad .n.. _ olll'llOlbled

I>Inla dIiiI period we Ire ......... U 10 !he. CQCt ........, . . tJI Pt:ler.
111I biIkIp ot A\r....t\l. W.m- it _ ~ 10 plxe tilt birIIIql
.Ik:: .,;u Eppc c. tlle . . ciCada V _ LX _ t'wdler qaes
1llJf. Wol:Iecios .,.!lim. . lUI disrNric anti,.... olp_,ltu. jed r I
_ . . . , lsidlft IIld ~ --.:I Arias. _ dariq iIapi , (tIoe
;;;,;;;.; w\cw). but dllriq ;...;0.. of Ak...... .tIrft ..... "".
CDIIIU..uealelt _ _ pratJ, loyal 10 ~ ",,110 _ _ ill ~.107
W\Ia Pna .... int0nae4 01 Ibil 1(* .. _ Icucr 10 his IJoo;t ia-
SlnEliq IbenI 10 hold Meletiu _"""*- For W~ thudore.
Ihe ~ ollbe. KbisnllIIIlO do willi IlnIJPe _ ~ QrC II'Id 16-
III.inisuIIioII 01 1M dlwdI in \oolcr El)'lll dllriat 1M Umr. ill wllidl YOid
'*' ~ QUIecl-iac 10 IIle anatolltap lIWlIbIw at biIbopIllld 1M left-
ewve bold 01 Ptw:r upoa AJexanc.-ia. III aadllll lnwp"'UQOIII of c - .
MelelinslUld be_ u AmpltOlle wllotetp'"Mrd 101 need Irisini OUIof
~ lI'od ... bOIe mOO_ were u1lima1e1r mllunclcn&ood..
Willllml'. teC(lIl$tIllClion doet teem pla\lSlbLe 11m! the c~iden<:c
""hll:II it pruenltd.ll\loou.ih it d~y ClOnIJ'adielllhe ICClIltDCC of _II and
cilalnls_.iven by Epip/lallilll. ...110 molt likely deriYed hill malaial cIi
1IlCII, from Mclellan ~ 203 AOOOrCli"l1O EpiphaDi.... 1hc iIIitill Ida-

.. "'" _ ... or !IoIeIo6.... _ . Willi_ "rid: Hor", -.I. T~.


""'""""" 1m. 1S9 lra..a).
2CNn.o __ of _ roo.. b\ohopo ... &1-. ill Codu. v ...... L X , _
r.... 103.
- . . . ill
2OSn.
oL E. kh....m',
01_ -...uioon-
lbaI """"' ~ _
d..... d
F...
- . .. r........,
m
_
... WilIiomo. d,. 2'f (&.. )9).
106KOlllor <10. 160.
101 Wilti _ . cion P. For.~..,ao of .... _ _ .....
",t olM- <lid
wloo ","
'* plaoo - . .... lrIoJwI- of _
, _ C. $dwM- F,.,- ...... "'....'" _ N6",1'
N._.. _
J. !

1' _A............ cruS.N5~ Lolpda. ltol.

1'. (1Wt<I" ... ~ .... 11, 551.561,


N ~ """ _ II)' _
'......
10I f : _ H_.6I. 1<OOn"'''' K. AdIII'" ")4<"
EfipllMl.',;
'"- 1A
iN< _
of. 114..... - - . . . . . . ~ .... oL "'"
.. -
, ; of

~"~
"!IOrI'n "-H' : :4i3 :<1'-1 '6U 'tlIdol '" """l'~""'ltlt
1. US 'R. 00 tt"'f7"by "'I'l'tlt
11..,l (II .,~ . 'ofaH ",",_...-.."pOltp
qlacopp . . . . . . ., - ~ 'Pm I!p", _ .... JO ",1ont "Ullt
."~,,, ---m!Jl\on
"tot "'J . - 'bfIR

Ju!-ollollfUDllr ~ 10 IllnP ;qI Pw 'IuIp:Ir>JI'C :>qIl\qlImuoo


3q\
-.N1OJii'lCO"1O~lqJ.(It'~ 1!'P0II","r-P' ~JlIl
Jllj ..... pogbpOl ~ v 1M ~ 10 _-..l.lwa.q;.oo.
"~,""",,"OIp-~~IOM~OI'-~"'I!.nvt~
1II!M SlJO!lIrPl_lboKp.. 'P'lL tli1d.<J3 moqtllOJ1p ~ auUx
doj .... 011 pgII~ 1M ;,1ClaQt!'b UOOIt tN tu~ RQ!'PY 011 iiO!ll'OddO
""IJ"'. ~ IVIfl'A'I "'P "flt!Almpv 10 rwcbI Q'II:loqI 01 ~~
;>"!J;.oo.n Ilt~~;o dco.Is!q A AIIJIPY ]IJ llClpU;>A ;lql :uopq
'qIJ~ ~ 10 'l:lUl:)lll,' DJOq ;>... ~ 0I1lJndltt ~ 1M)d,(f3.DMQ1
"! pouJ~ J:lPU1P 'I I( av ~1lQMlN ~ w ~ cIoopfg]O "'Oll"'l..u ;l\/I
pal "!1DJ'lIW ,(.q 1OIl":JiI&Dd ;qI1O ~ ;qIlIJ!MOllOJ 'lq) llll PI
..<xns", ~;ump lIIpl1U'iI
II! llO!J='d W:llll(llftl tl'4l "';llA Illtllll _ '1)1...... III l ... J:II{IOlII podof;lil;>P
.... 1WI!ll!1'l\, III\lI mp RUM!! qIftclI(lfl'~:>!"1IlIop. '13111 _ u l
01 l a X ~ "llII1IISld'il jO P ! ~ SIlO!lOJOIl;l\/l \lIlI _"WlllW:IIp
10 1pJDIp;l\/\. nlUlJPl:ll'l 10 UO!lIU!fS;>p mil "'fI""'''~ 0II1l1o'1J!ll JIlOJ
~ JO ~ "'fI 10 flMll\JOd ~ 10 f~ 1:>n;>:loqI ~ ~ 'lI!JfIp
~]IJ l"'!'"'llllU. Ol~1IOC 10 B1q.dJ "'fI aoDJ~ "'' :11 _ "",::.pw III\lI
.-p ~ '! I! toU!' 'lUS?'1" OllI]O:KM:III!IUI""II _ - . . ~ "'fI
1J III! lI'Il .JIlCI ~J-1q 1m M...1II\lI1ICIfIaI1IlD Iln!tl!"'" lJOlldra
011. ~~.JJ1II"''''l;.oo.lIIfl''''aNoII''l'P' .r
Wad l(i1IIO. 1110 PQ1II!Od .... ""!m"", 'P.'l- ~ 10 1 _ ~
."1\lJInl'
~ ""II '4l!M ~.JP.'I 10 ~ 'lqfqI l'IOIfI!IIO. 'PI ~
/iOlII(JY"'!"" 'OlqlNl~~]IJ~(.'Odal;ll"'fl
.... 0l4l"IlH 10 XlI:lIpI:IIIUI!1f'I:loqI \!IW ~ ~'O 0llI f-...
-.I _ pili p;ufIIIIW IIIIA:lI "'fI ~ SlU!U' ;l\/I 011 p;q. 4 ,......,.
~ ........... 10 DqaIIIU. pili '"'ll'1'PW ~ tNl 011 _'~
rntS" '~;l1fI "'''''... po. 1l"'J W!JD!llIlUnaIXID ~ ,.1I!"'I*'.... V
~ lu;lJ _ ' - ' " f,~:It1 ~""lI 01 ~:w Ul _ ncuoJp
-1I!Il1ll!M poa4irIlIIfIIO. . . . 10 Kl\*U!PlO:II(I ~ .<q h!-OUOI'
,...".,. 011 p;P: . , . . (1OIpI: .. m- _ 0llM) .:IcJlIf!'I ~ JllOI "'fI
1J ~l' ;l\/I jiaAl" fII!JlA'( '9OE crY .. ~ Jll 'IlE av .. :l1li: ~
~ IpClOt -... ~ NlL'il .Aq!l - JlIlIIPIIIal& 8111p' ~ IR:ll
.... ~"!-'lJlICl........ nblfIIl'dI{~1O , b~WSlO!NPf
.......... -.pqP&Jril""ll O! -$!'fIlii "1IO!I~ I*drt"",
tIqIIO. 'OIIOIIlI ~V""""'IUClOKI',.Q;ld _;I40Il US!IP 0llI lI(pem 1M
doIp:Jq. ~ alOUl 'J:IIOI' Iplllll ...... ~lf'l 1M QAd _l;lCf d!1fhIOP

SIlIS'IlNIU.V dO vn'IY:>'lYoITJSIG ATn'3 atU. os


"
coud, IcId U 10 lIle q..estioll or Meletian invol_ in !he Aleundrial
cloaion of AlbalwiUl ill AD 328..
1Iool'C_.
Ilia, dlll'kult 10 c.. lN.... 11\ euc:1 ~ ore_ 0.-
10...... I p:neral OUlline of cilalmslana:I Cor Ille period ....._Ihc: Coon:i1 or
or
NaeI .. AD 32j Md Ihe e....... ~iuI .. bisIIop of AIe.r.IIOia in
AD 328 willl.y -Willy, tor lIle doeuIncalf lad RCIII'dI whidllJli&tM. be or
I'
ilImt .. M: ~ 10 diIcowu lIle P.Xt _
adieb,.
.e p;1car .... oftal ........ Tbir diIllcuk:r is "'V"'"Dy C'"
01 McleliM 1b9Ol._ ill
t1IB &I1lClU .tL III eurJllIIinc Ibis I*lkllla diffItUJ TWO paiIns _ be
dia: lid ne m. point. ;. t ill . . - , illbc ;.... or
W. Tdfcf ... .ner Ibc dieaIIl or BiJkIp " ~ IIi.-tdC IIIJd
dftie dIiM III ~ bistIop 01 A"'wt\a. I ~ MidI wu bIeo-
IatM lip by.loM An:1lIP. o-u llic )1"1'. biIIlap or MooopbiL2'. A
IIlDIIId poiM,lbo ple<iwst, .....1 iIlcIb 01 A. ManiII . .
lIiIe..,nN: I JeIo" orluh 1)"' .......
DO'a' ~ ~ froIa dleir pan In Ihc: AIeuIDiM rlordgw pr0ce-
dural or AD m. 2lJ AIIllouP fie rwo ......- _ bued ~ c1iffereaa
_pIiotaa, Ihtir tow;'-_ illlle .. = l/IIe Me..... In 1ca:Dw D Ibe
daaig. vi A'b"";U'.1pM M:U allo IdIiIIn IllCI tormad ... implrIMK ...
posi'" ICtJ ill Emx dllrinllliualy lIs(' ,
A IatIe pin of Teltu's argllllleftt Is bued upoa bil m';" cr Ulat
AllwIasi~'1 elevlcion 10 die llIroneof Sl. MIlk was ..,.",d... affair ..
rqanb: 1M lI'lIditiolll ollhe o:ludl or AIeulldria. 1blJ iI. claim ..hid.
[rom doe eldence dIed above, appean 1UlpeC1, Telfer _ _ N "\he
IllCCaIlon or Alhllwiut 10 w bi.lbopric: of Aleundrill involYed ...
bte8cb &like or llldillon -.d of e>.oon. ~nta. AlIwwilJS _not an
A,,",,""rine presl)yltl. h$ did not as pope- bllr)' hi. precIecenor, aDd his
devlItiorla aside dle ~ or ...y dailllll ).kklilll CIIldXIaIe "'i&ht
h.e.- 216 Acll'dln, 10 Telter. ,Ilere..ue "sueh dal.... IWSW.1I1
Q;lRIidaatloa,. tor ConJlantine Illld (l(MIIried 10 _&he Me""ion. IJw..
Co/lolwlll, IIle deaItI or .........
nder, one JoblI of Me<lIphia. ~
lelder or lIle Meleliu inlerUt I!Iet Mek:thll blmlCtr,- """]d uvc
"pOfpoeli.. ri&hU not in Iqard 10 lbe _ of Memphb: buI ....... of
AkurQia-1t:IIell211
Tar .-niall, buellhilltICOIlIWCdon at e-u . . lbe eai&mMic
...... roulld IJI Atbalwlld's uanscription at lhe ldIIllle 01 Melc:tiln
bis/qlI pamled 10 AIu'''''''' tonIl:lime.ner NieIca, .... JoM at Mall. . .
_!he one -whonIlhe anperor llIdued 10 be willllhe III:bblsbup.-21S This
Job at Memphilll UlllJidclecl by Tdrer 10 be,m"l pralleIlll)', the_

21~&... -W_ 01 L. i I;'".,. COI_ m,m.

11'rolf.
111IW,
")4_.
11S...,.,"..w.- ...... 1oWIo!loM,-.,. ""_ 46-oW.
el LJ"'DjIOl;o,".,."_ m.

11'..,..,,11 (Optr. lso.:s-),


"
pa-...tlo _ppeatI duriJI& die period olllle SJJIOd oIl)oe ItS Jolla lv-
tIoIpll, Ihc..sdod _ _ beiDllII a11usiof11O his ... in IIle MdedIn cludl as
MAlt..... or ....pre.mc. rl1hef,-2" F'"1llIIl)'. Telf $lIgtSlt" eoa-.
_ .. lIi:r lMer Ieller 10 Jobll ArdlaplIIliaIOd "aI .... 1"* reWllllIO follow
~ k1I ,......;ll.;.. willi A1IoanMi.... -no S\dI u~,"""
It\'el'. oioeI_ caiIdy fillba pMlenI olllil..-l.I-.lhiI ...xoId bYe

-" ........
iood.ed ... ~ willUa doe. ~ dlarct., for AT' _4 ... aI-
rady ill JI'

~~_;:
of dle - . . dliI tilDe - ' -w ..... 1lIId II) qrce 10 Illy

"m... q:ree.idlLW.8amInl_Ttlfcr'.-~
. _..Iioa will _ bear aitit:aI ifI~ ~ ... does, ........ y
(WI eGIljecun rJtW;r daP QlIltemponr)' evidclIee. .ofll For Tcl!c:r.1bo:
"ri(tG- of Jolm ollrkmp!ris Ire inwric::IbIy 1Mbld.,j.. It.- of MdeIia.

~ lkleIlbe - - . . 11..,.
\lilIQ. 1Ioe:tc&wc. die rWSl ~ bill .... die parIIR of eoidm:e.. 10
alIo be - S _ die P'u- wtlidI foIIooooI
the _ _ of JofIn of Mtcpbis ill Ihc: .reYi(u~ J,idMj b lIy JIO .......
QOIIIC:Iusive. To be "Iftwd ".Mwrls- np4 ~ z!:f1lAiwt'
~r....
~ '"'" dp"'....owdroof" is w:ry PIlbipousll1la&. ~'I
rolMIeftl, followlnl Newmu.. is ~ 1M -.-eIlbisIlop- Idmtd 10 IIcre i:I
Mek:UlI$ CUI !be _ _ that he. wu Ille -nm- i. preemi_ _ tbc
Mdel;,n biJbopl) and tIw IIliI -IJ lbc Ani oo;clllTUQl oltlle wool"
tJpX'nnft6lfOv, it dQe.s IIOt ~ iw lloter "flied _,-223 He (lUther

219Tolfer, -Molod... of Lyccpcli..-._ </,., 236. Woll101 .... lJl,OI


AlII-n. - - . . Ardlapk- .. bo u<if. ....... ~. 1'0), wlIlIo IIoc _
IUoIOriM Soc..... """" IIUoo _U........ tbo illfolC octip<IItoi n_ of
. . '.l..a.d<.,_
....... ()it 1.)0). H,L 8ellldoNif. .. ""'" Al..-p. willi Ibo ... " ' - - _ is
19\1, AhI>ovp - . . III _ , ' . 1"'-"'- _
_ . .1........ 01 ... _ _ . ; ' ... _ . " . .. c.pe;e .... BolI _
_ I'R-* IllJ' .," _ poo. ...,. . . . . . . _ .. ill LP 1911 .;u,
10M AIdupo _ ..uiBlJ "'" wiO .... to.. of 101.......... it r - .. oM
.... +,!e n.. , _ 01 doo _ '1. ._ , wlridl ...,. boo _ Do
"";,b'1 N_
rid<Io to. ...,.
mol'"
(H .1oJ. . . . . Itn),
11110 poriod - . . Mq pIIOlIIott ~ 01 _
01

l'lono do " . - "., riokJ (<f. 1...1 _ Cl,;~ U. E,.. . . - .


I".. U. fL 301).
226r.a IK. <>iI~q, ii, 70 (OpIu. I." nil).
22IB "7_ 1'1-.- . <>iI. ,~, "I,
222.y, 1 (Opitl.. I~, 301>'
223.-..... uaot", _ _ ocrioo. 4, In. IlL '- F;';' .... moo
roffn 10
_
'lei .....
MoloUolo _ _ <41 10 boo ~PXun"~~ 01 "'"
, T-.. QI..,. 69. 3). AldIouP F,,'';.. _ .., _ .. be
_ _ .. ill Ioou opeciI\c. - . 1<0 _ '""7 boo '""'" 1 _ ..
' ' . ' , iotMbk...... of 1ok1oliw ..... ,..... _100 if . . . .~ 0' lIIis
"'-
"
,wes, ~Ihc h'-ical alIl1SK. is obIcurc. 22l AIC!lool&b Noulb..., .....
.........". &he ~arcbbishap- in Ihe abcM: .,.:oqelO refer 10 Akunlb. K
oanf_ WI 11_ a ~ stiPU"'!m- which - ' d 1Ia.-c bca 'fWioosIy
~ by !be IWO ~ ill Ibe NIp'_ 125 l1Ic ,til,...... certain _
oI.lotlo101Mto1.pIliIiI'''~
r.o. II do
"0/'"
p"n,IOA1W," ,""
I 01_ <by .... J.- ~ is;' So Mda" 01
d ...

d1e~ld' lIrAD3n'34. aan.d_1lla~"'~1Obc.


idalciroed ... illlllle Joa.. Bisbap 01 U pm- u.d ill.t ' Ie He
o;iaNoldbat_Tdfcr .... I lbMTdfcr'.IiiIda_.... oIlhc __
AtchaJ* I f*1J IilIe. -.1 wIudl., lllerdore, IiW IIiII. 10 Job 01
McilIpIIis, iI--.aw. as iI is boGzd lIP..ndI. Tdfer'llllcay lIIaIllIiI Joila

C<msunUnc ill IlliI amir. Ba-.:I ripdJ "'PI""


toad plospouiTe "pll 10 !be JOe of Aleundri..-121 .... 10 die lOIc of
Tdfcr lhIt
Ibae is -00 ........ dill be..."",.. 10 live Jchn AIr...... piOij;lCdi...
ri,pu 10 IlIc A1euzodri1D - . tfiI _ ~. _ 10 I'eI'ODcik
CMbo!ict ond McktiIns 10 Iba pcac:c Il'lipt I'tip III 1M E.IIIpft. lbe
Empmll' _liak~ wiltllM. co. wiujca! .... 01 Jolla or
Ihe Mt~ .. aI\holIdI be ... coaeemed lhal Iller PoIIld lIOl be
,pbjen 10 oppru.sian.f.l:1

It is impouible, oa t.III: basis ollhr. ULaN cvi(knc;:e, 10 Ihe full


~ III 1M Lheoriu olTelfer U ID 1M praopa::~ve rilhll ollhe MeleWns
10 ~ lcIdenhip .. the - . 01 A1eundria. ... more plu$ible eIlpW;.
tion for &he _avy imo schism of Ill.. MdeliaDI rollowial 1lle dectian of
.......iUlIIu betn pul fON:lnl by AIInik Martin.
Martia ronlellds WI lhe 1USOII for McleUaa anaer and ..c:usMions
followi", !be eleaion or Alhanasiul ..... owi'"J 10 lhelr ~acment
and inability 10 Pforlieipate in !be proct.SI. Alter I brief reYlcw olllle eYi-
clence fot LhlI "eonlCSled election" of A~tU, Martin pull forward I tey
qPelilion:"1);d Lhc: Mcktian bW>opl. ul>der Ihe _ ollhe tICCOfdI of Hi-

co-_
cau. "-'0'0 !he rliht 10 puticipale in IIliI election7"12'l FIOnl!he ewil:lcnce of
S~. wbo. IIOCCInIlni III Mania, ~tJlc'w YU'J -ell the
Wu Me.IetiIIl ......." ...;.., ~ is lillie. obItIlllla the "MdiIns ...-1
R
of Ooe"

l~.
216
"Nt . . ,_'lwf:; ... 13.
~s...o HM<o, R dr. 401. Opi... _ 1 .. _ _ ....
10100 I t .. io_~1bo_ol M' '= btooli_
...,.' ,.,. boJ-dRf AJ b '0" t

io.,ya '/ID, ...w.dl . . _ -... -r ,,.. 0' darilJ ~ io. ... , . - of


oft (Opiu. 1-'0. 60.. ...... l&).
ttl........ ""- riI.
ttlIa-.,"T_ M.c:o.- . riI. lSI.
mM..... ~M = ..... Wd - . . . . . .1.
to penIclpac In _ eleaice- and _Iibly . . . in) _.lIpiII
wtll:a IIlqr -ere o.dadtol.. 2lG Apia.IooCOCi. "'-till ultr IlIe q m...
"Did IfIeT "'- *"
r;ptr:l31

The IJDDd ~ N"_ tprifirwl htlb!y did . . . . . . die ~ to cka


or to iW..... dle __ of .......i.... ill dleir dioo;ae.. . . adKiIiI::
bltkIp ~ _ pIKe m.niq tK .-ok prenlpliv&. OM CD caily
_ 11IM ... ben twO lIis1IDps .... apled _ _ - . die McIelilIn
~ 1Ie"c'.w .. wdI r..... dlBrip 1CIl*tki;e ill tr. h ,"
~dle bi*'P ~ AIe,.~ wbca lie ..... dle " 0 IICIIdcr ~ Ileld it
........... y fofca. Woaid IICII.IlIe Me~( ft, .....
Ioobd for_
f"""lPjrIew b7 llw:w ,...mglic rl' em ~ dlCI ~il)' ollheir aQenl
toP ' ri&IIu. etpccially the .... ..u.
01 dlCI 10
A ...., '"* Is wtIal is .;pitied. die. a I _ cited b7 SOUX....
COoa. nc en"" l:lIs!ICIpo who ...,.. MeWi.Ior. ooIInp- ~
1a"C, ......... obIlK.""'" ,t '....
~ ICI Mdl .01 ' . 211

Mar1in liInber _ d I M AdluIasioa "'QOIlld feUl:CIy Ilave ~ !be


l*1iI::ipMion at hit _lion ol dispulina biftlOPJ .... lie. 1Ilerd<n, 'WOOld
"'ve held II) !be wk, ~licMioJl nf 1lIe .,eemtnU -.Ie HiI::Ka.><nJ
Acconli", 10 Matti... II. d1i$ inlIbility II) .Wld and panlcipIle .. ...,.w
widlllle Qthnlil:: bWIopa 1ticb drove 1lle Meletlanl; btICk InIO .eh;'1Il,
Mutin tw correctly 1i1ll1ed OUIN Cl\IC~ lslue. Did die Meletianl
_"10'"
hllVIl -.ly ri&hllO plflio;ipalll in die electi(la of die 10 A.luander'l
F~, -.Id IlIey haYll bcco .no-.d 10 pIf1lcl~ In !he election by
lhe Cllbolie his/lopl1 To ilDl\IIt:r Ihe former query. we "'11ft lin 0\lI".uea.
lion In dle ')'8Ddal twer $Il/ll liom N".:aea. 10 die E,yptian aDd lIIli&hbnrinJ
dultdleI CCIllCaaln, lJlo tdmimDn of die Mdaianl uIIO!be fIlllnwship of
die c.lbnlic CCIlDlII~nky lit E.&nn whidI .... IUldu dill epllCqlal rule nf
AIcltanclet. Tbe Jruu II .. folJuorf:

$;.:0 !he tyo ..... di<!,,-, 10 Ia tiDdly. for III JlrIa jusUcIl lie
worthy at ll:niency, it _ docreed iIlII MeIeciuJ Il!nuld IIlIIIIIiD
..... not
in hi. o...n city and lIl.Il ~ would bal'<l no .uthoril)' lD ..w
.ppoi.IItalClIU (ttpO,"(<P(Eotitu) or lD lay Ollllanda Wlpo'ndorj or
lD appear ia IllY cily or village for 1lIClI. ~ 1M IhouId JlI>DCIS
OIIly Ille tiUe ot iii, rant. bilbop. 1lIoIc who bIooe aa-dy bc:ea
~ b7 _ , atlel- they u... ' - coM..... b7. _ aaaecI
...,inH ' " (jLocm.all'r",oa ,"(~l.., 011 . . d!iI '0 . N "
bc; . . .;oW 10 fdlow*ip IIId have dlelr .... ..:II 1M: ~ to

DOnu':cf.. S HE, 0. I' 0 ....... SC)Of,,"" 1913. 2M).


131M lot. d.
:1311:1 "A",,",,- .. Sa I:IBrimo,-.,. ril.. U.
1331~.
"
oI'!ldaIo. ... =, UI1l be .....ckr <he nile 01 . . _oiled .. ecIl
jlIriob _ ~ll wIIo b-.e b<a 'I'P""''"'' br IiloIIonllk
I" : A'" J . ~hae""""'lClllllbappgill_
(rpoxn.lQ"*al oIpmou ph';,. lIlIdItla Of D pi........ _ or
10 do _Y\lliIlI..-.x- die ~ ollbe lIimap 01 .... " . ancI
IIPOItolic: duftlllCl'>'ia& 1mdcr AIeJ.:IIIder II i1l111lcll1d _ _ III
..... dlIt .,. .. dullilllc ill 1Il1O churdo die, .... 1'-- .....w u.e bcaI
.-2, ._hallR 1O.,........t III dle alT.::e old.e J.... oaly it
die,. ~ wonIl,. ami. Ibe pccpIB ~ lhea, wU Ibe CMllO!ic
biIIIap 01 Ak....... ~ ia lbe "leaD -.1 ,ail,.. it.:Z:U

I h rollo~ E.e<ett Fe.... . - in 'UHri., 1M won!


"po)(f.p/(" ~mtlh oppaUIImcnls. -235 Tk dcar ilIlel11 of die Itncr
is IWO!oId. First, i11Wn$ clrar !hal Ferzt- it CIClr*'t io IIw Ibe
~ .... _that lbe ~ clerc' are 10 nocer.... ordina
1i0ll.- 6 We l1li;, &lJo IOIe 1Iw iIIIy fmber e.JcotacionI 10 IlK tplropwe
.-..orlI1be Iddc:ll-. are nat. p....'ibcd ,;,pI, f<r l!Ic """,,;.we .... ~
lbo 'ICipll",al olllle lIisllap of AIc..tria, the _ , of till people, and be
COllSiclencI-won/ly (4furrl. In lIlhn 'MlfI!s, 1M, '<IrOO>Id be iII"Oived in Ille
same pauem of e--enu ",hic:ll _14 hold \file for IIlJ ~ ",Mid..,
Second,lhe Mdllilma" n=snined from llQl;in: ~ appolnlJl\alU widlin
Illeir own ophera 01 innumce. or ~ malin, _inlollons...khouIlhe Cl<'
plkll pcnnLsaioo of lhe QlboIic: biabop of !he plIce..
In lipl or SlI~b ruuiclions 011 local bull, lc _ml allOOISC In.
c:omprdw:nsible 10 SU&aesllMr. lbe MelCUltll1lacl1 "pcoq:ICC:li." r1lht" IOIbe
I!Irone 01 51. Mark or even lbe apeo:taDon 01 be..: ilJIowcd. 10 pclicipale in
lbe dcetioll of Alcu.nder's "., _. Martin is o;crWnlJ oorn:cl, conllVy III
Telfer IIJld Oirallla. 1lw. the accords readIaIlt Nic&I_1d 1Ia." been inter.
prWld by AJhanasilllw biI followo'l iA!lIe ll'IOIt IlIm1 ....,..,:D7 We may

~"'\"'''''_islftMZ'Qdilo~HBl9;'' d... His.


71f.; _ OoJeoh" HE IL n. na. ..-~ ill _ upca ........, ioon-...,
HEb. m. roes....... '" L. Poo,,=.... _
V. k t . , _ . - " ' - - .
1_. . 19S4. )f'-I).

H~ _
1"1.."". . ' ..
~.,
".cr-"- (...
SdIrOo. ..... e-.iI.~"Sd
DonI< Ibbo~ C b'dI..
.._.
1f71, jI,

"'-
U7........ rill!.l. na.
ToM.', -,. i ,.. risb" _.
.., 100 4 _ _ . . , ...
of
. rt4...:... L; $ ' ..- riI. DS)
loa .............. . . .
.................... .......,.
of~""'"
"' ..4
7
_ _...,.
- -

....... fol ...a- n' '""' ... (&" _


.~. SoI~ o-tr ""- ... .,-.I_""- i'6c.- _ _
wiolo . . . . . . . . ioo":';-' We _ ".;* M. . . . . . ""_olw ...
"" -W _ ~ .. ~ .. _ f; . . ~ .... Il.od reccMII)'
bon do_ _ ... ,..tk\ _ .. die do<'
"

111,..- _ "'" pamit. fu.ll ~ of tho ~_ - - . " clcl>ol&


......omirII tho C........,ll of I'I;';O<L I' ill
..n"",ia1 " ..y Ill tho 'ypoIh..iI "oo
r"" puc rorw.... ~ s-k ("Unl<mJ<hun_".". ,II" ,gn.) on<! ......... in tum
1l)' khw.... (GS m. 2Mtr.) ond Opill. ("Ow.yri.KM C..".... ,,,tI..,..;",,,,,,,,
ZNW]) (19')4): 1S6ln). A_ina'" lIIi. h~pa"""'l1 t1w..-..l . . . of
"" _ l l of Ni. ... woo ~ II)' Co..UNln& '" .. dol 10 ,_",,;10 Ih.
A.ri",...110 h.Id .., .. 0<1 bI<:rib& to "'" d<o<lJloru of Iho _ i l.........
c ~' fNioon>edl.lIId Tlooopio of NieML ThlI of co_"
101.... wide .......... bJ 1..-", .""'''''' of telpoottM '-Lon _~ .. H.
" ' " " - - (Gld_. u~ III. 112). N-a(ll,h ....... _ """ ~. 1))
.... 0inId0t (J'--,u- _ .ix~spridrI. . SlI). 1'100 1 ... d .. _
Itdo loll _ ponlr 1IooMoI ""_ _ INo __ ill ' .. iI)'
_ ........ Opia. WI ? !;. ill bio U,b."'" ' , (OpU m. U - ]1.
lS) .. - . """' .... ,. 'Ii" ...... ' _
. . . . . "",... _ _ Swiuo. n.u: .. ..,.., ~A1 - lEA
1 (I~~_ .
Zl"n.o .... _. '" _ (JIG 15. )ril) Mo to- kl' ... .,.
.' (Ul".--.. ..............
("'M .. eI L; ; '., .".
.u.ij . . . . _ _
rio.~). _ _ ;' Wi
..,.TdIcr
....
. . . . . . . _ _ . . - . , . 'i' ..... _ ...._ _ .,. 4 Sa} m '*
~; ,., 1.-", ...... d'-' ? _ _ .. .-.. - ...,.,10.
fa; I e '"1.0 '. _ _ .. ,... .scU. lfSl.1MlI7);_
c. I0' fit -n. ADqod S..-l s--.. 01"'" e-1I 011&-. Jt.H:K_
2 (NriI ,m~ ,tiI,7.,
AlII-.i.... thai. "'"ea hit PJ"""'U'- AJeunde. died. five I1Ill111h1bad _
paned ffOQl lJIe lime of Ille Melell.n reeonclli'Ilon.240 Allhou&Jl
""....- , , does _ illllae dut Alexulde. died n......Ihs II'Its Ille
Council of NiQU, - . like Theodom. pllud lIlIt nIUDinf; IIpOII Ille
. .1t:II>eN.)I\ Cella,,' ' '&1 :11lw.1hl: Oloulcil of N~"""")'1uIed
Ihree)'an ~ l1leDdDoea'IIl~ollbe.l" , _ b)'
...t . . . . . . .). lIeIllll ~ lIlIIlhl: IUin teaionI ollbe. ->1 _ held
MIl coo,,1 I ... 1Uci'l'd)' ilion IiIne ill Ibe._ ol AD m.1I2

.. r...... paeatMioa ollbe. ,n-Url_


ill all probIbiliry Ille rei1jllion ollbe. Me""_ whidI _. . . .
lID pWz opodaI plIlrriIIIa

Idlism widiIIl!oe EI1Jlli- tlllIra. niI_, ..


"'!IidI ~ bee. mm...-d b)' O-..., . j . 10 dil:aI ~)' willi Ibe.
bca lid. ! Ill.
di.I'iaa pi Nliry II)' Coni -Wid Soodl"
~ . . IUWlcI of ht"bi. d C _co
...
io doeI ~ 10 ftC-
L - . d IIlOe1iq
whidI ED: pIIlZ tODowinc N"~ wilIIlbe. brid period ol peacr. btcwaa
Illt . . . . . ..." Mekciao. pna ill EIJp tFtIiclI GCCw,ed .. *')' btfo:ft
Ibe. time d ........ ndet', dwb ID Api! d AD 32.200 TIe ~ for t..\beI"
wwti..... b)' Cormzmj.... may .-dI1iIa... beta' 'Ii< ~ II)' Melee;., ~
fiIslIIlII accept !be IlXIDfdJ "Ilich bid btca deQdul upoa. N"_ Mld whidrI
dTcclivel)' JialiIM IIleir power ill tlIe ~ ...."'l)' c:cns&ilUted~ qM'I"OpMC oC
AIe.o.an*ia. Oi..... tile _or Alh",m,,, Ialnmaarbcanccmlnllbe..-l.
miuion III Mdeuas UIlO COIIlIllIlllion e--Jd lbat lie wwld __ ........ been
1IdmillllrJ it teeIllJ III lla btca disJcrneabkl propCIIitb for bodt sides
from Ihl: tq:iMin ..." tIaia1)'1I\Ide. "'OIIlI II)' AlJIInIDuI,1UbxqucnI
e~ ..... lbe MdedanJllOllJlII1kIpedollln lileproc:ea.2M
8)' mllkilll_ III dle -...ide yulety III IClUrCt:I wIIich ..... our dUpoul,
plMIIible _ l i o n of Ibe. plVOl.ll ew:nu WIlle' diJl:lUIioII eouId ~ u
follow1- AI the Cooneu III NIcIea levenl dec:bllllll ~ rqo;hed "'hich
....wd Iu.. . . profoond Impaa 1lpCl' Ille lICdeilutletl 1lN:wn: of the
uplisn dtun:b quile apan from llle lbeolo&lcIl pn;lIlOIlnC'.eI whiclIllId
been lei forIh tooc:enlilll Arius. rll1l, Ihl: 0lIllIlclI1llUIhI1II p... lqiIJtIi...
JPIlIlMlIO Ibe. lrIdil.lollal lUriulriaI ~ ol1hc bishop III AleurIdria.
",~h under unon ........ Wldef1100tl 10 indO ~EiJ'PI. ... Lilry.l.....
. . PenIlpOIil, ~ !bat is. lJIe ..bole olllle Nile ..Illey IIllI all or IIw rqioa
...1lidI .. u ....."d _ PenupoIiI.W AlIllouCh Ihl: t:ue:t exlClllolhisCOll-
troI 0e0" die feu d..u provinces: of E&)'Ilt. Ub)'a. Pcnupolis. 1IllI11lebais
WOIIld ~ detlatetl ia 1hI )'CM 10 - . the NieeIle fllhen -Pi 10 indic:ue

UO.y.l." (Opiu. 1)9. IS.I.).


)II", ,,,~HELU.
242od.oi.. Ht. 2,)1.31: <f. ~ Ht. 2, ,.
)131 rl'.tfld Allqod Secoood SeooloI;.......~ 172: -S F '. VC 1.
".
"
doellJOCia/ po je' .0 and P=iF of ........ 01 ~by _01. ....
- . . 'nib 1IIllq_ ,... cllllldJarily . - flnbll' e $ ....1 by
t ;.
_ wUll1lle ..... _ of !be ~ fit It-.:ut 5ea:w' doe bWI
... fda _ dn . , _ '"'Plaiord lloe IIf'lIPC'l" Pi .. e lor !be da;>-
D Mel o:rijn.... ol biIklpI_ ....... doe ilIlliaI..-...ay ol_ po......
$yaOd..U'7 AlHclde.ind' :V' -id_1Ioep : II1o--aCdle
fOIIn1I - . _ ~ tile pan or Iloe. COUlcil widI dle
"lev ".. ~ of e,iKopal 1.t. FmlIy. d1a..-:il dis-
~. ~ nerD dlc ~ _ ....;pbmqduda wbidI ind>-
AIled"'_Pio.isioool'ordle, oflbt~da1J'.U91t
...,. be -uy ~ lhII t ' - ~ lIUa ...... Iw, P'" AIuan-
. . . oey P'OIII "*"4 willl-.tlidl ro deal willi die. q-aon ol1lle Meleciart
dil1lclllliQ ia Enot upoll his mum (fOlD dle eowoetl dunn, tbe tauer
~ 01 AD 3i$.no
T1lc -;on)' of die Me"'; port)' ift EJ)'llt WOllId _ ha"" boeD
~y pbIed wil/I1lle faUllI of 1lletoUllcil' OW Ibdr ~ pcIi-
...,

. . . Tdfcr ..... ibei well the post-N"-. pm-. of 1be Me......

It II cido:r>c IIIat Mcleti'" was h.imxIf wllliq D be ~ 8ul


I!LIIlIcinI. il rdllO lliJII D ~ dIIc IaIIllI of 1M S}'MldaI
Icaer D ad! of Ills IUl'Ji3&;uu and pusuade them 10 ","pi. We-.l

_s
_ be IUIpliIed IIw il .... mID the lhinl year bdln IIoe was allIc 10
PRIe'" 10 Ale.undcr !be .. bole campany of pmon:I 10 be ~kd
and 10 bcndit under Ille of d>e S)'ftOlIaIIel\a".:l:S1

24'1.1<1,
2.7 Hor. , . c;", 'II, 3a1i.

_t..
241"",,, "". N . 3...
u~v.. Iyn. fro. no.
2500rD. B..... ~..- lho-C"'-k" of J_ _ _ _ ... final
_ '" .... e-:u 01 H;e.. __ .... ~ .. :l:S I,"" AD 32S of 1h&
i t. Ii., ...... ....,;a, __ .. 1 _ I", r.-..u
,,; ..- Ioof_ . . Ioi&loopo i lI:<I le.,o .... _ E
1 219). TIoio
_ .... fm to _ io. VC l.
I~II. TIoo c.,c;. _ . _ _.
""""'bo<.
?

_ _ . . JlI F S keopiq ~ ..... ~ _

. . . . . . . _. ::_ :
.. In ' . . "..... .,;, _ _ .ot _ ...... -lr"_Goo
. , . . . . . _ ; " ; " " ,",,"I!l&da:.' <11me:-. it ' . . . . . .,
....... ' _Iolo ....... rn.. .. - ' L _ ... Ideo _ . . ..,. L
V.- _ "Mkoo.o o5ooalo _ . . " ...... "'hri. ,..... .... _.,
EiC:_ilio_t-eihol
~<II.
",-o " ; ' S ..
el
......._ fIl _ _~ r""- ...... tl ' . w...- JDJ, lIS 31, 1
1"'1: m._ ,....<- ~ L.
. ..
IAfril 1.51,_,,_
~ , ~-- );
r -
~ .

"
II <oOUl6 lfRICa' lIIaI tIlis process crc:ated JO _y dimeultict and sucb d:.
wlbance IlIaa lbc Usll': once Qlin l!ImMened I!Ie peace of I!Ie E&)'IlIiaa
cl..udL Eutebi.. is vt:rJ dr.-lbat lhedirrotultic:s -..bidl aIII1Il:lCd k _
t;o;. oIc:er-ine ariel" Ibe ead dille Council of Nae. _ spec:ifally
gypliIll in lIleir origlD.ZS2 1k bl'P"'b esir IhIIllltis inOlYcd. f8II KalIlII
lICaioII oIdlt; 0lunciI of NDca, as I oilNMt ..., poitMecI OUI, P ..... y
_ prob!eIIllI \lLan it 1Ol-.a.253 00 Ibe otber balod. 10 'l'iew
~rytlOd" Mply. a nleeli<I, of !he EmJtiM cktJy. aIoq wilh perbIpI
Eutebi.'.
otber eludlleaclm., at whiclI Ccrstrtjpr bn;lupt biI ~ 10 bear lIpOIl
IhB 1*1;0 i1'" and R poe a 'M' ';'11 10 !be dtt;ncs oIllle CIDUAcir would
help to "plain lbcJOiik,~ mrdJ and arUoed """;';':' of the Melcam
ilW) lhe..-sot lhe EoPIian cloD'.lSo4 11liIllWlNla; aDd rJnlll '-rinion
doolIlJIPeIr 10 Ilaoe IUm pIa::c ia Ihe lXIrlIat 01. Of inullediaIdy _
lqe IIIUla otitic c1cr&Y. for Alhanasius _lballbole individlals lisIm
in Ihe B,rNrri_ M~lj~y-eiPtbis!lops, rour preI~'" three
<bcoo J wen: IClalIIly .. IIICd in pc:nrlIIlO AIeunder by Mektius.155
AJlhou&lI e8CIl side ....,. bve beeII p"""wIrd b7 CorI-.uJx ID MXICpIIbc a:.-
cords ICIdltd at Nicaea. .... lber party ........ 10 hDe been pleu:d widllbc ..-
~nt wbic~ Ippean 10 have been cmchKkd duri",1!Ie Iasl few monchs
of AD 327.~ Wi!hin leu than fl"" months of lhe OOllclusion of Ibis $d.
tlemellt. Alennda ..... dead and M<lclilll had abo di~ fmm the
$UIIe, probably dyina within. shor1lime .. wcll.ll7
A.Ie.oandu of AIe:undria died 011 17 April AD 328. just three days afler
Eastel'.25a Ephiphanius informs"", thai Alexander hid chosen ALhanasillll as
his s~sor,. n:port which would be congruGU' wilh Alexandrian tradition

232E;o....... VC 3. 23.
253L.uiblolid., .... cu.. 114.
lS4~ It><. cil.
2J5 A,.w. 72 (Opitz, lSi. 10).
156.... _ - . ..... Alu.m..-<JI A.Iu. . . . dlod 17 April AD321-.
d>o .. idoQoo oflho F_Ifftkl< (Ro' loNPl'. - . d "'OI. ~, ...
lAnoow. Fuo.riq._~i1 . 26, 21), y ~ lhoo ""'" of _
ti"<Ml ,. _.", by - . . i q bod: fi"" _ '" "'" ~ I"'fli- or AD 321.
2H",oJ. 59 (Opiu. 139. 1~.16). n.. _ _, or ~ "'"'
~ loMl ..... boforc "'" e-.til 01 N"-.. (11_. 61, _ OOftOiloly 100
="".
4;
~
"I
AJu_" _
... "" "'" -.11I 01 1M ....
10
.. oklo>t.iP ~ ...
(Apo>L 72). Tho _
n<>..
pbaM 01_
\>y "'_ _ 110 P
elm '" M _ , _
C =f):+ _..e.io:lI
io
1 !lis

100oi 4inoal)r 10 "'" s~ of ~ ~ io lM


Welori_. s.u."-"' ....
.......,.i.... -..
"",0;"';"1 cl.oimo _ _ or _ M . _
of doo

-U- .... iaodlioool(Noole,'_ _ o f A _ ' " l~ &..2). &I-,~


iI "".--""'_ o .... )_oboelloo.-
liaM.. AIuDSor 01 .. ,.. 1 i.o dial.
13IFOOWlI-. . eif~ (q. _ fa. 2S6).
" 11iEAlU..Y EftS(X)f'ALO'Ff' OF A11tAHASIIJS

ift IUeh '''11U1.~9 Atbanui", _ IlOl I. AIea.andria.or. tile tiaoe of


Akundo\r'. deadl.. SoIne _ pbr:e 11Im. 0ClDI1 on dlurdI bus; m
....iIe 0lhctI1ndicaIe ....1 pUl'l( 10 Ike .... boDor,'J60 III eillloo-
cue, lIMn ~ 10 ""~ becfI InCfIllIIII ~ ill . . at re.
Wl& ~ u repdl dl:alil. FpiphMlm dor:II ~ 10 .. .e
MdtU e:.ciila ....... _ IIWD" 10 plMla _ oIlllW __ a. !he:
lllIm&oI$l. MaI1t.2lli1 SD .. nm;pl beLe.a. ~ .......... '....dtd
by die cwI 4" dcru04 QllIlpleRfy ~ _0 f .. I) Ibc sy..w Ialcr
oll'fic:.-lIld Ibc RCCIlt .....i.... 01 !he: MdeIi. deru 10 ........"..1IllCI.
lhuef_ l"'me<li ...'y ~jeacd. ~ .... Melctiuu: ~ 10 lib
IidYUUp of ..10M B..-d Qllt ~ pIJdIclklty ... fa dIore _
"-. ~ ill EJ)lIt IbIt tile KUla'. PI"
jlan 'iMdJ .. ., dwII ;" onb III aa1
Fpl,' 'i401oet" 1M. "'i1. __ --=
~_rcra"""'s
; I&ad 10 M eIIllItroGcd
ud policiaI c:t.oL ..z62

IOkiV.ll' '" ,..,lyllletl!lftflr.pe-.lftdllDlilyoilhe


dudl.2:Q W'odIinalllorltinlc.boweocl,A' ...r--sIOA..........
wbm.1'l)Od lIUInbcrof~ bildahndy J ootllailllll. weare 1Old.-..:
beiaa ...1JUled by tile peopk 10 dn;t AlMftMjo., callinglWn ~Iood. piou,
~ III ~ '1C'IU!1lI: bishop.-260' Eh!Io:r owi!IIlO Lhdr failed (or
1han..1iYed) .urmpt 10 dea !he.. 0 - caM1dw, or be .... ollbe.,;a ia-
1eI"pmI" oIlhc:' ..... concained wUhilI1lMl rynoclaI kucr (lAd possibly
lit tut.equem ePforcemcJlt by COIl5WItiJle), .... Maleliaa bistIopI wac ....
~Ily uclllded "llllIpIcteI)' frcm any funller pan In .... eb:tion. By lbl:
....eek fllllowing .... f'l.$l of Pl:nteeosl (l lunr. AD n8) all of !he bWlops
....ho were ~ompetem 10 take p:lt1 in the el(lt;uoo could MV' ma<le lIIeir way l/J
Aleundri hiving comple~ the full c~le or Easter celebntion, in Lheir
0'01/1 ,"urcheJ wh,,,., they would ha~ been pfl,aMlin,. Otlrin& thai week
AIIwlaJIUli Wall elcc\cd by a majority (d"iowso) or the bisbops present
(iDdieatllllNI t/IeR. may Ila"", been ~ di_). nlCeied the aa:1amatiua
of the "kIM, IUld on I ]lIIM: AD 328, ..,.,... an6 one-halt 'to'eW &fa lilt: death
at AJeunder, "bI.~in& PQKII1Ihrou&h the eIlIin Itriea of orden,. be was ce-
daillCd by the plllered bishoP!' in ICCllrdano:e wIth the towth canon Df

U9H_, '*- 7 (HolI"., <iI~ 14"1, 17) fit. r.. 91).


2601NoI~ So H6 II. 17; 1" ' n. ~
H6
'"* ... ot
=

~
_'I UIH_. 'oe, cll.; II . - _
1 _ ...
el
on... ..,....
r"", 01.. _ _
])c (C _ _ ..J r.,
Me -1>''''- iii-.
_ . Me!oIl. - " of...... 'Lo
, DO). a-. II ...u.a rcl'..-
.rT.D.
..
io
Lor-.
~I'I"--'J
_ .u.o.-*to. ...... _~It,, __lloot_. . . ..
... ~
,
-_
2f,)
hri1IIullop 01 ..100 Aio-
-r- N _-
,., <ir. 2.
c.-,_ 191" I.J..).

'HJH_,", II (HoI. ...... 151).


u .......,. , (Opicz. 'I, 17, 11).
"
NiUelI.16j It ia. 1loweYet. poQI1lle IMI .. he _led tbe 1Jlrone <1L SL
Mart ill ~ ~ of !be poopJe.. he had ret 1O ...... 1he rll1l eanonic:aIqe of
tbiny yean. Noll surpisiaJly, U Hordber& 111. poinled out. 1M fuA
~1Ialknp Iluit .wai&ed lbe new lQhop ..... _owed IChiJm 0- Ihc ~ of

......'"
tbe Melni_ ..1lil:h Ihruwled !he mly 8lld JQbi1i1y of lbe E,)'JIti

<Xl
~
11Cioi ....dec_
_pa-al";1lI Ol!ler...,... ;;_, -..
01 A'_lSia ai_ "" ~ II .. "'-
1lle. M alb

Idly clefll:Cli'oC badt ioo . . dcaik ..... _ otrmd Illd .. iIt ~ ~


ol~ IIllI ~ !tappan -r probIbIc lIw. ~. . . 0IIIy
JqlQled I randcn - - . of f ~ Aria . . ~ CIknnic:s
. . . . AdIulaINI..tril:ll "-' bcm <:ompfUICd iIIIo. siape IlImliYe .....
... illk Nail in faa. n. Illcrt; _ . . . . . . ncIiliall cauea iii,.
AlhINsi. pIll 'cd by PIIilooaoi ...... IlocreQrl be IiaJcdoullt. ThaI it .....
ia ... wonII of RIIICh, ~~ ~ 1rIdilialI- _ _ 10 be .. __
cepnblr. en'-Vw of 11M ~ praenlCd. Of aIIn _ .....bbIc
wbil:1I JlIII'POR III p.e .. ...-- <1L\lle 'iecMe 01 A'Il. 'lit. tbe . . ~
_ted by PlIllDal:.-li_ appan 10 be lI>e _ _ IriYed IIOd tbe _
~ tn:n odIu 111 utary c'l'ideru. 0l'!lc:lM:r ......... Mdetiarl. or
..- By way ol _ _ Lhe ll'IIUriaI COIllIi..t widWI tbe .)'llOdal1caer of

..1IiIe ~ucdI, .fendifta all on/lodcu; .Iion.


&be EJ]'pCiuI bishopa, wri_;" .... D lWl9. only. dcacle atk:t tbe evcal,
doI:I ~ lObe ............
liable "'JIll" or ..... Ktua1Iy lOot pi-. W ".. 0Iller a:eouna wllM;b _
C(llU\ne(l i. EpIphanilJl., Solololell. Socnlca, and O"'iUY NuiIm:ea do_
kDowledae Ihe circula~ 01 Arian .... MdcliP -wn. of !be elealoo, ....
tb8y l1'li, for lbe IIIOSl pari, disc:ounled. - ' the JUlUlIl OIIL1int of_IllS ~
be reconcIled ..ltII !he repon and .. knell oIllle IiaYJllian bishop.. For lilli
__ ....e eannot I&ft'C wliJ'lll.usdI'l o:on.. nlloa tho( P'hiloslOrJilII is. vital
help 10 tbe modenIl'tIW'tlIcr wbo IIInYOlwd In 1lle _ o(('o"W....oo. I
lr1lC ~ picturr. ol .... lhInUius. On Lhe (oOnUWy, Pl>lIaIr.orcillS~
eDIly.:l di.Iloru LIle ;mqe 01 AWtIMillll!lall4 is diI'IlcllJllO fllld Mly IdDd
allnle lIisaleIl ,epe$tillUion oItbe biIbop of A\e.&arIdriIIn Iris entin: Ie-

U5ct B..-d, "T_ 11'-.-._ ~if_ 349.


'JMIF_ , - . 10<-. ril.; Abo ...... ~ 01 . . . . . 01 MMo mel
iIt .-latioloollip ..... _ 01" cloaiooo . . - - . <[. M.ua..,.
..... 31-61. 0"'100~ _ _..... _ . _ Go<
011"... 01 .... _ <J4 A bInll 0111/0 --t>.t..;,;"p- mel
_ , .,.. _ i wu .Updf ~ ~ fMIy II,- -au)
lbo .......... II,- lIIo ~ (q.""Lo Dolo. I....... ,' ....... _ -e- ...
~'. S.. , - U6 ~(lr1O): 3IJ-m~ (C/. ..,.. r.. 119lior
fwlMr r o f _ .. IIIio ~
267 H.......&, dr.. 19.
26aA,Nl.' (Cpin. 9,-9),
"

1ft... 0w)'Il 0riIf...... ~ to _ .. _ ~ $1..&. ..


s,-c.. _ . ~ ~ IF" I '" ... W_ do,." ..... 2. C . C 4
19k. IOD.
270~ , . . - ". . 1"I$J" n~ ...,..
11 iOpitr, U1, t .
.r
H..-....
... 1 _100).. ~ 10
d., 22). 0pC.. "C, '" _
(OpQ. lolO, ..... I. IStr.).
1M. iMIocltk_ (cf.
c...o- .... __ """.-.
71llolwo LNPF.--.. ...............i. ... L
111.. n .... c&. 29.
ln~.
Nk:onlcdiI. W;1Il1lle ",i_meau or IIle uiJod E.............. ThcopiI or
Niaq in AD 128. IIle ANn COllllQWt4y C111CrCd upon I new dlIptelP4
"'*biua. au IfIer hil_a teSIlnoo.. beplllO fOl'Je I political a11i1occ
witII .....,. or lhoIe Melelilns wtlo had "'fraIlII$leadcnlIip or AIhInIsi....
Thomas K<lpIIC:d: !III described lhe endI: IOWI'll .... idI11le fw...bi- WIn
_ ~ .. tkla tiJlle:: ' " " - bish:Ipt wIoo bad IUppClIUId Ariu 1lIaIIOO
lUmed Ibcir IIIe:llU(:IlIO ~ IWO pIICtitaI pk. _1y.1Ile ri......
_lorAn.. .,lII$ .. Iu.....n. pri n ..1 -.I Ihc okp)&ilign 001_
Ib&o1kJP;8Ip , of ~'. , . ..-ns
lk ~ of tIIis aclicaI a111Dce beI-.. doe F ' . , aad w.
Me...;,. . . . . Uled ill M)'SIeI')', 1lIe CUiM br k \llM Aria !lad
.-..baall'''wClofM' imf . . . . . k:; :lbr...,.~""
fcload brl_ .... tainec! ""IhcCodea V_LX,V' Rowao
wllliIma, ........, IIru ~ forwatd Ihc wino 1II.II1Ile
~ IWO _ _ .....-~ or MdclNa. "'* _1CialeCI ia
_likdy ... Dbe. idenl>-
f"oed widlllle ~2 Few, _!be -.oa., wtlidl r"'\ wut, ...

...-
Oldy did AIe.aandl:r faiJ D menD .,. ~ or AriIu in .... rqwd..

rer-- D"
bltt,_ WWlIlN . . poiIIlOd. 0Ul, A....- II1ol'lfraiDed rn-1DIIl:iq my
iaformMioa. TIliIponioI orWlJlillN'1 ~ .ued

E_ _ p [tIlan IIle $l~ or "kundal il lIll: ...""'" oL


A!hIn"" I Ie..... o".... upuloulcoOll",.. IlIIia(a _haw:-..,
he had 110 qlOllllllltloW.ll:QIlIifll McleUul 01 .....1). If ...~ ....
ill I poIition 10 blow ...... _ Iecorded or IbI you..,.... Aria ill lbe
clwloety filet of """IIldriI. M ""IS. Yet lie CIIl delcribe.1Ile MdetWI
ori,Uu, -.Id \he lIur l3Ctical a1li11lce 01 AriIIlIInd Mdr:dIn$, wi!bout

274n.o....." from uilo of E............ 'l'IMoopl< .. about AD 321-. do<

Sen _ (JIE 2, '11 0Il<l ok *" ~ .............. vwIllod""


boW of lIIIit.,.,..,.. '" Con!laI\1iQo (Opil& 01, Utl:lllwlo 31) I! bolh
(II" 2, 7). T. K 4 k _
in ...... _ II N ~ .... NitMo 0Il<l1hoir P' ]'. of
"'" CoM'_..........nl........
eo

u.. ..., of ...... Ialdol of 1M An...


....1......,. t" H~" N_'..... ""L I. ""'hdo\pIIla. '919, S9).
n'lI:......... N,. 76.
27~ . . IlopoRUo<O of dIl..... _ _ ill .....,. _
_ ..u. w. Tdf.., -no. Cocka v...... u: (SI)," HTIt]l (190):: 16!I2A6,
n.o ponloa wtoidI - . ...;...... qwMioow of lho ......:y of ...... .." bo _ _
po 1.... A <riIlcol . ., of _ poriowo of _ _ wtIicll _ _ Ibo II "
.-:lIt. ...,. "" _lOd in F.H. Ke14or, '1lor onoti'. :bI S.;. ,I"op.:.. w
7Nt!f l ' (1936); 1:s9,IC.
277L D. W.ni--. "Ariw ad ... 101 s..to.,w rns. NS n. I
(1916):: SO. H. at o io ill '" of K.p : . Ito. - ....... _
,. - - l r
_

pooiriooo
... Melcciooo ~ doo firoo
. . . Irido 101
101
""'" _ AD J22.
toaoI be -.Dr -
Ali_ M. '_.
eI 11M .......
"'-""'01
P""" (L>pectk dI.. 3.

"
. THEEAAt.YEJIlSCOJ'ALC.'ED OF A'l1IAHASIUS

.._ ~ wIIai wolld surdy ..~ beeII _ - . "I'POrlUI'itJ


ror blacIcenln& IIa - . or bod! JJOlIPS of Idwenarial .. once. He
_ ~~ r~ trope of IIa clot: .etunlina; IU ilJ __ it
IpiIlSl 1k MtI".i.......Il)r lIOl Ilpillsl Ariul re'tCltilll 10 IUs pill
. . of disllIfOCi." \ ~t*,iaf727I

'" -r - . it __ ..tibf}' ..... AriIII-Md

il .
jl .niIncc woodd IIrtc
powIl . . of Ari..', eafliu asMIcialio8 wiJb Mcletiur. roo- _e
_ .-hidl iotriu: .-:II .......... abo iN!ir- 1lIaI dlis blM brief
endtd" _
-'"
epilodo Iikoft!lllllensiadl wIlidI i1b..:Jtp! eol-..al

II _ dear, lKidOi.. lhal.!be Ariu-Mdetian .ll;.... P'"'c1oln


~'. den;""'" die abIo:q_ ~ of JollD ~ 10 ~
lewSa.... of Ik ..... Yet I 'I'U.iIlI q .. , "M" W1IeoII did
A'" . becow: ~ oll/lc -'4' .Wd1 . . bci"'I ilnnIalocI
qoailullliml Fnlm IIis 0 - lIsrinwY'y iII,yo1. S9. Alllu..ai.. iwdQ....
dill ill lIle early SIqCI oIlIa olli~ !be Me.m- lIId Euobi. . . Ibeir
~_ trknd" ~ 1IOQr).2IO Tlrit Illi,bl""est Alllarwius's o.u
IIet oI.wftneA CllfICeminJ;1hc simario- allhil tlIne. lllllil FcSIQ/ !.dIUl
.... lilly wiuIeaI his P"I"U' ill pucc:jXiw U 10 the ,ta!ity 01. daa .Iianf;e..
In hisFutd l.#Il6 far AD 332. Al/W-Ji... _ lhII he: isllCGlllt, bam,
beelI .... moned by Cooslan~ !be iJlstlt;aIkm of "\he MdcI1ans, wbo
wm praeql. tbere. ~ teeldnallil "nriD before lhe Empaor.~2S1 In IIi. Fulal
I4l1tr Cor AD 3)3, Al!larIUiu:s mate. ~ rd_llCeIlo 1Ilc "'ao:tIismetiel-
(I.'" 1M Mclellan.), bUI it i.1lOI until the F'Jlall4I1., roc AD 338 that he
speak. of III "those who dispute with Chrlll.~ I.'.. the Atianl, "but also
.. the IChiJ""~; fOl lIIey are uniled LO,eLher. . . men of kll\dred
r";in,.,-212 AiJlmuiIl$'. ooavi::tion lhatlbe McleUans /lid ........ _ ....

17'W,l~__ ." ~.
179 EpipI\l1oiu.. II 61.' (Holl. ",. cit~ I..... 1..5~ bo "'Is __ "'"
.....,. Is JO"....... of M..,;,., finI imli,.. i_..... _undon of - " ......
MIlO. w. rna)' - . _ 1lw Epi~ - . ..c i!od;'_ 011)' -'ior
_Iuia
oIli_
.-p ""
_alF I' alM'
""'It ....III "7 ......... AriM-.. dci..
fi ~ _ '.iI'"
(W~ . a...~
1:10"""". SlI (Dp;Q, 1)11, 1:0),.
Z11IUlPF........ 51? 0---. F_ II).
1:t1:l.NPF, ",. riI~ Sll. I ..... _ 101 doo t .,. b 1110 F_1Il
z.-. _ u. _ , . forw.ord tit' L 1.-. 0.. . -
At.. 'W' _ A_1M. a.m. _ _ Y. . . I''''
:10-11. Loo-.. io
0..,.."'1 M
_
";pM."~_"""Iloo_,...
(_hi -a:- b
..........,.
pbriq IX __ ...... '" . . ,... AD n. _ .....
. . . . "' ............ AD Dot ...... AD 1o'S . . ,.... 1M tt_ _

" _ io _ '" lIo;o


W"odIioo """ _ . (II) Lao->. _
r- _ ........,. .. Heo-.io ....toII
Ph . . . . . . . .
"'h, '.io..
"
l'I~. qainst bi.. willi ElIte..... of Nio:onIcdla .~ 10 IIave bca !be
IUllII 01. p1Idlllll pIODIlIf .. bic~ found ill f1naI ad",inIIg, . . . III die lime
or
ot !be eIIllq; lbe I)'flOd 01 ClesarelIII AD 314. By !he tiIJIe of Ihe Syaod
m ..., concem"'!be
-'i.,.
oIT'yr$ in July AD taa'WUiou ~ ..ipIllrte lIId
or &he po-ecIIIory lWlft ollhe ~ would ...... been ~y
clispelled.20 ~ 1hilI ...., Alb"";'. ir _,'PUlt ill hill iIlkalifac;g"
01 !he M~ctiPI ill Ec)'pl as .. eJ.lendo., 01 lha AriH I*t1 unckr
EllIebios. 7101

no. '*'i" ... U K


,..
fiI'JI _ _ t _ _

j.... n
~.~.~.~'~_~
oood ........ l7orw...s doe ~
dn.olw
y ....... .. 0IIIy oaodJ'
_ _ __ r... _
liIlb""
.~JIIf')'. lloio s.to.= U;a,.

=. .01.=.....
.t 1

lha...... _ . . " . . .
U~ q <oK............Iaclo. of &Tl"
1101..... 1M of ..... om..:. _ ... M 11.oo l'I' Ie __ aod"
....,.....,. _ . I' Ilw'l io _ _ Itnot. EcJo."'1bo
....., )'*0111 el "I"'f,,' N.Moi ..u... a -
odoolonhip, 100 ......,. of - . looo _ .. ~ lIIio . . . fI:f. B--.
..,. U~ ZJO; W.H.c. F-. ~.iM "'C~.
n.. _ ~ ~ of "",,_,', ow... Mao G. 10 ...... t r _
"'ill' !l' 1914. 5Z1).
q/; ....... tNnto e - - . '" Adun.asioot, _ . . . ill A,.L 59 (Opim. l.a ad
0piQ m. u.w.~), io._"...., . . _ .. ..-it d\o._ to
.... r.llowlh. or lIM dMlocll. 101 odw>I... lin. 0<1"" ...., IhiI _
........... Aria Iba (<I. """'L .... riI. u.--.
"P- cit.
3. 129.131: B....... ..,_ W . 231; I..W, BlI'Jlord. "AIIIanul ad . . Rom...
s ~ LM-.-J6 (1911~ '23... _ bul. r.",). E_ doIlna 01 ......
II _
slrr.),
Iho "'hjo<l 01
01""""". .... y (4 N.
<lou bot........ AD m ond AD 3lO _
S.,.., Alhlnalloa. lEA 2-
pn>bobloo (<I. Doni....
..,. elf. 9S: H. Itf.r~ T:~ K_ _iIu

l"M fr'a-N of IlIio lot... ~ l>J ...


ha...
treeI)' ...... ,.... _
_.i.
"'ill6f. UtwidJM\I: I . i " . ,.,
IIJ.~... "'~ r...,u. 20. ~ 195'. "1ff~ ..wi 116nw. Of. nr.. 1:11).

kno-.. 10 f01_., ~Ju J""I--


of .., W1It ..1IidI 10 _ oil .."" ..loh '" _ lI!e _~ no,
..... r.::.toW _ ...... ",..,. Fe. if 1 ......1" Ium lila,.".
...... ~I 1 1M ar ud_ _, ...... han boo.. ..iII",. '" "'" -"';1>&<1 '" W=
--.1oft '" ... dudI, I ..;u ..........., . . . . "'"- )'001 ' " ..., - .
....... _ , - _ _ pl.-~ ('Opb. lao, 7-10)..
..._ ........., "' _ '" iatomo ... _ ''''' .....
..._ .. _-CllrUti ......., _lie Chote _ cziA~
lIr"""r- d _ _ ....,f.... of ..,. ~ -'lJifKI q k -...,
'~...,~6Q,0piL<.16Q,11.11).""'1 _"'~ "'_
(if. B-...d, ~...-i Sl ~ . rir. 25). .......
4; .. '\I _ of I . -ad "'" rtf "'"
lolclebMo .. _ of !lodI' olIiD<c ..,. Fe I! III NI 1" Nn-.....-,
_ ................... toqIIft .. an- ,'. _ "' ," '"
-n .., _1:7 _ W p l>J ""'-"- 11> 10_ Ill IIlIi-.
rori=:I
S. . . . . . _ "l'I'd"__ '" be ... UK ' - Fua.J Lan " - ....

2J~ aL S9f1".
. THEEAR1.yEPtSCOPAJ..C.fE(FA~

w ..,. ~1We lha by AD 335 1lIo: M' "_ .. cypc hid ll'q_
_ 0"" A oiDbIIIl i bd ci_ .... 1ayIIIJ ... .... 'm ''" ,. !
.,I!'>'i8ri_
III ~

IUc:efllCOl+'
- ' - llaIf of 1"'- IiRd io 1lIo:
~ .... I*'J...... a
wi:lIIF
lIidiril.U
\ \ h\ oLJobo Ard!IIpI..~
I' olN'., S. V.. --.poolP. ....
_.aI-
. . . . . . . . . .,hidbJB.-d.-Imli..QlplEMdeo. . . .
...... Milk.. would ha..e rt&liaed r:L lile W..t pw" . 1
<*loot oL iItc 'Cllcrcll ol!be Martyn, - . . . . . . ID Ilro'C Ii- lIioN aIJ&-

1Uor_IartJ...... ~ ....... _ ,~ M~ii /,y.,I..


U. 0piCI. 1".IJI~ , . . - . idcD<ifia - _ _" ".iMab ....
~
19).
......... T_~ ol
N'-... ~ ....
.. ......... .,.-olTyra .. J.lyAO:u''"''''
i8dmdo.oI< Iiolod
~01.~,

,~ IIt61ii -.y ""'


_ cit.
....
ioloMlrood -..II. ..,. _ _ 01 P , , ""OY _ WI oIlooir lit-.a _
.... I o t _ C _ iodaae-.af .... ~ p s _poupod
ID..' " III. 1M .......... ot T_ _ 01. OJspltU ."..... co h ...
,.... , _ Ws bis'oap, A. ;.If ....... ..., _ TJoo), .. WI _
...r..- ill ....... (lit "'" w..-it or ... ~ .....
_ponlod .....,.. 10 1'Jl'I ..,. _ _ .. HI; 1, '15 _ ....
pao_ or Mao:
idnlir.. oaioM
_
_or '" (01 _ _ 01 ""'"--). A..clw n.. '" Noo<:1><o.'.
WI Il0o _
~inAD:nIot ...... _ _ ol
o l _ OIo"L.oi ty ol.............. _
_ .. p",," of
... anhDdo ,p :. in t.....,.... b}' AIhanMi...... FUI<JJ LMIIT (1It ..... ~
of TIIoocloroo of K.opoo - ' 1'<1.,_ of O>.yrlI)'lIdws ... ' ..,i>l/..tu 19 tor <II<.
_ AD ,.01. Tho rollo~ lise indieala _ MoIooliMi r /J,..""i...
11,11111 ""0 _ 10 haY, ~ Atlw>uIl>I 1)1 n.. r t ,...1
_ _ .1... Iho ....... """"'" -.r><a1iom "'hiL. ... I n", doMlblt.l.
",. r... ool""", or I>WII!><n a><TeOpolldl 10 lIIoN i. Opi.. for \boo 8"vl.,I...
U.llill, 1M (l4915I~ ond .... C<IrTCOpOndo .. IIw boW ~od
by "1MMoi",', OItyu (lS9~
N_ ,u,
"':
_.. -
,.,.
L '~t' '" 41D<1l1ll.l,
~",.~
~,.",'~ "u "
,.
,.
'A,G n-
KPot' iI' AImj.l<
'A, 'II
'A~
l'~""
I .. & .......

"''''''''P<'
""
"" .""".
u

"""
.. ----
""h _ _ ,.,..
"
".
". "'"'
"
III
4 .... .,.
... """ .....
P<' .," ""
u.
".
Q,"; I
W- I .. lin
.....
.u.. 11.

"" ".4""
"
1

u. '~"'i,,~
".
u.
no........ '"
D~.
HI .. j4
"''''''P<' " "
"
s\IIlCe eilller III AiJww';'", or lohn A/duflll. bul only 10 tbeh 0WIl cenoIlilic
8 .... 216 On t/oe. bail 0/ IIle .vaibble evldenoc Ills diffiaott. if JlOI iml'O'-
sible. 10 em-"'1Ile ~ COIIIIllUlIlI)' in EnJIl by !be year AD 3D .. a
sinsJe. .e.II~ or ....OO8 'IS 0110_11..
'IlItn abo __ 10 1llI..e bcell ill ......it. . 10 1/10 CfIpllellIeCl Mdcliaa
l*IJ in EI)'Ilt llOIDbcf 01 otIla' -.IllS ~ -'ob' IlemlI:aI &I""P"
..too were iIrool-ed ;. I/lIe "r"jrMl potilieI 0/ IIlc. AIealldriall .... dlIriD&
lbisperiocl. UfI1ikcIbf.M 6_, llo.cO'Cl,itiidilf-'t1O 1:: fU1lJ
I

1M po/iliQI Of ~ iol!IDellc:e wtIia . , 0/ dIefc pII\iu eJlcn:iscd.


W.K.C. FmlCI COO.II_ Ihal. lIotre - . _Ii-. 01 AiIlMIIi.. cIecrir-
~ ...... jiiobluid ~ lbe Oucb" Ecn--""- l!le
M',ir" MCIlhdWNi_butdlll ... l!lInaiuI .... edllleMd
"1 ..
ID be '1llc ' _ pasulIpoiOtle..- oIlk dlrce.2rl NlIfdber& _ Ihal.
darilll Ws ptriDd - ... Ar'- _e I dillllllishilli miaony 1II'i1/lin Ihe
~ IIle Me"';'. Iiilila' iqIc:nanl. -._111 o.lcI W. Gri&P"&'l'=
willi Noo!lluJ. )1ft II'Ilticu$ IQl it _ Ibr. MelaiIft iIluaion iIIlo Ibe
EoPd- I( ...m... 'IO'bicIl_CGiiDtJICld At'" 'm 'ZIP
T1lere IIo;>we'Q, ., IddilOl&i lnat--.y IfOUP in EcJpl. It
_ dear fro- Itlc. C8Ie oIla:ltym lllIl .-bcr 01 tlloIe ",110 Ud bcell
iIlQlYld in Ibf. CoIh,,~j .. JdUsm Ilad c:IIoo-=n IIQlIO "'Ike peace wiIh eitIIa"
A\eunder or q _. "',~.... SOmeollhele., like 1IdIyrq him-
lelt, ._11, ended up Il1lied wilh Ille E............ and ~ Mdelialls.290

2I6 B..... 4. S""'o N..... .". cil .00; ~ POf'YI"I' 1911 _


iIldkOlO I IIIoooIoJl' .. hkh .. _whallCll\OY<c1"."" .. hot 10 .......Iy .....,.."'"
..ilIo I!lo " " - ot ........... oIlh<>u&h Bwnor<I pot""'lII ...-. _ 0II<tICian .......
........ 'f \A<ll"'" in 'kil
hew_. IDoflcooo "'" ! .. ; _= , "'- 10 - . ; _ . "..~,.,._..

J_.
lO'hldI _ _110 -.......llloa_
to b .... -.;.,...t {&I. I..-doo. """"'" 1917 ill H.I.1kll, w C.....u..u ...
,,,..
_
LoIodooa. lt1A. IO-N~ Fcnhrr <1'
.... .' ) .... lIl' _ _ loa.... - .
10........ .r;,, _
tI7 I!.A. ~ .. .u._
of 1M . . - P"'I')'ri "hldo """ . . 1M col f 1M ottlU'oe of Apo.
PoIMuI .. 'TM EorIMo. U. of /It.......". b 1010 0IttI 1M Oripa 01
~-. ~ 1_ _ 1iI M<iU" C"""'...... 'lO. 101_ 1m. Sol, 1:1,
2UW.M.C. F.-.
"-'!o C-...,.
C_w. ..-. I91IL 30.
.dl._ ,. IM -.I U...,..,.
I!~ CIiNtl t.-le< ito oho
IA ,.. E.q C ~

'lU~ ..... e;,~ IlL


'lltc. W. Grill.. Hu-, ., c.,~~ '" .".. ,. AD _$1, PU>.
thaol.. Ualwenl.,. 01 ColifonJa. It1'9 (\1&10....1.,. Mino>m............otiooIool,
IlC'06O), 1071!.
190 A . . , ...... 1 oho co 'M odtiooao .... liIlbd .......
....

io oho _me- ptrio<l lou _ _ "" VIa-. FoIldoo. 111 !fool!, .,


txf_ .... fill 4jwol ... 'A,or.-O)IaI, _ . . 191J 2J1f. A-.p
_ it; _ I . ...... 011 of Fea4oo' "",...., JI'I'iM: .. 111&
eueprioMl po-. of AIcr. ....,.... 1M liIoM "I tUn I '.
68

Tk pelilion of AlllMwi... .lUpJIOi ...' . tile Synod 01 Tyoe COlli""" !hat


pan of Ihe ~riclence IpiIllJl AtIlan$ut 11M rallllOCl (l'Ofll Ihe faa Ihal
" ........ 1fId!lil fcnow. C(IllD;.ll(\ . . alcllef be pratllIelI, cominI ,...,
!be CoUumiaDs, 1M """'I . d aIld AriIns. IUld directed IpinIt us. "l91
A"..... 'C" dx artP-l CoIlgthle IltlrIUIIIiId !lIIaI ...n.d to ~ li-
d M ' &IaoIo1f~ 10 llaw:!lIIaI ,.....-Iled IOAIe.wdrT
I;)'llOd of F.mJlia "'"*'PI beklla AD l1AIU (wllIl Oaia ofCllrdcm. ill ..
....".nec:). - . .. lJdoyru." t ~ rr- die. . . body of the
dIUJdI in EoJLm Ak/ooup we QIllU - - . rrom !be rooaiIable _
rials 110.- . . . po.p dlr.p(*-N.,.. OJ!1,.hi.' ~ 1M EJ)1JliIlI
bisIIopI_ Tyte aMSitIertId lblem erQlItI of. IIlIalIO ... IlleIII ~'Ile 1/Ie
M" IIlCI ArianL
W" _ .... IIIIafUIia. 10 Ihe eua IIJaIIIII of 1/Ie AriIIlI*'7 (Of
s:-nia) .. Ec'Pl dlorin& 1M period bdlR 1110 SyaocI 01 Tyrc In AD 335.
Elmrd R. HIrdy . . . tbaI "1Il1be tinr: SlIp, _ rom.
_ _ -.1' ri= <i/.1beuypw-AriaIlI,1leIdrd by E
Adm .
"',.... =.
oaDde EcYPt. md \lie MtlWMa laIldc...m KllII"'"k clailnllbll, 1olIow
... N-=-' ThcopiI ud FdKIljo .. IllId bcco'~ wid! AIaaIdrW:l
AtiIns.- N lie p>a 110 lMaio- or c.iduoc 10 wtIo 1Ilat penont ~
Of wllat poIillaas lhey beJd.~ We boe 110'- lO bdie... lhx MIlS
~1'elIIf1l<d D A I n ~ ~~ ~ 1IlI _ _ inditaltlalhe
retAaiIIed in uilc 1IlIti! hi, deIlII in AD lJ6.2!U Furlllet. _ ldlolaB.
slIl:h u Rowan Williams. ha", spKlllaled WI Ali..... Ihcolosic:aI posilion
lillY III.. lUIlIled In ~Ihe rebllve Irolacion oJ Ari.., h1l11ldf wilhln InQVC.-
111m! ulle4 by lIis _-296 In EaYPt. k _1111 probably Ilw lbe _ _
m. was le.a lIlIIllnODOllthic: a'ld include.cl in iI boIII dIotc: ""ho Rril:lly
hered 10 An...'. vlcw. (dilc:iples) as weD as mo. who OCIly I)'lI1pWUud

"''''''P''''. e-n..;"................ or ''''1''- ... Iho. Col... ""_


ct.
It/HL n (OpilZ, 97. Ill.).
29I A,.,. n (Opil:l, 157, '.11). Tllio _ 01 _ _ 'em_
.. Ioic~ IiIII: .... ~ of .... ""-. WeJ.clo., Col~ ;" <VoL 77
. . 71. ... _ "' . . . ~ olpocm.. .. "'"' _po pJ;hod ill T,...~.
17) IlftGI to e-, f!o;u ();onysilll ~. 11). Goo _ . ; . _ _
_ ...... io ,...,... . 1oy "'"' ........;_ .. " ' . _ . . . ~ (()pi...
1$6.. 2.4... UI,]).
19211 ,.1. 14 (Opiu. ISl _ I"''' C 'Mill; C'ou-. .....11'. ~I-
' .,.,;,~;H_6t;n.' ... HE.I.S:_"", ri H_.IIS.
29lEdwonl . H.nly. 0.;".;.., ofA.' CIrwdt _ ' . . . . Oatord. 1962.
". 2904K I ..... dl~ I, sa.
29S ..a-. HE. 10. lllf., s.a-. HE. I. n:.... Ht 1, 29.
J'J6 O. W~I;_ .. '"TIM. QuerI or "'" Hi~ n.ou..~ IIrl"als
Ho-iuf _ n ",Iul.H' ....' "...-sf>-'" NWIt J_ _' _
C.,.".. . . ... , ~ SloJJu (<<I. C. CftU). I'IriI t 'rHo 1915. ZS.
"
wiIlo Ariu. _k";"!FtittVPo'i'ica' silQtOl (a1lleI).2:9'J AhIooup we are
IIIICImIla III ... dIIllpr wl!IiQ lIrilIl'OUJI iIlIdIIDr po;INd 10 IK pcr.o:r ol
Adwwrias,.~r:n:.wl 4 Ulldlj "dd...... tleFUUIl
~ .... 11II: W- ...... 1willi eIcJI ........ ,... fJUIIIdle m- 01 his
c........ lluGI&!llllc Syft(lCIoIT)'R-291
ApwI frllm It\o$t pIfties _
wisltilllbe dlIIn:Il. a;IRiOideo. . . . III.
....-.au ... ~ bad \heir &eoais
abo be at- ....... wbIcb eUsled
llO 11II: ~ oCilla ~ Tkri"rica' 1IDllJl'Ia.il)'. Griff.,. ilia lUI'
Seaed 1lle fClllDwlllJ ~ ~,0I_, AleUlIdria itIdf
~ III auJpoa,lhe r~ c' nl' belns Ored, EiJpliaa, 1~
Inaian. lAd ~ aa:ollioa 0Il1y 11II: _ ~ -'l9'J P.M.
FnJer has (Om I Ilod 011 Ibe !lei lila P\:nian ~ beeline ..... """"
psyasi"", ill ~ JOO:iay 1brcIa1'- ... R _ ft'a, aperia"y
duoucb Mpid" IIOd MilhnlimI.lOO FIllIlIer afodd., 11II: _ aaIift
~ ..... ... """"' abo atroc&ed. ne IppQI ol_ ...... 10
!be willett ...- com...." ill EJnII_ . . -Po ... .tla:l
"''''_has ...... _ LJ(f ~ ,,-,.~ point _"'10
~ _ _ ';1Il lbe ANns ... lIM: Mrlec'l"r ~ IIlinp IlIYiq ID ....
iId* die

widI flilh.Ilc.- "'*"''' "wa lnIly ........smid and onIlodo:l. ~...., tbeir
~ Illd apostaly from 11II: ~. he ne_ IlId comlll.... M:- widI
\be Meletl&llllChismltict. And neillw::r lOW.d 1M Manic,*- nor IOward

ml~. W~li ..... _ Iha1 Mill" diKlpl. (I.... _ 11I110 I cd IW

m_
.iew or "I!lo 5 11m11ed know\od,.; ..."", ~ li1loly .. raldo In ElY!" Ih..
......hera. ""' "",,"' .,... _ _ "'" p<>Wari\Il~ C;..........
li.,ile<l _~. or ..
_ . . - . t Q 10 _ _ "'
Arion pony '" E&JPI (0110..,. . N~
_ _ dh-.... ly of
" " _ . it

hiI ...... fo1lowwl ill .I.."dria 1M hi<Io 10)0 ......


29ft" .............. FuMI ~ "" AD 329 " " - ora _ t

Eva rloo M~ who ...., Ila-. bees ......... diOl _ ..... dW poric>cl,
... _ po I!IIc.Io word. n.. klla r. AD 330. _ . opoIko of """'"" ill
.....,.01 -.I II 1inbd ..wo ~ lO.,..,kl " (S, .)"""
OIl

~ by
O ~ )0.)1). . ..,.
if ... fellcwship""'-' 1oi_ _ _ '" 11I& .......
IDOl 1M foncieo Df ......... lnYallioon' (1). Tho ItIlnI FUUII /.At.., lOt AD 331.
odilOt ....... _ _ lOt "0)41 f. .......... O ' _ e
dot. biolIop .... -..r_ .. ,...._
-~-~"'---poGoa._"""'''''''----by
ia IIiI 1 _ Ioloor f. AD lU... _ _ pboio
................... (1).
.. 10 _ poImcol p , l lIool .._ willi . -
..... ...n-.. 111 1ocIOf AD DJ. ' . . , ..
_ _ .... _.OIrioo-lo')' no.
7 - ,

AD J34.3Jl _
F_~. ..... ~

.... b...- AD))olL_il._ . . . 40:bI_ ... _


""'.Of;. hlI7
p>dIaol .. ,.
AriMo (l.cnQ. e61. '11. nIo .. ,.... "'.
.iWi& 1M M.l-ii....... . - - ....... . . . . . , . _
............ ~ ...... _T:rn .. AD):JS.
1990ri11'1l1l0., d.~ 1019. 1lDll.
300p..w. f ..... J".' "';. ~ ~ Od-' 1'11. Ill.
" THE EAALY EP\$lXlPALCARED Of' AntNV.SlVS

alIyodl Ilnetica did """ profess ~ip. . .. So I. Ibe I8IlIe llWIlICr did
""" Uhor!he ~ oIlbe ""-.~)OI E""" if _ _ pi"" judpDea( of
SeIlw.u. IIIIl AIhaDui", "u:Ied" "'*-y fOl lid __ pollUcai and lIleoI<IgiCllI

......'"
fkIl'Jll*4 hQ J:!WPI"'I 01 tba ~ "';L11 mo.e 0Iha" ....- whidI
10M lNalClIC1I lJoc. Aluuwlrlul _ II ngcni." of Ille<r relai.~

We . .y .cd)' iDdka'e lberefore. lIlIl. lhc _


duria& Ibe r.. ~ 01 ",b"osiv1'1 t'pCnpw appmn ... 1Iro'e bceII _ _
of.tf:iQ" EI)'pt

. . . ,",,"~ ill rqu'lIlICIlbe life of die ct.dI. n. MeIeWn OOOllllunilr


!lid br I IlaN&nr: ot lbe Colhlllila Idl&sM COMinoolld 10 male dif_
1EIalDet. willi _ 01 its M _ ClllerilI, no Ihc En' . Mdetip aI-
..... 1lIe""-' ill Ef,ypl1Pd ~pIOpa"_"'dol iadi~d.
-,.;.. It lit..;, .. PMePl_1 willloul. iI wwId appear. II sin&\c Pidim&
for= The aypt.ip . .estjc communJcr ad ,a 10 boK:o... I echc:si.e.
dOO'aIICllt loYal 10 Illc bislql of ~ IlIIIl _llbo Illltjm 10 _ _ _
ian-..JO) 111 N!djrige ... \he clifflC1lhia lie t.:ed ill Eaypc. Ad ',"
bid abo b)" AD 33~ boa .. ipptd olll\lOly 01 bill all;u ~befe, IIlIclI ..
EusuIJIi... of AaliodI. Av!qln of GIZa, IlICII _ of !be Olkr ..... oX-
feDden of Nicaea..:lOI This Illm ... dle <lODW ill .. hldI Al/llnMim bcpn
~is qritcxlpw and alCmpled 10 uaify lhc EtYPtiu c~uteb. r.cina IIlc <bible
cllallellCe of wanal dlsWst IPd iaIemal diwa. . . .lCl:S The quutioo r.:q
dll: modem I chc' is How did AIIlanasiuI R:SpDnlIIO . . . ~

30IYlla NIl. 61 (1'0 26, ~B).


lO'.lScllwom. z..C..._ . tIn~.... 216.
:KIln.. .....11.. r.. 1M . _ of "'" _ t i c _ ...m.. tD
!UVI boooft JII"OkaIocI _ .. 01... """ CfoIl ... ooruialy
I", ..... "'.......
.................. '" 0At!)r _otic (AI) ))00) who _ _ ItIo
..-. _ . . . . A.... ~I wlUI _,*"", or .-;q."
IU). ..... "0110..,.,.. - . ilI _ - . 1M "JOn')' f l l k - '
(EM" ............
""""P lh6 ~ .. _ . AI Fnnil ' ~Alb ,," "'" """
_w ...~ for ilia - . b of EaYP MY<t _ bJ Irio
__,4lclod- ~ and - . . 01 will; .. ' - )'Mn,
boc:aINI ...... _ _ .... of" -'bOsIroop'l<- (".. til .,;
. - . of EuJo;
EuPcioa
CIori-. ~ cr. ell. l2.)3).
llMlloJII. A.riM.' (Opiu. 115): t:f. Lr.c. H - . "TIoo F... of Euoa_
of AMiodI." %XC" (19101) 1. 171_119, wllo..-. _"'--&_,-
,._lOll 'Of
110. . . . . . . .iao w ; 1 _ill :n6 . . . . )21 '" )2')- (1'19): IIM. .......
iii. _ _;..... petUp. oilin Iloo "ioolric:~ ....... _""'" of
_lai.ottif:lol pot;c;co" ....s do _ fIOO"'lok llol'"
"'W-"" Is
(I.....). hocill_ WOll t~ willlloio I; ......
_ ...

. . Arioftoolloio_, .uey(1oa_ HE 1.111. ~


.n....
~_
"'~Wrioiq; ........... III
loow lI\o; . .ill 'tt, ....All-...........
'~ ... ;' CoIioo w...... 10M
of Iloo EuPQ.uo e _ wa
. . . ., --..d, ........... _ ~ io ill """ poriod _ _ ....... _ _ of
,,,,m... fDP"_ a-cJo. wirh 11M. ~ ... ft1Ioc- d _ _ .......
"
111 1m. Si' tbrolcIl4riI BeD _"""" ~ qaIIi_ " die 8ritistI
WO__-. till ~oIliC111 PIIlJri ~ ~ ID be .... 1i&hIt~ ~
Atha~si~
rollotriaJ -,* IJI ~ins dIis ~ 01 PIC'7ri. 8dI flack !be
illiliII co ll _

T!IcIc ~ (100' aD buI ..-e .., lr:uus) dapia Ihcir B,-,Iiae


naft'"-. ~ .-eilI link _ ..II, ill _ _ jlnbk 01
-.k, . . 01 c" '1""0'" iI>lCl'CIt rot k Ii&ht dIcy _ _ 0- Ihe lift 01
a.na;. 'c, illite rr:ip ole ..... dlf. OraL a... ir..
by ..v- of r.o Oftly of die PI'Cl'J'ri _llle """"""icM ~ ill! 'P'CiaI
ImpolRlnl;1a. 0. DllIles. !be c.ly ~ I rout II In
1M tiop'Ud dale of dle Syaod 01 e - 1M ocher ..ul onere
\nIualinc. I Ion& Idler ITorol u ~ Mdctian. Ji_ vivid
piet_ til t/le. _fferinp 10 .Iril::b die ~ were upoied II die
hindi 01 ~ - ' his adbe=a.:J07

AltI:t brief d,..:ription ollhc IIileft1 of t/le. IOllet Ilidl &til claimed
1tJIp(*d Au.-iuI'I "cIf.:ial peileCacioIl"olthe~" lbepuiod
bd'lR tile S)'IlOCI 01 T'ynI, lie lUIcl1dcd by "'*"'IlIIit c:ommcnt

nw. "'"' lell1rf plxa I/le P<oo:eedinl at Tyre In _ IiPt. 11 is. of


roura, lit. ~us' ow- ""_1, bill it
nanlIuve. paniAn
&bowl, ........... IlISPU*d before..... t dlae _ _ ju$lirQ!ion rtr
tile. Il!Kk m Allwlasius l!wI the CIolhollc lIWIilJoo a11ow11O~,
IVId il """!1IIIOl_ljM .nos! pr.do... dtX:_tIlS fl{ftJw!Jw;,1I/w7
ettk_ri",llI4tory.

TIle publie&lion lI&er thI.\ re- of the leD popyri .. JIIl1 01, Olume eIIDllcd
Irw, tJIId Cltrl.rd~ '" VfX pnMdcd !he ~;IY for. _ deuIIled eA-
...inMiolo oIlhe llocuml:nt ",fermi U11boft wtW:h _ CIla10sued .l..onclon
P.pyNJ 1911, or LP 1914,309 (My u.nxrip(ioa of 1M cIocumUIl Ippean
btlooo, In Ihoo "llPeI'd~l
FI'(Mn ialenLal uidence. Bell ~ LP 1911 U ........, been wriuen
IllftlftiaIc in May or J _ or AD l]5.311) Hit ...._ for \hIs.-uewar
clUJ olllle lela fU)I' Ill: ..........nzai .. foIlowI;

...-. .. , . - ...... r.- .. .., __ (It. . . "'.. v ..


~. w. . '9'" 5).
) 06
K.L a.n. "H_ Li#oo .. s.o. .......... - no """'..... (1924):
''''.
191" Sl-fl.
-
)01,10,1.1001.
SOI/~~ 1009
, ;
, . od<kd.
309tIJ, ... J~ - . CJIrUliau .. 11, '-'-. Int; r..-.. " -
lilla.n. J_.-I C.............. c_., 51.
n THE EAALY EPlSCa'ALCARa:ll. OF AntAKASlUS

I. II wnlWl dwinllhe lime WI Al/WIIIilll was in IICtuaI


p" 0I1be _01 Ale.uncIria, .... is, aIier J-= AD m.
2.

he .... f., flOO'll _e


II delc.ribel !he KtioM 01 Allwlaailll duriaa tialof. w ....
U/Iclui:tIIIoe wlllllble 10 iaaiJUl: _ _ ...... \IIoe r.te~.
lIimteJr. Bell _ l h u -u.c.e ill 010
wee ill (U ndiUoa 01 tIdI ~ durilll Ibe urly ,an 01
hill epiwqwc, ad illllaed it ill .., plikdy lla lin tlIeir
&lIWlcc witlt tile E~ ~J' !he Mekt.UBI were JlJO"I
_p to coutitlIIe raJ ........ '" II ~,"lItis
IlliMoe .... prllbabl'J' ... (or-<! till Ia.Ie ~ nO,-JI2 ne
nlr-. -.ns _diic to Bel _Ibercfooc. -. AD 3JO nI
~ AD 30'0 (!he beciMill& 01 tile - . l WIe 01 Alt LII).
1. Widlill dle lilIliu 01 dIiI diode. Belllllll .... ~ tlIooo.
perioclI ...,.. A""_ips froaI opt. Albn';..
.... III c:aun btiDj: dle ......... ' 01 . . Meki_ ill lac AD
]J I, ftCIt tftIf1lUI& 10 Ate..adria Ulllil EIiIler 01 AD D2.JIJ He
left Ale .............. on II SolJ' AD 33:5 to 1UCllCl!he rymd.
~ nI ..., ~ J ' _lSbec1. _lecumi... to AIcundria
""tilll No_bel AD 337. Bell, _Uha, dixountl UIJ'
possibilitJ' Ihat llle Ieuu m.lJ' cbIe tlOlll .ria" llle f\Qt ail<: of
AtIwlMius, lea"jllllbe poaible rws oI.utllonltip III AD 331-
AD 3JS. witJl tbose eutlia ezec:ptionI tlamed Illovc.
4. Tho EifIKlan fIlOlItlI of Paellon ill mentioned tllrec times ia LP
IIl14 (11.6. 4S, 41)..... tile Ieuer *llP=n 10 ItlIve been wrilllell
IIlXIllIll'tu llle eY(:DtI dcII;ribed, Bell pixel il within MoJ'S~ of
_ of tile fOtll )'QI'J g\ed.~
5. Altbouatr Ibe tell is IIOt _ 1ll1O llle \detItiIy 01 the JlC""".....
~ported uptm, Bdl considera Ibe 411II '/~ 01 the Iw:r 1O
be tile Meletian bdcr .101m Ard1aplI. wbo ill eilber .~ or &Dial
10. Alllioc:h (1.304). TIle lellel aMes tlIlit u Athanal:i1D was
prtlpari", to ao on. jounley (l.J\ltr.) etnaIn AIt::IIoelMn (wllom
Bell identiflellll Qlll{~ 01 AlIwIail;u.>
_ . . - 4 u Ihe
orden 01 John (l.3Srr.). This 1ol10'o<I tlIe arlie.- M'l'eSI or
r.w.i... (1.30. 31). Witll tile acliotwacam. 1M Mclctians ID:I
Ibe _ IIlIoe in mind. Bell _ .... "1lIe sitIIIItioa 'lnlII&lJ'

Jll/w.l.55.
JI2/ .
3IJ/ ~I,: IkII 10010 <liopIIIU tho ...... He ft! tboiq "" 1 1 _ (1Ii.ol
AO loft r. ~ .. 10M AI) 3JO~ IklI _ . - ript/J _ ... e." 01.
""' 01. ... 'llfoi. l.ittUn r. .. porio<I-W _ _ ~ . s::-
..;,tot tho ofla. ..... Ae.,.''' (l[."be: n. LHl"'.. e!I_ ....... iii:
_ Bell, J,... _ C~ . eil_ n. r... 1). Fa. ~ ~ _
A....... _ , l ........ IIlio porW,'" Nor. . . . . . dl_ n..lO.
"

31 . . . . J_~ _ c _..._ciI~ K.
JUIMI.
)1'"",~ <f. ~ ' - 1'13; 8dL ... ..~ ~-.
Jl7"'/~_~ .... rir~.Sl.
11.,....
U" ....
32/ n.
" THE EARLY EPf5O)pALC4'FF' OF AntANASlUS

dle banda or AtIlaIwilll'l ICIbemlu Illd of "'~h.. blrul'lf,Ul The


1lUld.vd inleqRUItion of IJ> I!H4, flfll prcIKfIlf:d by 8dl in 19'204.....' be
summariJ<d .. ralJoowt::

On !he cmiDJol2" ~ (19 ~ AD]]5. sl:i&bLly IhuI two


_ _ ~fcn AlhaDMius', ~ fer ~, . . .lId< IIOOk p1ao::c at
'*
N-, ;. '
_rot>!'
~ of Alex ........ ~ ... _&hok' or !he Me... ,
I ill 11K 1lliIila'J' CIIIlp ooIlicll ~ lire _lIlIity.n2 nc.
IllKt IlId bop !he r.ou.e of Htncu. _ RfICiOfder dle pic,. clIy
(11.3, f). 0. dlcday" 1 . . - ~_. a-ofl...nopoW.nerxciD&
Hen1scIIIa Ale ...... bel _ 10" widI_lator _ _ ............
bUbop'1lll1ll:C8Illp- (11.6-1). ~ D Bdl'.lIT''';'' "'die dIer
cal$ of AdlMIIiaI"" h<ad IlXJUIllIe YislIIIlCI ..if! 11K ~ of 1be IDI-
dien: or lIrc<*DP. ., , 401 10 tidAaf I$aII: (II..&, 9}.
CaIisU;"roomed _ nadallloM . . ~ """lR . . . . J .. Ihe
.u.;t bcpn. bull!Iey Ilil1 -=11"" 10 bn:It IMo the mili..,. CIIIlp ill
punWl of I - . (1.10). &'1 Ibis WIle, llowcilCf. bu; ICld die OIlIer lIisloop
IlId beeIllliddel by lOme 1y"ICI',. Illlditn. Tllar ~ IlI'riq '*""P""
!lit IllKUn UDod ... b.tr OI1Iet"'bralva" _k1 wee co-inI- dle ~
and toea Itlem (1.14). FiftalIy. Ibt 1llItUn ..... 1beir
\be _ &*ofdlechyor ~ <-
-.I,1O.1losId .....
~OUlSilkIIhe~p)'"
teiud Ihe toepcr ukiq Ill.., "Wily do ,.. ....it MdetiM fD(lIlla lei Ibc
hocIel?" (11.20, 21). 0Ib0rJ ...1Io bd eIllerla1Dallha . . . . . . . . wed $inIu.
roup ue.laIenL TIle followin. o1Ioy IhIc P'"~ptU/I''' of !he 1Dk\ieQ ill
dnc:ribcd lIS kina as/wlled or bis drunkeR behavior Ihe nlpl befon and.
-atlboulh I Ol'"uilc," lit. presented III oHerin. (clyd~ all sign of penance
(1.2&).
AocClr'dlnt; IQ kll. !he :emaillder of Ihe Ieuu decribet LIle tone=l
auill>(\el and II:llans of Atlwasiu'..-.d IIis f(llJowtn, Imll>OllWly bcfcn lbc
Synod of Tyrc. AlhanuJlII is ll=ribcd. at bcini ""elY despooclent" aIld
-~a. dlJlreu" 0'<11'" III tvents whic:. ilI"tOlved \lie CflIpetor IIlld lilt pc-
aible ItTUl of Mac""'" (II.:lO. 31). T1x followill, lillea In: I1IWlatcd
(1.31lT.) ud Me.. llIcrdQf1:. of liult belfJ III I'urtlw!r tlj)IIi.Ula the cin:llm-
MIIlUS wblch rollow. AUlea5hl'. IICCOrdIna: III ~11. IClII Arc:beWa IUld
AtlwIasi.... lbe _ cl ClpilO. III IlleJllpllO fI_no4t MJ(.ari1ll. b\ll
werelbellldYCI dtWntd b)' MAplJobn. (II) NtdodI M(1I.3S-36). Owin&
10 l1lillllP*tCRl ~r!aI. A.1bIIIuius ill'tJIOf'td u bciJl& IlellunI III lea..., die
00UlIlIJ (II.3&, 39).

Hi/Nol.
)22 Aa _ r.._ <IIU' 191' .. ~ - - . <II HI<opooI;o . . . . _ .
IIl/o .1'.- 1 Ndifti,
. . . . . . ., _ o l ...""'
1Ioqlll _ _ wldooGl ~ 1M .., 'oicWlJ' or
........... (If 11-. --s- Nooooo. M..,.
tif~ 0).
"
A f.nllar bn:i.t ill tile IW lICClQ III U. 41. boot Bell I' .". l!Ia 1111:
saIljoaollk . . . . . . . oIlbelmer . ' _ .. boI All . . 31] ne
Ir:urr dJ ol . . M ~ oIJ. biItop ortile Lowv C ," Mo ... 1Ioea
a.r-t io. _ aPct (1.42) &I'd 01, prd _ ~ wlIoo wer'e aIIo
~(11.'3, 44). HttaiIazI. ..... lIIppOaQ .. -.. . belli ~;,,_
~ Millet. .-iMd ;" l!Ie c-.p -.I .... ~ 10 om.,"
-Sc4lt1foq1l * ~ of faIIr lb)'l (11..43.46). 0. 27 ~ (Zl
May) I fW1ller - - . bistqIs......, aikd, inc'odin, .u _ Pns (11.41,
41), 8cl1 idaltifatll 1Ili:s hlQ "';!b 1111: per-. 01 tile lillie _ ill !he
lI.rNIri_ MiJUll.J 2A
n. i'IaaI portOI oIll1c ltucr is IWn "" widldoe ~ d br-'
""ll!lla Ihc ~17 .... moncd ~ p 10 Itae .. ba liYall/ll/lc. AtIlt.
1rQ.1Ilc reciptna.

.uaraulloll!lll inlarmaioa.,...",jno:t widlin 1tUlIetw, Bdlume Q


- . J COIIdllSians ...i<:.. hI..., pi...t ..... a:cq:UIICC. II ..... be Ilaal,
1Iowcr..... I/lI. CJnIlJ:IIIhnIst of ~ ~ ; . dle. re$dr. 01 BeD's
pMjeular ilIltrpnlalioa 011111: lUI; Ills in", I a O'l _ ' " 1M IeIw 1O,;au
prior 10 1M S"'" <II Tyrc; _ Ills pn:Cc:rrcd ~ of ornaia obKure
pMSIpa. This bein& ..... it Ill'" be Idmiwd IbaI. Sd cka - . . . 10 '""
....1. an::f\Il and hllo",,", view 0/ A!twIuiuI wilhl!Il!Ic IImlIlIllnpolCd by
Ills ~ofLP 1!il'4. Bell aIX:U Nt A~u, ..hik IIIS'Io'erintI
llIe charJ<ll....-k . . . - kim Tyre C<lDCa1Iiq lhad>allce incident IIld the.
1II11f1kr or AnelIilll tai4 lIOlhil\l about !be <llllcr IICCllSltioa.I IM(\e "';11$1.
"1m III tcal,d LO charlell of "iolenu and oppreNiOI IOwud, lbc
Melclim..325 AI;cordInIIO Bdl,

The _ I, roo"" clear. Lhe5c charf,u were In I*1l1\le. That he


wu blllUClf lUpDIliJbll: for the "iolenoe of the tokliary 01\ tbe nvmlnl
or PKbon 24 Colllmll does not state. aM II II otOi probiJbIe; bill we
m.y doubt whether he tool< muc!llmUble 10 pI'llveN lOCh oullqeJ. IIfld
"" .. dcfin;Wy charj;ed with impriJonln, I!le JChlJm.ticllIld ... jlll
0Ihct" hlp-haNled measures. Vt:ey imporlant 100 .. '""*
III 0I1lle _ p t D any df ME.il,ll, He doeIllOt ~ aIlqe thai.
Ca!llsws Iclls

\lie lhru ~be tXNppo:n lIIUftisIionc bJ AlIIana$iIl!l. buI


be does two l!uIl. A1hmasiars ~ dell" 1It be beard 01
Aid , anal,.-l. it Q: ha:rlIly CIlIIICeiYlbk IIlaa 111''0'" .. e.-
lla.. anal widIoW. .. bsI .... IaciI." n' W ..., ....
Iht.nl _ . sa- 01l1'li... ;. 1JIe ~ Ilftll 01 A bJ Ili$

lU. . . J60G _ ~. "r- ciI~ 6&, re. u.


l~IW. ". r.. ...
lU/w.l~ 31.
enema .. a .u'.witkd. lIDf1IIy ....... 10 \I'Ql C\'ftI IIle 11llper;.l
A1IIoriIy wiIlI ....... p' m
IIIIli1 r.. CllllllIIeQIS ............ AWN.siaI .... lIIe ~ ....
..... Ilia. wtbO;k appear 10 bne IlcaI ~..-d ill U' 1914. Bell is
aulioll. ia m Ju4rnenl. oL IIle bishop of Uld ci~ dlis
ewlqtjge -Vet Illlll/lll . . be foo-plllCOl Icuer of Otllj"P'.rm is
. . >; fIO'. - - . T1Ie faelS be rtlIIeI c-. b-dIr be b" I, ... me,.
IU)' ,,*"'$ W aju.lllfAliooo ~ bo. doa; 1IOII.uo.IO lIC'PtU. Nod iI..,.
CQlIl il -w. be llIlfait 10 foIu'ld OIl dIeIc Uld .... ilar fKU a ICGCJllI
~ 01 ~ .. dIoqll we MllIlll fUIIu ill his: cMnaa- .-I
enors iIlllis ClIDduI:t. -n1 BdI fW!bu _ ~ l!Io: bdm 01 bodl JidcI; ill
dIiI COIllflia 1II'I:ft 1KUl& in QIrisliu cUrit)' 10...."" dIU
while ndI CllIiiII' , 01 ~ edI _ _ '* ""iDq: ID ....
...

. . 0Ib'cd'wl .. 'b ...' ofpeo '-Ibe ......


. 1 Yet. KCUdiua ID
8dl, ~A fair Uld critkaI,/udpDeaI bet .. Wi ~ . " _ GW' M
must ral OIl a IT :4emioll. 110II of JudI deaIls. buI 0( a:aI ptf1IOIlalil:)' .oDd
of IIle NilII-.c .. StIle. -1<9
WridnI_ ~ ~ in 192'5, Ben iDdil:slcs. ho'O/C'iCl'. WI LP 1914
OIlly ~ ia pn:win& ",,11M could u.:.dy hr. aIIUIllIld . . . lhe CUl>-lhaI is.
thai Al!ul,*l~s ....., Kuvely involved in \Ile pentC~tlon of die Mdetians.
B.ll ClOIlImtnlt WI die ~)'OIIna: Athana'liLd~"'oo lwei IUa;IlOIdIld AIe>:ar>der in
lho episcopal ~ of SL I>W1< ~_ af a maslef1'ul tun~nL willian
lho ilItn1111'MCe W Illl!le Irnpalimce of)'OlAh tutti ""'" "","IItoW die idelocc
01 tho lkx:wn.nt (I.,., LP 1914] l<l be qunlod prcxn~y, one need r...1 lillie
IIosiOOOll In W:Uplina: lIS IeasI pattially uuo Illo acc~wil:Ml of his enemies
I/uI be p.neculod lbe M.letians.wJJO ThG q,... lOI must diu be asktd.
What evidonct, apart from LP 1914,11..... rito 10 l1>ir prier assumption by
Bell 01 tbo .~ik 01 Al/IanQjU17
111 bls lnlrOl;\ul;tiotllO die Meletiaa papyri collection, Bell cila only
twa 0Ih0r JCIUIUI wlIiclllleal ""ith Alhana!I:i",,', H'fioknl eand<IcI~ D-.Is 1bc
Mtlodlm. T1Ie flf1l of lIleIt it tbc ree....nce 01 So:wmcn 10 earIler char&cs of
vinltnee IIflCI oppm:sioa -...do tbc M.:1cQ,n party' . . . . ""itll slmit., bul
_ deuilod. ro'Plions whicfI weno sul'Pl*4ly lbuftd by tilt dllucb him>-
or
riAD in dle ml....... lht S)'DCId 011')'1'10. which. uaf<lf1ullMdy, Ilelllllnn&a"
a_Lnl ne _ _ 1III<lKf. is \lie IIlIIlCriaI COlIIalDaI withia "'"' k:uer cl
1Ile0ritrUl ee.->lol SanIiea ~ _ wrm. '" AD }oil. nellamlli....

l16~. jI Mio-.
J'1'IJU. ~.,
n./....
J29 /1U
nOH.L S.D. ~A''' ... jw: A QopIa ioo 0 _ Hi.laory,- T.~
C....,..~ 0--".,]. fID. '1 (AjIril. 19U~ 161; -.
))110- HE It n. 'l'; 8dI. J~ _ a. .,.
n

In tile Ienu Is batb ~ and JPOC=ir", ill dcIcribIJlIl.he eturp which .....,
.... 1piftA Al1wwi1d:

Aec:_u prxlefel. at lk inilari.a. .iollUllia. eaeda, I!qUC ipu


epi.Jl;oponolll Illle1llitilllle Ii.............,...). Quiq_ elialll diebus
~ir pIlIthIe l)ftlWIir:o _ .mm._1M aquenmilihm
hn:-.~~ aliquoIioI~. ~"""""'ocWwp,""
vero \<CItIerillIII flqeJlitqPe .....' c:ecuw ~ b.......w ad
COW""' m_ AC:rilepIlIIdilet.L3)1

We _r _ doll a!dlou&II kU IJIPNrS lDa:c.pIlbe..-at .;...


or N lc:ter. lie ilala:llbaoo _Iaed III 1M ~ au ID whic:/I il
alllldea. For CUlI'Iplc.1le c:ommelllS dlIl. lbelUll'ial ~ Illd
lbe cMIia ilIcidmt -pew ill . . Cl)IIr1It ollimc.. .. lbe Ieaer 01 1M 0rieNaJ
Coati! of Sardic:I A1IlIM$i... is ICO!pd 01 hnlDc PC'~" bIotallllc
.....lj...., IIlIlllIlad IboI alta, owawned lhc pricII'l dIIir. &'ld cltmoIistIcd tbe
d\\lIdI!-Ul no. the IlOries of AI!lallMiu'. "If. 1.1 . ieecl. hid bol:a
crud' em bell........ bJ!Iit . I ill. rdali...ly IlIort period ollimc 111m:
c. be liWl: dDIIbL N1!Ia1Dcn, we _ ect.-Icdp IbM bolll dlo S~
at T)n: lAd tbe ClritmlII Counr;il of Sardica, rlUll wlUdlllle ftCOnlI 01 mdI
"'i""'"'d' ~ dra.... _.w.dy boItiIe lDWadI
oritIllllole .. bo IDU&!K hU ~lion.
A'b."" Irld wen: rillcd
The imPKtoflJ' 191411p01l1llbleq_eYIIYllionsoi AttIanIsi... .IIld
II" etlartelCr hat been proroW>d. AJl!loqIl IIdI did DOt acrw willi tile
opiDiolIl about AI/IaoIui.. which bad been c>.1R$Kd by Seed: IIId Scbwam.
tbe ilutfJIlelJlion or LP 1914 ...... ,ell "'1lS pre$Cnled In J~ /IIId Cltrhdwu ill
,1P' did _m 10 lend lUpporIlO Lhtir view of A1hInaaIus lIS .. VIlSl'UjlU-
Ious Itld ruthlCSl man ... ho would InIl<c IlIC of ..,. _10 Itlllevoe hi! OM!
uds.l~ Bell. howc>'n, _ ooly wlllin, 10 Dnit lhal A~llI o/\ea.
Powed ~ Il'Ore ollhe wisdonl of llerpent llwI tbe harmleuDea of
II cloe," and lIIaI -allOlClher one ditoenu III hili cweer !he Iwd ..-c.whal
lIIlIll'IlIble ClUlIirw of !be ..... '",,,ie1 fII_ nllIa' thalllfle lIJ=. of 1Jle
....nt or -=tlolar,-3
Tha4 tile aundard IalCl'pfUllion or LP 1914. rtlll olTeI1ld by Bell ill
1924, ... been ~ IlId e-pIlldecI ~ by ..........ber of AlhanasiIrI
-=lioi#i is CUly c'<idc:n(. In reccm ItUdia. U' 191_ is d\eIlllWi only IOIiIn.:e

lnHiary of,..... IV (CSEL 6j. F.d. ... 9-67. 20).


n3a.n. J_8 _ C............... ciI~ .
-= ., __
.r
3)y: Sed:. 8<11 s-t 10 - ' I o l .. liIOJ
"""""'" 10 _ . " 'h."iw -. do II1II Jar (11011, r= .-

ciI~ 175). or S<:l 1lolI _ ~ =


......... III .... 7'1'" __ dot, . of "'10' ,. __
-n.~_bo"" ~.Iuol"_"""""'ooIl"'"
""""-'"""."'lIr
SdrwottI" (aoU. 1''''-
::
nslWol.. :n.
"

J)~. . . . .s... 21.


3l7A.H.M. Joo\a., TIw "*'
B........ '"50_ No_ ...... 401.
R_~.. Odo<d, 1%4. '71: LW.
13Bonutd., .... -..u. OIlIllbe Ram.o s........ ciI~ 416.
339B_.. N . U,. 2JtL
:14~ - _ _...... EJYIlliu CbrlOli. ,-"",,. ri,~ 32; C/.
~ TIw "'C~ S26.
o..u ..
:l4 11.c. DL Gdo. r-tJ NiMI-. 191, flo. Ill.

P*l',...... _
:l4ls-... _ -.....- __ :ioo:Mlo: 1 V. KooAM, ~ S - -
l"qIioo ... q".. 1 1"1po>q_ 6& C_'wia
,.,. r.,.ofdwTwt'II/_ ri "'C""'~"("'" '".T_llI'l'Q,
.,. t-. ~); 1.0. ....... Lit- _ ~ .. "."'" AM Alta. M"~
1m 11Sft'~O. Ie w,.~ T..... 1m.
P" me:-
'lV);Hom
H--. "010_1' n"= .,.~ VI (p._) It14: ,.. ,....1IIl~
H.' .," " ' - - - " tf ..... xw I_~ c~_ -I " ...."u.
~ 1911. "''''56;
LA. hdp, -no Urlioot u. '"/1/_ _ lor ' _ '
(P.00II. Y_ 71) .-6 1M on... "'..........,....... J*""d ' " """-W ...
C~.UU..t .... 20 (19n): 72-89; ""'" LA. ludJo ..... $,R, Pick....... ~1'apynI.
Oot_iorl of Oomch eo...m.ily bo Eppo .. lho ....""""" e-y.w
J""'II-do /ill A.viA.< _ C.,._ 20 (1m): .'71.
ldJ""cc .... 1'iok<rirtJ...u ......bor of.cry holpM .. ;" oIIoeir
o..c..o....-
wI'."......
dlorlc<s. -W
of QDrcll _ Co_onit)o.w "'" rit.. oiJ>& "'"
tAbIf; pi.- clorinc 1lIiJ"'" (66.71). n.-
lho ...W* .._ . .;", lho M'rk_ .. LP 191. _
~opolol1"_IO _ _
(11). S..tl. ot>---_ lObo _
c_"_""-W"
"""''''io)o
.. lho
lho nul dll)'''' off .
Ii _
<tl1loiJ loUl- e-w lho
.

'"""It.","M_'....
114...... Ii. . . ill . - <J; "'..
'_Iy ..._ , _
...... _ .... old '" MolotiM. 0) ; ! '
jI' oado I JIrioilof;<4 p>oi,*,
1 ; .....

widI . . oiol "' .... ..w..,.-


lbt oMSiorI'
)4oIH.Lllcl1."...Jr-A," ' C
"'... C. p=-AS<""J
..... DiI!.... _Dtu1~H~o..ranl,1,,*,
3oiSHJ. 8dI. Call. _ C'-U;" G < _ I t _ E",.. ~ 19SJ. 96.
80

wdt..... wIl(I allieII ~ wiIh ..........u-ud Bdl wtieaIt:Ilha


1llU oaIy led: plaR i111hr. pcriDd <1/10 Tyoe!~ &eU"'..ta . . dit

F .t' -.;I".
'__-Ioa \lEt,.... I/le. Melcti:aal .'110 lIacl IJlitd
dle e.
* IdYU wido IIIe
.~ ODIIlm.... ~ ... (at ill LP 1917) <o1laap-
pear lID Ill" !lad 1ia.It I) do willi eidIa' I/le. Fe t -'n' or 347 111
faa,BcI""";_lyil r1M IbllbeMdniF'pl ""' ootcdid
I*'J~...... ;00. Ipiu; AltIawiu:s. ~ e - die ...,..... llIM
.. iadiriI:tNI ti.Iled in Illc B,cvillri_ Nflilii,.-:.II. m~ i ..
'/fptIKJI~. cwld poaibly a.., sided ..illl Al.llanaJillllty IllI: lime 01
T,.re.'" For BdL ~ is e-Iy lhc 0IIe ldeletiln 1*'1' II'Idtr m.lud....t ...
of JclIli Arctupl ...1Qc&, ~iDll<> dl:fcclias IIId uilu all lh& Synod 01
T)re, ftICeded N:I QblaoritJ. From Ib: uzummu wlIlcIl ""... boen ",eaoOlU:l

Em!""'"
abcM. 110_+<1, tIUs <lou lIOlaw-lD ....., been lbapnDble silUalioll in
lWIlime. Mooeooe..IpII1l'n:lm 1M _ _ 01 Mus as ...
oritilOll Idhctut of Mde';'.. BeII...at1\S DO (1lI'1ller IIICftlion oI1lle Arian
par1)' ill FIYPl or 1lleir Eli.. itics wilhi. this period. OIlly <Gum_tina
(rollowin. s->ell) ItIal. .... cowx of lime lhc ArianI _ l'OfIILI-ly
uIIecI Mdniat .. ol:Il..:w!I FurtbrnIoore. . . aclIll:reaII ol COlIeNIR
_rd'amllD _all in In,of 1lelI"1 wriutIl WOI1< ~ dolJ_15O
CrmlaIy ltxrc 1& -,. IiDJe l:Yidoncc l(l JuPpClftIUd _pIiM "'"'
of ItIc oj".'. ill E,)'lll III !he !at ,an Mlidl fo/Iowed II-. deyllioa of
AlIanasi.. 10 Ille iIIrone of SL Mn DKII11cre it mlldl evidence q:ain$t iL
A. "- bcea cliJcuued above, Atlumasius hilllRlf ""IS COilCCllic:4 in hi
...ritinl_ witll llIe M.nichaelllll, llIe Meleti"I. III1l "',ians. and lbe
Collulhlans. Nordller."s.-..:h has iNlic.ell thllil is hithly ~ I/gl
larie number of Mek:lianI had liven their support 10 AlhIlIIlIiUllHfote !he
Synod of Tylllllld were activc!y engaged in OJlPO"inJ alld d!stfedhlnJ !heir
former bn:LhmI. Cenain papyri. such u LP 1917. point to other. largely ;"e
depeNle:nt, collllllunill.. Dl McletWu ...110, .... hilo certainly ll(lI Arian (or
EuJebllUl) In lllelf theoIoak:alootkd aUo CllpnlSscd liuJc (If no Loyally 10-
wardI tlle a:c1GsiuUc:al eslablisllmenl. in AIe.r.IlIdria. Pinal.y, tlle Mdelian.
EIIICbIan lJliMlQe .... bitb eWItd bach inside IIIId 0IIIside of EaYPl durilli tlle
Ilme oocb a:nslderIlion 8Id IIU2ClCd many ~ is ...:lllIlCAOCIltl in
....;.se variclJ' 0 1 - .
In..xlillon 10 tlle _ r.a tIw. tbeso....,. ~ KIlW1)' uisled
and ~ iIln_ dlUia& Ibis 1IIrbuIml. period ill EaJpI, __ is eWQ')'
. - 10 jm ._1lIaI all ollbcsc pKtirs,...s tlle indi......... .nJoia tllem,

:I-Ua..L J_ _ C.' .
S4.7q. LP .917 -.
,..ta.a. J_ _ a.. _...~ 69, IL ...
J.49,...,~ .1
_.;'~i.~A 411 ~7 01 ttl. lIeU', : '''eW - U .,. 1M
b '''JA''(I'''~].c6,_ 'S- . , ....,.. ' .JEAil(lM?);
1l9, 1.:1.
"
fQrlnt4. paUem of dlifPIl& alliances mol ..iud Ioyalliel. 1II111e cue of
1Jc1l)ftl. for example, we appan:nUy see ....... -ordained" by Collutbus wbo
etlote 10 mnain in.,;bison after his \QcIa'. ~ I im \lie AIe>aldriaa
dllll'ch.3 S1 "(Ier """"',.:ars ia isnLo'ion. ""'itla only his family as.
priest. it appears IbM be joined himsr.If '" \lie Meletiaftl ~y ara \lie
....,.M
tubrllissiofl of Melclia$, for his ........ docs . . appear on Ihl: .. whidI
_ IUbortille4 10 AI~).JS1 SliD ...... liB is brtlu&ht 10 lhe Synod ot
T)'Tll U 811 _ of Alhanums, m>dcr lhe proltelioll of Euscbi... d:
N' f, .lot. Atd'4. m idyraI wu~)'pcnwdcd by his
rdalivcs 10 _ his c!wges JgaiaIt MIZiaSi... md _ reconciIe4 10 1M
bisbop, aiIlloup pUad undu amun:. l s.4 Tllis situIdcD.~, .....
toOII re'IUXd -..tlc.R lJdl.}'t1lS lIpin bmk. wU AlIwlasias, =ewal his
charlu. alld was -pvell llle nazne of bUhop" by \he EIIHbians.3H
AlIhoug/I dle QIJl: ac IItyrB is br I'mm lJpical, it does il~ the pDlnt
tha !be eor"",i....,, .liWlllioa in Egypt ffOlll SIAbIe and cannot be m.
duced 10 doe IOlPeWlla .mplislic: iao whidI i .uumed by 1ld1.356 1.5
Bell hi1ll5Olif II Slid. "'dIe hisDiuI. ""-va emi-. is. boI4 _ who
-u 10 inle:rtnt IIle hiswry of the bIrth otIIllUy 00 llle lines of InIIdIn , .
tionIUtm,"3S7 While his r e I = ill thir qool3liOll is 10 C"".wlline, if
could ~ll apply 10 any Illempled illlerptet:llioll of lIIe ecdeswlic.ol politia
of poslNicene EmK.
11la ~1I.10\lS and political situation d~bed above takes on even
zrealel' imponallCe ...hen III auempt is rna<k to llIlderstand and evalUl.Ie the
evenl.l which ~ described in LP 1914. As Bell hlmselfldmll.l, \he cin:um_
IlaIICts in which Ihe lOIter was wrillen JlIO"ed a key to lIS in~:

ThI:: Styli:: of lhe Ieue' i. unforwnateJy .wk ard and 11 ~me. obsclU'e;
and ll'\OItO>'er a private letter. tile wriLeJ of hich, rfurilla: 10 malleI'S
familiar 10 biJ C<lfrc.po",lenl, doe& not IIIlt4 10 be II definite as III
biAorian. iI1ll....Y"1JI1 UI be. lillie difflCull of cornprdlenlion. Hence

lSIAp<>i. 12 (()pitI.. 97).


lSZApol. 71 (Opitz. 4\1.151).
lSi.y..L IZ (Opitz, 97).
3StApm . IlooI (Opitz. 143).
355Ap<o1.:n (Opiu,
356W .,. _
""""'- 01 Hypa"
116. 22. 23).
"'" ""1'JI'I'O<d ol>j..-t of
.Iso r'OCGII<~od ... A
,,;. M_.M
""" In AD ~
, . . . . . . . ""'.. , '01_~ '", No:- '1 .-
.... '-P'" ll.oII _ _ \;011 ..... 1 _ Maw (tf. F_ Lkr far
AD )I', L.HJ>f",~. dL.. 541). nio if - . ........ 01. N....... ..." ~
-ue ............ _ beiIlf; Illiod willi I!>o 00_ _ .._ ,.,..
...... toooldlool .. '.. =j,, Hio . . . ..;ptoloobo ., ........ I""
01 oiIla A'h. . . . ."... ..... _ _ or lois po!iJ;o:a1.O" , or __
i578d1. E,JI". ~_ riI~ IOj.
J,.., _
]5'..11. C............ riI~ n.
,n/,,,,,~ 'I.
l6OJu. kIl. -n.. I'toWoa 01 T~ ~ u..-... -Lif'<. ~
...... Elo,lWl "'-'-"-..... t.o.bl. I I
'6IA I'MIiMK Cnd: I.. r 00."""'-
0. L.wpo. 1"'1. 362, l6l. No
..,........, lblod ... La ~ ooL O. Maw. Itt"--

1"1. WilNa . . Allwwla...,.... ,..",..10 _ .,.........,. .. .,.. _ of


~clilf_~ /d. lolllll. ~ Ar" , J te "_, ...... nt).
~ 01 ~ provided _ be)'ODd .... tilUU)' oN!;,;,.. AIlbr.Iugb
~ ~. tood _y rc.turu oflli. ~..t Ily!o wlIlcl1 .... rarnrn.r
wilhill hi. pcri;lIIa iWP'Pbiclll $elIing. we ..... alII lillie 1M Ili$ rqICli-
IiooI \IIIIl 01 wonb Md ~ ";!hW. ~ ~ or e(lnj~lI(t_
(11,9. 10). hiI omwion 0I1;On~.. WOfdI (I, JI). Uld hit _ 01 ~
_ " ' " dMaI..-iIIoDw COIIjuro;:tioM (11.14.41) 110 thow. ~ difficulty
wiIlIllMllIlq Ibo:. bnpqe.. ~ eua m. .; , lherd'cn. oIlhe pI:nse
1Ity eMf}' - ' - _in, "_Ii,..
1Io'll.iclI8dl1lal1n"'IoW. "W ~ of A ' I~ 00IIk1 ~ poaO-

~ "SII'C oflllc fOOl word


CaWBly. II is poniNe 10 IUQeIl froIII __
Will100 liN '-Ion ,eaduecl by
Bell _y ... ia fItt. be ..boIly 1Iliil'1l:IOfJ. nil ~ .... plvaIc illIIs-
nallcll. _ _ 1bM~. UT'l13!O is .. iEo .._ . Uld IIIIIc&s lie is
faidltaJ 10 his ori&ia&I his iIlIerpreuPollln&y be euile!y ..uludiaa. ~]62
Tbi&, 01 e:aur&, ...... 10 sugeIl" BdI _ ......... 10 ...ru ..}1lliJoc
otbef dllIll. tailhruI1nIlSbIicn oldie IfW. II" ~ 10k.
~0I1hi1~ plnw. _lMfly WIaeoIald by" ~
howe.a."_
ilia 0I1bo:. lcual a:mIUlllld,IlIaOIC, rd'II:uod llio own bill. For BcD
I1Itn: were OBIy _ putiu iftolftO-.dlc Alb I' IIId IIbr. Melriop,

ol1llole who _ beiD, H'. "


ru
r. Ira I ' . IbcnCore, Il&cIIl) widlUa . . Idotaoc 01'" N . . -
, .... ilXnliflCd Mdc:tiInl, IIbr. ~ ll.a:l
10 bt A,h',H;'.

U2HJ. 8oIl, 'TM ""*'- ofTtlMI"'- - . ' riI.. U.


l6Ju,loodp.-n..~U.ofJlI ...- . dI....
.. lliE EAALY EI'ISa:lPALCA'FF' Of' AlItAHASIUS

'Hptultr"", (1.25) ";lhi.a Ilais comm....i'y. He was. Bell Drs.


~iW*U1dr' penllIl of _ ~- _ . . Iille ~ rnJ_S' - ' d
jMirw dill ... _ prioa. ar bislIap. ~ dlc lader fII. ric
Qlmllllllliily."" T"lliln Us n<:II ba:a ,.... dill .. _ -..., 01_
Iipope, lOt "'" by lIM ....eletilas ill 'W'ri'" 10 Adt.InasM..~:M5 Yea,.
BdI .,., ." ... arious objcui<M 10 lhil ~... chaI . . . . ~ _
.,oIlhcecc,,* ' .. t'. ...... rderlObllL-
Yel - - . . difrlf;"'Y ia tlH: ICil 01 LP 191~ l;IClan owill& ID.
bkmisllill lIM Pif/l"llil'oOowiDllhc r_ ~ of liM 41. BeU ~
Iur:t _ _ II.- "ktc I ~ WQn!II . . . NIm RWtI)' -..dI of ...
pIJIyf\III. _l61 k II. lIlOSl: lII1Caruma difl"1l;\l1ty, for 11M porDgn _ a-ay
_ lltd, 1ndic1.... Ille subjecl ollhc remailli... tina.AIIIloouP Sdl
. . . WI. "c.ld....1, ~"" is tbc 1Ub~- ~ .. lOOC/Iint; ..tridl posi-
tiely indicales 1llal LIlis is ...361 AdwoasiuJ II clearly !be allbjeQ ollhllt
portU of Illc lUI wbidl cgmCl br:b'e lbe bfW: (11.29"1). bullbe COIlIeU
.... ~ of a::tn$ illlfic:atell by Olljp,n 'oI!owllIc IlK 41 maka il possi.
ble WI ~ per.- or pany has btm iN/'Odccd Inlo lbe 1CeOIlnl.
AlhuM-1IimR1f is NX IIlUIlioiiOCl .,am by _ aI'Icr Idle '\. W1leIllbc
IClIIIll pIilytk:ol . . 01 Lbe Ill'pytuS itse!f is eumined, iI be>< eI dea- 1Il:M
etll lbe IaIIl ilWrmaticxll*0'idc4 iIlliRes 41 IIId 4'.l. _ be 'IlewecI.i!h
wuy ri11ca! *. We cnllOl. ltlcn:fore. 11ilOlll.Wn, UIQI1Ie lIlat

''''BoU. J~"" C~Ut "p. cil. 63.....


3MH.......- . -0. Md.ti in P. t . - VI (P. Jowo) 1914," <>p.
ci... "'1.~. I1aldt Iha' H..,o.i l~ roc,. til. M.loti", bllhop of
...... """'" (453~ Ttlio owerti... if boo<>cl OIIlltol~ """" dIo lnfon..."lon oonlOinor4
wkhlrl LP 1914 willi no <111m oonI<mp>nry .,"""01 _ _ cloo<l. All!lollah ~
" ......."1<01 _ '.... of LP 191. oould 1<0<1 _ 10 ol>tll. <On<1"'1oft, lho lock of
OAlClNI ... nr..,.... i<ln _"" ..on """,. i_1OII1 III ...,~ ID ..otu.. lorI, 11 b
dimcu~ 10 bolla 11101 Alh.orwi", ....,.1<1 r.a 10 ....n.m ...,~ 0 po....... in 1110
COIl'. 0I1do pololnkl .... Ill.. ",. M<kti... 100d0rs, John A<dIop/I 0IId EIioeb;us
of N ~ _ld foil III indoo::Io"""" OIl indj.iduol ill "'"
1)ft. AI...... - " OIl "'-ir~ _ - . . ",_'
-",-m.
_ ........... of
,"""",-'. - I "" EpipIwUm {If_.6I. n iI foilo 10..... ' .'0lCljr-'1lI
"'" po.... of JoIuo Aldool*. _ON {If_. lOt 1). .- Ho-.
100 No . ., loll rip! .. ~ iIoroiKw IlIMoatJ 1loio ~s.
PMP" U' Itl., If IIoio io _ .... H-.. io rip
. Ii _ . _ . . 10 ....._ . _
(.54). ~ It io ~ _ """
N
-r......
0 ..... 0I
"'" lUI lIIio
1a<lood
n ad _ _ 01 ....

:
d="='~"~
T'IIool =_ ..
00'<lI . . .U'

~.~ :c=:=:~ .~~: ::.:-.=:. I:":


:..:..=:...
- , Itl4 of .... .
i 'I>od ~ _ _
.. . ." 'n

..........). W . . , - , , , 01.-...... . ,
~J_ _ 0.-' .,.. <iI_o, fa. 1.
:J61 BolL -,0,. . . . -.,.. <iL. In, "- I.
l6lIlloIl, J~. _ c....-.O' fa.
Al!laNsillS illIle individull who "c:aniaI ofla bi!bop of IIle I...owa' Country
and.shut him up ill a meal marta.- (11.42, 43). imprisoned IIle llt:aooa
(IM).OIdera HeraiJcus ~(1.46}.OIWJed\he _Yea ~(1.41).
TIoose bishops ~ _ iled could. ill fact. bdcInC III . . y ~ IIIoR puties
named Il)c:rte, illcludinl die Alba . ' }69
Funhoer<lcJutq ...y beexp ~ ... how Bd cIaIOIl U' 19.4.
.... _ IIII.ve - . IIle ~ of MayI.- 1.0 33S, inuM4iaIdy before \he
SJ1'Od of TyTe. ... .roved larJdy lIm:lq1la P"O"II of eli. . . . . .
'there an:. Ilc:/We'fer, JeftflIl diffic:nJries in IIle paIIa'1l of e_tI whidI. 1Ias
bee-. "U~ by Bell. AJI!Ioa&b ir. lI'IIy be ~ lhat U' 1914 .....
wrillea afIu A'b ..nilll beomc IIle bisIocp of Akundria, lhat is. afler AD
m. more _ I ~ WOIIid stmn&IY disIptIe willi Bdl', "",...woo.
1IlM Alhu.asius 'I'""'l w fust yean .. bishop of A .... a"""" ill rilil:iYe
se<:Drity.310 TIle Mcleu... ~. lIIC1lICe in E,YPI even befcn lhcir
&llilnu wiIb !he EuIebians. ...,. Bell ........ i"coilcc, i. Q suu.$iIao 10 lbe
conuvy.)11 Furthrs, 'llIIouih we ml)' e1imiU~ I/loIe pc:riods whK:h
Altlanasiln ......... y ImIa EJYllI (It cowt. synods. or ill exile), it dou 00l.
__ improbable to SIIucst IhaIlhe eoenu in the: A~ JOe wen: tuch
C"""
.... \here was conllllll<'d illS1llbilil)' aflel" Alhanasius', rewm (rom lIiI;
fUlt uUc 011 23 NoYembcr AD 331. Thcz lWOoonc:crns alonc opeII up Ihc
possibilities for the dal.inl ollhe Iel.Ier from lhe rnlddk portion or AD 328
(Alhanasius'. election) to Easler AD 340 (the bclinning of AdwuW",,. !ICC.
on<! uile) with those cenain exceptioru ....hil:b Ilave been JK*ld. ~ persoo-
ag.......1Iom Bell IIOlel ....ithin the lext, cspo:x;ially [sue of Lctopoli. (,tparI
from AtIlanaslul, thc only !X'siuvely i(Jenlifte(\ pl:l'$Oll)..... ere ill aclivc
lhroIIghouI the entire span of this \Wclve-year pcriod.372 Finally, the Ilesita

36'n..". &t !sa OIhu .nmpl., ~f diffiouhi.. in "an,l.,;"" &I'd


lnI"""tll.Mn in LP Ig14. Fe, .....,ple, In I.... 29 _ "" d>oa fello.. ~:
',\5.....",. . Ii "f7d~ da,.r m ..mls- ""Pfx< ~r.. rdjJ..._ lild '"
_~..... It iJ oboiGua f""" <lois """"'" 01" u.. ...
., ' ..... "'" ;, .. less _ ~ """" .... by IIis
,lII&'
~ ""'ery
writiol&t ... COIl..,. di.,lOS>
- . . u.. - . _ oJ ColI"""_ A _lien ..1,100 _ bo _ _ Ih<.
dioUCSt.- .. ,.... sympalhJ 1'OIbor"" -'J>oIIIy. 01. ..,. lbis ......1<1 _
_ .. 1>0.101 k""" wilh lho , _ _ <Jfltw_.
310Cf. 8eIL J_ _ C_ _.. <ir~ ~. ond NcrclbuJ, . <ir~ I'.
19. r......, cliffuq, i",l""'"siools oJ AllwIosb.. _i';"o 01_ 'I
................
31llkll. 10o. cil.
312 _ . b aamplo. _ ..r l_lia - - . - .. IIoc
Isu<
-. I Alb.";- _ _ P'- .. T}ft. ... low lodo"", pi ....
_ of lIoo W- r. Ioio f>Io& co-. DO Ioio iIll'IlIoEa """' 600: 0pilZ, 141.
11.11-10). se ,= IS _ lsa.-: ... _ 01 ..... .."" 010<> aocuod
A.-.M 01......- '"""""'" (HE 1, 25). L.t . . . . _ 01"" '". ies.
Itw 0E*00l e - ; J of s-.. (lfa-y er - . . lV. 77). .... AIduPo .
uiJ&oIlolloOliq .... $,.-
cfT)11' ($ HB 1, 31). boo _..., _ ...
.
oc- ..u;IIJ"h-";',,1I1:&icl widlin 1hr.1IW Iallr<c l'lpu ......... (i.J8ff.)
0DDId Ila..e lata. pl.:e III -.ly timQ durill.ltAI puia4. _ cspccialIy ia
eldy AD 3].4 _ . -. ~ \!le _ <II Ct- lI>.u..llbe
Synod 01 e-rca. 11 die _ loacI boa na:i Marc:k, .....
p:s&ed iaLP 1911."" Canjp s laD lqu~ Ilk ksilllitw _...m-
.....May, IhiI - ' d 1IIOt ID be d1elariAlly pro&IW;led period wild;
_ _ Bdl.)?) 0i_1b=f<Ire," ~i.lia.1liifJ~ DllIIICI.l
tro. WI t."itiooed br Bdl,1lIId allifl=l,t ~1l1D daciac, 1lIo: CCIlin:
dlrusIolLPI914It1C1iQ""*, riiidtJpie. . . . . rmicI/lrdloal&<d. We
.... 1Ilhii dIaI. . . . . . . of e.idr&e, U' 1914 .. 1NbII.ID..p.oId its """"
inlliafic: . . of ~ Li" ..' ...... _ 1It1f-pu:1aDod .caap: ol
poI"?'.....
ModI _ cooMd \Ie Did .......... LP 1914 8IId llIMr. pulliiiips
-.el all 1M' Ci
of dill .... caoId be pat ro d, 1l1li iIIis - ' d !aU
~ _ a:I(lpIl ol __ pn::stIIl mody. IldI DIialldailad IbI _ _
....... dId -'- oa!J io.lerale4 ill ltIc ....,. nidl ... a.dJ 01
.-P7riiC' .... 1,. n.l:ialti<ae, .... wlIid. . . . Ihe.M' IdIism
r.."".;", __ of ~ ft3r2I'dI olrriouIly iMri(acd IlcIl. 11 ill abo
dear INI M 1114 ., ~ 10 Ihr. tlUdy olAlhanIsilao ..tIiclI..- bc)'<Dl.
!he I1UCIy ol pIp)'ri. For eumple, 1kD'1 dc:Iire 10 iclenlil) U' 1929 . . . gm-
llirIe IUlQI:J'ap/Ileuer 01 Albanasili1 is '"di<:luyt of hlI f-=Ino.tioa with ~
bi~ of Aleundrla.l7~ ReWs """'"' i. 10 bo mucb a:wnmcnOcd for"" at-
tention 10 Ilelail and bb Ql'eful an4. lISIIllIy. balarM:cd conol<k'otio"" but
clearly any sinc14 ","pyrw 00' collection orpapyri It ~Mbk. 10 ~yeal all the
facts 01. pan!cullllllhlllion. l1ley are mcrdy lndkalorI and .lridal wilhin
wider tude or h"LOricaI inCSliptilOfl.. A. Bell hlmKIr wrllie. ""1bcrc is.
daJIget 01 e>.1Ufl'li1lJ 1M darUr $ilk. SlICh evidellce u 1Iw or Ihc pmpyri
lillY usay mislead; (or it IoII1buses, difflCllltiu and Inqn1aiIk$, IlIIbcr IbIro
Ihe IlOmIal 'OIIWkini ollha S)'$IaD whidI..,..docllJntflll rerood. w )16

he ttmoinod ..,oj In 1M '_1/I01dI of ~ .. po...... """ of "';c), .....


" ...iodl.
)1)Boll. I#w. _ C~ . ai. ~ n.
)1tq. Scu. -""-a>iuo.-",.
cil~ 160; 1f"".1 (19049): Sl.
C..iori...... 1l5-1:lll. aoU', UIlIuioono far "'"
n51.u. IIWI _
- r ~ . , U' 1m .... m'
r.- ... ""
_ of ....
: "Tloo _ _ ... _lo _ _ .... louol ....
_.Ieo..,. '"
+r .

'5".
"'.e ,',,_ ..
_ ............ _ ' .,.._""'_01"",
_ """,.Ilo...,._,
po'
pule' " _ p -...."l7 _
'_i1 _ _ _-(111).

(Ill).
'. . . ...- _"""-10_....,... -
......... _ ,.... ~. - ... _ri- . . d1. _ _ - . - - . I .
r.--so.. _ _1IiluclI""

37,<; i "..,..;-, HiorM'J (... s..... c.a. FA . ' I -..I M.P.


CMIeowonh). C-.brIdp. I". ( _ ~ I. 6.!5.
II iI-aJo ID My 1ha,.JIhauP all of . . lIlileftlli.a illed abowc
(\0 IIOl cllooi-....
II * * possibll;1y thai BdI'I iAitiI.I
10 oIl1' 1914 illbIol:aildy cartea.lbe1_
1

100. aid
~ .-
(Ii doctIlIMI ~ ill . . _ of.. ... III plOCI puIki 01 . . . .
\enc _ of ~ ' I" ....... AI..;u,..,. piIft (Ii wrioaIlUoricaI
eYidence we _ '*
C(lllllIlUIC lei ccmia 'l'rsriool: II Ill. piece 01 writias
",mlnd I I . -'AI" ~ How are we 10 be CCl'IIIin? W'- is
1lle rebuclIlSIlip ber een 1lle ubor ..... Ibs ~ (or e_> ,...dDd1 How
cIoes il_.... e.itli 0Ihcr ~..-1 111 ClllIcr W'lltdiJ, we
______ of III ..conned ~ ....... _WId IIOl be 4Isa1atlll

_((II
0.'.
tn'
or Ild ...,. by ~ .,.-.- Of ptejudloeL

iu,lbs eYidcace of LP 1914. Mlic:k, ~ ill ecdeli-


dical Of polltallOlOn:e, iI dcIrIy "" .... ~ - . l of e~, we IIIDuId
filer ~.'Iown ,a,..bon Ille ...,j&lctoflhe"",oI_ioIeolCC
10 funloa'. 'cliliolOl caase. Qearl.y, tIicn: 1ft ~ ..110 would _
AIhanaIiuII 01 OupLicily, bur. his ..ritinp II80d 10 be CGlIicIered 111111: Ie-..
publk: ""II '1Ii' of IriJ own ........ AItIiocp II II _ IJllpoaible hi
k ..., Yldeace. we may <pesDoa _bellll:r A'_Ml_ ~ ClPpIoy
-etho4 of IYWJ"'Mlc perHaMim ;r,pin!l (\j : I ..... lie """CUJ4 IaleI"
deIl:ribe _1oqtIi II ~. . ~ ollhil dviL ~m Ke. flll'lha' ~
l!lIl '"lhe V'UlIrI iI I'i(ll pr9C1IDd widI. rwardI Of willi claru _ b)r _ _ 01
toIdien; bur. b)r pe.-sion ..... COUDSd wIIil c:llUU:1 iI tIieft _lien lie
..110 .. iIl\A.uIdl dIeaI ~IW<:S at !he end bM~1 and deathr)71 III
Alltanuilll'llatct wri!inp he MIUId candcma thole who ~lItm 10 Y\olenc:e.
&lid ill Ihe plal;a of f.ir 1U:SOIl1ftllliCd< 10 ,njiJte8 lhelr ~m ThiI
_ie.. "II 1*1 01 lois conYictim lhat Mil is IlOI lilt: p;ltI 0I1nie lodllnuI ID
compel, bul 10 persude.-3IO Moreover, AIMnlllDI .... _iolenl
ilnimidlllon lJIlIle foll"",lnlllCmlS:

II II In t.hll mlllncr Lh.II the dem, ",hen he hal 110 1JUt.h llOI hls side,
.IlKQ Ill(! tweaks down with axes and hammers \be door'I of lhem Lhat
admit ~Im. Bill OIIJ Sa.iour ill 10 &C"'lic dial he ~ ;n 1lIi1 ""Y.
M;' any ..... willi 10 came aflcr me,- and "oIlloI:ocvcr ..illl 10 be my
ditt:iple": ud com,.,
laoocb Mille door,)11
JO each penon lioe &:lei noc foml dlenl, but

It ...........,1ICIll Iha .. tlaic pauqrs Adlanaooi.. _ wri(lQa


..... IIlIiIl:. "'" Iriatl peneancd IW 'ClI.... en.. We _ ... ooneha.
~W(I, . . . . . . lIe be wiIliq: lDapase UQdt 10 tIic doarp 01 iluj:Q:itt itt

)TJ H... A>.... )) (Opi<a, 101, I. I5fI'L


n./w..lOI-. 201. IL In-ZJ).
)7'1..,.." 2 ~ U. II. I'" 11).
UOH" AIMoo-" lOP. 21'. I. )9.no" I. I)-
]lIH... An-. n lOP. :NI, II. IS-I'}.
.
-* ... opal _ _ if _ .... ~ 10 be PJty oll>ldl criIKiI Some.
__ Bdl.lilIvec" 'lila lh= _ 1oI-.c beeIl_ , d Ir'IIIh
_... ""01."
Alt
1 .....a._MeW
, . --.:1O_Jilc::ac:e ....._ . . __ u-.a.T,..e.
..wdo.....,-.k~
Yel:
Iht..u..oe rJI A'''ee . aT"" .. dliI...n.r. . .1..... _iijWallO
IK .... clldlYlM . . .-..-...) JboUl be rie'ooocIiII mnI'" He..,,_
..... _.aal ~ IIle Dtildi:, of Ib: ~ dilIlIClI cal far ,d~
.. tile dle...., .,......ricn II ill impar-.IO-*
lb&IlMI is bail::ally 1bc pe*'icM which bJ' lIoe Alluadila I)'DDd
ia AD 3l1/l9 lite)' -.:JCrieaU,. rejoclal tk chI<JeI ....sc IIpiAsl

A lI)lft """"""i-".. . . . . .prnry.....


A ............ 1')fe..MJ
'01 A.... . 'J n:w
ol .... _ . . . . .' be p.d fRlIII. a_ill";' olllillallll FQIIII/~.

..-lheif pew _n.


MIitll_ COIOipollt4. AD}lB <:iItlor Milr. _ _ fma _aik ill Trier
or wlIile .. ,t, . . . M"tria.~ Here Art.
lrieods.llI ~
'III J loW clNrdl .. Jaok
"foii._ 01 DPid,-1lIe
"wled_ 01 JKOb.- IIIId lbc. !mY or ]~. _ardI c--. wtIo ...,
"'InfIk(ed ,oit" IIJICIIIIhcDI..lIS ~ all, \Iley . " a!IolftollO Milftilale !he
uampk of OW' S.vlour. who J;rievaI for tlqo. ....1Io 1M IIItb lhinp. _316
"pin, Am.nuIuI "'Iy ~"" !><en pUll)' of du~limy. But wauld be !lav,
~ 10 In .lettct 10 1M ocry JII'I'SO'l' .... ho WOIIld haY<! wllnCSSCd his earlier
Ut:eSSel? For one who ill ""knowledged by &l1'l> .Vll been muter polin.
clan. "WOUld IWn cry imprudcl\l caurx 10 have followed.
E.lled live li:ncs. wil/llriellds and coUusutt .ubi1ed 10 pelXCUOOn,
lOI'Uu'll.1rld 6eMh, AlhanMi... _ lI'lOfe Utm linned "pnsclhan sinnng, or
to it "'IOUld Ilppellf when it comes 10 !he qUleStlon of viole-.. We RlUS!, of
COUI1C, live popel' regard 10 Ibe l'llhcr ~ of LP 19 aDd, iDlk:cd.
III IlIe olIler tlIIrIu which ""-",, been awk qai... AtharlllillL Yet, 001 !he
wbole, i, I. pouiblc !hal Humann1OK' VOl! WU COI'1'CCI wilen be
toII\IlW:lItI:d lhal ~AlhaNsI.... never poe w:ay 11>. blind PI"IY apirit. atId never
lost dghl 0( Ibe inllef ..bich lay behind and beyond !be difpulCd
fomluialiollL ~lIl

3nBclL I~, _ CWun-. H: if. B....... -sa... ~ " <p. ciL, ~


U3w q _ _ IK AIc>. _ _ ~ <JI AD m _ "'l'

.to. __ ... ,..


"...;& .. - . .
Opitl. 91. II....).
-~_. H .,,
,~_ ('-"
4 I t
"""""'" ..,.
J """"" 50

3aolq FuMl
_ '
,-:r.U/PF.
~ 1'.,
_
. <f- _
--. ..a. .. St1-5n, 1M Dz.IoaI
212 .........
3lSF_ u.- 100"S (LNPF. <p. <:11_ S19).
316I*0I.
Jl 1 HJ v... ~ ",..... Do. tb& Hi.....,. or tIoo CJoudr," (cr.... IIy F.
M<Dooup), C""';Ii_ 19131919. pC. l. .9.
.
-.e.
"'EJnlIi.
leo""
If lftiI ., ~ ............, IK If'C* '''''o!oIic''
dial. A ' 'jm . . , k:a
of ""' liIna. . .
.......iIlIllle lMicy of Ibo.
choQ ... doc
CIeIrty, _ _ pr)
ys
'olpr'1'WQ
-W ......... "OI I i podoc&i
..,.u -...........
r
ill .. hidll.IIoat M;p be rl"
dlC.kIq:_. Mut_.lliJditJlaIlt
W
,an
Is

III - . - . , . toe wocld !law. lad __ ...,.. io ~ MdctiIll-..


-u: W. sa-alIJ clioeau1. aE~ cI OM' e .... jari-jcb'"
apIast IIIcoB .. tile ar!y ,.an oE kiI \" 1>1e We MIlIA abo teqI il:I
..iad ibat it .........., dIcse C3I'ly ,..an ia ~ . . . nulllber IlL
Mdru. ~ II> haft brIcame udr.al SO:WC:-k'l oLlIlc)'Oll" btshopoL
AIuanck'ia, ~tly wilJogu( cw Cot many of dleir ~ bpIal
inlD "PP""irion wMout ... y irnma:l;' _.
b11ba lIIlIII Palysis, we must eoNider ... haI it libl)' lD hlIn ratm
place in till. lnlub!a1 liltLllioo pm aU otllle ...ilabll: illbmUiDa.
AIlIooup _ y poaibk EeUrias may be ~ _ I do .... in r.:...
~ prob&blc.. Some build only 1IfIll'I ..".me of liluct. prdcninJ lD
view A..... " 1ItIaIbwy ~ tnc"' _ ~ .......
ID IIle _rcq ot 1M c:IlmpirK:ia ia wbido.lIIII. ... illvoll/!lll. Ytt. " ' - of dlC.
e.-idencol? AdIanui... viDdialion by \he IY*Id of EayptiM bis/aop$, hQ
support by IIrp a..mllen or fmncr ~iekli3nI,Ids ~ by !hi. rij(WUIIS
ftlOlWlic commlllliliel or Ihe EI)'plian desert. 1lls - . I ...rium Iepc)' .....
CUll'" pena:1IlIcn, IDd his Ialer vast popularilJ in E&YJlt oil IrJ'I'l tpiIISl
Ibo mndanl interpl:lIlioft of U' 1914 IS prima/lJJl:wftideoce 01 AlhanasiUS'I
viQlenl ~ towards his lheoIogiaI and polilic:al tqIOfIeIIlI. Thr. inlemll
quesllon.. lhcRfln. which h3vc been mi$ed in LP 1914 are by no means
completely ICUlcd ..... llave ret lD be fully nICOI>clll!d ",ltll elteIUl ~
aDd pQccd ";lhill llleir proper hislorial seD.iD,.

J.~ T1w OratifJII fl/Gr~fD'JN~1l


nc I\na1, Md _ ~.1OIII'l:e lila is liJ1cd by F'nnf;:u QO,IIII
ODd William RUICII in their re'5 'lelllS of 1Ilc~ of AtNnaJiUl is
Ihe femval onUon (0'1IIw.. 21) oCGrrllOl)' Nlzianun in whic~ Ille Ii'" and
lhcoIolPcll avities of AlhaaniIlS arc "'!n&iIQl...cl_bered..loll 1lIeir
_ 10 1hil1locumcnl .. lIII aid _ die 'lela ol AlIlaAaillll .. or

._ed
_ . llII .......... _ of paDq)ric .. ~ (01 ... -.;1ft IIoq .. irs
iaa:atb lbe exaltaeioaorl!le _,At ol .... biIbop qI Ak.....rla;
.. Grqory .ya. -Ill praisiq AlUmasia, I dIaIl be 'rirI-. To
spcalr; or loiM -.1 III praiae ........ am.- ia _ - . ~ '-d. or 10
spcat _~. has cmtnc:ed YirDoe iD its atfttt _1tiInaE1f.-J19
Y-.: kIwe_.
-.1 11.. .... pclUi'I'C iii Grefory', 0.- -.1 _ _ pdia.

)I~_lIUIeLO"";-~I II . ' .. J. w-oy.Gr#".w


11_ _ 0 - . lO-2J. SC 'l1O. Pom. 19110. 110.1'3. .....,. to. .....
po.' ;, , '- ......
.... _,.., . . - ill PO
1U1,._
cit. "'109. Tlio I e '
n. cok. 1001.UK,
eL
3190_.... 21. _ _ 1; M.....,.. cit. 111. 11. \2
'"
_ ...bck lDOIilltion "'l1 olIj1a.-dle dtfcnIII of ... _ , 01 AINNsi..s
Ipllllt Ille critital, and oI\cn hosliIe. IlOllClI'tlIodo leporq ..-minllllis
ae:tiolls Mel (I lei whith were SliU In dIcu1alian " ' . (irecor>' deIi>fte1
Ibis IddRa ~ bel-.. AD 3191ftd AD 381.)90 DrlwiDa; apo.!he
raeudl ol Roucll, V-,: simply ~ thai lIleu weu ~ ~ 1Iw.
Clftpy"'v=-'''fdt_bldlO _ _ II; bill C;Tk. ~)91
ne , , _ I 01 Ruck "Illidt RealI ... Ii" Abswlcc 10 lIIis
'Q~'";,;~ boIilclI . . l/Ic prcllliJI: 1M 1M u oIl'l1lk11llq:jas IDf 1hc
lrNtirimll ~uUc:. oILP 19\" must be: inc"",", lA dleOCl&Jlnlaioa d
. . . 1liJllJraI pic;_ 01 ""'llIn";'.. Far IlioId., die falh'aI cnlioa 01
(J1qU)' coMlfllII dIIIlhea critical ~ roDOeIlIl"l !lie
bisbop at AIuaIdia. ~ y Ihok ,.......dcd. by PIti~.-en:.uI
~.....p QUJC c>;&;dl and,1lomfcn. dlapecIlhe 8ddn::a of
Grqory, ..110 anemptillJ 10 .-e- 11M onIlodoa ..cIIIOIJ of
A"'.... A_II _ bis cue ill_ ~....--;

OrDfitM 21 olCftpyNlriomee [lsjl_pvbf,bIy rr-_380


Ihe fcaII of SL AI"'n"';'., lC'O'IOlIJ rlie] ran Iht:r "" .... A!
toe lliI.... IIid Iboe. IftiI, of Goqory po I mu ~ II I
alll! IIld piIIK of l/Ic Clluttll 1\0 defCDlial her apinst !he Ariu
menI(:1C, BlOt tcrUift f er' ofllle UIIUJ' lmlIliYdy be IIkaI II ..
N*:IDpllO dcA, IIkpboftis from Itle ~ ndition. 11lc: cad
of lIOCliolI I j is <kaial of !he lJVlh of !he llillOty or Anum wbidt
taSlI u asick as l/II:luIIl __ oom_ ~ip and wil/l(U. sub$l.....
II III aublished deed.. Slionl 8 8fId 9 n:1aIe 10 !he election and
,erocnll conduct of A!haBuius. One fil>clc no Uplic:il mentiool of Ibe
kllId or lnfornwioD pro'Ilded by P!lilclslorJNs. but ;, is tJc. lhalll>ese
ChaPIIII ~ .0 refullllhe PIIilosiofpan IX_lion of Alhanasius.
TIM: electlon ollhe I,"lei' Is p:selIIe4 .. unanimollll. He llllPf.ed
ubl\mo. in Inial. blLmllle in IJIi:riI, 1IITIi1lb1e.. _l.llli~inI with lbe
IeIldl:rnc.a 01, ralher.",", <_ -00. 9). Catmot Ihe Iittlnl of UICIC
It&1I1 be sun . . . ~ lei II.ilIa Lhe Oth$" rel11ec;lioD. of
AlhInI:IiuI: wtlidl 'Io'n'e Rill IIi.... IlId _ in _ d wiUl ~ lIOIl-
llf1lIo:d).~? lJI.lhaase,CrttcrJ'l Orlo/.". 21Cr- "';lneSI.

mn..nJoCI_ofO-'.... 211o' oj. w-, .... " .. _


_ _ '. ' .. c.., " ,.. ill '19.:lID." III "". . . kM of...-..
of 11O....sri. (N_"1, . riI. lID). .... II _ _ ........ _ . ~ ..
c. , _.7J...,..,214q1,cf._"1.9'J.I02J,.iI _ _
lUI AD 310 b pdnobk . . . 0 ' " II> "'" I "';YoI 01 (ft.llr)' ioI
c."w Jl0 it AD '19. no.. lIoo .u., _ "'" ......
~._ or.. On"",' .....n it CIMdI 01 . . ~ ilool,
.... I0o .. II\<. _ _ ... iSeI _ ... D 311 (ct. MoMo" 102. 103:
1 - . , _ _.G..,...,4/N""'-": , ..a ...... 0lf0nI, 1969
~ .... K - - . A H~ 4/N~ n. S.M.),
)9IY..... Ni<-. .. O 61.
"

Wllik it ---. been SIlled _ _ .. mil -'ion. IhIt


1be>e were a bet 01 ndi ~ A........ .JIill~
ill ~ Iu rc:udlPd..ty foflllcelllllriel. *"...-c ofR", _ ..i...
O.jq,o 21 is lea dl.-. saWfau, for. lUlIlllJer of. F". .. it doa
... _ _ 10 !aU _10 Ihe II\CQl)' . _ 10 ..tlic~ Orati 21
t

bl:kp."l '"" ...... of A"'-rios"..-- "" OIqDl)l ..aioa ,.


wtOctl RIUd! ~ 10 allooe. ..... w'" _ _ 10 ~ ",fm:Ke 10 1be
PIutiIoe ~lIIOllel ror tulIft bUbnpo -l9I
TIle.e \itliDp, 110.,.".
-.I . . be
_ _ & -.er III COMIWy opia_ II "'Cfdy lhelOiic:al de.a..
O"...... \illc 011 -'::Uooos" "'" 10 .. O~ 21. 11_.,. ~ Ius
oorictft!hal ...... PQIlWI)'ric Illis"'w..... 1D dll: li Mi.

could abo ba Ji'f'ell byptCbolJc lIlft "" Pi h .';na .. me .-in.a of


l!Ic paD! bein& praiIIId _ lID pta *-!tIe _ _ ullaaslal ill
lI:JWl& """qI....,. III claaibe !hem au.. .... '- called IIpa. IliI .........
ID lIdp Illm OUL Thll$, lI\.c:rdal;:ribilllllle ealy cncrol,.", _5.
GftIP'J 1IIal<e. fi'a/l JWl widllhr. words: --c.:.- Ibm 10 aid . . in
my pIneJyTK:; for I am IaboarillJ Ilea.;". Uld IlIoqlII dcIite 10 . . .
by point ariel' poinl,l/Iey teize IlflOIl 1M _ at... lila ada, - ' I ....
rind no 'wpuAa, QcdIence in tonJl wtllc.ll .. iJI ~l rupecU wdJ
... """",~oneclllld beluo.lflll. fot each ash 0tI:\lft 10 me _ faiftIr IIwI
tile fIlA and lIG takes by mrm my rpeedI,"39S
AnoI/le, l;(IIIIlnQIl fJpte wed by an onICll' IllCh as (jrqory _ par_
aleiPJit,. ill .. hiI;hllle JPW:;er"'recoun1l _ taw or evcnt1 wltik cklclarinll
his inWIUorllO pal ~ \heJn in .uer-.. Apin CllnlInCIlw., ... D,dlilJll
21, Itwlber rtIleI, "'UI ill 1M p...... lolloorinllbe _ quatcd aboe.
a",1ll'Y detlara 11IM lie mU$l pUs 0_ IIlOlII of Al!IIRui... rinDcI ill
sikrQ. JiJlce wy CGllld fill mrri'd d.iIrourJeI (lIa'lini. of cawx. aIJaoly
eal1mClaUlll all ~ vinIlq: in .....MIenb1e deIIiIl, and ~ his _
only 10 Ille _ Unponllll poilllS. -)96 Far IIOnI ~ his lIiIoomx II>
_ \be putIaIIar c.baoJes 01 crillcs from 0lllACk IhlI onbodDr. ndiilion.
GRIP'J lila)' IlIUtlll"lllft re'lon'bIy be Of as Illerely foIloo<iDa; in !his
Ilddtl:a llw; Iilaw)o _,It ""'idI he ckIemed 16.. f1lr UI:II _ o j. .

116.
m ...... ~" ,. -"-llo" ,....-.. .'.'""",," hlittfooo. elf ' ."'"

U3C/. "'-"1......~ 91.9').


3,...,.;.....,. " riI~ In. _ _ 10. Il." 7.
US..-'*'.. riI~ n.
}"/W~ n. 11.
" mE EA!U.YEPUCOi'ALCAREER OF AtHANASIlJS

We Deed IlOI, lboerd".-, III:tEII any $pm.a signiflClllOe 10 RdCh'. Ekctod


W7jms of dliI addmIs be:yaIId Iutiq allow..... fur OfesoIy's c:oweo" ""III
~ type 0I'IIDry. or
Second. RIISdl pl8ces pel! cmpbalis 01\ "bat lie pera:iYa 10 ~
GrqOf)"1 linlaJar ulcotiaa r. form.......' Ihls ontion ~
Alht"Vaa. Rudl P'IW"" iIut Grqcry illtIelllpliaa 10 ~den]I alkpcionll
m:..1be _-orIIirJcIoo;. blltitioo- alCI is conaued wiIlllloo:lK -rh ~! oIa
~ ~ wltidl .....Ilm 10 ..., llIe -.ory or ca"'*'"""'d
palrialdI,-l9'1 Fer YOIIII&. dlere i:he airiri"", thx Onpy ... felt
lie bid 10 _ _ .-g
or
Bodl ~ views _ ......., 10 d>e <l(Iillioa J\ISIilI or Mcua,. wloo.
in ... ;"aod~ to lhe criticalieQ or O~"ti"" 21. eo J '~I ~ ;,,1eJll; of
CftpylObe iIlt'eeilt;L
I. 10 show Alhaaasius as I madd 01 .... it _ lID be. bUfqr,
l. 10 e.pIain !be IIWIIICI" in wbidI Arbon.jo. _ IbIc III UIiijICi"'"
willi Ibe moaa!IIic COIIUIIunilics in EJYPl alld reco:mcilc EtiVC
paniciplian in lbeclmrt:b with !he ideal of ...in....;
3. 10 preteDl Alhanasius U I preetIl;1lell1 defender of lrinilariall
f&ilb. 399
FllfIhwcIote, Mosuy cmsidcn Ibc oralion 111 to beyond simply ... .sdras iD
or
praj.se AthanlIsild a1lhar. point in $<>;tions 34 and 3j wllere Cn:py n:bw1
the partlcular 1ss11C11ho.llhc bishop d Alexllldril flCed 10 lhe prasing issues
of the universal church of his (}wn day..tOO Cutainly, it i i _ diffICult 10
tee O,,,rion 21, with the Ihemes set OUt above. as ",,"villi' particular mes
sage for Gregory's Constantioopolitan coopeption durina llIe period sur
r(lundinl1'heodollius'l ",fonn. II is, perhal"l. nOi wilhoul signllkallCC thai
Oreaory in section 35 portray. Athanasiul primarlly .s I reconciler who
"bound IOgether" dJfTering parties "in I unil)' ot llCtion. '~l
In Reuther's anl1ysis of Oralion:!l similar themu ~~ albeil wilh
_puler emphuil OIl the use of ~ rheloricaI farm.. S~ note$
tIw., followln. the Introduaory =tiOJU 1-9, "~!ben "*" the um~
IeCNlique IhIi be used. in l!le oraOOol 011 Cyprian. FoIk\....In. _ fIX';c.oon

397.. _ ... ",. cit. 116.


39IV-.a, 1. cit_
399M"...,.. tJp_ riI.. 92.-~. n. ....,..... ;. .. "......;-
.........iJ od1loy 0. M<iJoml."" D Will ond of Il>o T.....,. ill
.... Onoiooolo .... 0......,. of Nm.._ - NdnT 27 (1m): W-234.
~.....,., ",. ciI~ ~.
40lM_. ",. ci<. IU. II. U. 3f.
402.....-. ",.ciI_ Ill.
403 ll1U~ 1 1bor ..... ..,... ... "'io. "'" lWO cncloM
A>htMoi-. IIooI!I _ of powu!oI dow t
ewn-
-.I ...
of .......rI,
0......., folio ...,. of . . - ' dowdy'"'" ill IIiw
odIet "..uc.ur ~ (",_ dI~ 109. 110).
of Adlarwi... vin..e&, bowew:r. Grqcry PfISIIC$ OlI, RanIler jndja..... "to
..... u _Impo.wn"':

.-IM/bj<l., Ill.
.OS A ....M OIIDUII.K)' of tho ... mll LakinJ plKo dwina "'i.I period in
COl'IIllll'lllnoplo i, p".idod by Kcpocok, ... bo .. I"..
tho .....01 of Thcodo,ius in Const""<inoplo 1JI Woo N"".mbu AD 350
ond hl, ruboju.nt 'lIJ'!>O" of th. NiOll%l. po,ltiOll. AlrMdy in Pobru.wy
of tho 'lImO )'OOl" Thooodosi... IIod lv.roldodlll, !'li..... <:ommi1mOJl1 !JI his
f......... o4iI:l COM'''' poplllM.. tho lhoo!olkol po,lllono of DomISlD of
Romo end P.t.. of Al<:<ondri. >l'G. Nl "" U l/Io. 1OI><JlI.o>1>O' of
impofl.Uy,.ppo-oood -Cllholio- C1uirtionilY. noon. aoon 0.(101' ""
onlOfod Coou<antinopl< in lri""1'lll!oo '""l""'Ot .--..s ~i!lls.
tho olT~oI birbop of IlIo 0"'101. n.-;". po. doo P'"1Mo' ofo:>;u:
_ .. tho Nioono CJ'd "'".....- doo dry', <11"...1>00. 11100 INoI>op
" " - tho 1aIf<t ODd bq.... to oolobr... "'" EoohoNI do< city',
..0110. With D<mopbilos 0" of . . "0\", n.oodoo _poI
.........,1 or .. copiW', ell........ 10 ItIa HeoHio_ ~l"'Y of
f'l~. 0. J.......,. Ill, AD 311 oM ""'Jl<'O" _ Low which
_ !Iio _ _ IuiooIimo ond _ _ of 1'1"0<_ .. IochocIo tho

~ __ ""_.",Gro...,.,.u_
amiro _toni ompiR.. (K...
I ""
, i1._oonomIy .....
SIO) D.

roo_oNe If> _ ...rIo<oioM of ""' .._ ea.".'


io pie AD 379AD lIO io
lho~ _ _ Gftpy_ . . . . '.'i"ioO' 21.
06"...
~ of ~ _
Iloot .,...... 19, fa... ~
. . - d'foo:=>orl" (>6U.). pooolloly. 0 _
_ "'(inpy
of-.irll;
. . . . AD no. a-Ioo G. lito.- - ' , _ Il. S...ao.. _ lho1 ~ 21
.,.,"" , lllo - . . 01; , 'I d'f_ _ ....... acq'IOlw wid! dIo
- . iii. ~ io dw W:ic of........
. . 1!riooodo-(UfPP. _ _ - - . ..... 7. 269).
......w. lIit _....-...
..
1D!be ord>olb Il'IdiUan CllIIlOef1liJla: 1M; litt . . _or
A_";'. and pre.-
_ iI ill _ Illat Is JIIitIld 10 lib _ piniadar Pl"JI'*I.. If, ill bl1.
or
d1a .... Al'Iealu:III ..-ed .. ~ "P,~ Gn:py........... "'UO'
or Arilllis IlO 1eII-aaa .. ..roo. I), Hilde:>...,. ofNio:aea Iilewise
1Icb'*creeol~~buI.""""'''~Yllf~ . pIE.-
iD.J .4,)_,....... ItIe r... nW: ..... ItIe oaemIla. ollhr. 0 .......' fa
pUeIaQ _ p.,., 10 .v-
ft_
equally wi1h . . alllllb."""'" J...to . - .
_I" Orqory".Pref_ 10 lbc Ataaiasal&lr ...... '-1 d.idI..-
pi' 1 t", rr.cI . . . . lilt; IlIiI'll. CllflIIC of IN. hiq - . . ill

Jr.'" -~,
. 'I eIcaica illeM_oldlat8c"'~~;'~"'~f"';
__ or ID&or~
Ilcid!er
- lllere illinlr. _ to _ cIlIlI:r .. daiI
ar ill _ -pliIce - .
" of _ 'ICiIcd ,d... I 10
1IIol ~ ...... fta or. !Ildeed.1D 'wk .11I, ..... 01
die In mpD"P '" simibr 011 lM; IIOC8Clf'J oIlllc bislIqI
&unl ouuide dll: (I'I/l(l(bo trldilion.
T1Ie coaItllUon or
R,*"," by inrcm.:e YOIlllJ. iI_tiaIJy ..
...,...ent bItelt upo.li~ Wt~"' no ceNia . ., ill .. an .a _
IiICIl:I1IiIIIlII 1na .......... Ufe irlUalioi 01 are....,.
ill OnuiDlo 21. Upon
.......PkHd ~ . Ilowc_. lhe pwpllItI ..
,..... itallty\e e""iduec1 by Reutber lIppt8f III bIllOi
,,'i
by Mosay ..... dle
tw. ~.... erje
or
indicalors GrqorJ'I in~ In IIle '&'litini of iIle ~. ~.
!tIeR. _Id lIJIPW' 10 be. _ dellft 01 jl>StlrlCIlbI ill ~ tftalilN< 21
UI lha immediale comext of lhe _uoweny In ~lInop1c IlIlhct IIlu 10
Q~gory'l eJlll)' Into an billOrieal debau conec,ninl tile ctwxler of
AilwlQilll willi _ whieb not 0111, ~AlIUSpllCl. bul abo _ lIIiKd K-
COIIlIU of wllictl we ...... "uk -walmow~ Allhougll II ill wilhin ItIe
realm orpvibj1ily Wt aoodlu intupmaUoll olOrqory'. ~ . .y, ill
flCl. be. _ I , dwn illiuk, if uy. evidellce.ftiIIbk 10 JllIlIlQf1It1e 'PX'O"
1Ilift-.niom dR1IJdl1fld YOUIlJ.

~0'7o.-..;., 11. M<tiooa 1~ - . ,. _a .. II. ,.7.


01,..... _ _ IS: M.oaJ. riI~ I~. _ _ I', 11.7.'.
IJ"
"
.".... . . 1tIiI finl. ...... _ .....pct.! bcaI"l:) ," _ _ .-c

n<lf_IlfeMd h_.'
.... doclI&_ w!IIdI MYc~ 1O _ _ aiIicII,eo"' ;.
01 ""h. "........._"
. . - . 'I*W _NO hal beeIl Ii- III __ ~ I'qllIl'U .....tIick
' . "' . . .
~ P'fC wei$IlllD IM. ....... oL Fnau$ Y-a D
1la...... 1 Ptika WCIlI:.-
Alhan:asiIlS" "'1:................ It:ICll1oCd 10
i" D ~ ... "'"' am is imptir:d by llood dell 01 e.ideoca:...q
All ~ of Ib& puUaabr doall1lellU dll:d by William R~
PIIiIclwq:iu.....a_ U' 1914, .... Or...... '11 olOn:1IOIY N....zrn-
hal abo boca 1UIda1Ib:n. "" ";tIl <eYil:ws 01 caIain ~ t ~
inoIu wllld ariK out 01 lIloese sourt:es, sadI .. \he cOIlICCfllloa of
Alhanasiul in AD 3'21 and lIIe l'Ok or ... MdI:tiPI within tbc EJyptian
dlurdlia IlIe perbl ber w. I/IIe ClIunciJ 01 Niaci ill AD 325 .... the Sl"OI
CllTyJe ill AD m'uo
FIVIII dlb llUdy, ~ prelim;....,. Cl*l. . . . . . .y be II -m.
daald be IIOICd. '-"'-er.
l/Iat ~ prdimiDary ,..-J'1Iiont _ remain
_llwe. rMlIer !han absoIuu:. _ .... 10 th$ iJllt.rpolationl ill I.hc.
~ ~Ii_ MId lhe<:UlllialOCllllllCaainly. 10 I/Ie allall COllIUt
ID .. Wc/I LP 19'1 wu wriltCll. b m..... abo be ..know\edted dw. badl
V RusdI ...... dOlI dlefe ueelemeau iII ....... 1ood cnditlon-whiclI
- eaulnly rip!. willa !be IIisIariclI Alhanasillll if; litely 10 be round
M

Mia middlllllJlllllld. ~1l Nevatbelr:J:s. Ibdt Inri.., ...... on KIOep!inl thc


evidellCfl of PlLIlo5lor&!us, IJ> 1914, -'- Gtepy NWaN.cn iJ '~V'II
or W n)nl rea:nI """ulonislllCCOWllS of AihItwi... wtlicll we IIImlld ill the
rlQl poltloa oCllIi, RCtioaf 12
TberlI CIn remain little doobIl!Ial. PbilosIorgl\ll II I >'&I1IIIb1e _ of
infonnalion willi n:ptd to Iargc rmmber of I"IIIdom Nian InIi Mdcti.u
eallUll1lieJ qo;lIil Am.nullll wl>ich Il'e ro\lc:cu4 IIld pretere(I ia Pb(ltiu$'1
Epi_. ".. these -.ted IIaIldm Ilawe tiule basQ: ill tkl, Ioowcvt.r, is
..., lljIpIIUIwllea IJle)' lrecocnpaml wilhod...-couemporar)' Of _ _

409y_._ cir~ ~.
.U Oa-a., ...... ~ 161.177. n-. .. _ ~ ......,.. ..........
::7"......;.,;:
..."._. '....:.~~ .A~
. .m"'
c.i.:.."'::::
. ..-..t.
-..~
........ .,
"..
00. .
........ "'S"".

-
.IIY-. . . rif. 6I:boclo. . rif. 116. rn,
.12V. _ , fa..5<I. f.......... _ _ , .... ,......
_octo<
ca.
.. oL A""ori". _ _ I ... ...,. fill ... _ .. '
.
IICCOUnIl of lIIe _
IeftIIlCft/')' c _ v e n lIae _lIined In histories
wlUdI.e not ..l1oi11 f.-able 10 AdwIaius.41)
Th6 Philowcq:ian IOC(IWII or 1M ~ of Al/IInuiIll renlains a
~ in poi.~ .. \4 III Ibis ~ narnli... It Is dimculi. if IIllt impossible,
III .IqWMIl ~ rcpon of PlIiIoaorJ:illl fi'Olll !be edilorial Cgmnw'U or
I'boDIas. AInIlemloIe. lIle roprtS wbo lie - - . I ill tile JC:ClOUnl, IIIe deIails
whi;il . . otrm:d., IIld llle ..... ~ 01_ ""*"iI pooidod In aI
-.:tI..-iInce .mIllbe 0lheJ" hilIorict and ~ 10 'IltlIic:It we lRo'e acc:as
as 10 be U - ClOIIlplctdy witlloDt aedca:e III . , _ p 10 pnwiIk
I ,_tWo '$I
cana" wriu..
~&iii-nalNl'
I!lIl "Ik pcnrail 01 " ...
ion -"!tso
_:1.-
....... 01 wbIl-.uy lOOt place. CcnaiaIy, RIIdI is
dlaI iI pOfidocl "by
""'1l1oi ~_ oIlhc
In....odm...UJ To 1',llowcwa. _ ~ Ilu po oed.
_dlcid<M I"IdiDooI t;Oii\;UaOq AIM '1II1Nl II of eqaaI ftID& I l l ' "
_ 10 III be~ wllaIlIlec doc_.., "'14
: ,: . , _ _ ..., _ ..... ...,. IeC IIidoI c.I)' . . . . "riIt mil peril"

ne dta:iipdtM 01 ,,-"',nu;' ia U'


eo..... IIlows.4'i
it _wftat _ Jlrllb-
IU"ric 417 " - _ ..... i-ticar.d ill lllilI audJ. dle ~ a:IUIW;-
w!lictl U' 1914 _...u- lIiift. '"" clItiIlt of 1M ~ by R.I.
BdI is oooapktd, QrQuaJWlli:ll by 110 _ _ cll:fIaiI:i'lfCo "' ne owl-
OOIS fit........ penies IllClllionecllll lllllleuer are not idcDtifocd wid! Ill'
depee 01 oenaiaQ'.1IId Ben', _laden owes mudlld IliI ownlUldenund-
iJI, or lbott _ at he - . - I "y IlII'IllIlIlldt ill wrilina. Ik:U. as ....
beea tllown. Ieftlkd 10 ipn the c:unplcdtJea of 1M rdiPOU. Jitu.aOOn if!

LP 11114 'emains an ioulgulng ~em ot "b~l i._.


EI)'pt Ind, by rne.- of IIis inuoductlon IIld ~ or d>e PIP)'llIS, p,ve
~ wdlhllO Ihis docllnlmllhaa It miIIM odlerwlx Nove merilCd.

cenain sboneofninp. Thee geauinenea oIl1le dowment bo4!I in reprd 10 ils


dMinJ: -' Q3IdUI Is lJIUlUin. The Iype or nlnUtic commllllll, whiclI is
but willi

.s-ribed IlILP 1\114 as bei"l _ 10 the tit, IIld IlIn1 by !be IIliliury <:amp
i. difrll;U1llO _ l i e willi CllIIer ~ rnn doe period. '9 Taoe IDeS-
.... or !be pIpJnIS. as Bell hinlJtlf ..smits, illO tome awn IIIICIcar owing
10 \lie perJOftallOllUR or 1lle U..........lOOlCL:!ll 1118 ruder of L.P 191 ....,.

.13Cf. s.- HB, U. 11 (.I. au.. Ie _ , . 1913. 296); s..u.-.


HE. I. 13 (PQ 67. 139. ctI.I); and I'lIiloouqh... HB. IL II (I. Bioiu"
'''''''-' J : ~ 1 <dicioolj. OSC. 21-23).
.1r.:.....,Jiut. HB, 0.11 (8u.. ..... ell).
.UhKII, ...... IU
.1',...... In.
I1K.l B...
:tII ...,).
,rw. _ c_~ . dr.. 5]11 (oop. LI' 1'14, II." 9;

UBoll, J_ _ C.............. ~1.


19t.Jo 191.. II. )on.
2Oa.u. J_ _ c ~ .. 66.. n.
oat)! Ii- 'M" UClOI .-,.., ,. , T bt:ULQ 1M .lIlof, epn;e..., -.1 me
_ wtlidllll C..... to be ft4Uw&- FiIIrIll" II. .", A.... . 's
Ii
ADl15,Iba_ $
o
ibtd_. '",
ollba Mdew.._btqtIl ........ It Iba $,-1 or~ ill
tbbllllplllllllllu.'IlC"Ot"Utp..
"i.. am.xlllose wllicll_1dMtd iii LP :914 aapl iii . . _
1..-1_,........421
AD ol 1M ~ (:(lIP_' It> - . ol ooww, diiil~ Ibt IdalM:
............ ol U' 1914, no,. do,~ . ..n iIiio q
IOlllle ~ 01 A.ihaftaias's pilL TaU is _
AdIsNslow'._ wrilillp
....
till ;"l'J lnIt if
............aiJI, \IIrt IUbfea or per.alioii
'* at.
iMo_0,... willllbt - ,
Uta
to oed ..
difft:rttc .............. lI'ftIdI M't ..
. . Fr" LrfIus rfUlllllc fint dcc3lk orllis .""'P'''' FIu\htnIlof'":, COIOI-
M't

Iary _ _ 00lI1aint:d willliii


_liItion for Ill. cin:ulDf"'
QH.. ~ . d _ toLP 1911
-..biclI lie dI:limbed ill U' 1911,
c"'l'J 11IM few pio;tloItvlcltrlct
1fI..,
hiskiiit:I or Ibt period prooticle. Piult lUI>-

C" be IaMCI for biJ~y ill owe ill whit;lIlIlcy _ fooIJld; tbty If'"
.... rily IIIbjec1td to ItIt aail:m.-l ..aIo - - . . d Iht -.ller IDd
illlerJlftla'.122 1'lIoI$..,bo woul4 oertI< to mate lilt oILP 1914 II proold
AIlunIIi~'1 ~Ioltrlol cn..:1tf haYe ytllO lIhow dle pIpynB 10 be decisi>'t
t.idtoIf::c; I.r., ewldtllot ..bleb CDIIlirms ClIIIy ore nc..,1lllI ududu lis ri'tlls.
ClaIty. LP 1911 is 1lQl1UCII. piece <JI evidtnee ill iu cumnl SWt IIld,
IMrTinllirnha _,uboo:MiOlll matmII, is litely 10 remain III ia Iht flltare.
O~1OfY Nu.iIIIwI'l O,lUitJllt 21 ~ At'-iu rotl illIG 7<l
_her eMtlOl1 of c~;lkna: IlllIlIfsume.... RUld hal l:OlIUlIded !tIM
O"'IOIl",ontion ....., alltast ia certaiIt _tIoos, moclYMed by 11i16e;M: 10
dispel ",mo... QllO;ernm. the blslIOp's char8c:tu ",hlch bad srlIta rfOiil

' 21 11 ",.y be _ het& _ ilt odditiol ... Illo \he itI,


....... '" ............. Adunaai....... a!><> dwJ"" ";lk onrl ~
of _ ot M.101lIn """I<~ ~ incNdirIJ; lJdoytu, CIlllItI<'IIO (biahop
"' ......'->. _ - . ............ _ _ {.so--, H6, II. 2:l,lK,(.idet, SC
)l)6, )(lIm:" Sdlw..., as UL:zI8fL). ~p ........ _ oiooIll.- ......
....... - . . . .. LP 1914, II. '1~1 _ .- _ olI_ . . DO
' - - In' oiool ;' .. e ' 1 .. CGIbI<t ~ . . , .... _ _. . .
Tyow. if, -.....s. _ ;. ., ' .. boo . . .
121Aa .. I' "' .... _ b e lC.KoILC .A~~'
(Itu). Ut.1ot wlridl II;' ~ _ ad! "'0 ; ... w4co
Tpo".LP19I .. II,JI. ~.. _ A'I P
.... ....,... _;' "''''_ioil'
,...,- _
..... Ko&" ,
- . . ........ _
'
I Db
Gil - - .
I'" Bc:l'.:oiI 'd
" 4 ' ""
~.lt "'..
" . . ....

'........",., ..._ _bo,....


. . . . "' ... _ _ . . ...n.d Gil

' ....... Noll'. - - . Mh'


I ' io Ioio..
WIoio I
'01 LP I'll, lot
oIlWr.
.. .,. T.D, B--.. ",M
............ If_wtreIlJ-..
1914 (T.D,.-. c .rr',. _ E"""'.
! _."""'_1 ] 'ioLP
m n6: 1I1 _ 100. 101).
"
lIDROIthodo~ JOtlfCa.~1J By pwuin. f<lr'fl*rd Ihia ...._ R_II is
1I11c:mpti.., 10 loot be)'Oll6 ...6 bd>ind ll1e omioD iuelt 10 its poaiblc
IDOtiatIorIa. ne teardl for C1l.-ion ..... IIlOlivation. howe.. is. by its
YUf -.n. tubjoelive. 111 wo;aseoiORplry'loraUDll-a .. ~ .... is
fllt1ll8 eooaplQled ill tbIt _ _ Itt asideGJetDr)", 0'a'1I..-d ~
in . . tdikaI, well lib adbemlc:e ID ...,;a.a. ~ ,-.o.icaI
Ikwica wbldIue ,. idellald ebe<ohei<::, in Clf1k;r to8CCI:pC RIIM:tl"IqIP'a"
Af"wcard'u1 . t .... or lhe iNiPO pI'O'I'idod b)' . ) Ilada ..."
J.... ~ _ tile _ _ ...:I "lC:IIile of t>lIdM 21. M:II _ ~....
is ~ by RIIIdl ~ __ III K " ,t'c 424 MoiCOffi
..,. Olta clIor->_ _ dotd, IdIled III . . - . . 1 and Itylr. ollbo.
IdclnA __ 6 ~ 10 u>oe cqo,oal or pucu c1aal ID' Mjo or
a;lIi........ dar. twtlidI .... bel:lllltw d"" bdI_ Y_1-4:l:S
To _ _ Gta:nUt "r; iUl ~1icIlte CC II .... 1he
dwo ...... 01 ....... ; oI~ dirrak, ihllt ..; ..... 1l ill paai--
bIc, IoowcoCl. ID lniwe. otnaia r-.ablc _ ....... OIl 1M IIais of"
cril:iI:al. ......!nom. 01 dle. docu ..,. c:.idtace. haa6 .. onIeo-lD ......
m. probIbilitJ oIllle lI'UIlIC.u- oIllle _ CIDlllailIed widlilllUdl ....
w:rials. AdmillleClly. our to...... hoi ... 01 \lMI C'iellU 1IItic:b IllDk pIKe be-
IWIIlaI AD 31S _ AD JJS is illlpeffccl. retlbe only 1IlIDkaI.... ..dial
I!Ml u._
we .nil __ n ... -Ilina 1lloIe c:roclaI ~ it _ . . it build IIJIOI
e'rideace., opilIlonI, Illd reporu. No ~ wlIidl is buallIJlOII
IIikno! or IIlD our inalIUil)' 10 &IIa:I1bl1llc: initio or llituIlMlI is. in reaJK,.
.. -.wnem without MlslInee. This would IppW 10 bellll>cuc ............,
of I!lofe more fIlOlkm ~1ISIlio1lS of wiolence ....lIIcl1lL1w: bcu Iid'fal>ced
qaiJlSl Atlwwlus.426 FIII1t.c:iillOiC, illllould be IICDoookd,ed IhaI ~
burden 01 pool is OIl !be ad~ olllle& beslillypcll/lc:lclwhkh repacal
I radical bouk ffocn """ more rnodenle v1e'/l'S of earIIcr tc:~ wilhia the

"".110<1 ..,.. ri~ 11'.


uR "". ek. 77. 71; ......., . dI" 9S.".
n5Vw.
42"r.o.
r...,".
a.... .... _ ... Ala-. _II'" ~.. _
"'" ,.".. ouppon which .. 0I\i0l000l &- ... _ _ -.01 _ ' .... pooi_
.., ....MizirIt _ MICl ~ ~ 8__ II lIuol
Aahaaaoi -~to __ ..r .... - ..-..-... - . .
.. 'M I h "n" OIl' -n, . I ill _ , ' 'ft ""
."...m" clw. .- ( 8 - . . ciI" 2)0). .. IllIlo,J Old _
11"'4_, a...... io, " ' _ ~'" _

A - - . did _ ie
-r.. _
_aM ......... .., whidII -....-;-,
,.., ....w. fI'"IOC'll1O. SOId! . . . ._
t ' . ._ . "

far "'" _
_ .....
.. _ _ ill
~_ _ _ do'
__ '" -.loy" clra1r. I.. ~ _
"'.0"1
is _ _ is
W-.""
is Iittlc
I'
_
__
_

WI do poMoMf
" " " - ef Iloo _
-.... '" i
'" 'p ~ ....1oN,
is hie
, _ _ laItc . . _ _ "'......
_ ... I
i t

_
.. wiGlla . . . pcwnl '" _
ic._
__
SoodI.
"
AelcL SIdI pn)Of _ -:t onI, 1 .....;-:! frail wilt&loIl pIrIQlla 1b-
--,~",.m.._bYe.n. J.* _ _ .......
be eM 'widI .....'. ltilb<;dyol AaaIly.
1Ile"
..-..
~ our ftitJOi&" IlIe!lc maaiaIs
-.IDCSpHish _fIllIionol '
01 ~ be
Ylewol1br.
.ip.-
_ad 01 ~
_

.'fe
pIiod.lI
. . - .......... U Ibis
be adlailllld dIIIIlK....., .,....,..4i.c is . .
criDa 01 .....___
rlObl .. ~ CD md .....i&ciq: e>i<\EaIee ror. ~ pcnait
01_ biIiIop 01 ... 100. .......
A'oa doc.clotI4noeIIllmd is:Iacs -.tlidI
ilc"'lNIl11l,YiewatdlecarlyC3rlUoi Ar. .
'-'"IId lIuI
_
f.,.
lUJ rdMionJllip "';11I ltM: luga" SlrEtIInf or dle clIlIfdI or his cia,..
lJ*ifallr doc. CCUlMnlaJ and poviacilll. S)'DOCls. Allboqll He- piDcd
pater j",porIaIlOe ill IIiI lbco!o&Eal1hoa&b1 willi IIle paainJ yean. lIlc
provilICiaIl)'DOd wl\ietlloot pb<:c T)nl in AD ill !lad all _ Il'O(:ft im-
llledllle. direct, lIIId llnmmc: impact 011 hbn, tellLlti... ill lIiI uile from
~ lIthe ClOIlClIllill'1 01 dle Dtfti... and taler obja;:lions toltis _
llIal rd. Vol.427 It is alao "';1;hi!I tho! rer;ords 01 dIU I)'WXI #1&1 .." rlllll
IJle r,"" ddIIlltlve 8Ct1lWions lNde :I.... Am-Jllll bJ lUI POIUempo-
I'Iriu widlilllll ea:letWUcaIlCIliD&-4 In the _ _ .alan d Ille puent
wort.lbel'll(ft,. u '~pI. will be IMde ID l'IltOIISlnlCl .... lIiAQric:aI """-;vc
IIldcllronolol1 ot~ ~1I ..hEb Id .. dleS)'llOdoll)ore.u ~U ....
uamlllalioa of dle proem: by 'OII'hich Ihc syllOd wriYed III iIa jlOdpnems con-
cemlni lIlc bishop of AIe~ which .rro;:led him 10 IJeatJy lbinllllc
rora lWOdacldi:l of ~ lpillOOp;lle
SECTION II

.1lIANASIUS AND TIiE SYNOD OF TYR.B


SEcnON II
ATHANASIUS AND TilE SYNOD 0' TYR

I. ntE8ACXGROUNDOFnmSVNODOP1YRE

87 Illr. liIK 0I1liI IhinI uile. AD 3S60AD 362. ""'-ius had


bIIlaa-d. panQII:w view ~ Ille aallclrily. SD\IalU'C, and ~
01 eec: .,.w;Ida. Kia views were 1IJJdy bUrId . . - IliI __
apo of _ . lim ... ," f . " " by. IrieI7 at'.,.. .. d>e
.-cy ,... wtoidl ~ IIiI dIild uile roo.. d>e docftICII at' Ibe e-ri 01
~ ill AD 32S. 1lIe If g" of ~ ............... wbldlliIawe beClI
n_iMcI illtla (IQI If:IlSiga of Ihia
ltIose e_.~ .,........xd.
..-1IDdy. eIpCIrialIy III Iq.Ud .,
i:he SyllOd oI.T,... .. AD 3ll. wae.~
praml -..;lJ 0I1lOI'ItCnl for i:he \lWIop 01 A!e'"Itria. ll& _ .... 01
ballIstllneaI "qpwed by CcmI'N;ftI: toIkowiq die S)'IIOd ofT,", p""idtd
AIbMati.........lIlin ..-idl an 0fIIlI)I1Ui1Y for ......1 UIIl:b ...........
Ihis period and, 1M "'"" bcca ..... - . - . pre ri& 10 JiIIteriaa doubts
......... . , Ille m...:..r mil 1DO!i.:acioa 01. dle bisbop 01 AlreadriL II is,
lbaI, III . . S,.,od 01 Tyre lIoII " _ lift ow run M_" ill ..,.
.-pI1D InIenIaIId Alb"';.'. early ," " ~ Illd lila IllIIIIa" ill
Uic:1l dliI.7lIOd 1IlI"c=d bls lata" acIionI ... ........,.
Fnnces V-,: lIlIeS dIaIAthInasllll'S MdoposiliOllM T)Te _ ......
lIIII OIl doclrlrW 00IISXIeraIi0II bill uponllil m.irconducl ill Ei)"pI. ~I n-
can be: liuJc doubI, t:K>-Iever, IhaI LI\e lIerie. 01 evenll .lIieb reaebed !bell
peat. ~ belill ..ilb Atbana$iUol'1 re.fUHlIO reMlmit elLhcr Alius 01" !be
MelWanIlO the oommunica of !he churdI 01 AJeunllria Ia ~ with
LI\e rommlnd 01 Ctwtanlil'oe..2
Follo.ina" mum of ElISCbIus, biihop of N~edia, 10 Ills Reo
C&ll"Ipaign hIod been JeI inlO motioIIl ...... ith had as ill primary objeelioe!be

--~,~,~,.;,Y;.:_~~'~_:~M~':_:'~.:
2vw. - . s-iao L In. zu.
,c.....~_ ~ 1913, 67,
'''' TIlE EARLY EPISalPALCARW OF A'IllANASltIS

....."'je... III An.... liO the clllud. ia AIc.ondria aIoII. widl. dM)'
.w
dIadI.
fa src-r MdeIiaa I"oaa:t:'" rDk ia Ihc 1lfairI1II1Ile EfJJIIi-
~ W;Jlia.l sppean ID be aomrt ill lIIcioIIl/IIe ,mesis at lim;
_.. 10 the Bidl}'lWal SJBCd III Iele AD 12. wtlicll _ mdor lbc
~

~ tiL E~.-I iSlllled '"I .... elIlRJe1l .. "''''ndrillOr


ArioB' . _ . . . - e- -u lOf for the IallirlI 01 1M Md.t~ b7
Ibeir """"'P'ke) t. spiw.oll!le fzt It.1be 1lIlI._ 11M boeo <Mld nI
'W';' 1bJ' the _ ..._. il .... rdual OlIlr1Jbt by Alburiu.4
Allbousll llIlUuldylbrm d willi drpirj. . IllIII u.iIe by the~.
Att."";lII """,I.... iatru.PJt<It. ~ bI ~ III 1IIa 1Dperial """"'nd' ""
bisbop 01 Air' n ....... oa:IlDqll.110 _ ...... 1M _paDr. dlII . .
1IIli~ IorRsy '-1-0 'elL udLip wUll dl& Ckn:1l CWdio; "'" T1lis
.....; .. dooed ill Ad ".,'.FUI/IJ lAI#r rar aAa- AD no ....,.,
lie ~ .. _ II all M:t. . . 1lle wmliI oldie ......
-.1 !be; r-:ifW ......... oIl1rur.ao iR>UlIioL-7

IJ . . .ooi.o'.,"_IU.ADJJJOJ2
The Arim-Moirciln alliaao;c appan 10 ha'IC beeoIlRnrIFd by Eusr:toiI<s
01 Nioorne4llo dn,lhe ~ ....Iricb inunedialcly {oIkl.. ed Ihe Synod III
Bithynia, thM II, CII. AD n9-AD 331.1 Acc:otltiIlJ 10 Athanasius, E.... biut
persuaded LIle Mdeliarlt "to pmdlU $OIIle pmelll. IIIICh U !bey hal ~
_.ains! Pela'. Ac:hll1M, n Alr:nndet. iJlllI'der" Lhallhey ",1,111 -invent Irld
Ipfead. reports IplnsIIII U weU. w9 EpiphaQ.iUII plal;u Ibc beJiMin, or !he
alIiarQ i:n Illlglldy d.ilTtte'U camc~t by ~Ilbal .. lie. I cIl:leplioll of
Melelian bilbopl arrived It alUl1 10 pcesenl petition 10 lhc WlpUllI' which
req..esled Jlfl*IC:tIoo for lbW cIlIIrclles from repcMed clllIolic inll"USiou, the
emporor"1II1CJlllaJ1t1 tdllJed 10 p;lIll ....... _ 10 ~nc. RClUinin
in Ibc qIon at CooI$Wllinople and N"ocomodia. they lUmlId II> Eusebi... ol
NioolnedIa for - U _ ill 1Jrin&ia1l1bcir case before cmpc:rIlI". Eucbivs
pWed IllW ~. bul llR/y with \be condilicln ~ would .ccepl
AriuJ inIo fellowsblp.!O
Ono;eapin,~. Epiphani... ~ ~ i11lt'pnIlD daIiDg
alld conw.l, indJcatinllllw Illis InlCrView Ild: place wbile AJeundcr .....

3. w.a;-Atial. H_ _ T ~ 16'4 s.--H IT/(I'G


..." 1m),. ... _ HI! 0. II (Il.jd<z, ' ... "14).
.,. HI-II. n (tiIa. 79. SOU).
'q ~ 59.'" ((IpiI:r. 13'. 2G-1. Ill).
'...,., I ~ 1110. t1.t2); ""'" _ L IIiL :zn.
'FuMllal0.7(11 L'o"PF._ 'IO).
IS- HD.21e-.n.6tf.);r(.I" H_6a.6If.(IIolI,
1.&5. 27tJ.).
'...,.,,6lL I (Oph. 14Q, Il-IS).
IO,.~ H_. 6L 6tf. CHnU. 14,.:mr.).
""
.m alive, _ is, t.:fore lire spriAa oL AD 321. T'...:Idly a.n.cs ....
w,. ..... .-k - - -...1rOl>IlII:
I!IM IM)1 tzf_~
Or iqlnnihlc
ill dtoc
lOr M _ Ar '..
oI3Z1I1._e....-tinc
II

~ Ni.. 11. iulle .... 0021._ I far ril8rlWO ~'Il B1


pi", 1lle pl ' A 01 dlarzes KI c.._ ~ tIIc.-a:oo<I
otr__ of EM'" ot NicuuOidi&, 1Iowe>tu. E, " t h.. _1 be relaIiq
f!WI MduiaIl _
AJ1ID.MeIeWn fIl1UIA wIIidIl!lct.IId.. .. tClliIy, be let.
lhc .""",-," 01 .. .,.;Ql.... oIll1e be. . ..., of fie
ft
330. folio.... e-"D".'. rellInI 10 IK E.a ...cl 1M. cledicaliOll ol
at AD
Co-,tpliloplc. 11 All Fllldliw bad failed 10 ..pia mt.. ...101
C_lipe'u_'lierlcacuoAlt - 1IIol1ok" 'WVllWlilrie.. ...
_ oppllfWllil:y kr ......Irin.1!Ie bisk>p d. Ale ...... II ill... a"
chaw" 1llaI1hc_ '"
. . . . . . Alh
Fpip."''''._
_en ... =puG ill Ni
r... letol_ ..' made
,.. _ JdKal mel..,.
sipallba ' . of --. ~ qa;u. 1Ilo biIlqI <II Ain-drilo.
IrI ....,., , 0Wl'. oIl!IC ~ ot lila alIi..... , wriI:a.
$

u-1hirIy ,..,. aI'lu . . - . ill 0:.' lie ftbIa lIlIIdlra: -...tas


01_ MeleOarl detp.1Iion 01 AltIolld. Em_ _ 01 TmiJ, Uld CaDiniNI
01 hlllSium, wltlIlIle Idvioe oL Emebius. puI far unl tIIc. InlPal_alioll:
lhal u bllJlop Al"-sl", Iaad imposed on Wll.wf\lllal< III killd upoa. !he
FIYPUanI, possibly W:in. over 1bI: pterOIMlvc which b)' civil decree and
~lIIto1n !lad flIlaly klollllcd to l!Ie hicl3fChy of tbc Pl'P" ICmple.l aIICI.
lI'IaefOl'c. violalina the ri,m of lbe lou! Roman Idminiscrnloo.l 3 The
from lUi btin8 ~lald 10. local levy
11.'<1(:1 rglllfl of 1M lUll Ull<CrWlI, .pan
on lillell lunlc. wblch... Ole dele.atioA claimed, "-I been rust imposed.
upon the ~1etiaJls lhem..l.ea. 14 n.e locIIion or thll n.. ICCIISlIUoa was
moM probIbly COll$l&f\tiaople. where Camaantinc was l~ railknce from 16
July AD))O 10 30 1une AD ))I,IS II is p0ss01lle. howc_. 1Iw Olnslaa-
line Yisiled Nicoa>edll durin. this period u ......1, =1I"ollp Epipllaniul'l
_ ot Ihit 1DMM:r is unc:1cM. 16
Tbe _ I Ioc&tion of Adwwilll dI1s Ilme alto rcmIial IIJlCCI\lLin.
"he IIUIa 10 lhe FU4J1 knm indalcs dial he YisUcI .... T1ldJIid during doc
.. i~ter ot AD )>>') I and rmlll dw IocMioft issue4 Il~ EM.... Icocr of AD

lIT.a--.,.... ' _ _ F ... 131.


12/i1N'.
1]""",.60. 2 (Oplu, 14lI. IJ.-lt).

~--..dt ...
I~ ....~ .. _~ <t. i. SdI...... CS m. 191. IlL 2., - ' ILW. <lin<dor.
.udwI. ... i<.... n. sa.
1ST. B__ no. 11_ C-Vc of DMdoriM _ C_ _ _ ....
1m n.
ul.. ~., 7L Ilt.. 132.: Epip/tMi.... H_. U. S' (Kol~ I.S. 4(1'_); c/_
S--1I L %7.'
(PO '7. UZB).
Ul6

11HimIW "Anpo\oV .,I..du: S~... l.uUurft , . _ ..At.........


1Ii/usIwf,;'
IIs.~
tA. M.cllo willi M. AIbt1t. .....), SC 311, ,.It,
1915. 229.
as IV, 1: </. Y. hri,"Lo .........Ji. d.11a 10.., ... r.. tali eli
s....' AI_k> quoralm.. II........ " (IKI): .sn.
19t..T. LJon,""tM Le<ora fdlAl.... s_ ...- - . lInho.!oJ.IM.
~ /<tu,u. rAc~ ~ oM 141,;"" J9 (IllS)): 646lJ.; .......plaino4
..r...... by Albmaal..... F-..J lAact m.I..........., . . , . . : IlIa1
.... 10 _ . - - . ' """ .. _ It ,"U IiloonJ' .. ...n.. 011 _ 100 ""all< ";Ill
(10_ _ .,. <iI S12), w. boow _ ""' ulollq cllntloloD 1hl
..._ . . _ _ - - . . bdoto 1M II !No " - W. B_ _ T1w N_
JiI 11) MIll _ .... Iorw wu hill "'" Tlooboid (JI~.I"" M .....].
229). "10 po..IbIe duo, ....v _ of _ _ &an. o.ritiIoa .. '-P
.wi.. II> """ doliu<)o 01 _ . . , wido 1oti.M iuwloIoI wi .........,
II" .,...
_.,it.' ;
_ _ - . . 11&
A". c";'" .... """ E..,
..". 'iO
jb!olOp . . uaa ..,."
101'" ID . .
In .. opIotopooI .10
22). WI....' , . . . _ _ .11)1
1 I 01 ........... ..t..
., . . - - .
(M. "' .
.
...,.

~. 60, 1 (OtIou. lolO. 19-20).


21,100 . . . ~'+ .... 'wdoobip' . 21.
11",",- 6Q, 1 to.-. 1010, 19-21).
U....,.,. 11.' (OpQ. 151.9).
'1011'._ _ o r ....._ .. ~~ _
_ 01 bra- __ al g " . ......, - - . _ I..... 2&5.
"n
CO"domnMicrl a/1lle MeIetitns, Ilowe_. CanJaan~ ardcred Allwwlus II>
appeal before llim. 2S TIlt ~ for 1lle A1QlIllOllI ill .... IiYcD by
A ~ and Ihe Ieuers or Conslantine wtlletl he quoIa all 110 IClnp
UWIl. wiIhin tile IQt 01 ApoIop. C<If/Il,.A~.
Alhuailll. Ka:W'dinlIO nosIOIII. _Ill hayc rtWll<ld II> Ale........
fl'Ollll lIle n.etmd. 10 be paeIlt fOl 1lle &sw ceIdnIlDu w'U;lllOOt pl.ce
cIIwirlI;lh! - . d weelt 01 April AD 331. TIleFfMIIi ~ ,..... Ul.lPPCII'I
ID be mi,,,,. eel ill tile chr'oo.Ckal ~ III iu dca>ipc;o. 0 1 _
ob, "'~IOFQUJtl~lV. n. ... _rn-c >tiDe
cIoa .,. __ III U>ooe 1lIltll "'JtIIl. if _ iudIct rro. ~'I bet or

tlndy ~iMce wilhllle ttiipClOi'. ~ TIle lidocp fio:Ioolly.m-llll.


1loc~11" 01,... ....;. c..1llellUllbraoiNic Iii ID~
\:Idoft C , 'M .. dIoe Ilu _ . 01 AD 3J I nl ; . , Ikn: l!Ir<Iq:II
1tIc IJUIa' ~ 0I1be willoIet Cu. Noooealbet AD ]]1 II> J..-y AD
312).n He. _IlillKcaun .... 1lt;_1iQ ~ Icucf ID l/Ioe clladI ot
~ for AD312dwiaIN urlJ ~oI _ _ yar:ZI
I/, appears _ upon IamilIc dill "11.._ ' . llId bra 1'-""" ..
ICIClQl' bdOft Ihe tIr..... OI. ElO:IdIiuI coavUlc:ed!be Mclclilla drier;'" 10
muin in IhIJ WA 01 Ni4:oMiIIdi.I1ridl1lle Iumt at poumtiq ... aBpcnlt
widI _ _ of MlCIISIlions IplMl AlllaAasioar.. n.: Woe _bets ollbe
~ deleptloo (bion, EIOdxmoIl. and Callinicul) wac joined by
fourl/I ~ ..ben AlIlaM$i", deteribet as "W ridiculoul Hien::amn>n.
wIlo bei... ashuzled of M name, alII hlnudt EWoai.... 0029 Of the ro..r.
Hiaammon is the only membtr oIlhe delqIUon wlw) is not lisuxl illllle
IClledult of Mdoulll delaY ..lIiell bad been presen~ 10 Aklw>der
appro~inuHel1lO11ror five yars earlier.
The Initial cjl;' ~ of H1C:&a! lUMioll ..Ilicll hid Clfi&iaaIIy been
brou&11l forward by Ille Mclcliall' _ld be jDined 10 lIuu fllltber
accuSlliont-tWO of ... occlesiasllcal naturt IIIll OK wlditional cjy;1
incIictmeI'IL When AdlII_ius appeared before CclluIlD~" PDmathia lbe
fourc:llarJe$ he Iud 10 _ _ 'iIItn dleIe:
I. , . . oriJillll KCIlSIdoa of lJlepJ w.ation of lhe c,ypliaa
popullce. ..d!he. MeletiaIu in ,..uell1ar. ill rqard 10 !he lRD
IIlIlKs mentioned Ibove. w.. ~i\C:lJllCld. S., mcthDd of
w.atlon in Utd _Id ... hae bcClI untnulll In ECYJII doring
the Roman period bul. .. Iou boon jowtjra..... ablM:, wculd bve
IlIIIIped the autItoriIy of the &ypDan ri'ril .aminisuaau. IIIIlcss

'1:IA,HI. loG, J (o,;a. 1010. 20-21),


26HiMU. (I\, Mlnlot), 229.
27 B_ ncl'f_&yW 1t.
'ltF.... r.-IV(ltobu c1f~5'1).
29,...,.
it had beca <:olIfined 10 lilt cburrb as 10rl' ()/; ~lJ
oIluinp..:so
2. The _ d att..,"jOll. IlOt II'ICALioned by AWlIUius but
lnetic,1ed in lhl: F,sJtJ1 l411tr , .......... tlw he had bccD
~~c:d". bl!tlop "whi1r.1llll ~ 31 A1l11oq11lbi11 brid
td"crcow;e 10 A....WU' _ lizM of~ clor;:bge IIllP'*I
10 rdct ditec;dy III ~ II of lIoII _.N~ S,.od of
,..- - . it ...,. be ~ 01, _ . - . . -.-.1Iliuu
to..., ..lIidI ~ IIl:I , ........ 10" W-oISl.
Mart .. AD )21. n
3. nr. dIifd 1Ilu Maariall, dle QMeIetiIa pieA
wilo ddcl' 1 loW";,..........die Mdecian ddqalioll IVa
~ Iai"I ~ Ibe inRnocdaaI of Albanasi.......... his
,up' .. jbjli,y. had taltitr bectI .... II> IlIol ~JiorI 01 MIrallis 10
_ _ 1Idll'l'M.' .. t ' Ilk pdtlIl. 10 A.lcunclria. In llle
_ a/1IlU j::tasw;nl wililllioa" ~ II Aid 10 1llI.-e bem
ilMlhed ill III a1le:atioll clur!Ill wllidl be bn*e I cfIaIil:e
bdaap., 10 I!Ml dl=1I of 1IdIyns."
4. 'The fout\h, ...,;1_ JUiclas. _1LSaIiCln appean to 111."" been
,... ror-d by wtwSocn&llden Ill."'" Euabian parly,"
IIw Is. Eulebius ot N~ TbcopIs 01 Nic-. Maris of
ClIakedoa.l.h1Kius of $i"lidnum in Upper Moesla.Ul4 VaIcRs
of M_ 10 Upper "*nJlooia." AIhaDasiIl' .... ,,,-"&Cd willi
Ireuonable corISpiracy in WI he w. IUCIW 110 lllIoe JlfOYided
Phil_Ill,. rOllllel' mUle. or lIlII olTlCelI . . ..ccl of h"i'!
ploued 10 _uw,1e COO'.....IiDC, with ~ of 1OId.J
Ah1IDuP Hans ~l:PnIILII. _ I ethctI.lllUtslI NI this _
aa1y. q<JC#ion of~lhl: bribery 01'1 kill",
m-a," II ill ~
1s.IlrilI, dle. M_
fn:n Am-iu.J'1 0WlllltCOUl\llllal1lle charJe"""~, til-.
r c! llle emperw._l6

..--
30 ~ 80--. ,,,, "'/I'; ,.. ,...~. J12M;""}~"1. fr-
,... AtwIo C_ _ Orlord, 1916, 91, In; SooI_ HE L n. 9 (I'G
67, InA).
'IHI.ooin (A. N.o<tiII),. ... ciI.
32J, Hof.Io, 11'-1 '" 'M c.......,u, '" ,II. Chrdo I. 221; ...........
~IO 1 1 _ '" .... MJIOtI oIlIoo .................. AcMa.i... 14
.,........ L ,,! . 3..2 """ , ~
llA,...,. 60, 4 (OpitI, 140.22.2]).
]<Is-- HE L n.' (J'G n. UlA),
35 Cf. a.-. C -'- E4MW 316, .. tt,
'''n.. _'" ,."u.I~ "' idl iI _ ..,. A--..
....... llnlo_ ~oIdla :1" M' o' . . widIin"""

...... _ _ _ (.yoo/. 60. 4; 0,;... 14:. 1).. s...nl..,;..... lie .....


\In...... , ri ._"+r"Iw--.p ... \Iribo.on->ciaI ..,,",
".
CIeIrt,. Ibe _ _ dille tokh" ...., fnobjem; ia.. "i. . .
doIrp:t'-lid . hdORe--;.,_IO~_ h,lI'I';
reo. the. _ oJ A!ruMriL no. odd ~ ot ci'tlJ IRI ...' . r l
m" to wlIidl_ El .... ......, ~ lIlIlIPc .., IidI: ..-t rn..
dliI ....... -..laisp:' t' a_E' , t ' .llIdu-ly 1Udl
.mhand,_ ............1 .......... aIOl"C; .'impo iuies
0lllIId bB .. dfeo;t;oe a:w:dIocl ia lbeir c..pIip 10 ~ die _ 'lOCI!
.. , : n d. die Nioeao ""..iriao 1llII ~ IlId ~ 1M pri-r
objca ollhis ~ _ _ llkd, one
10'" n:p:ue. <II Ariu Illd
Ills "'Wiw IIdt vi SIIpport MIhiI w. - . lh& ca-. ......
Aa _ _ wp of sucb a CIlllpalp IiIId brat Euulthiul 01 AllOOdl.
Allklllp lU'.c. ~ llaI pat r ~ lIMl c:aa Ihat F....",;," ...
jlOMld, .. AD 321 or 329, pVurily for SabtUi".i" YiewI UIll IlIe
in$li. . . . ollbe f' : " I (_litis cue., tm-_.E\lIRlIiIg 0I~.
~ " " l'.1llIUiI.Iy oda cUrta wllidl -etC llroiIpl IIp;iIqIllia.,n
Flalhoi ....e. .....p F_'iwllle-a. MaY bYe 1W:a!be ,"-, .. \lie
prlXIIIldina:f. iI ill diKll;U/t lOOt 10 place &atbiu ot N"lCOitM:dio ..... T\IIeopiI
ot Niac:I ~ in Ibe 8ClioaI Wen ....SI Eusuthllll. The
_~ lila apinst Ibe bisbop d. Addoch _limi.... in d..,_ and

....
.~mbcr 10 ~ w/lich .. en: Ie>otled lpill$l A~s OIlly I ftw y~

The eUlel11 bishops at Slrdic. hinl lhal the bishop of AntiOCh was
dcpoud not for doclrinalreasons bill because or his e--il monner of lilt,n
Alhaoq'u,. writini lhirly year. aflU l!ll> event. "'t WI Euswhlus. M.
coote..or ... d .....a of IOtII>d flllh." .. as deposed (/Win! IQ "invCllIoed
KCUJlIlions' apinst him, incllJdilli Ill. cbArlC Ilw. ~ had KInsulIed M
CO.....tlloe'. llKIlher.3' HId EllSlfIthilll beCII depoced 011 cIIIrte of
Stbcll;,nIPII .lone. one ....,..ld _ Ia~ ""b I characleri:wion by
AlhmaUIaIli_ lbe. ~ cIiJnIll: IIIlrilid1. _ ........... 8&meI
...........ua 1Ix case nlIde. apiIur. EiIII&Ihi&Is follows:

....
Ilt;
""oor: tf. C_ _F_
AJI./oC.....
H. ! ... rre.....
,... e-...... -t
C_lIw '" J~
&_
a.-.1_1961.
a.-. _
..... ), 19n, 171:'" W.H.c. F-. n.. ,,;. fl/C........,. L - . I"'.
$lf., AD tr ..,- .... ~io_r .aiIlo< doo
~ ..aJ,o:;oI .. ....,.... ~ il .. <iiIficofl _p.
~ "" ........ lit' _ _ oc-. _ .. ,...r __ If,. s_
11IU_ (s_.. Mt:. .....). PIor"L
C
.il_.... -no..
_ _ Iwr...-_
1= r
.... _

~~ Ii flo: _.
""'"
_r_ ...-..,
""' _ till

l1U.c. ~ F-.." hoc '1 .". . - UG ti 11"">0 1.


,". litlilory.C& - A.oI. . . . . (hdoo.csEl,~).IV.n.M.
'l9Hu.. An-. ... 1 (Opitz, 1101, 3111$. 3).
Hif; 'W belieYCd IIinI prl)y ~ Sabdli . Illd iKladed IloiI
- . Iloc - . I f apiflSl iii.. Yet WI . . ..c Iloc aaiJI doa'p..
F............ ~, 1b
prinr"". lie IiYCd ;" diaadul)' h""
PKnI MI" 1
Joe tqlt ' - . ucI ""
.... IPl*ca dbtsptUf'aIJ _ CIiij)UOi', _ _ wtli.Ir.
~ ..
lot Joe iii . , lIoe.

nc dlIrJa bce:a ""6P"a:d or ~ iN.........


*
Ik FIIIl.
alit
0....
IQJ
coandl I~ All ca. AD 3211 _tlillef
oo4lo'C'.ic:wa1!hecaK_"_ _ &P.. .~
and

.-eel .. abjDaDo D die 9Cft1ir;t ~ dIC 0DallciI."ll


'T1P:rC' "" be lit.IJc do<Ibc !.Iw the F.,bim- ..1\11 \lie IIeIp ud
.....~_;;;ofIbe.Mdciiand'C "oo.bclicwdlhll-"'_lJ'woukllbD
be clfce:tiyc in IUlOVins AIhanIsiut (n:n A'culOjria. ~ -.ou ~
liw<.opM . . . ill lIIe all: al Artww,;; It ~ ~l1Ir. ~ 11Ie ~
F.ebiu ob;eai.... ;" ,...... inC A!II....... &ora AIu.arIdria ruaained dill!
m._ _ ~ Ariu. Tbc Qititl& ol b lI_ II poiaI in fC'II"d 10
AlhInuI., _ .,.... Arias would only boI. provided the bisbop ol
Aleuadril wilJI opponanity lD lC'sarI. lD lIIe N"='e c1efiailioa and
- - . . . D wIbc~ Cna"'WMine Iud lkudyli'wC'a hit..-. Aluandril's
.niqur. pc!Ii.;on .. lk focus and -w..poial of lIM AriIII ~
WOlIld haoc acIdeillO the Ibqcr ~ sudI courae of a:Uo-. In QDIUnSI, the
- - . l of At1IaIIsius ... ciyil ar. _precQdy. CInOI\iC:II J";lIIIldI: would
ICCOlftplisit !he ...... pu:pIl5C withool: an imnledilie reu..... iDMioD of the
Niceac rormll1aions.
II it impc:llunI lD note, lherd"0I'C'. wllIlIloulh O!NlD of l!le dwlcs
'I.;nll Allllll;lJlw wue of civil natu,e. llIe dcslrod end rtQllll101 h;s
ctnOftkal dePQtitil)ll from AJc.undria. This f;OOld be ac:oompU$hcd only by
l!le decidoll 0(. s)'llOdlllSscmbl.y IIIId the _ I of the empllR)f. lfI\Ia:I, of
CO\lfX, Alhanas;us ...u found If> be guillY of. lrUIl)IIabl.. ICI of. purely
pol;~cll ar civil Ralll"'. In $UCh cit(,lIlftIl.Il\CeI lhe FURbians mlghl be
......et of IUmmary jlIdglDCllt 00 the pan of Constantine. weh u
_nee or u1.If:. (II" tile iroi'J\edillC call;"1 of. syocdll IIRl'Ilbly which
could pau. _tmce ol deposilioa.. U. "'""''''''. otbef, kss drInwic. civil
r:hIrJes could be provlld. such IS the w. rdItin& 10 llncll tunics, CInQRial
lSt'pgsl,. l'aIIIined possibIc. The =ODd ~ of NicMa ...: IIuI <:krzy
.....m.
apon lIM ~~lWO .... lhrt::C' witftea" wen round piIIy of. -SQ"C'-
ar "Qpill! oa-" -w
be. subjca lD i- tin. ~ . 1 Hddll
....W_ ollHl.maa ~ doe ~ "doe tUlc is tbIt they . . "" do ",-ot
if tbey _ i t ..no. otr-.-
allllaialltll menil, ... IDtut of dIU

__
1*tIao_ _al puuiptioa ollbc ("......U.: ne chil dlaps of

<lOa- C _... _ Fa ' ... Ul.


.In.... _~ n ~_w lJW,~ _

- ..--. -" _ .....sp . . , .. Af'kal .n "" a.iI


__ ...u (HoMo. . d~ :. 319).
.2/...... :. )7IJ.
ATltANASIUS ANDrnE SYNOOOFTYRE
'"
iUeell Ia " " nd IN'_"'"
COIISJIir*:y _14 bWo C:alI
jIIl'_f I' oI"'-.uWlXlldIl>e0 '01. .-
I
Ibe
.ma
~'.lIo""""oIlbedllb..
TIle IW_ _
Ath....
-= I'''''' ............
elec_..., irTcplaricia ill rq;anl1D
mwa:tMi::ti .. biJtIop 01 Ak..1lt!ria hno: bcaI
co ," cd ill paIa' clNil ia \he IQ. ~ oIlbe....- - ' - .... ~
Iilllo. r..,lher ~_1. 11 iJ ....~ 10 IOIe, 1Iowc_, dIM. wilhoIIt
nrrpion, d 0/.1IIe c:bIrIcs WIlo.nodi", A'_";,', . . . . . 10 1Ioc ~
01 SI. Mark 8fe 0 0 Illd 10 r .....ical pmaiflllc-, wtoedler 01 -.e, tile
..-.bet oIco_1liloI bistlaps, or !be ud I': oIMokliu1 infOl.ca ..
tile derdcllI IIxU." ya. ..... bcaI poinlOli oat by A.H.M. ill
. _ n ....... lllontelllUled IIM:k 01_,;- , duriq lIIispcriod
_ .......... _ _ in .... bisIIOpI_ derIDd .." lbe. wllidI .....
oequ;,ed for
Ilroe : ., cd
oW "il, 1lDdlft, IIIIibIy IbM
c:bIrI~lOlIIrrc.brcs.
Coo-.- ...-..:I
,..., . . . .,;u be ...... IIio
I
F'~: 10 dlio clrtialiy, III.", raa. ..
e.:--linr bd 1i~1l i.iI IppiOYal 10 tloe ~Iectb. .... ~ 01
'*
brcs IDIOd,

Alballasiul at- iflomedi.....,. If... 1IIe ICIIlIIl ~I ond would Ilaoe belen
IoM/Ie 10 leICincIao:b .wQ:i<w Ii'lal ..... ~Ilt ~
Some 1la... 1llailp!Cd 10 inu:rprel; tloIl rharaa ..hidl_ plIrcd opiDsI
At!wlUi1l:l u bcin. primarily of a civU, witb only IIle Il:CUtation ronccrninJ:
lbo! brealtin. ofl/lc cllallr~ bcini ec<:lcsiastlcal.4.S Sur/I .,jew. booi~ver,
'~IO lifIoOte tI>c IlIOlIvalion wbicb ItOOd behInd !he c~J'=1 onlbe p-I
ollhe Mel~lil.llllnd llte ElISCbims, namcly, lhe rclllllalCment of AnUll,
Owing 10 Alhanasius'. imtaMi~ca>ceminl AriUS'11'CtUlIl to AJuandriI,
llIc OiIly pouibillty which ~ appeamllO be lIle c1epoillioll of lIle
bisllOp of Aleundril by Illy meIBI poaiblc.. In lho cue 01 Eoulllbilll, lillie
aucnlion ..... JiVCII to whedle:r lhr dlIftes _ cld or ecdrIUicaI by lhr
Synod of Antiocb 01', IJllIIrcmly, by CclllswIlilIe, ",110 ..mwc4 Ibe CllSe
aftuwll'lb. ClurIy, lhe only point .. issue for II>e Ev.Mbianl ..... lIIc.
rrmovaI 01 1IJta!hiI/J by Illy IDCanI pallible, Ulldct lhe second c.- 01
N~.n 1llM .... ".... I ) fora bisIIOp', depoai!ion .... hll conviclionof
III oIl"en& of a lUiably 8Crious ~ g".jJ or fICClrtilStiral. The
mllltiplirily of d1..,.1iIade apinst botb EuItatlliul and A~Ns, civil
UId ocx\esllqic'l, ~ meody _ I to prootick IUfflcient _ for JlIdI a
depclsilioft or, III 1M Ieut. .. provide fe.- III ern~jladieiII inquiry by
a ~ IlII : I" DurlIf; 1M CUIII1Ie ot aadI. illqllirJ', runhef aDep'.....
miPI be Imed . . ill a C8fetmIIy I d -..lIlY: . . filIIf 'I'Udirt WOIliII
bcabe.-_l ' .
Wllca A"'_I. arri'iCd at Pso",.. hi, Now bl:l' of AD DI, be.
a;lllCal'IlO r - beca _....., oCtile ra.c..s ..bidI_-re4 .... 1iat.

Cv"
oWA.H.N ........
'l.no,
n. r.-._
L ,

~v, T - r , ~Iit<u n""""" )II,).t9,


U,
e-;r. llf-4C1, 00""" I..... Val. 2-
'I'broIqIIouIlh8 iIucMew willi CllllSllllline~ lh8 eMrp wbidllIad
bra! ~, Athuuiu tMlIS 10 1laY~ been under 1Ilc 'lnpftDian IIw 1bc:
Mritilou were 1M primary sowcc of 1lI~ ICC..,.IOM EYCII 1bc: cIwgc
.......iilnI tbc told _ 10 I ' l l i l _ appearI 10 u .... bra! brou&bIlO
CoaSlaJltl",,', Inan;oa I!lroItI:h Ihe represeawiooot 01 tK Mcletiall
delle.......
_liIlo.iled
. . die l:I
M. M_
N' t til .... !he
Ah1Iov&h """"';. would beer iIlclinIc 111M. F' 01
&iI:nd" 01. He.tiww IW 10l'M0eSI 0I1hB bet
1.iIae..1 The procell 01. 1n1UYic.-s wKII e--_iDc
irlm iaID dle ..... cMires IllCIt pbcc _ . pcriocI 01
~foIr'I""'W fiolau. rfoocmbttADllllDu. Nb_, AD
1_ . .

}}2, DwiatI tIleIe IIOlldlI wtlicII -m M'I lwei: : t ~,


"'t" '.. _ IIInicItd willi, ~ ill pclIIibIy.,
IaIIt oIlbe
~,.juw.,-lIellad""CIk&I!l'OrIl4lcunclrilDNi r
.... I malt of COlIIWltille, illoesiptiM Illd Ws lmcniew'l1ridl
"""";'U duriIq IIle:Ie .....' b dle blsIIOp oI ......ndril .... ~
lICq-.iued 01 III lIIoe elwta _bleb Iud Ilet, lIroqbl apias( ll.iJn.
Unl'on wi,., -0 _ d rcnIIillI 10 !he _ I dispodllm or Il1o: varioul
_iomI, 1lllIOI'" ... WnuNs ladiata tIIIt dle cnlpc_ n:jmcd. !be
cbarJe concenliq 1Jcb)'flS U , pin 0I1lle "61ttboocl- of the MdetianI.019
~I ~ n:rnailldet 0I1lle dlIIJCI. ...lbIftIIiuI_ llJpaoeolllrllble lD
conn.:e !he tlllperor oIbia ~ i1.lOCeo_
AtbInasi... celebmed Ilis 1ri\lQlPb, ...ritma: in Ill, Eutu IcIlU fQr AD
}}2, -, am the COun, um, beeII SllIlIlIlOllCId by the COlI'C'O' CoDsuollinc
10 see bi",. But tile McJeIianl, ... ho ""CIe p1ram I.hcrc, beinl cnyious,
. . . .t our ...... bcr~ tbc emperor. BOlt thc1- put 10 lIumc and driven
.....,. 1!aIlOcruI, bcinJ COlIfIllCd b,. lIWI7 ItIIn&J, ttJO Alhalwiiu hac!
apoklciwd CIrIicr In lhe Icucr rCll' being 1Ite In ... ri\ina tn4, Iht:rcf-. IIIIIbIe
10 live proper noclce 01 lhe brain...... or the L.en1Cl\ rllt.51 TIliI....,.
Indicw WI !Ilc cali", l:Ia .... IlOI. decided 0111 Ia1c
~ AD 332, AI II - .
J.......,.or cady
EIsICf lClICf hac! 10 be""" by. special
~ undeo' lhe COIIIIJIIIlCl 01 0lIC 01 AtIl_lIu', fiicncls It COlIn.
Flavius AblIYiuI, ....m ..-vecI , pIIICIOrian ,,",roct IUlllcr ea.-.tinc.52
Allhoqlllllc \etta .... _I later dlIrllllllll, AlhlnMilll corlSicIcn illO be
"wdI tilIIOd.lince OW' cecmiclhaviDJ: been put 10 IbIlMIDlI '.0''''' by IIIc

"'F. _ clotaiII - - - . . doio _,.. rf, Oil..... ." dI. suo.


.',y,H. St. 3 (OpiII, 1l9, 20).
F~LtN;N.I(l' 0 ."dI.5U~
.9","". U. I (Oplu.. 144. M~
5tJFauJu--l\I.'(l1 .,.til
51'7). M

51,... N. I (l t _ ~ SII~
.....

52,~I.. (Roll.".OII. ." <iI.. 511); ~ Til Ii,.. EA.,iN, ICW.


__ A--'

.,
C _ oN
"'" r - "'
Iscot .....,. '" ConI_.,
- ClIJ-pic _ _ b b ..... lD
<f, HiM. NO-. 69, I (ope.. 221,
'"
o..a., ........ Illey pet ed lIS wriI:IoDoIr. - . ...,. _ ....
fmal -.. 01 ~ -'-& _ to; i ~,...
b ""1Ok 'We
will dq _ 1M Lord.. for lac is III be sJorioa$l)' Pi' t; die "ant ancI ...
riI:ltrllc die ~

III lhc Ii A... 'm wrill:a 01_ . beill&


'"plat 10 1l\amIr.~ ldon: ConI' aad. ""jAo..,4 "" tIloI Q_Il.. II is
praiblr . . .'....._ wriIeI ol ocI b11be 0udI- .. ~y ~
_ IlId b .
II .., P"'l'~.~. =
,: dfea . . 1Ile ~ . . EoPtl- raiI:ItuI.
A,."" .... IllCI JIlt' Olha't. Yiewtd dIo:
_ _...........11 Dd lIb:n plaoe.-b ~ ' . ~ IS ajDinl
ei'ti.lJelcIiulieal Illquiry. It is _ wilikdy IIl3I the Mtldlu lkIt;plioa.
wllidI Nd r..... ~ tid..... Qm......, IIad YiolaIed the de..eruh e -
oIlbe S)'lIOd of AIltiocb. hdd ~ sIlonl.y before. .. II".
kIrtIade ~ (It
priesIs 10 III III COUrt wiIhoul Ibe prior COIlSCflt at dlelr lIIeUI;IpOlilu IIlClIbe
'J)piO'" oIlhdr pIOYlnc:laI syaod..S-
Almoup it ill clouWaI WI AWnui ... _1(1 bIIc 'i*1d lhe
&lIlhority of !he l)'lllld wlIk:II IW deposed E.-.lri'" ancI patlapllI\llIIy
0l!Icr5. thilI iolItioa lilly. ;" bet. Iu..., Ixa:IIlle _ ..tIy e-titol: did
_ meet .... itIlllle Mc:ltlim drlcprirw aflI:r lbeir flt1lll1riv11 00\If11Dd.1Iis
1lltIteq_ I\!IOO\IrIe lO1Ile ~ prabyten. MKarius and Apis. SIdl
xenuio m-r _ Uplaill AWaui.. 1 _10 ((IIIrt'"
the. merely
pellpbenl aetionI of Eucbius of Niromc:difllt ..... m.., allbe f;OIItro.-sy.
II Is, ~ possible WI COIlIWllifle ailed for Am.n.lut lOOt ooly 10
question him conamin, !be aa:usIIlicm ..hid! Nd bccB mldc Iplna Ililll
bullO lnqu"e ll"IOtll r~lly Imo!be aclion$ of lb' Meletiall c1de'l1iol1 ..110
wen. t/len po.1t III ~e and driven ......y II ~rs.. It llle enu of !be
ISSUII wu Ille re.tOllltion of tho: Mcletiu Issue raLher than Lhe ~\lC of
llmISMionl """icll IIId beet! ~ Athanuius WOllId IlaYfI beell (lOnW if!
mwillllM proceedinjlllS CSSClItially ClCClcsiasticllln lIIlUJe. Admilledly.
SIlCh InOlvanenl In canonical conoen'Il would lI()l, of ~ ha.., beeIl
"'"'S<lI1 rOO' Cooillntllle. As A.H.M, JlInClI has QCInImCnIC4, ~'s
lIlvi(:!ion !hIt he ....U Ood's sen'llDl. impelled lIim to inlcnene ia
ea:lululic:lol displllU wi\ll eonrictioa ..... enerJJ'.~jj FWIllermore.

nFaa.I z..u. IV.


I I' tip, <il. nl).
t

~'.D. /II
, _ ...
PI 17fO,
Sow_ C_...._ I I - . . .
:z.I. . . I:l2O. ~~
i r CMIJcN.
..
s,.- '" A.MdI F were. _\iIrltIJ'. _ _ .,. . . S,- _
. . . . _ MId AD :uI-AD l29, (q. J - . ~ . _ ~ , tip. <il. n.
1........1). _ . _ _ S , . . A ' 'cf.T.D.I_
";'1 = .. aloloopt. AD 324-3oW:: _ l"> II ~ - - . . . J _ '"
"""- HUt-, ) um): 5).S(,. !oI 51 -';. ............. '" _ _ . . Jar
.. t" ..... of . . - . <f- Kdcl&.. tip. <il. n......... .. ' - '" .....
c/.li.Koao..ftI.. "'1 f.n.l'~_1SQ.
SS-. Lfu ~ c..,w.. tIp- .... L 91.
".
eaa-wi.lldd III the.-. principle ...... k WIll the ri&bI Uld duly of !he
InlperiaI JO"a1lIn"aIIO SIIPPfQ1 befu)' and ICIIiJnI. oj6
T1w AIIlanasiu did Il(Jl ~ y" ' - this c:orMttm Is C'ridcnI
tro. hb earlier rdUllolIll obey COIIatarItiK in IqaI'lIIO bCllll Arild aDd die
MeIelilnL n. M did allow lOr Ibe 8UIllorily olllle ealphOr i. sdoet issues
1ClUiClIlrlI ..........bl ~ Ilwous:hcut 1IlI_ it 11110' althcu&h
.111:0' the dudo ol 0-,,',,;'" ill AD ))1 .. 'h. . . . is a1Io -.iIliq 10
Ie .... _d".. III
Made til' _perorlI wt.idl ~ 'tIrimcl:..tIII bis
0. . podu.:a.. S1 AI ~ sup ia w relalionttlip ... iltl ee.-tiftc:.
_e,a,

A.... ' 1* I imperiM ;un.liclion ill cii1 .--1Ad did ...


if_
I

. - . lXI'M abe potoU of dle E.-pall" III "'f''''iW Md buIWI


biIllopI d'til1JO""C"' 8CIell ~ III el principks TK
QIr. _ 00 - , ditl'enfIII .. . - . . nidi dle ea.:.:c at
the 0. faiItl. IiIft .'h ....as WIll He hdcl
dlIIlbe a...a _ .". tt' bcxIJ wb y:lIlieaI will
",Ilia IIle U1ptnl1' oo.ld U.-e .ell;" ID do. ... Hi, ideal _
ploblblJ cooptalllJo;B beueea IlIe a-m.ad Sw.: willllhe biIIIops

"1614.
'1~ _ ...... m..- _ ~ __...,. lC.M. Souon
1Iu 1-.I "'" Wahop 01 Alu-.." ! 1 JNI' I ~
JI'O"'-
,.. F_'"byC,,,,,,,,.
"'" GodIi>
N
Enlporor'" (C4tbf,- Al,it
York. I!MI.~). "'" "lII
_ I ,.. c...,. 01 ito
IM bipo-.;t11

_.iw
IIoftilo ........ iol ..dlori' <I. So....... ,,_ <it.. 7Irr
Mpp",. ~lff. A . _ -..r"=M...... ohio _. of """" 11M -.....so
by s. PI" $ += :l....... lI!I' 6 ~ ". 4 1r<WcrJ(. ,.. of.",...........
"'<ltd
Ar.......,;

'" If , A - . 197'. P~lIloo ;"t M" Wol ,,"'""-.... I\c.oibilily


o

...... p' 01 eM ~ JM>-;' "'" -.II oIlIlO.~ io _01 .. '""


..... of ~ _ _ t." <iI.. U3~ Thlo to ........ oI"'"lIlo jgdpocn1
01 .... -...-
PI ' ; : ' ."" , t
1M _ _ ..., din
MI . . io_IO IM
<._
ciI. o 117). "' ........ 01
l/w;<II_~.
- . "' f_ mil ',I Pi 01 ..... (." dt., 194~ 1M. ncophed """'
.~ k ....s widl .... difJ.... _ _ in lIOtIL LW.
B _ _ dill" '.,'. ill 0UlIfI& _ . -j, .. IlaoIo _ ~ _
.........;.... aon... sua ....... ~ fro. oeM ... ..,
IooridoftW 1'Of_ .. ... I _illI .... D o l ' "
EqIh rn.... po'- ~. _ .ido . . .1Ohl~ o.n.;... s-..
n- ..... __ pati<J' witIl ...1<1I IN hod deaL <diP-
po_ 01 _ _
IM.... :M 11'71:
"'D"~
4n~
(l.W. ..-., - ... e
TIool ..... IoU pati<J'. _ 1uoI
M __ -....
1_.. $.-.-
_
.............. 1M ,;rr tqW-- io....w, ~ BaraM1l, ....
"-"'Il;qr __ "' __. ,...,. .. roI-.: -A_ _ "'"

......, __
ri.... "'
__
~
~
Ooo-)-....-e-
INd ~
n-
...,. Iu....,. Jr....
_ ........01_
;",p.;oI iMafa
r.- .. _
W a-...
--.ipoy _ . . 01 ... CJMq" t"hf,. 4J5).
'"

o.riq Ille JI'8Ill wbidI ion.........""r rnng.ed lK c.c..riI or NM;:.,.


.....b 10 ItIe afIcrmIIII or die SJllOd o(1)r8 in AD m. Ad ri. ftfJ
lilldJ Ildd 10. view d. imprrialw:luilj 1hIl . . . . . . 1t W!y4ff=c
fronl E-o;a or c.:aare.a. al~ Al.Il.aAMiu 11I:_ _.. peed 10
form..-. theoklu of th& ........... Nc~ lie ~ '" ~
KCCpIal willi",!}' die poslNiotnt K"liOll of ('""p.'i"" -.rd llw.
eanu- 'Wllallle "c:aafinnod _ Ii doc - - . or doe coori -60
1

0i'<'eG 1biI1lM:q:n:.DCI.-I cu....... iJl& dill no dDI::IrinaI ~ lIPPl*' IO-.e


becII hrvu&bl fol d .. 1IliI1ime. _ _ llaIily 8CCIlde II) ..... pewibiIitJ
dw. Adl'.", ~ lbc ..... ~1Il ~ qn'ri =lnriwk:a!
- - ' _pled .. JIft3ml ir. lllI IUdI 10 1lle Ec7pliD ~ 111 la7
u.r
c:IIC. 11- Ille _lad of ....
im.acIae lbIt AdIaIwiID .q.dcd .....
.liUIXea1ul dYil juckiaI harinI-
'*' or
Iellltr AD 3)2, ir. dioc:alllO
l:Ikctl plaoe &I mcn:ly beq
Alluiusius ..... dismissal in peate. 00.. Ihc emptn)r'1 prucnce and
recumllll In triumph 10 Al~atIdria. amY,nz In late Marc:b or AD 332.61
COMWltlne appears 10 have dcpAr1ed from PlI&IIII.llIb. dwinil/w:ll~ wlnler
10 lake aJl\'IlI'IIM of !be lut stallU of 1M campaip apiUt!he: Goth. By
12 April AD 332 he wu ms!dcm In Marcilnopolil, liter 10 bf; lJle
or
heldqlllll1Cl'l of VaIenI in tho GOlhk war of AD 367. and 4apiclnus In AD
376. 62 0.20 April AD 332., lheOocht ~ 10 ConIlIIlline. havilll
been decinuted by cold and IlIf'I'atio. 6] Ikfon: LlkinJ leave for his
_ ..I..... 110_. Cons-me lIId dj'pIM'hcwl \ella' '"\0 Ille poopIe ollllc
CIdloIIc dI\IrdIM AkundriI~ ill 'IOtIiclI bI: asaip(ld Ihose wtlo had lwo\IIlll
the ehwteI aplllSllbc>r bimDp and IAIe4 A'b .... '"
Cctuin aspccu of \his kiln frolll Con.swuiM 10 the call1olic
OriI&iaIaof A'e''''''riI merif 5Pflcial anenciaL In bit ldclraI. e-Iine

"IW"~ 436. 01, <t. Ftad, n. II. . . e.......". $16.


S9q. 8
'-lint d
tit 29.

c_ _ m.:D (KoobI" OCS 1. 11.,19).


IS ad"...,. ....... I ........,t(r"" f_.... Vi

'lFaM t.c- f~ II1 Hl$-.ur v.. t.Lorlirr}. 229: no. .. 00

s'.'
IFF bo
'iro . . , _
C _ _ -.l .. . - . ......
__ ~ ....,_IV'*"'idl_ . ...

....
."'_L-JorADln.
'2c:r. I ..... no. 11_ u.,Mr. 7f; H.N. a-.;",
et
U _1 _ W. fir
s-ia., ""--17.

T.D. 1--. '"noo V;cw;.. .f CW".....~


ZMor1os"-" '""",""Or ~211 (19'16): 1'11f.
Ao'" '1. 1 (Opit<. 141.~).
'"
male$ no mmtion of !he Kt"... rimll:O/loOMlinllhe w on Ihe lineD IUIIicJ.
Pllll-. tbc .... of ldo,.ras. "" docI, Iloooc.o, inlilnl~ .... 1be
lOOI_of Ib: ~ poblellllllrfe 10 do widlllll: eIro')'of A,I. ".'s
.., biI elcc:lic. as bisllap of A'tltMna. AkhC"p IbeJ Ire
DOl _tiel ~ ~ ~ name, Ihe _ieI ..1ridI Cu . .i.. ~ 10 Un IJI
. . . _1llC J,ld.. jen' In Ihc IcIIet lbeJ_lbcribcd "qlllmJso:lme mea-
......... 1"'" r1Ie ~ cl broIloerlr Ioe." 1ItDi000a.1llC _
.... at <:OIlfUil,..-:I croable...tlidlilll been IIined ~ ill "In is
owinc 10 Iltc -~ IIlId Ille -deftcl:I of ~ -.... .. refem.:oe 10
1M ..llkiuk vi IiCC'PlrioM _bidI ..ae pUad bo(ore him by _ MticGanl.
eoa_- writes. 1!Iae"foalilll . . any lIoeir mwk. aI d'Ie
Iipa oIltilir 1I:IIIpCt...1 Tk pimary .-Ii. . . . . . IK -'ely of
~ whidI b'"f; boca tro.&lll api_ A".M;'I$ is ibed by
(:omeollli. . . . roua-s.'"
tile;, "'"l' IIml;IIJ aside ..wa tkaI cIUJnullkd. .tIiIc lIlty
~ r- .........ifts ror-d 10 pi-. 01 Jll""""'i- ..... '''''oo!&t'
!hay ... PW'OrlIIy." Whx *"*ednest; IbIs.r They.,.. '"dIis one Is
old ancIl/lii one II )'OIIlIg;70 lho: bonclr71 bclonp 10 1M. it irO'l'Cd 10
me; 1/1,.
nllw be laktn away from him, I ....11 ... in 0eI' Olbas 10 In,
tick, lad by "'Y pootm' I will ad: 10 fU biIIllO \he!at..n

Consunti.. delIeribellhe manner in which ALhana$ln _10 be PIll 10 Lhe


II:IlI$ ""vln, arisen 0111 of "tIleir O~Ltageou, plberinili IlIld Mscmblie! of
dco;tlon,n The effipetOr ..... uret Ihe Al<Ulldrilru, 1K".'llYU, 1Iw"!hose
....Icl:ed penmI'7~ ...... no power apinsl1lleir bishop, " . . . .illl, whom
Con-me I. COIlvinoel1 is. "'man of Go. .7S
From thi' lener, oe.Wn ""rw;lllJionl "'* be made. F;<ll, ollhOllIh
lhey wete assisIcd by Eutcbi"" of Nicomedia. the MelelilftJ were the prim;r:y

,,_ 'P<~""-.~.61, l (Opiu. 141. 1011),


UlU6..~ A,<>l. 61. 1; (Opitz, UI. 12); _ 4xoIIl~ IMrroJpn...
~. 61, 1 topG, 1.1. IS).
"OIl ,. I"'d , ..
62. I (0piI.0. 1.1, 'Z9).
'* "wrT,.- ~ IX- ............. ",..
6IA,oooN. 61. l (OpitI. 1.Z.l-6).
694".(( ibi4. (OpiIz. I.Z..).
7O...... loq- 4f..... I<m HI hd~ ~. ~ (OpiIz. I.'Z, 4-5).
11 .. "" .
11 _ ~. (()pin. 1.1. I).
"4no",,<I'f.". iW. f(lpiI:&. 10&2. 1).
u'" r A,M. 62.) (OpiQ. 14 12).

15.y,.t. 61. I (Opic.L IU. II).


A1ltANASIU5 ANDTHESYlO>OFTYRE
'"
_ 01 AlIIanasilll at Psnadlia.16 SeoDrld, .... COIraJ <XIa<aII ~
10 ba<oe bcelllO cb::m1il \lie t ........ or ~ tid..- on .-. . . . or "is
alt. lIII Irrtllliaril)' iD dlt tltiOD ilStlf. or _ .nbcnm prior
llUOti_4iIlI1lw tilt)' WOllIcI llIyt =u.llI riI"u ill tilt dccIiooI or IlIt
_ .... 01 ... le............ hkqh bI aitAdy betlllWlld. lIoitI _
1lIIlitdJ'.77 1llrcl it -W appc. tlat C Ii- did IIOC ~ . . ode
dla'Ja wllidt -..: tKoq:Iu Ipiu ... 1' . .WIO . . . . . .)' .......... or
etrit ... _ I O ..... ItI . . . .
eay be -.I_!be
asidewilllout..,,.,... a . , -w II
rie- ........ "w 1M illqIl ...... 0I-.e ta-
lUIlic:I illIt_ It~ ia 1Ubscq_ aeDou ....... AN-P_ 'The_
is alao IrIlr. 01 dlt _Itrious clwJe 01 trtU:JIIIIbr.. 0CJClJlliqf;y 1ft n:ptd 10
.-. ~ 01 PI&iI.......... SlIdIliltDm in n:prd 10 1M: IIaa III'" once and
tor an RI aside tht q:=t" that Alb_....1 soppontd I n:tltIlioo in
... k> I P"'** . . . . Qrt"'illt'l dlooce 01 Byn"I"' tilt '*'
oIllte capillol 01 1M emp~ 71 F"lII&lIy. tilt aIt=:aQon whP In'lOm.!
M-u. aad ltdlyns e. ... rntlIIioned spearally. Iltlloui~ tht ~
-':I ba ul*'(kd .... WOIlId ~ in lbe near f\ltllft.. 11 lI"Illy be ~.
bowtvtr, that ...iIhlht ~ or ~\ll II ClNlt 10 dcrend hillllt1t lDlllO
Ii.,. pet*IftIJ ItSlimony COlICerllinj lbt matet, Constantine wallll1lfied &II
to be. innoct<lce IlId .a<oe 110 (1lrIla anenlioa 10 dlt 11lII1Cl'.
For CoaswulDc. Iht ctnlnll ~ II. haJIll appears lei Ave bctlIl!lc
....idky or Alhanui.. tlection wbkh bai"l COIllelltd ow"'l 10 I!lc
trlY)I of dlt Meltliam.. II is IlmosI cerlltin hal betn lilted above. lhal
Alhanu;1LI "'u not ytl tIli'ly ytU!l of alt wlltn tlected II billlop of
A1ellndria. ahllOllgh tht thortCall i.I more lilttly to be meuun:d In ntOlItIl5.
r1.tMr than ytar1.79 That tIliJ islUt in il.Sltlf _ld n.ist 110 rtII impedimenl
to be. tiecllotlllld COI1KCralicwI is dear frora dlt ..idcIpread dilreprd ottht
tltYtttLb c-. or tIl......._ within the dturdt IlwotogItouI \lie rO\ll'tb UI
lO
aialll ctrtIUrits. II mllSl abo be a1IDwed Nt tht ~ 01 Cortanint'1
IaItf A11JC1U l!III yuach lilly _ '-"" beta Iht 0CIItrIl iaut. but limply
!be paJIiJII of dlt ofrlCe rrom
tilt tldor Akunder 10 IN ~Ct AlhanIsim
II I IIlllter of coune and in sp;te of Meletiaot prottsIS I!lc limoe. ll

''ct. 0piIa. 142, !L I. tZ-


Tlvw, _ .. _ _ l!L ZJl.
71 1.0.101 A H~ of EDJII ( I " " . _ ..... . - . 1191.
MilDo _ "UoiI oJiabI _
AI.. t I.... _ _ .. ~ 1bo
t.ooliooa fIl iehJ,;, .. I W," _ Phil.. I ' ..
.... T'Cl:IoIJiwI" Ef:ypo. _ . . ...... .. iI.;" ""'" fIl AL" ;"" _ ...
JII- _ r ,......... . . - bob<. _ "'"'- rioiol _ --'" c.. <il...
90). 10..,.",, .....,. ... -' ..... _ ........... - '
_ew...
'7'tv-. ......
~ <iII~ l
r... m t/. - . t...._,. . . . <ill n. 'I".
ILer. ..... !II.. '7tl.
'"
Caa$lanCi-, _ _ 'G, awe t:d dle MtJetiuI 10 be ....... fuJ~; far
..... l'llCO. . . . 1_1n"_ ~DlIlooIN''''''IIJOCdOCD
NicK&, lIley CO"iMood D pE111IIIaIIxI..,. ~ b' plio- ollllc-..
8 _ IlDod ....".-1 mah wllo:a dqo _ ~ _.1:1 W"1:Il1lll
01 dliI -.dy ~ __ ~ 01 . . 6larp
..;p;nee-w 01 .. - . C_ri,... _ lhIl Ny did -.;II . . . . . P'l<:aol
IDa! ,.faa..lho:ywcn:~OhllC:Ilp_1o ,e
1l. clar lIli' ' dIIc Ioatr lhaI. 0..-.... e'h4ioMd -....u.
beiJlI iII'101'tfll1. ... aMW Ik-. was primarily CIOC'....' . . . . .' ill ..a=.
AidlDup 1M did _ hair'" ill IDakiIII _ at WI ci>'>l -"Oric)' .. .-:II
=...~.:':J~':,~~=:..=.~~~~~~':':
MdeIilnL" 1lIat Q:n!amir did aa ....sjdrr die prllCCIIIlllrIp I'Iamadlla
10 be 0( I eml - . Ic:ISl ill reprd to IIoc f"1JIaI J-Icmau. id1 u
deli_ may be ...... ia me ftr:l. !hat two ran ' - Il& ~ IK
Me widl ~ lIOlbciril b_ (Iome&/lulc DOl yon dclne) iCllley
peniIled ill lIotir disrupliYe bchI.....1:S Ii _ _ PlDbIc !bit E~ at
Nio;orncdq fO"'OIl'ized CoasWllillt:. WID 10 pqmbt UId, fol~ lbe
~iJUl oldie. CIlhI:r ....'S'Micfts, ~ hlJQcll rtll'll \lie. McIelUnl, IIIl
leal in l1Iol public: eye, wtoilc n:maiftirli their __ n:1 frlaod.-U nu. wou.ld.
uploiJl CoruurItine's aIonosl IOal ~ willi lbe ~ in his
1<Ila', wdl u AthalIUi.. \ad;; of suspiciCIn
aWance belwom die ~ and .... Me... ri
0"" tn, ~
It tlIis pIrtil:lI1u IirM. f7

1.1 T1w<ANt,~ 0....' Ub,a. AD JJ2Al) jJ1


WIlli Conl\aJl~nl'l public llec1aJaljon c:oncernin& \h(I procoodlng
Psarn.lhl. In the hancla of the cMholic: communily In AJeundrlt.. A\1IaIwius
~lelnlcd l!Ie pucllaJ feasl ... i!h his churob 011 2 April AO 332. I\aY;OI
l;Omplc\tcly tri..mplled over lIis adversarie,. During the ~ ollJle year be
uncbtook puu;nI yisillllillllS throughoul the qiooll 01 tI'HI I'1:olapQliJ lJId.

I2q. _a. flo. 66. _ lWclo.." d,~ 1,:loU. fa. 2:.


&:l--tr__.,.,.,. '1. 3 (OpiIz. 1'2. 4).

-r-,.-- _'[
......
___
_
1<1 '
Uc/.Jya
io _
v c_~rv.2<lOidooLOCS'.I).
7. (O,iu.
10 _+Iy io.
_ _ .h1K Ii,.'
147. 3"'). n..
""C . _,.'
....,,",,-
k_
jr%
~

_mp..l_w.-'""""_ .....
__..... ..,.
.... .
wabd
v.
iii)

......... io....... I 4 Ii ..
r.- .. _ .... (4. v. or-,... ril-)oIl" 3<19).
16~ ~. .y.4." {O;Ii<z. 1)9. 20).
n F.....
....1oIi.atoI:'u ........
ooI
_ od. IV. 5 II . . rit. 517) ...... ....,. 111&
'"
MIT ..... (Lib)'1l""" 8d LibJa Iaferior)." II appeon-1boo.lP
AlIuNIilll"S risk lOW Po................. vdy Ilrief. wlIik hilllay iIIlk
_ cr ""a" '"i_ (Uie .-sis III Awnoa, cklle by lAIc QllIll.a depieQliaa)
-Ioa&a'." AII:IlouP.,;IIK ..... ackIlO "'*__ ~ 1JlIds u
pin 01 "paIicJ of ....... lnIIIWed __ uder /ail ;.nf!3ir;1io!1,- . . .
joIolli).... 1O lIIendleid _ . . wiluu 01 AD 3m31 "'Ill Ul71IiII AD
1J2. 1M)' ~ _YC
beIllI 1I!Ie ..... . - - ci _ ..... DewIy tkc:lod
_.....,.,iIM.
II - . Mo boa JuUwed I!lM Alhalwi....... y t.lv~ 'tUiw:d Uby
...... !his cilne ill order ""to interome .. UI>y:B epiKupol elliou" 00-
..... iUlC=at.viM KJiviliclia
-.y _ plalDlIk. Rre is Iillk PK$
tIIe-." AI .etI .. up'o.....
1Ibk cawa . ,1bc.
Merion .. ~ ..... 6iI pcri;ld. DwiIlc dle MM f ....'7 P"'O"ti,.
ea....
till: j! 01 NQa. AriuIi!/Il appean: Ul ha'IC '* b JmIIeS
..,ppon wil/lia U~. In 1Ill: T'~Ja",u al Niccw Choniatcs, ..lid is
*.- 01

prUcIYa\ by PllilOJlOrlius. 1bc LlbyJa bitbops ..ho fIlpportCd Ariua .e


...-d r". IlllIIhe Jilt indldo::s doe ..... lOCI olllle PIw~... well.
W1aiII -..ller 10.....: "FlOIII Libya Svpcrior: Seft:;,,_ of Bareion.
Pv~!rM 01 a-nice. $ocwodlIs oITeudoera,. ZopyNI of Barb. Sen.... g. 01
P1olemai.. ThcoulI of Mamlariclo.-91 AI Nicata, DcklDi at Baenice.
Sea.ndUli of TClhen, and Zopyrul at BIlI<a all appear 10 have siglled in
IUppon of tile dcfinillon, bul Lhe name of ScntiatIOlI doeI 1101 oppear,93
S1.andllS or PtolcmalllJld TbconJs of Manncita, who I\&d a1Icady been
_k.aIed by AJuandcr in AD 324. bowe_.pro(l(l inInnslplt II
Ihe -.neil and, aIoal wilh Ari,... _ bWshcd by CODNntinc, aIIloou&Il
110 repbun>enlll Illlpelr IG have been ...."ed. 94 If PlIilortllrciul is IOlle
beI.ie-ed, Sceundla.oo '!'Ileona.\ lenNicael harborifll KIISl: 01 beu1.ya1 and

UF.... /All... MMxIV. HUrtW~ (,\.. lolortio), nl.


it/lolL
fOwill,- Atioll...... 7f,.
'la--.C". _ _ & ..6,ju.2l2.
'2~ T_. S. 1 (J'G \)9, 1:161).
''q. Ibt rl' oI1llo _ of .r., '" w....... a.. n.
Intl'.
r-._ f n.._
............... olp
twu. . . Ott
..;do rqn _
'
_.
._S._01

10-.01""'
II

r- Ubra, <t. Iloo ..110


_
_
.m.-. "-, ;, ,
... _..,.
. . . _..". _ _

,....
_..-.,...
Far
,01 _ _ 01 Eo
I' Tbo

H....... ., ' I _1OI_ .... pkado_ . . . C . :1


'" II (1934): ~: S... los llaa . . ~ ,. \ _..-... ..
,.....7' 12 (1917): m.l47; ~ u-
014* do"'-''71 I.
(19)9): 11-16; "1'Iroo 0fls/MI1im 01 . . I 01 C....oI of H><=.t,. '7'
"(INVI,.3): 20-21: '"\lIw. .... lUcIlIo 60s pl.-" - .7' :lD (19$0):
'l1I.
~o. tHcumU,' (Opitz. n. I"'''); 1biJ.:M, S (OpiQ, U, U).
'"
in ""II -.so ......100 Qd been IetI tlml ill dleir oo-viI;:lions, "1P"'d.Uy
E_billS 01 NIc:omc4ia.91 Their lIll",illinpeu III "'sip and cxplaiJl1alel"""
coooceo,u.., lbI:ir ~I position. u ..... IIle CU6 willi "'" ~ .
_ _ 'BIj$lLi). s..oe..oaoSoedt,.IlaYe'IlI" d dNlbeir"'ialimale
6ienlIskip~ willi Arius. tatbtt IIIIn -:l
doclrinal_...... lbem 10ftabIe
10 ~ _pany &en tiIII N"~
It ~ _Ilia .. 1kJllu Of'" Sec:l.... Uld. ~ ... t - [ al.
AI....... Wilti8ms _
_ _ _ bid ba::a s-t vllhe pat EIlRbiu ~ p 01 lite JUI'lI aBet
otic:II..,..
III IMir __ 117 IK w.: of ....... ,iUS'S jolnoer 110 L.iby1I ill AD 332-
IbM -""'en";'. il1hcir

328,~" oaly ear ref_Ill llle. poRN'IUIlCaama. 01 Se<:adui woe


MVC &oao lite bi:I/lopof AlcurdiI. ~ fron "'" li..,oIbii tbitd cQle.lIw
is, IlIQ AD JS6,.1 He...,. C1IIdwir;k. Iioo't<oe_.
Ilbo iadiaIa thol
pClWliliry r..-.Itle 'tiew lha dleir _ ..... qaiaI_, P"'.127
l2& It _ ocnaiIoly arlin dulldM J - - ' - . Ii- ..' 01 S p' her
_.., , . iUcrior cktD' 01 andriI., ClKC _ . . . ~ AriooI, ~
'0. '''4''''
__ ,.__ ._ '+ : .,
.~ . . ....._...
.. ~ . . ...
't _.
J..
~1iQ,l.I(:Il:IlPllspcrif "J 1D"pot4b'bi. i I _ .... b~'! IltaIlhe
....... 'Ion 0/- AriwI It'Id his fclJoM" _ Iikd, 'Mil e:!he iJlcJvsion or
oiep(l$ld b!Jhc,pt, .,,;11 ., Se<:WIdus 8Ild ~ 99 SUlC:h u inlerprr;lllion
would, 1hertf<n.1la'lll in opposilion ID Chadwick lnd ~ lhlIt Scnlndus
and Tbconu were fully resllRd, 10 bolh lheir Me:! lIM Imperial flYOf.1Iong
with Mua. ., I rauJl \be: Synocl of Jerusalem ill ~Illembu AD 3]5
ralber LIIan II aa earlier dale. PlliloslOrJlos only illllicws lila, Secw>dlQ and
lhoIe "'iLllIUIII ~ IUIom.l by COlIswltill8 bill doeIllOl I'\lCOI1l eilbcr !he
dat8 or dfl:um_ oIlho. 'CClIL100 Onl, durin, AtbInaslus's rotll nile
followlnl lhc. Synod 01 Ty.., doeIlhe (.ide,," slIow SCCIlIldus beoomi"l
1Cti'IC once IlaiD In Ihc ...... even IlI.clllptina 10 iIlpplllllllle.b$enI bishop
of Aleundrio willi Pistat, cardida.e of his _~ clloice. <lurinl 1lIoI oummCl"
of AD 337,101

"1'kiIDoMq.... HE 1. 10.

. "cr. s-.
"0.
'i..,~ 1
H
Ce....i o. 4d U _ _ " ' ~ "~ ill l.....,.j
IF-n. 401.
10\,
Ar>-. U. J lOpitl. lIP. J""l:'-_ 11 (Opila. 121, 17); D~
s,. 12, 1 lOPi<a. 13'. '20); AI q>i6. M, .. 1M. l' (PO 25. ""'.~ TUI
s o ..... 'CO ' " ,otI.o<I boJ "'" En _ "' ...-....
.. wi,. .. _ ..... r1I< ..... Of _ I : ef.,w Aq, .. u., 7 (PC :!S,
"3A)-
9'H, Qodwio:t. ""FMIo """ 0r60t "'" CoocociI of Ni<M&: A ~ .. "'"
_........- of .... SirIII e -- Hn n (1960): 192.
" I..... IlL" <f.lhs,... 11. J (OpiQ.14.. 11 ..... _ OpiIz', _ . .
"'* I "" _ po<-. ..... _ _ (oW_ liM I. lIo.)..
'00, '1 - . HE 1. I. Ib.
IOI.y.t. 'lot. 11 (OpiIz. las.. "IS~
10'l:Will,- . cif~ 16.
IOJC/. a...t-X:k. ",. cif~ 119_192-
l00tc/. Willi-.. ",. <i<.. ~. n..
I~ SlMia '" ~ ",. 0.. to, r.. 1-
106w;u....... "". d'~ 16.
100F- , u- 1Il.!1 (R t _~.,.. ~i1~ Sl.).
lM,N.... V ~ "". <il~ !I19).
'"

109. . " _ ~.~. n' (Opou. 141. I').


liOn... Arl Po Ub,. .,. too Won.,j lrJ rcr_ ;,.
w. ~ 10 _ ill A1u0fldria. ....
__ .. '" lho C-.:il 01 Hi<-..
_a,
CoNtoMiM'. "'Pll' f# ()pia; m. ~.1lI:; 12, \.2) _ . , .
1~ . . _ <II
ro.. 1M .....
.....so.

IIiWim- ." dI.. n.


111q. Opg. III U:W, II (1Q. 1'-191; 1,/)01, 20 (11 2): lDf" )9 (14. 16ft).
lI3et. Opiq; m. ~ 2IlI (11 l).
IllHJoJo. ." <fl. L :IlL
Il SWiIli-.. d. n.
II 'opu In. lDf,. 43 Os, ,): q. ;ya j9. ,(Opito. l~ ,),
tl1Opitr. In. WJ (M-6t).
~tIw. Ulem~ of pi<:lY.~ ... ho:$e ... rillefl "'Ofts 19IillSl IJle churdl were
duuoyod. II Li.kew"'" Arius and lhoK wbo folio... b;l'\l. whom lIIe
eIOpavr lksi,oaleS as '"PoIpllyrians,- lbould abo hve lbcir works
dc:Iuoyed. 119 The IrCaIiscs of Arin:s ..., 10 .... "cursiped 10 tile n-es.- IIId
l/lose wbo alle"'pl 10 conceal .. y ""rilin& 01 Ari... ..., IIuulcIcd ""illl
immeomcee.-o. "lO'~I20
All opaIleaef acIcIl d 10 Arild mel lliJ foIlowocn, !he secOlld lIcJc.
meat hal riPUJ ba ~ III btiq; ~ ramblin&. Illd allUsive.
tile wortt oIa .... wbo feels 1IlIP1 and atfronled. " 21 The AI_ bo:t ......
~ Coftsan/iDe'. 01 God,~ """ Ativs, wtlo is cks:ribal as "lIII
e.,jl ~ ... lIoo~" fQ1ily illhe im.aIe and <cpo II"" oI1be deYiI,~
is SlrikinI.I22 The 0'..... 01 calli AriUI ~....-." a IUd of ... wfIO is WIly
;,,1OUIed in aulia& .. 1IlD....,.au of viol<lICO and lU will It] The IJ>eoI.-
ocy 01 AriUI. wbictl "I'P"3'" 10 U"" been prcsaued 10 COllSwlli"" in Jd:
arolIu proteuion of Wlh, is <IenouDad and ridicu.led. The ooolOOlion of
Ari... IhaIIJle So. is an "aIim bYP'W'asil" from IJle Fadlu is COIIUIlIled wilb
IJle Niue"" 6d"io,IiOll IbaIIJle Fillber and Ihe SOfI are of "Olle ewnec"
(o6vfl.I2<I COllswlllne "'f.... 10 Ille Sibyll..... Oracles l:OllI:em'n, !be
jodplem fIUll heaven thai ""ill come upon lhe Libyara becaIse 01 tbcir sino
and mlidetds and CaIligalCi AriOl conccrnin, biJ stIppoaed suppon in lhai

1II/bid., U3J, 1 (67. 1-3).


119/bld., U33. \.2 (67, ~. 611, I).
120/ bid., U33, 2 (63,3_6).
121 (lpil& lII, U34 (69. 7~), Bome" C""",_i". _ E....bi... 0,. ci,,, 233.
Ir it lIl'Ipcn....'0 1101& lbol oom. h... qU"llonod til. ow,""",lcity UIdIor lh&
dolina of pcrtIosu of IhU <Iocwncnt. J.M. S.,.,I&," ""naldm only .... <loIin,
pcrti.oll of 1M I<ll&r (Op;l. m, U~, (2) ... 1101 '''''''''''', pl.ll<;", 0 d_ of ca. AD
U5AD 327 upoo III. ma/&rial ('"E1lsNlo do Ch",," tl 10 I\ll.....,., do la lheurio
'Ciloroplpi.\t.,' By. 42[1972.1: 159UI~ H. Krof~ hc>...... t. """,ide", tho

"ac' dolin, '" .... ~ (1(._


,r&.I!&I pori"'" of U:J4 "' 1101 0UIh0nIi<. _,10 ha """oW -.oiol .. "' the
"""Ifo,",Uv
T1Iblnc-. 1955, 239.1(12). R. W"dlWns ..... T,D, II..- _
,~II,ldu Etu",idl~,
1Iw _ ' ,
...o-~ IIId d ... Iho cInm_ 00 c .. AD 33), .ol)ou.. ily _ ....
r d _ ... 1Iw ~ prd<oco P _ in tBt. ~3 ~ rn. '".
6) Iilot: ...
.... F_ll.Iu. 'NIp V. f. AD 33), ....hictI abo IiaI hIcriIlt . . . ptd"<d iJo
EUP' (e(. Hi-"~. A. M ..... 231). 1'IUs PI"'-' -,."""*PI" .. ..-;,;,y
oE tBt U 0 oirI&Io 1 I mel, ....... "' .... WtoItifI<..... of p _ .........
..u.r ....... ..,ie1 ~ ciuId iJo . . "".. pi.- ill wtlliq ..ty ill C&. AD
333, _ "",bobIy befcoa ..... . '. - . oE .... cor .... roo _ ,...
M.... -.ooiou ... Op;U" IU< ' " U:J4 or. "",_led iJo H, a..l,.;,u.
~A"'= ... Dc- o-.tiI Xl.J.~ JI1" ~9 (19011): 161-169.
122 KMlls" /~ rroml,tjlll'l" ~tnloo " .at ,,~.... /6n ,.".
tt~ V34. I (OpiD. m. 69, I).
IllU34,' ~ m. 69,~).
IUU)I, 14 (()pili: m. 11. 4-6).
'"
"'&ion. I25 The .csull of Arias's coolilWCd Iawles$rlt$lll\l.y clearly be sea>
iIlllis OWIlllalf-deld ..,.,..,..:c.126 Far !heir o;onUlllIIId tepamion from !be
ealllolie oommWlily Arius and his fo1l<>wus _ threalefleCl willi p=illies
COfIsiAinl: of additional w.cs and threats 01 f;OfIIf;ription fOt public"
~ln
Wilhin!be CU'd..oo. of the Irtlcr. 110.. _ . Coctpntiz.1UfIcns W:
~ by _ _ 011 pcr.-l appe:al ud c:>ll:llClI . . _peaod iIIvilaioa I<l
Mw:: '"C.ome IO.-e. come I Jay, 10 lbe _ olCod. Be IlJ:Ima! Ili.ll.I will
.-dI ~ lbe deepeR ~ olytU" bean wiIllllt)' "--'1 A.ad iCfQlly"
rDPd, I sllaI1 beaJ )'011 ill a p:x1t:uI:...., by .. Ippl:a!IO 1M .,.:e ol God.
U.~.)'OII apparlCl be Ilc:allby ill )'o.t1lDUl.1_;n pe=ic" J<lIIIbc
1iJ:lll ollnllll ud., by God'. &JKe, .,;n ..joice ....!lI JOU _ JOUr pidy.~I2S
APJlIImIIlI' !lavina -=ccpIa1 tbe iDYitali<m. 10 aww It c:oun and Ilaviq: p......
a saJisC;W;IOrJ _ 1 of his tbeoIogy and ;c..."w, AriIlS is IlCU ubsa oaI
u lbe S)'IlOd of Jervsalem in AD ill bciq rea:ivcd aIolI& W1I Eo"",," by
tile bishops wbo )gd assembled for lbe tt.1dlraUorIs on IIIe oa:asiDa of !be
~ olllle Chllldl of !be Holy Sepglcllre in seplembc:r of that
yur.l29
DespiIc Atilos', v.ltimatc a<:cepllUItt. by Conslarulne. II Is important '"
pla<:e A\lIanasiw's positiol in AD 333 in !he Pl'QPU pcnpel:live. II ......
Wil!>out doIIbl. I pClIition of Slrc:n'lh, regardleu of lood. """,be: of
continoing problem. in the hinlelland. of EJYPI. and Libya. Si!>Cc his
clcctlorl and CllmIllCllIlioIJ in AD 328, Atlwla.!.ius ~ manaalld 10 cONOlidale
htl base of support within EgypilO a COfIliderabie dclifU. A1lllouah wllal
has bun described as "the growth of a patriotic tpirit &monll the Egyptian
monk.! and an Imenslfication of lIleir IOy51ty 10 their bishop" prolxlbly still
lay In 1lIe 1'1:11=. by AD 333 Alhanasi.... had achieved much.13(l A process
of wlMllll converts from the Meleti.ons still wiLhin EiYPI'WW" to have
prOJTeued Jte.dily durinl these yc.-s..1JI A1harwJlII had .ppeared bcIore
COnsllDtine II Psamalhia. had refuted completely the charles whieh had been
ma:le apinst ltim. and had returned 10 Aleundria bearin& \he emperor'. 0......
lcuu or commendation. The bi.<bop'. journeys 10 !he Tbebaid and \he
Pentapolis 1lacI. it appeal. extended 1m !lUppon beyond AkUndriIo,.oo tbcir
SI.Il'O!A may have promplCd !he rzII behavior or Ihe Mel~ InCl. in rep>1
to !be Ianer ...isIutiDa, MIlS. FmalIy, his earlier rdusalto readmil Arius
(and probably Ihe Me.... i.".) to Ihe Ak:undrian church on Ihc..-den of

12:llJ3.t. 1'-20 (Opitr.1IL 71. 2372, 3).


IUlJ3.t. 13 (OpiQ; ill. n. U-l,,~).
I2'lU)4.:\It (Ope m. 7" 16-20).
11I1J3.t. ~~ lOPila m. 74. n-lS. ~).
HE 1, 3l (PG~. 164C-I'SA).
.n.. c-,.,__ lk~.
129s.
1:MI 1'Ioocuon, l., ..
0rlG0d. 1971, ....
IlIY' _ 1 , fD.. m.
eon.lIIIIine '-l bcaI indjrM"d publjrly b,. Ille rapoue or lIle empc:rur UI
the IIudwlIliDns which lie had _ ";1Ill:$Illd for h1mIodf.
hrtIIps C'IU more imponanl ror ,........
us dllrinj IhlI period _ lhe
luhllCk or CaaSWIline lOW_d, thOle i_I, botlo theololieal and
ditciplinary. MtIch laid bca dedd ~ NiracL AU or the iaIcI..-hir:II
oceupie.d A1IaIMsIIII Dtl, .. ~ . ~ in IqM'llIO EIJP:
_ iIuiInI.lcly I;OUOlI:lIed ..;tlI N;caea, II hal bca ~ iIbo'tc. 11
appeal ... C Ijl. viewed Ilfttdf ~ lIIiI period. dll: jliOki:&W or
the Na.. doc:rca. A.. Grillme:ier bas ~ IDe .n-ioa:

III tile.... lI. [licl baweea 32S -.I )l5C 'i-btnyIl wi3lt
to 1\'pn1 . . . . . . . Irenow....... hi*""
or tbe
or
_ tile ltapua<: . . dQcpIirtary dcc"iPonl die CotIIlcIl NDca
but Ibo 10 wacda
or
(Illd aIIll or oltltI s)'flOd$). This ai1l WOIlId _ ..."D' 10 ..
or
be
~
1,_or
Ia"llt_ in ..... ronn.ioa doclriaIl dadIlou. but .-Id tmhcr
.. IItiI _
tllar 'tI1icliI)', in IlIeit (~ (or
we l1li)' GIldenuJIcI lIle.,.;sa
or
till: tIOil)' the
c:oiacd by
EGKbtu lOr w. COIlpcnll. aile II ... till: iaspoQor paaal. for die
abIl:I , altho dec:nleI or die _ i l . Il2

Cutainl,. lIle pro'I'ilioni ~nl lIIe conlCCtltiort or bis/qls (as


AthInuilll), tba IKllWoa of !be MelctiIM in EI)'Pl.. and llle IlIaCItIncnt al
LibyllO lIle _ al Aband'" would aU (ilIl1l1da' IhlI Clll:1OfY. If, in faa.
litis rtP1UC1l1l propuly COIISlIIIlinc', IllinMle durill tlt's period,
AlhInuillt'l intranIIJCnte O\"tl' lbesc u-. II _II bis Af;li0RI f;I)Io;eming
Al'ius, bmIma mucll more uncltrllllldiblc
F\WlcmICln', j, wollld IlIl II tltcluiII Can$lIIlti!'lll1lld &ood f;aost: to
mainllin _ b l c rclMiDflShip ";111 AJu.lfIlIriland ill mclfopoliWl.
Willt &he folflldina 0( CoIiIlIIItilIople OIl 8 Nln'embe' AD 3Z4 and ill
cemnortiIl dodicIlian 011 II Ma, AD 330. I new domand. for Ei)'plian JI'&iR
_ creaIed. a. II May AD 331, COnunlJne bcpn.tho dllCribllllcll of me
pain w11111lt l!Ie chy,lfIlIl!le "lwvaII of EJ}'P4.. fomler1y lI'InSpOf1Cd II>
1111"",- di'f'C'Ud eat......... -m AccordinJ to Soctaea. tbe imperial city
J(IOfl required. dal, ruIOfl or elJhty lIlcuurld tNHIil. or wtlic:b lite ~
portion WII llI!JllX'f1lllrotr1h lite pM or Alolnd.... l ,. The lceepirla of: the
peace. in AIcundria, tbcm"cn. .... VU'f mud! III cco-.ic IlId political
priority .. -U II'" ea:laiastical COCICCI'fI. Tlta timinl oreor-tiDc'.
dcc"rClC f;I)I...... WIJ tile ptO'Vioioro or JfIia for Canuanlinople alto appears UI
""lie wir.. icIc<l willi obe numeoous e'<'CflII f;I)I......lnc AlhInIIiill whidI ba"C

132,.. ona-Ioo, CMiIJ; .. Cwu.... T~ .... I' F_ """ 1#


r".
r

). 1975. 160: 'I. F ,.=


.....,......
..,.. ... C' : _I'SI" ~ (
C _ . L 21 ~ OCS 1. 1:1, 19-20). till ..............,. / f f f _ h _

Illa_ _ c _ .... E......... dr~ w.


t,.s..:n-, H~ D. lJ (PC 6'1. llOA~
,,. 1liEEARLY EI'\Sa)f'...... C.'FF. Of' A11fAI'tUIUS

" - ' 0UC1"'Cd IIbcr4 u ~ IatCII pIaa: ill AD 332/))). It WOIIld-.l


.re 11) We _we. \lie d>e COltlift,1ililc~ io ~..,.
.. _ _ ~ .. C "'''', ei<lcI .. -lUIIinItr _pooUIOl
-~~polk)'.
~ tIoiI poiIlIla early AD ]3]. ""'MI.im' IJIPtM: 11)." eaiored a
brie{ IUPUc. wWclllllly be,..,... ia !lis Easler Inw for .... ~. Thr. dleale
011M laer ill mkaed in AIbMlWps'lalI fer."

TIu lleut] MIl Imds .... Ii'taIlbe CI'ClII' 1lIroolP dlit -'d 10 IhIi
whldl II befotr. . . -.l God p:nldxa _ _ m. iI . . joy of
par_ 1aMti... briJI&inI .. lD 1M _ -.bly, ..., In "r
plaoI ...itant; all 01 IrS iD spiril; ~ III _ lOren IIlCI
COi'_ pc p.....cdinlliona ...., b l For Ill. is dle mawl of hill
loWlP ind " . tbat lie sbould ptha' qa/ler In !be _ pIKe ....
wID _ "i.......... _ . . . . * - wllo IppiCIr 10 be r. oil illlhc
body, 10 be _ IOIcthct ill Dllily 01 spiriLl)j -

In COOIUMt "' . . aily oflbe faiIhlul..trici lbc fUR pnxlaiaot,~...


meDII .... '"\be sc:1IiIma6::I kotp-lht. feast '"in ~ ~ INl wi1!l
.... ~ NU' MattoOCI, laeahartt IliIIC:lIdI:n 10 teqI dle fem
wi_ 01 tllcir unity '"to !he ~~ ~ia IIOl rcnditI, the COlt oC
ellri.. bw. .. OIIC /logse. cYaI in the c.holic: C11lltl:b. let III esc IJlc:
PauoI<U ollhe Lofd.. _117 AlbaowiOS'I l'qleIIed tdctmCClll In Ibis Iew:r 10
lCJlisnuoLb: ...., inclicllie. COOItirI~i02 diIJ"oculliel ..hIlin EaYIJI_Wl\Ilbe
MeletiaM an, pethips, lbe Collulhians. No menllon llllll(le, however. of
"M,ellel" (J"" Ariansl. Of of any 0I!ler dillwtl&rlcea wllllio the E8)'lllian
CblUtb. luch II h.t been the case ill the Euler Ieue" for Ibc previous Lhree
years. The rulilY of the ArianMeJetian oll~ IppeanlO have remailltd
hidden from Alhanahll'l lilhl. durin, thi, period. CelUinly, he ml/.5t have
been Iw"", 01 the continuina: activities ollhe ElIJeblWlI .III WllU .. the OIlIer
~petillJ IDl:II in EJypI and Libya, but wilb lhe emperor', aetionlI ,pillSt
Art... Md Ibo bishop', 0WIl >indication lII. PsamllIlil, AtIwwlul probably
~ IUC!lIfOUPIIO 1uIY<: become _...n.l lea 01, IIlrcal tIwllhey
had bee. 811lle_ otlris' pi.'.....

1J TIw ATpu AI". AD JJJ....w 1U


'nIcre raIIaillI , fClOd IbI 01 <:alfasioI I) P&1ly ...... ~ DW
lIerie:I 01 _ 1m' ~ brul>&IIl. IIpiml .......Mi-. 1M it ~ U
lloey _ beeto put. r-.d IIIonIy after lhr. puN' and'ia
0I~-11tam i'mcArills. WidI ....... IeMl*"'A.ilyia
diIpxc ia E,yp. &lid ..illl lID .... daM Alii,";. _loS ,Ilow .as

us,......, u.- V. 2 (II: ............ 517. 511).


U'INoil. V (II' 4._ m..
511).
137tW. V. II t riI~ SIt).
. . . . . . inmlbe .. k ..... dun;tI . . . ..,.b '... I,
il __ .... boc:uM 4\W- II)
1M: '" jo'
*' F ' _ ... Ifleir 01>1, t
of "rba>1'NI TIle Mrldi=", FuPt -..:.uo beiaI
...

..-.,. _ . I by 1M: --...e4 p C . . . yi,., i of lbe biIIlop


oI .. k...rria ad.-Jd '-e road IilIk _.... . . _lbe fIa Ilw
....,. 01 doeir forma- brcdm:a _ . , . InM: I f Ie: 01 .. rb. ' .
0IIce . . . KIlac _ CIlIIC'C't. ..... IWO p'ClllplOIaiiC'8e4 ~ ..... I!lc
biIlqI oI"kutldrio, wilIIlbe McIaiaAl q:,aia lIkia& lbe posit. 01 belq
1M lrinarY or lOIc ..
Am.asilll itldCales I/Ia fief !lis 6nl ~... ";1IiI e-ci1lC
.,....-....h.i "die MdclimI mDliaed ........... for. Jbon Ii ilia j(a IhiI
dley ~ lIleir "'-iliJ:y once __-Ill $otooueo, y dIa,
-.tier 1bc bill" oIlbcir r-u ........1" 1Ile M' ._ ~;,,C'IU:dodrIcI-
..n_' _ l i e u 'qaiul AlhtNsi....'ll9 ","'Mi- __
Me)etian tcCIdef, passibly aI ClCllIIt, is -AtdII$IIl. ...110 b alog c:aIIed
1M

.10M. _l~ l1lc ~ dla'Ja_ ilrIeIe:


I. ,,'''''''p,' IIoad cwdered MxaWI II) Iftalt Ihc dIaliaI ofldlyns.
This ..... repeal 01 an ClIIIic:r cllarp 1Itbic/I1IIld bcea rntde
Pwn3lllia. Ii is ~bIe, ~, _ tlI~ MeJclius tcIded
i'Ill'Ihcr dabut.lioid II) !hi: inilial JlCClIUlion.
2. Alhanuiu:s hi<! arnnlc4 l!Ic murder or AnenIUI, a Melcliln
bi$llOp or Hypxl, in Upper EI)1ll l'W'lhennore, ALhanuiu:s hod
e~1 off the dead bishop'. IrTII and hod rel&lnod II foc mllic:1l
ll\ICPOIS. The pm, oowever. hod 'allen InlO the pouelllion or
!be Meletians. 111110 ""tie IbIe lD protWce ;1 ., irTd"utoblc proof or
AIliIlllSius'1 guill.l~ I
The tubJlIncc 0I1hc ,_ c:bofau _~ pruenICd II) ConIIanIin8 by lhe
Mc.Ict1anI I ..nlleD fonn. I Z On epin, tbc object or lila c.bIr&es
appca'IlO Ila>oe beaI the dcpol:itGI 01 AlbanaiuI GlIM btsiJ 01_ Niecrlc
RUImlc", (OI(:(;IlliDI1Ile MeJo:i_ IllCI lbe - . d eanoc. oItloo ~1
COIlCIIlI'lliq teriooI ofTeG5eI ......... iued by lIlc.-" 0I'de:t..
The ~ it=m ;., IIIe IeCOIld llldiclmc:nt. ~ Athultsilll IIoad CUI
otr AnealIII'. _ for N(ic:Il purfI(IIeI, ""'y be ~prdcd., eir.her IinlfIIe
embdlWla1enl or IS an auempl by lbe Mdcli.". 10 pichn lhe biIllop 01
Alc.undriI. _ .... lDIIinoI:oIIy erIpIOd in JUCh plClices. tba-r; i I _
10 beliee ~ !he Melcl;."o Iud lIrc.ody pnllIl~lpecIlIIdI rmnor tilloIol

Ill"",",," C. 1 (Opicz. 1.2,. 14-$


l)f,. HE II. n. I (aida.1Q, 11-U).
'l.y.r. 6S. S ('OpU. I" %5).
1.1,yo.t n.lO\IOoz. lolJ. 6-1.~" HE n. n 1 (lIi6u.. 11-
'"
Ad'l""hIs ill Jeprd III hiI ~ .. bisbop. TIIi.. ..... possibly
swviYa ill Ihe KWIUlI of PltilOllOl'lias....110 ~ WI Ao.-silll
......ssed lhe power 10 compel his CllllIiaJOrS III ooGaIn hiIIII altboq:lllbis
-1lrOiIICIY ~ 10 Ihcir 0WtI *siIa. 1. ' The Anbk ....._ of Ibc
llim.tl a.- of NiI;aa SllqeslI 1hIt blsllop or pre&bJlcr c:mYicla1 of
matin& _ oImp: _1Ilbjea 10 cIepoti'ioe I4/. " . . rw.rrine. wOIIId
bne Ilea 1ellIiIi.-e 10 1IICll .. jllCljc,..,.. II ~ ne:rr. were ~
;Oslo, #' .. wllic:ll_ tmpl:iGi tIlOwcd .....11 10 be IwJtIIllCI ~ ill
lIis p"'ltt
oIpDt01l11wtlo were OOJCMlal 01 mKiIIc _ oI......p:, Ibc
_ ccldll tee! cue beiat lUI. ot ..: I i_ 8d""" of COl uri ....
Soc*tr. w!Io balII c"""""""""' tor "feuaWt l/w. ....... 1IlCI Jlicoaotil:J!be
paia . . tro-~~_onil:rtdlllbcbt h,l. '"
eYallDlilll e--',.mude.1O'II'a'lb IDClI prw:..... die OW lof
AlhanIsi.. _rhi... 1loped llAc 1l)t Iddillc IUdl _-00. Illlhdr """-
ftlic_ 01 . . biIIIop of AIe:wldria. IIle emptftlf -.Jd bc IlJUffalIO
I'loar IespiAlIC dIM be IlId betfI ill tile ....
~ .er.ed 10 reopen Ibc _ oIlKtyns. 15iao;c Ibc lint
~ or IlIiI ~ MI'IamaIIIia, AIhanuIas IlId ~ .emperor
...illl f'unbu Wonrudon COllCeI'IlilI& lIlis IUppOR(ltkrilcp.. IllppeaJS as
lbooop UdlJfU bad rll'St been "'ordaineor by Collul/lul Md dloIe 10 ftmaia
in IICllisrlI e...ell af1ler his le.IIder'l R:ldmiaioll no lhe A1c~ (lIuJt:h.l46
i:lIIrinj; lhe lime in qualion. Udlyns liwed In l.maII '~1IIIe in Ibc Marultis
IWIMld Sec:onla'lltld. 1of1 Althouth, \lIIIder lhe proviIianI ich ...... 1llKhcd
10 !be fUdmiAion of Collu!hus. tbc. SUlIU. oIlxhylU as Wt of lay
perDI. be IIIlPW' 10 IlIlve ooalinlltd 10 perform 1M fWlCdons of. priesl in
!be ~oflllorphan rwned lsioll.. l HisdlUldlWUOllly desipwed IS.
privue houte IIld his COftIIepUon _ 10 have COIlIiSlld oaly of IbDse in
tis immeditle ramil)'.l.' A lIeal'by cat1lollc: pred)ylef lInplaillCd 10
AthanasiUl COlltltl.Jnc Illls violalioll ... bile !he bi.Illop of AIeuncWI ..... DO
one of hiI yjtitaionJ oIl1le rqiOIl.lSO
S\lbtlDquently. appuaIlly durilllUle period before M-u .... at
COIIrt, th.- is. JOIIleCl_ befOle AD 330. lie ..... llC:IlI by Altwlasilll 10
1lI111_ IIdl)'fU 10 AIeJcandria, ~~I)' 10 be dilCiplined. Wbcn
~ .. ";ved ill Seconwwvs aIDIIt .. illllbl: b::II prabytcr. 1Idl)'JU"'"
in. a11bou&h C"'h_ ... rOGlld iD Ibl: IIoule aIoDs wiIJl die falbar 01.

1)"'_1;" HE Illl.

\.'---.Cr-.'. -.
loW. ., . , .,. c;,~ l.l. U.
&<.tiu,.,. d .. 251; <t~. 119, tlO.
loW,y.I. 12. I (()pill. 97, 1-9).
as.
I.',y..o, 1 (Opic&. I".
.....y.... 11. 3 ~ UI. 4-11).
7).

1.9.y"" 7<&.) (OpOa. Ul. 34-15(. 1).


uo........, 61. 1 (Opiu, 1.1. 1-6).
",
lhe ~".ic ..... 151 Mx:rid aad IliI fdJo. ~ iDfonIled!be
t.hc:r oIll1f. '0 ~ I IboRk1I1is . . cootitIIoe 10 r..- ... pril:I&,
"I~ ti&lJ' I _ r.c.. doe family dla me,. ~_ ..e
lJc:.ynllO dlmdql>necl. W!IN lJdlynll._.acd.lIc=e.a
tonoot lbc CoDn*i. QUIC IIId joino:d.1lilDIelI' III dle Mil:1aiMs.1J1 AI.
toaaIq..-e 01 dlis KID. Isa}'Ja appears IlIIliroe lIea "'Bp"1Ied ..,. t'IOO
MeIeaI pClb)ICllJ. ' - aad HcAcIides. and dIt Meleli.- bi:sIIop, a- of
LaopoIis. 10 rabria!e die dmz" or l:IIl:riIl:ae 'PiaJI ~.. a.d
AltpM!u)S3 While III. P j. lbc. ' i"rio. !lid ~ .poll die
ckJallCda& of _ tftaIiee. br IlIt. tiIDc 01 dIis -.cI pre:ltlluUolI of dIoe
illlliawlllllllppllln 10 IIaooe iDc:kxkd _ ~ 0I .ur, lbc Iu1liD&:
oIlialttlW IIoob. ...., the .......;", 01 doe Wlic:c dlIrin. tloc ~ _ of
offeriola; lbc obI'i .ISot
""" mtw".... wI\idI AIhanMioI W.uady pUI _lOCo I" ,"
COl' I ala wrilIP _rcssiooo &om ldl)uI bllllId1lh1llhe dIarpI-==
fabric.led..lU Athanuiulruy bave bee able 10 oblaiJIlkilI ........ ot
hiIlc IU .tier _ _ ..nil CoaIanIiM: III. ......... "z'hoqlI_ CXLIy
i:lcliclces 1IlaI1Ile enlpeta" hal. Mcarlicr bean! of Ihe _ ~, lhc
cup.~lS6 I. _ _ Iitdy.~. dI&Illlb Iener...., otw'i"! by'
,,"'_sf- aftw "" _ 10 Alvandria, lOr be iIldicalI:I1lw. OO)'l'U!IId
been ~ by !lis frie'Ids ..... tamily to pmallllimalt 10 lIM bisbop for
pe:nonaI inul'Y;e... 1~7 The letW" of lscbyrw COIIr...... 1his xquene:e of
tYelllllll'ol1clwl::

When I taIM 10)'011. my Ian! bishop. cIealrillJllI) be no;eind;1IlO the


chuR:h. you tepo'Oed me for wtw. Iliad saill.lhe nm. .. thooih lllad
IOI>C 10 IUch uuemcs of my 0""Il clIoice; 11lle",tOl1l lay beren )'OIl
this my apology In ",riling, so that y(IOI.lI'IlY undcmand 1M. Yiolenu
.... , . to....ard me md I ""'" bcaIu Il)' isM;: and Hlnclidel, Illd lsuc
oll..eqlolis. WId by t/Qc .... m ""'''' "';I!llhenl. Md llll<e God u my
ovI_ ill doc:larinl lhaI )'QUirt IICl ,wlty of Illy or 1Iloee millen 01
whktl lhcy bI~ lpokell. For DO bteaIdlI, at cUI' hppen.ed., -0
CIIliIIt 0 - of tbc lIoI)' Iablc 0CQIIllld, bullbe)' foroed oM by wiokncc
10 br\JIi lhiJ fOfWWd. And thic defell.e I bri"l III )'OlI in writinl.

151 1...
1511....
ISJ,yoot ... I (()pill. 1.tJ. 1f.2O).
1Sol",",",," n 1-1 (()pill. 162, I_II).
ISSApoL ... l-3lOpir&. 10. IS-I..... 'l).
U6 n1... r _ ..,I plw ~ ft."" __ "" ~~
lriftlt.... A"'. 6S. I (OpQ. 1' ol-S).
157,.".... '" J (Opla. 10. \1.1]).
'"
~irial .ad requesting for myself 10 be p~ w,thi. yOld"
COfliJepoon.IS.

ThIIlhis ClIIIlessimI ............rim lIII ~ J*'l of isdlpas IUIIt pIIa:


ill Of _ ~ is funbcr ma;aod to by Ibe wlc>eaiIlg of I1Ie docIune.Iu
by liore presbyIen from !be MIrr:otis: Am...... 01 Dicd1a, Her.dillS 01
"'-U. Boa:on of Ow:ne:bri. Acbillas of M ~ Diotyml.oI of T...,.uis.
md J _ 01 aom",t 159 Four <lerew' from I1Ie Mareocis., AmIuuDi.....
PUuI.. Oemeuilll, ...:I GaillS, a1so 1II'itIIaIM !be dgnt....... III IIiI1iti.-. 10
LIlrel: 6" _j ftom AlQ"""ria, PI.II1. ftler. bel Ol)"lllpioa.l60 All ol1l105C
""'" litlled ...en: ~ ~Jr:ru: tIooK. fl'Oftl llloe Maeol4 bd Idd Ihcir
po&iQone:hooa Ihc:limeol Ak"........ _lbe ~ 10 "lPPQrlD
1LI..e been auxtlc4 10 lIle 1Idllap's Ilousehold i. Aluandria for :IOlIle
yurs,16I It llUlJ be: agumcd tIw AWn_;n,'s dlolce oIlaca1 ~
deriY ("110 would ILl"" bcc:a rally ICq".;a..... ";111 lIdlyns) ... seaior
AJexancnu ""1OOn. (.. hi> may bI."" <:aral fot Ibe IdmioisD'uioo> of the
dioc:eIe) as .n_ ..... inIended 10 bOll lillie daub! in Q:m!"'ine's milld
th111h8 tlwits -.n: Calx. The klW' _ "Uf probIbly _ 10 ~
aI\er lhe inillal inw'view .,. ~ and Ny !live beeJlllllknown 10 either
tha Meletianl or Easebi.... 162 lD u)' f;UIl. Consl3llline ..u sufTIcir.ntly

1~8i1,<>I. 604. \.J (Opitt, 143. I~U).


159,1p<>/. 604. J (Opi,.. \.3, V.l').
1ti0lbld. (Opil&, 144. 1-2).
lUAU oflll< wil1lUS<llO!he <onC.,,;,,,, of "<llyn, hod I>Hn ..,i ~
1M .~,. of Alnondcr of Alnardri. ond oro lUted !II hi. depo.ition of AriIa,
',* """sl"Cl5' (Opi .. lll. U4b. 6-11) whicll. Opi.....,.. II Co. AD 119. buI whicll
Row,", \limi
<lOll Ibl \ho. M
1'1-. ""rinl Janoll)'ll'ob"...y. AD 32.l. In .il"..- ..... it is
'i<- pRWyten and deo<c", (Socr,o,l of CIIonolIri. be"'l lisUd ..
<l<ocon in U4b. b.n 'aiM<! to Iho ~',,",o by ll>o y_ AD )llll12) .... ro
el"n of Jonl Olondu..
Alb>uluo folio..... "'" lkollo c( A.Iu_
m. U4b. II, 15.)5). n.e AI.nDdri.... du<:an.o Ilo1ed u
_ _ _ or ~ ...y how. been pa
mnfrono"'-ofA~(OIr<4.. 1Q,:l411, II). w-.io.-...miI>&:
D'
w_
withiJI 1l>o diDoo.. ond ~od II n Il>oil Ioyol", to
ill ,,0 ,1:1 ( 11oo Iiscinc. if Opin
~
c( "'" archbishop',

1M II4iqIoo porio_ ,,..lO>'O in Al<>.udri.. _vor, i. *lin. ...., ... OU<I


idcntif. ............. be .....
In" -.... ..Iildy lIIooI "'" hI.1otiMo 00 .... boebi.... ........., lin
aN<O\Od lIlAr _ _ ..,;,q loehyno .Iood Iboy _ _ of Ioio Ierrer,
w.
wto;clo ~ - . ..... _Wdy _10 eoom
npo.o.lOd "'" Sr-d of T~ _ _ II> ~ boen
nr..
!
11oo_,.
try 1odIyr.'.
roo\i-.. wido 1M Moloti.ts ......, ' to ..... Iomt of ...,....,.. to
A.lMMriw boll bof_ . . ~ of tbo . , - lry t"MJ''';' 1'1>0 _ _
lor . . dof-n Mddi............ " - _
II> "'" II> _ _ ....... II>
~'. ~ . . . doe -ue01 bei,.
hld.ti.... Old to.bi_, 1'Iotft io . . . ._ ..
; 1 u. _\If_ \If IIoe
ted \If ,,_ _ d\.ol
l.-:toyr. load _ Ii- II> _ _ " ' " lie _ be ,,,... .w b 1Iio dJectiao
ATHANASIUS AND1llIl SYNQDOFTYRE

_<fled willllhl e.idaoot band IIIld .m.d 10 . . . . . . _ CObLU~


~IM lbiI-.oM . '
A.......... a:... .......
lirw:dlDtar. _ _ .,.~_

. . . . . - * r m " ' - ' - _ . ~ ... A'h - jnoulw4 wiJII


...p:, " _ ........ R:ailIa"~~dlI_"""'.1lo 0Cl.
Iht; _puar '""*' 10 IQ 1laIl-b'odocr FIaYiu. De".". dlp raicka"
AntiIJdl. llDd ed....d Ililll 10 i:aiUIJI: I jucIiriII mqlliry.IU Tk _ 01
C_ MId nooclcx.. DIbi>Mi.. hid bta .....u.d lD _ ..... J'C3I'1I
arlia" ( AD n6) IIIId IIIId e--mnnlly ttetioecl fralll ~ iIle tiJk tiL
....-so,. pel10qII dllrillt his cim.. as ClOIl$OI in AD ))).'''' He..,..
~c1J p.a ClRlin GtltUli.., JI<IWa'I .. cIIis ..... rot Soauts _ chac
he ... bocIl dlt ~ 10 lOy lht ........... ~ IIIld lD Cll'CItt cbe ,...ishmcnc
01 mo.e:e-ic:1Oll. 16$
DallNliu _ -cs lD A'Unariu toIIIi . . . . . . .ne,.d lDudtJ 01
At1It:oOCIIlftdlaslnlo;ted lim 10 ~ . . cltr- 1" Ie ill putmbk chac
Ibis kaa' .... I'lltda1 by AlhInasNs troneeillle wiIIcin IhI rlnl r_ IDOIlW
01 AD ))) MOd that dols is l1Ie _ _ memo! 10 by So:Iomell. IIavinc
laUn plce "\hilly 1lIClIllhs- belen cIlt bisllop ol AIlnndriI. arrivallC dle
SyllOd of Tyrc In AIl&USI AD 33S. 167 em.;tly. AlIIInasi..,.. EllSItr Jeur;r

by ,,,,,1.,1 .... Ilion to <he epis<opa.. one! Ill. bIllldtn f ehouclI ill .iI
.m e/. IlptJl. ~. 4 (Opl~ 163. 26-21).
16:lApol.~. , )pill, 144. 6.7~
16Cf. BorMf. T~ N"", &o,ir... II)S. n.. ........ of W. ENol;'"
-Ool-loll... 00_.... Holbbnodor Kollltorllln.. I." 'Jon..ue~ oW........ 1.
(1'29): 199212, _ ~ely ..... Socr_ .... .,;...un Ie ~ chi
Iidrt. 01 .._ ... Cano<orItin<'.IIqIIl<w. Coo. . tIolnlod lID.oo 0C0IIIly chi
.... ol FlaYiuo ~ die e_ .IID _ io O>io . - '
A""'".....: <f. _ _ HE ~ V (PC '7. 1S7A).
lM_ _ HE ~ V (PO~. lHA~
166",ol. l:I. 1 (Opiu:. I... 7-.1).
167fjlr. . . . . II.""'S'. 5<=--. Hii fl. 2S (Bid<....... 11)). T h b _
~ ....IUI- or HJ. B,1l _ """ 1IIirt>' _ "
...... be, cu",", _. ; .... (.lb .... 7) Of! ...., m.. _
!""" by .so-..... .......
.... eorlicf _
If 1hin)t _ _ ioo4ie.oI. "" .. _~ "" S,- ol T,... . .;q m
A~
10o
AD ns..... Feo.
__, i
_ paiad
0Dl)' _ _ "'" io
f _
-.101"r _ ~ AD :In.
llrD", olllrD
!r ""' .....

_ "" 0 AD m. 101 ibI fDr.;"'" . " ' " 01' f." .....01

01_,.._
t

TJooIII ...... ADm-" ............. FauJ~t_VDi_ _


100 Wt '" T,.. he Eu;o. .. II ,.,. no ... ol s- io
F t I '> .... I ' .' obq , doin)'~ poriod w1Iidl _
r JII-
.... ..., ' . _.F:*='ADm.11oo....-y-
_ pried, _ _ .... - c O ' AD lD _
__ ol c
s-lJr
_ -..r
. , 0Illi0cI 01 cbc.
..-_.....
S,-
ol e -

-."."., ,.....ay_ poriorj io


"" ~ cue io --.... {<t. BelL J...,
_.r --... . . . .
loll ..,.,.- . . .
.. w_ ol AD Dol.
' ~l)'. boo; -'.y if
.M C~. 41; oord Hinoi.., A.
'"
,... AD 333 beu1IyslJllle lfI>.iely 00fICCi."", IIICll III IC(al$IlJon hr<iIIa boea
brou(ht . . . . him .J\bouP. as will br. -.a beJow, his E-. Ir:w:r r..
AD JJ4 it f.llled willi ~ or lIae -.o1lD I\Io. "ntam drIceiIMIy'" II>
IIlir ...... lIh...)61 I. ~ pnlbebIe> lbmt-.. ................. r=:.ial
1M IerleO' fIllIII Amiodl. _ paW .ner toe lII6 wri1Ica Ihe ~ Iehcr 100-
AD 3D bit .u. _ eaty ilIlbe )'CII'. ~ g Fdll'lIIf)' ar Ma'dL
AliltlooctI _-.,Il>d ..
.., ha'oe JcolI/lt tel ICIPCII" q;mI
ID l!lie: alle or Iftd aaJic.. Ibor. ltller tlOl'll Do' illS, ami
~,..;- ial'OOIlllDca fro- llitea<'01l_ - . iIIcrlMd _ lb;u me
atpElU kid bolo .... -ltcwlllecl" OU lk1I pIftlcalar cMrF-16t no.
Ij+! I I W AIIlld 1b: blsIlop willlia IIle jwi:ldiccioll or die ~
dudI-.I M . ex !lid, -.l t.I'Ibt r.o- A....... bcMcoI AtIeIli.s
o.idIleMller lIloltli MIt Md dIca btncd .... IIiwc ~ liI_1lllo&z,
'~"o''&!l1lM: lNIlop or "kundria _ t e d Wa Iw. IiIId _ KaI Anmila
ia fi"'l or . . JtU'l.I1O II. is poaiNt IU ............. W cartict _1lIiu.ed
_ orrCllle Illd lII6 fbl ID !be MdeliarlJ In order 10 ea::apl clis:ipliury
aaic:m by AtbuIasius.l'l N AlKniIII_ Uacl)'1n 1lIdIDa:.1bor. ~
IJIJIatllllly Ud PfOIII_ hirII ODllWluini ~ It Ill: MlUId ."..e II> play
p.n. by ~1Il in I/li.s Wesllauilue IplMt AdlarIuiaq.
Soon aIltt JeCelvln& Ibe IlOle of iJlq..u, lrom DlIl....tilII. AthaAasius
seU Icuers 10 Ille blsbopl in Eaypt 10 Uk lhcir wisu_ in IocaliIlJ
Al$eftluw _ cItacon inlO Itle Thebaid wloa'e. IIPlNRntly, M JuSpOlCIal
-!be mlUlScfe4 .....- _ in hidilll. m. Tbat A/seQlUl _ initially kept in
thi, oc,ion points 10 !be .:onlinuln, JUfongl/il 0' lhe Mdetiens, wfI~h
Atlwla$iu....., hi'" only bqoolO IWpeCIIIIrllqIIIIlc C(IlIdC of e - .
So.omea ~ 1Iw Ibe deacon IeImed ..llmI ~UI _ ~ Io:qlt in
11M: 1'bcbald tIvOOI&Il die IIliSl)D(:e oI_1IllIflb la Ibor. rea .! 3 They
1Jo4lc.~ WI "'rtelliu..... belli. all'lu,od II lhc _masury or
PlcnKllk"rti.. in Ihe IIOlIle or Anu:poill. by lis MdctLu JIR'Sbyttt,

w....... 131. 'UlIJ.,


Tloo <Ill "11 o.t sell - . w j q 1JIi. poriod iii
bp '"oly ..tIoNd _ -..llno<y III pIoUo. 01 . . S~ of
c_.... .. AD In. lo.B roc loo!on. OIlIorioa .....a,. - . pi-. (t:{.
SdIw.u. cs m. )u'U7). 0...--.. iI - . . boot 10 _ _ L
_'.......
In.
'" DoI&olillo _10 pI-..".
F-,.M-it AD

".F..... t--IV, II ~ . dr~ 522).


1"/0W'\4II 1HtM_ d...,..., AI IU (Clpa. I"", ,.\t).
110.y.N.1U. ~ (Opi<L I II): S. HB 11,1S, 11.
17IS. HB n. n, I {Bidoa, IQ, IS-I').
In..,..,. .,. 1 ~ 140. 10-11);""'. '7. 1 {Oflu.
InS. HBn.n,.(BWa,'I.IO-II).
I."
20-21).
P;,,-.17. TlIIl -*s who bid ~ abe * - W'l11I1t1i1 in"",Im'.
Plqsi... C. prcobyIer), 51l....... T'V"' ' .....IIIS, IIllCI ..... ~ D hnc
IlK &II hum'le bowlecl&e ollhe aI&ir -.l r icd die. ....,.. D
PDx:I:', III : "'7 -'dI ......,." 01 odlet MaX , 175 OK olllle
-u. .......I" r HJ'P!ide 1IllCI. 'lhcodoie. wwkllla.......... llbk II>
ft.#~~ .............. ' t:iJ, Ilo .e'Q.~ ""'- __
_'"'-0"'- --,-_
7 ...._ ... .."'''''' oL-'- ---'--0.'
a1 f
lei
IlId -=i'flld wor4 oIlbeit~_ u:I insInoaai. -*- EliII. 10 place
~ OIl "'- bouad let _lower ccauury,l1'7
Wllea AItI";"s'l deacon Indllillllft)' Il'ri'IIld lillie 1101 I )', 1hcy
ro-I dill dlc;r...,. bid """V'l PnoeI tnd E1lM, huwe . . , ~ tab:a III
Aleulldril liar qyntioaina bc:(c;ft !be tin 01 cypI.11I ToO. 8lImes
ox-lelldJ IbII die tba."'Il;Jruaoed IhI:nI lIdy. Md llIey -ked Ibe lIlldt.
boK Pi-. in ...... .nac:. eftIIll. only IUIUld lila he. -mcI _
........... ~ D dIIIny~ ilia A.. in _1lilI1b.... and 1IlII1!Io: IDOIIk,
Elia. ...... _ OOII!euiaL l79 Far ~ itoaly n:nWIoed 10
a:-1Il~~ diQoI fllldillp to Dorm.;,.. .-.d 1Ile empenw and dlea .. fiDcI
~. _Iloo --'-I illlridilo& ........ die MdeIian C(IIlImunilic:l ill !he
-.....,.
1.4 TIw SlNJd IJ/ C",,:u.nIJ, MlUclllApriJ lID 334
While the ~b for Ancnius wa.. lakin. pIKe In Eiypl. Atharwius',
enemies remairled acti It CDIUl. Eusc:biul of Nlcl)lllcdi., 'Oleoan" of
Ni~. and TheodoruJ 0( Perimbus preSKd ConSll.ntlM to eonvene. 1)'tIOd.
preS\llllably to consldct lhe eeclesia.llical f'llIllit'ICaLions 0( Lho jlldkial inqltiry
whidillad been IJIldel1alcen by Dalmati.... 110 For IOnIC t\fl>O, !hue IealIerJ
Dr !he ElI$t;bIan pm')' bad been lIU=ptinJ to _vince CoIlJWlUne lbat

17.S indio_ _ ... _ .... npt..... lhlo lo _ M ..'"

. . ...-Iol _l&ined ;" ..._ [,HE n. n 211-. 10. 21l; <I. t4p<>L n. 1
10pllZ, 1"5. ISoI?II
75"'..... '7. 1. (Opiil>, IU, 2\%2).
176,.",.
177,IlU. (Opit&. I.'.
n.:IA~
171..,.,. '7.] (Opla. 1"5. 27.29).
119a- Crn', ..... _ ~"'. 230'. TIlo 1IlI1"""" _ . . ..-
rqw 1 7 ~61.'(Opir:>,14S,2I). It_..notr_~
_ liM, MTIq ohMJ _ ~ b&r.n .... lila. "" . . . . _ _

=:..L
. r
I';;' ~~ "'". -c.::::.'
if..t.ct....,._
Foo _ _ .. OJ
::'="..-__
_ ~-=: br"
-.i1_...,~_...,.
C.~
._tbo-.,.
! ( I). __ ~. .. _ ...-..iq ..
d>o _ ... _ ...,. "'1If. A,-f. 67). C I J 1M jrodIieloI_ of - . .
.. dIU POrio<I..,...... I. . t _ c...w. . cfI. L '19.'20.
ftGr-~ HE. L 2t,:u.
".
AIhlInI&itot -.d "'- bUhopI hc:ft 1hc primMy .........lIili'y (Of. _ ..... -'1
ariel crt YioIem IIlXb IIJDI CIlbcr dill/til parties i. Ec'PI. .. -.II .. kw Ihe
QOftliI"in, ~vlJIOIlS 8ftd. lCIlisnls ..hicll "-' come 10 cIIar1Ic:Ieriac !he ttgian
_die. . . decak. 111
At ~1II. Can Ii... Idc:Iud Bd called ,..,.. J)'W3d 10 _ .
I12 Ah!loqb T.D.IbrIa
("
Del was.
.... h1c
be.
ClIIpctOf u Nkaea.-
-=.. ......
*"'
~iq. ~
is DO doc_ttl'.,.
dIal. . . . CUSOI'
10 dIIt 01 ....
e>ideace 10 apport Ibis
riew.'D 11 it oq1lIJJy pnni!* lha.t Euebil>S of e..:- was dll*Il 10
pmOck _Ibis ryql...tIicll_ 10 _ io. .... _ clIy.l" c , .....

_a_.,. -.
_ pKJlJebt)t" " cd F '0 ... II Ioclldillt II UIIIIisl .....;0. .. Ihis

I:iIDiW IIlquir)'
IIIbc arti= S,..od 01 M.ciodo. _!lid $I ., I _ .
..... Eu,,bi. of Anlioc'" CcnaiaIy, .... Fnt"!
lAfur INIu VI iIlOfican 1ha.,-tal AltIanasiuI'. m-a.IlD Ilend liIitl)-..d
wu bued upon \he Ioalion ond, IlmUIIlab!y, !he leadenIIip or Ilw:
","li lll.11S
III early AD 334. ""sa:ft:d iIIlperiallmtn'" _ _ 0011 "bJ .... _
pious emperot e-llnc ordcriftt otrUin ponou from EanM. \IodI
bls80pI Illd pritIUI &lIlI Illay Olhen .. 10 procDCd 10 CktareI ill
PIiIIlIllnlIn SyriI" (or ella 1ym>d.1&6 Whelher, in f.il<\, DalmaliDS or FlISebIllS
had beerl in,uve:1Od 10 prai<Ic over !he worl:inp oll!lc MWI1b1)'. I, is dClll'
tlLII ConSlanline .... rup;lftSible foe' cilling tbe synod and lila. llIi, ...u
-=c:omplislled net throIollb cpiscopalletlm" bill .. imperlal JummOllS, One
of IllllK calle4 ID Ihe SynOd of Cxsarea was tIrti.. ~lCr. AlIfdilll
Plielllw I0Il of HoniJ. tbc bcIId ofl Il\OIWlic: C(NIlItIWlity at Ihe wi\bp of
Hlpponon in !.he Huxl<opi", nome,'l7 011 IS Much AD 334. IlIIJ nalive
ElY]lIian prieslwro&e 10 leaders or !he monas!k commllJllly II HIlhor III lhe
UJlPl"r Cynopol;ll nome lnformin. Illcrn lhal. c\epllty hid been appolnled III
...a1Ch O'I'et Hipponon Ilntil his ruwn (rom lhB $yr.od.1U It is puulill, .... hy

Ills... II. HE IL n. 1_2 (Bidu, n. 21_79. I).


1'2n ' ... ,.,... ~it; s-:..-.IIE D, 7'. I (KodoI, 14. 7").
IUa.-. CMrI_ _ ut6 m; B..- oIJo ,u. "'"
0 -:;
_Woo 1iIlk,.........
. . S,-IoIT)-.
- '"' ..
" of . . ""coutI 01 . . ~ ill wEIIlpofot
...
~
...
lioIIoopo..
I
~
".. W ._

......
IU, buI

Il4q.~ ..,. - '_WE 211_


II'F...... ~ htJJtaVl ( I I ' - A. 1<01 UI. 233).

_
l''uo 1913. I .... (Bdl J~"'" CIori>l .f9).
''',e,
-.lh&,........._ ...... -..... ...,.-. _ _---
117,,,",,_ l. 1-2,

......
,.~

-"""-
~_w.
__, ._~.

.-
...,. ......
.___ .
on ei
folIoooc ..... 1 .,11 19lJ.
_ ..."o_""".,.. .. .ma.b _p. _f
-J'

I
T-.,.
0I . . I'
lor;'" _.
.. oIel~....
_ ......... 01 . .
P'qelI$. II ....u
~ prieR. _lei ~ beeol aBed III Ihc.,.....
inlprobablol It\aI K .........1IKIDCd 10 be II direct panicipal ill IIIe
II ts

deliberalions. but ~ ..,. haoe bm> iIIch wled II l"iuIetI. II _ _ CD


(rom Ilio ~. bo.. e.er.doIt Ibcre .... u.ncqa .. tk.., 01 eilhor
C wille 01 IIlc "".. bie. III ilIchIde I .mbor 01 '1o;:Il'" Mdc:tiu den::s
ioolhcpi wf po
..... .....-:JJ _ . 'm.., _ _ IllIIIIIe
S,.od olCliescel .... bcillJ CIUed""ID _lila"" .. or""'"
iI'
~

'\:oiw"'1be pari"""" 01 dM: E.Iy 0 . - . Pl'Ol*- -1M TIle. ran:.: 01


9

Ibe 0'-'11 H.L Bellldlniu, tsdolt -"'SJOQI oIe-e. _ 01 doe


lillian: 01 judidaI _bly.9190 ThM lIIII ryao4 .. lIlD 1'CIlIl1;" tIoc
p.nr~ of 1M d1ord1 _ _ 10 sui! Ccln:luatiK'. eo "'ion of lIS
f1IoQi_ way wdJ.- 191 TIle S)'IIDd DI C: .... ., r.r II doe Eo , .....
were _ ' WId, .... iII,""""d ID pnI'I'i<k IepI ttelWr;k. -"oriud b7'
~!i 1IidI wouJd _ !be drpoP'" of II.. willS uncIer \lolII _
......'""' ' nI ti'til <Icc:ne. The con<li...... 01 !he 1)'IIOd .tIiIc ,nu.
10 !he _Illbly in AIlUoc1l ..hiell ..... ckpoted FusladllllS. OUId enoble
EuKbO Itld Ills party 10 mike .... DliM k.lI pnx:edI.R for I cri..irIIIlriaI
....hicII become ICI by llIit Wne: (I) &lIblish jurixlic:llon. ('2) iuue!he
~ 10 lhe ~ Pl'I'ti=. (3) !bIl trill, !4) Jud;merx by lIlB presidi..a&
orrtOer, mil (S) excc;"tioII or IIle 1ell1enCe.J 9 Allll. Cfllpi:IOI' I'MIII~
~ _ III Jud&e in III CISeI UId followinJ Ihc printipk that hjowlsdjctioo
10" with Idlnillisualioa.- lilt jlKlgmenl mil ten\tIU of such I synod COIlkI

"fly
o""
i~ qyp"
ti.o~ .~d "'"
Thoir iMp<><lO>I""
'i'''' .....ubnque"'ly
_ - - . - . T1Io .._ <II LP 1911 .. r....... Inf......... "'II
w 10"1
1M)' 100 0 ,...illl. ror.._
*", .,
....-d.. nl ~ d . mil. 13. wIbdo
""Tf/" ..
dopu\Jp_'.
bo,,,, 10 diMini.h dwl", "'"
R01IIOD
lak.. up 1>1 tloo .-on...;'

........ _ _ ......... l .. "'"p6, ..I


l_ _ . 1M ....... 1ho r...-w ~

10 . . - . . . - lo'F .-ty foil r... pIblic lloo1 ...... . - "l' . - ...


EvIMi- _""""' _iUaO .. ....s. 10 duipalOl olr...-Jo ud r...tioo.
w...... "'" --.it)'.
119.,.. .,..... fOffllj III I' I"~ . . . . . ~7f'" ~.
401,,_ ... LJ'''13.1.6-'(80ll.hwf''~.,).~ . .
.. "I' 0# _lIU1 ...... 1M ft.adiq 0#
bo_""k
" ' . , ........
- . . . . . _ _ B.tlI it - - . PD.-liot _ _
""""""
c.\&iIo-,_ ~_""",~,"""""_'1
_ .... _ ..... _ ( l W L
I .filio
SI.fL61.,). T1rIo ................ $.
_ . . , - . " - _ tl-0I .... ~ . _ . . - . . .
..pa
~

".. Ibo _
_lloiliIy._ r..
Ilo "'__ _ tI. >pAlO
Ibo . . _
t.t; 01 _ _ ........ pwiod.
..- _
_

I'~.
1iIot_ '" . . pwioooL
it d PO'" .... _

ltoa. w. dr.
I"/~.
1t2K.,.. '" ..... H ~ _ _ i
c...." .. 19~ 43l-46t.
w s.-, -t._ t-.
".
~ upcaed 10 l"IlOl:iYC: &1_ iauncdiuc CODfIl1llllion by ConJlIrItine..I93
cu be flak lIoo.obl .... the F,tSdli_ ...., Ille Meletians enwiapl
There.
A~UI'I allllImllali<M as the pmbablc _ c oIlbe proceedings a
e.-e. and bcIie'OCd t"- Cu ililll' as in the c:a. of "-tIl... -W
Iu dle.. I:~~, Albuasius abD nlC:II:i..ed Ik ~ _ _
III lIae Sr-od of CIoesaru. ifu ~ of i a f _ .. COWl 8lllI
lInJ. . . . ecn- -wid omaialJ!DYe int..ed _1:1 llle . . .-II of
il,,~ wIlicll weR beiaI t:<Dded lei ........ _ _ ~ deriallike
J'Iccu. Hrtiq wi. 11lle '"P'isim ot. _berolpro-N"1Wle IliJhops
_1lle prerious ..-eta! rears by lbe E~ Am"ftU;'n Ilad few
I,., III _ _ by .. wail .... lIim III D ca. ~ III Tliaoduia.
..... _P._"wdI._ot1lleewil . . ,. loIlIboJr.wto_1D1ry

Att. 5._..
1lioII-_"td '1O"llPQl'.dle~-It4h _ ~
j ' ..... oll:lae who!lacl phc:led aI C
dle~oIabisllop,~lOI.l~ lIplanal..... ..-dolA
wdlbM
.... - - . 10
v."s
J

.duAl 10 . . . . . . . Can . . tha bQbopt "Ilo Wle plIlefM in ...... plau


KIll 1ItOI'd 10 C_nti~ C(lDa:fD.d11 Allllnu!UI'S -arropnc;.-
and
-COIII:,...ey. -196 This KtioIl of IIle bisbDp 01 AJtunclria would IMer be
....... the Sr-I ofTpeasueuoapleof"""'AWnasiusIDd"ta.we!be
~ olllle nllcr. -197
Whik the 1:rishopI ""' pbrril!1 c.esau.
Iloweve", ... 'ho.....,.. had.
boa. buI)' in Ea1Pl Soallll\cr Lhe dIU had n:Jeut4 Piuncs and Elias from
cu$Uld,y, \lie two Melel!anJ IlleIllpied lO ..am John Atch:lplllO dellR itl his
accuJIlllons siainl! AlhanLl;UJ concernlns A.seniuJ. Wrin.n from lite
monuwy of Ptermenkurki, by the hand of I fellow monk. Paphnullul,
Plnnu informed Archsph conc:eminl t/>c. detail. of !heir Captunl and
COlIreulon. cn4i"ll Ille I;OIJIIlIUllia,tiorI willi tIliI W&I1Iiq: '"ThllS. I iIIfarm
)'011 oIlbcM: lhinp. rllher. Ieslyou s!IoIIId lei JOllIIIeIt 10 IifXIlR, ~
for I aId- .... Arlmius -was ali.e, ad .... he Md been IIidclaI
Alid all lbtst lhinp .... kno...... ill Etypl and Q/lnat be ke\lI ~t My
wi'" ....
loa,er,~I9I T1:tlouib lJlt <XIUr!C ol e""MI,
An;hJrPI was
th,.
Ietler fl'Olll Planes 10
ioo:rceptd by Atbanasi.,.'llItlppQrlerlllld ""u ,,_ 10 tlIe
biIIqI""ho, IIIbRlqlllCOllly, teal iI lID II:l ConslInUna. MtulI04l'1t. Aneailll
llill nl'll.aiDoDd _ 1"l~ ud "!bo"'b'" l81led bb tllli auutioll 10
". ' '.Ihe....uibiAl-.
I",..., 1. ""-
&.nr(.s..- Aqd_ ho~, "'" oloor~ dr nl
I....,..
.............. n
I .... HE L 2f (2:1),1 (PC 12. 91l.~
I "... :.t."".....
'IcPI_ .... X ..,I_ A~ .... 'JUI"".
~,TIw I .. HEl16(11),4(I'G12."1C).
19'1 I .~HEl16an4(PG12."1C).
InS. , HE U. n, 11 (8...... " 26.77).
19I.<l,HI. 6'l (()pia. 14S, JG.I, I~
A1lW'IASIUS ANDnlB SYNQOQFTYIll! OJ>

II MenllIlilccly lhMddrirtI!be williei' at AD 3311334 AIJwwiIlS""


throuj:Jl!be LoweI CouPII)' of EIYPl in lIeaK~ at AlxaiUS. I99 The..-dl
........ _ dilr_k owi"110 AqcaUs. abili,y 10 chIRp his place at
concuIftIelIt "OGSlIPlly, ~y .-illI Ill, assllUlIU at tK IIWDCf'OUI
~ l)'IQ. .bltas wllo kid IeIIIIlaed wlIhIn !be n;p:..200 At 1eqtII.
beNe... , Aranius .... rOlCE01 bf!be..-e at AlheDaliIll'I ac:DYiDeiIO
qui! EfYIIC CId edt .rely iIIll)oe.. wtlile 1tIen::,IIG.. c.Cf.1IIc . . dixu_""-
Two IO'YMII at AttIte!N" Ihc IO"Cmor atlllc. prow' o.a....d a
,u"a . . . . . . orhitlllUl:"... IlIlll Ancnias _ali... -.I illlidiq
-.'07. nc, fqlllMd lItiI iRI'~ 10 M:1IIc'.
AGcIIiwI atla
A....
<iIwoa" lU plIcc til ; ; 1 I.... .
1 At r_ ~ ~ MX &lbit 10 1l.iI_ 1dcl:Kily, tow ~
wilo ~ III:izaI
,. ely ioora-.i

llisappcNMCC." (k . I 0IMt pi ..... _ bf"" 1D&!Ii*'P at


Tyrc. _lIo ww .. old ac:clllu/iluce, 1IIc -W lID Ioolcer "'m"- die
fil:lic&1ll1 Tllcf 'pep. aaordia& 10 nue-. .,. _ COIWic-' of bcias
lI.ialJclt. ~2ln
It is IOllr_ N III !be . . oflbcse Kdoidta, dlaI b, ;" c.ty
AD 334. _1laYC NO run, ..._bIler Icuer lila lIlipl ~ .. iIssi&bl iolo
A""'nau. __ of 1il1lld.1O] Tk '...,.enc ...hid . . do ll'4 I
lIlilbl<=ly dIled bf .. 1IIlticftl E01Uar 10 lIIo: .,.. AD 345. inrona.I lIS cmIy
.,...;cmiollllo: daJ Eas&u is 10 be obIeo o<d ill Abuldria and lIIo: oadyillc
dillrictt.1:O<l T1Iis ~ by R.l.orcnz~ 101... lIIo: clvaaaloIi::III. enipna

I99F&IMI/.6f'" /l'1li.. IV (J/wDiu, A. M........ 231): T.D. B..... ~


lhlo joumey 10 .... -.e lll< plocc ......, MI yu, ..olio ....un., --.. lie
...,.;.... o.lrnoIi..II.' A~"," ...w.Ir... Irortto AIo1<_. 11> ........ ~
.......... iblo" (C_ _ " E",diu, 2301). Tho F_~ UllU JNIu IV
. . . . . . . Ippun 10 indiaco .... ponod imonodi*ly bel... Iho s~ orc _
pobobIy in ....... 01 AD ]]:l(lU bllc _ _ or.... ~luo 1\.Id""';_
_ nl of "'" inqlrioy .. AMlodl ''''''' O.....1lloa1 pr... loDo yur. - . . ....
W-.oo. oonctlMd in <he INlu is......- _ o.tIinl)' _ Alhonaius
_ IooInod of ............1 flietn lnIo lho.epa of "'" u.- Co"""Y r- ........
..... Ji 1M 11aIOd ' _ _ ~OII of ........ pr."""" w1dU Iho lUI _
liJE.ly.
1OO.son-. HE L 21 (1'0 61. 1518).
201",....65.] (Op/tI. I.... \].IS): s--.
" - ~ '........, If _lei 0fIPM" - . ...........
Il>Ol: pa.. ..ty III AD Dol _ _ """"" 1Id"_ "'" S,.- olTyN,
_ _ of s--. ..... t...a of CorIouol II> A"
_d ,
HI! L 29. 2 (I'(! 61. 16OC).

_ , ~ ' . prior
....

...- ... -Ai io -'OinIy """'IJI .,.... .yM. U. :2 (Opa. 146. 14-

'" 102U.
11'01. 21.
TiI-. H _ . _ ' b ......... III /tI1-.u, hrio,

1.f1Jq. Lorou. IW ~ O,",,~. -31.


'lOto,. rir~ 16: F_ ~ xva. iot. ad . CIO~ SM.
205loto1a. 1.01.
138

206............ ,.. ell. ~ _ I.


207s..1..clnaz, "p. dl. 1619. for .............. or $clIo...1I\&.
lOiS M' HE l. n (PO 61. 1511); A,..1. 6J (Opitz. ..... 17.21).
,._ A.-........_ it _lei oppur u .......b tIM. " _ ' I _
(pr_bIy IIoId ill AmiodIl .-.I lbot 'r-d or e:-.. _n _ _ ""...
roq..u::t HpAr'" .... ...,.,.ar. ... ,.._
lui... '''"'''''' Moe....... by 11M.
Plll. t.",.., 1St -YWJI
"'" nf' ...... 7"-.t_ UIl . . ""pi. ,.,...
pi.. nl

*"
nP' ............ d ....
i,x<'fI/"'OIi'S' c/&
,+-.._.
'A>oo.
Sear_ IliJ _
~ ""~_ ~"' .. ........ is.''
of Ibo _ . 00IIl)r ..-... _ _ 'I .
(0pN. 144, 19-21).
01 die. d.
.... ~ of Iho u ...., "nn " ~ ~~ POl ,"- ... nJo
........it;. .".". HI I. n (PO ".1$711).
..,...... 201; '0 HE n. 21 11 <a..... 16. ~'24).
210.y.l. 61, 2 eos-. 1... l:l-I).
211.y.1. 61, ] (Opitl. I~. 16".).
'"
IllelUlled ffltlS. 8ec:ausl:: we see in so;:h c:ondua lof lbe MeJcri_llhal
d>e:re Is SJIIIl orrauc.1ct 1hcnI undcnund _ I have;ud&td i11111is way
a<ld .... ve _ ID Ibis doenniDabDa, tbal. if lbe)' pIOlIlOIe uy funbcr
Il'OIIbIe 0( liIiI IDrt, I will, ill my ....... ~ late IIOIict or !he
a>Illet. md !iqe) _ -=rdinI1O ""1e Paa nt buI ...... diaI ...
pWllr;: law. 2I'2

This '-:11I:I' pl'O"riJial for lhc pn>XICIltiool by dwil autboritiel of tbocoe


, . die; ~ _bo .......niP'""" D caz\It pIIl:IIic ~ ..wid fllld
its qkaI elld ill !be proa:cdinp of Ihe S)"QI of Tyre ..... icb WOIIId !Ie
presided _ bJ aD np.ri.oI official, II.-. ~t DioIysius. 1111:Io m ........
tbt Ille COWl of lhe CltlUtJ' aDd !be Synod of CIes:ueI wcn:. ;" aD
Dr'llbIlri,",,"'O ~ flnms.
AlhanMius'l etlyoy ... court in Co_tillopIe. lilian. . quittIJ
infClr/lled lImber of infalmlial bisbopI; by Icoer of die seq.....:c of e~
whil;h bad resulled in \be YindiaDoD ofhis bishop in Alaandril.2IJ Iu.
raull. Allwwius received IIwnber of Icum of <:orIplIllllalioo &em fellow
bisIlops ..1\o wen: I)'mpalbetic 10 !lis - . 2 \ . Atnonllllle Icw:n", one
from Alexar>clel' of Thcssalonica. Athar'wius lI.Id earlier informed Ak><ander
of !be situation in Egypt by alellef which bad been okUvued in Thessalon;cl
by Sltlpkln, the $Qn of 50'011,215 As Sozon had been known andestoe:med
by AleA.ndc:r, ALhanuius's use of Sarapion aJ' me$SUIgcr may have been
caleulated to involve l!Ie elderly and well'rcspe<:1e(\ bishop of ThessaJonica
more deeply In Lhe cOllll'Oversy.216 In his Jetter 10 Alhanashu It i. cvi<lenl
thaI AleAandcr had aiso received some contrary Il!porU from John Arch3ph
concernll1i the alIeiled murder of Ar=ilLS. Il-.ms Ukely,lllerefcn, thai.
ueat deal of eorte;$pondencc wu lakin!: pl3ce lUI\OIIi thote involved in order
ID gailI wldu IUppon f<J( their resl"'C!ive p:nitions, For A!e.IndcI"'. put, his
Letter 10 AIlwlali..s n:1""U tha1 be has been &l.-en k&fell pleasun: k 10 bear
LhM ""the ta1Je aClCllIer ~ bas II>el wit!> disgrlcek and hopes tbal he "'"
his ......1.......iU receive !be p'oj,bmenl '"hiJ; crime& deslervck rom "the
riIb_judp.k211

212""", 6*, ~1 (()pia. I~ 33.141).


21:J.n... Nocariul w . . . . ~ """", .. _ -.. "'_
..... ill ""ee...... _ ill tho _ II> . . . . . . . . """""" . . . - ""
A"'.....sc. of t'IrIo.a.o~ ...,.". 66. J lOpia. \.5, "10). "io ,....."bI<,
1
M
&1''''' _ _ -......_ _ '... "" .... iwwillo ...
........ 0Ild I' " . . - -.& e- "'1""'""....
io ~ ....Il!>lo lbo< Moan- !la<I _';"w' .. 0CNI'l "-lac lIIio poriod ..
. h
~ _ . . . . . . , . ... ~ . 'M

21""".65. S \Opitz, 144. "11-111_


2U~. 66. 1.2 ~ I~ l").
216/1N....
211,,",.66. J (Opia. I~ Ill-I]).
". 'mE EARLY EPlSOJPALCAIIFF. CF Anw.v.sMi

111,y.1 .,. 2 (Opioz. 1.7, 11-12); C/, Opkr." _ _ ..". ...... Nll
/JIIdi ....
ll~ n. ..... ~.""'.L'.
12O,yool 1 (()pIa:. 141. 14-15).

11.'
Ul..."..._ .............
~ I". :zo.UI, 9).
=
''''~J ....... ' .tf,....,."..
"""'''.1 \'OIIic&.
213,yo,t.".1 co.-.
'.1,
1111).
141. 11.-22).
2'24.......... .,.) ('Clpil<. \1. D.14I.]).
'"
__.a...d . " ' . Lknlup "'1eUcr1; of pe.KCI~;'l !lid. IInICWrld
m" J 01 : . l;N. pouDj ..... IUId _
t -10 "y _ iI ..p..al
i'iiOd:s; IIWl . . ~ 1M YaU4iI J ol f .'"
_ _ beNt 1114 odlcr c_ _ ect Q1 .wen.. ArMUo.I t...,.,
......... _tIll: ........ : c of Nh ....-.nc, _. __ wtlidI
_~IO~:t l ' IDlIldle-."pa'L rd....... bKJ<DIbe
K _ - W _ a I q dw ab!IOIlIlIe ~ ritt* ol AIr''dria or
dle Il:aI7 ..-hlc~ lei fonIl 'fie ICmII ol1lle Mdclial _ ' DO ll. nI6
A1tIeftitd IJIPI*1IO III~ ktfIl bia p/I:d.ec olloJKJ. fa ItIir1fIttI JQtlI
1Ucr." ~ E.asaet Icuer of AD 341, ...b'_hn loIl_ ~ readcrllh.-
ArR:Ir.I ill ilIli)plck. "WriDe Ixa """"";led wiUI_ CIlurcL -7ZI Tk
~ fJl dlll adler bl*'PI """'* "_pi" In
k-. otn&ia. It b oqullr ponib1c thal.lKy _ . W'n'
. 1 by Anmiao; is

(two ~
....m ". . . T)i lie 1illecI. ~ trid pi t D ,.Ie.."",) a1lo
bMI bed, boc:II oecowikd ID Ad' Mm. 01'. Ill!loqll '"""" likdr. Jilnply
""'die biIIlcIpI wid! ..... A/1Il::l>iJtlI _ ...... ;.e1 m r. cidaeo' ~
A/l'WoPiP Illd T)11l~WS 1ft Iisaed -.:II t/IIo lIipcn: 01_ pe......1lidI
... p ......lCed III T~ 0- bebalf ol AdIIaasi Z29 ..... Ialcr. ;. AD 147,
lbe:r In ,tjlOtlCd .. Uvia, "* In ion of thclr - . perhIp ItIrou&tl
dea!lI.no 1lIe remainin. bisllop ..... tiQncd. PlIniInIa. would ~ III
~ 1CC.aed by Ille MclctianJ. surprUingly "'-&!!. of pllyin......jar ..."
In IllelIlplinllO mlltder AncciIlS 11111 earliec ~"",.~1
There "'at. nn.al lind iDlril"inlIeqllel10 lhc cvenu: 5W1'QUJIdjD' the
SYfIOll ofe-.. JoluI An:haph, d>e Mtletian biIhop otMempbis II'Id lbe
chief ..... l>JeII" or Al.harwius in the Anenius alTair. ICllt .lctu:r 10 ComaIlIine
In ",bleb I\e. confessed hi. pan in the episode Ind "f.Ipres$Cd his
repellanCc.-132 Fllrlllc:rmore. it is implitd WI Arclllph infllmled the
elIIpeoor lllal be Iud ioInod dw: COOIdl...ion of the churd! and "M It peace
..illl Adl..wi....uJ Finally, he IajIlUled pe.milSion 10 ~'It'11O coun
(probIhIJ flOll\ Alnloc:h) 10 "I'PW" be!OR CGQtalltJ_'2Jol Thl: emperor
lmnMdiwlJ replied 10 Arch;iplI'. rcqucsL He _ ~ lOr "xDin& to
\he side IlII pmJ foelinp~ and ~ 10 mab l1li: of IIlc cwsw.J PI'b~1Lf

ml'JMWl'" ''-'''',~, 69. 2. tOpilz. 141. II).


n'... lIJ.l ,,..,.,...... ,.,;:~ _ ....- '.... ....-.......,.69.2
(Opitz, \41, Jl).%1).
m,~~XIX.lo~ ...... StlI).
lUCf. Oplu. 14'7 .liL 1'.
m..,...,.
DlJF_
11. 1 (Opiu. U,. So I).
r-.lQX.Ioe. ...
DI $0 HE II, l'. 12 (BidIu. IS. 26-29).
D:I;..,..,,1O,. 1 (Opiu. I'" 9-12).
D'"""" 10,. :I; ~ I'" ISl1).
2).1,,",. 'lO.:I; (OpItz, I'" 19-20).
.,
;" order lila. lIlere m;'1w. be -0 doebly ill noatlll' ~b appunncc: at
CouIanliM;', ~f;lOUfl of ~ y...zJ"
H. NClIdlJeft "'.11 of ~ opm;o. ilia AIcNplI _ ona>III...,.t by IK
EE.'I.:~~'" 10 make lIIis app ....b 10 Conaanline. be1lcvbI& dw, as i111bc
_01 """"" 1bc ...pe.Q woWd be~ 10. ~duI;..Io IcIdtr
an:I . . . . klD IOc:oun.1l6 The IlcIpe for. Il'CcllI1ml_.11 liz raU.
ol ~ petDlII ~ - . ~ . 10 Nanrber based ~ IIr.c
F ,. N ' jacI& 01 kIw lbc uupa.... WIUd lela:

nc,. ... ..,.J'CIf1ofppeliauofO==" ',..".fII:' " ..


dladl..-..-6 ~ _lie lfidald, mmpe_.II.
dlorl:b poIi1id.. 1O be IbIeIO,iadce "'" ~1Jr . _...... p!it'-.rd
.-;'* JI"'IIld keep peaa: ill . . dl<lrd For !his
IIllbilDl . . . III
rca-. u- e.'ff:rf lime 01 dlea.dlle*'" vililild Erapaur
was _ or ICw:nI marb of'_ 011 Ilk
dlr.
""'......tI,. IIIe Jesall
Empaor'l pM.
0lM:

Iu. mauer ol Ibc _


(let, '-do
1lI~ ro:>tAlJy
Wj;j:oitd 10 AlJlInasiIllIlirueIf,'D7

AI kl/ln ArI:MpI"'" hill "'1I'f 10 IIJIPAf tietoN 1M cmpc:RIl', pmbably


durinc IeCCll!Id 1lIl( do AD ))4, SowRIerllqlORl dill Ibc McleliaDs ia EcPt.
wtoo IlacI bcell a1Imled by COnstaaline'lllu'eat of puniJlwcnIlIDIbcivillaw,
becIlrIe _ qui~ (co-. t'-1Ild !Nt Ibc dluIclIeI dvoo'&boo" El)'plcnjoyr:d
peace lIRd prospered,m AIllanasiUl, Iloowewer.1Ceml1O N1>'e leCOJJliUld
Ilw. ..... ~ was anHldal. He maIw flO mentlon or lUQflCilillioa widl
Jolin Ardlaph. and it is possible lhat I>Orlt lOOk place IpII1 hom AIdYph
atltillJ bit ;nwuiOD 10 do 10 in onIet 10 obtalll interview ... jth
Co_ti..., The blJl>op of Aleundrb ".11 unain tIw ~Ibou&h tile
Melr".n. - . for Ibc Ilme being. "'1et l*:t tnd c:ooue4 willi sIwne.~ Ibc
iAue whlclIlUlIIillC(l ctI'III1ll_lht readnliIIion of AriulIO Ihe AIcundrUn
churcb,139 . . . prinwy C:Ollcan oll.be EuKblalll, thcrd"~ ,..m";aecl
A1haMP.'ldeposi.a as blshop of AIt.........

us..,.,. 10. 2 lOplu. I4&. IS. :10-24).


...., ...... ~..,. 21. II 10 - , . , . - OIl - .

...e-. .136",
100 ...... ,
1- II'
'101 IIO,Il.alt.<IoI, plOOOlllllo ......._ IH,_ """" AIdIopIo
ioo AD 3D. Ilef<ft "'" S)'IOOIl o l e -
1Jll1'Wl~ 16-
Ul h _ .. 1/6 U. 13.' (8.... '1. 29-12. 2).
n,,,", 11.1 (o,ia. 14, 2S-2tJ,.
'"
2. lHE SYNODOFTYRE

IJI Wt COIOCeIlIioI& die ionpJnDce ot . . Spod vl1)n.


W.H.C. Ffaod MIde dle ~ .....Ilioa:

For ... r_ ship ba 'ea clnlrdl_ . . in Ihr; Eu.


dIc ro..;! 01 T)n ~ .1!laI 01 NiaQ. II Qd boca
.l b)''' _P"Of and OtP"iW like. _ 01 ';'lII>a:'"
llILIikc Ariel (I' bk d ID Ilea- Ibe nr..im ptIilD). II _ pesick4
_ ~ .. illlperb! officiIII. I1Ie COUIlt DOon)'liloJ. f _ COllSW.
T1w tfllpetOr JtiId iI...aed dnaly ill. _ of dIoudI chcipla IIlI1
1IlcIqll .....lCll: W(lIlldbe II"" d by die" , ~.w;,~
1II'llU/d be ~ b)' .~. This _ 10 be 1M J*1crll fot au
IIle palCO,neil. oIlIle p:lln,.;c ~1060

II II poulblc. tlIM FRnd Ilas oYCtUlai T)'.e'l lipirlCalQ at "1lIc


pauem tot all die JIW COIIncils ollhc pWlllk: lIe,- bul. .... eom_ts
~ f Ilw: iIrlponaace. oIw S)'ftOd re1aIIve 10 N1~ I n ~ 1
corneL],I A' Nicxa. ""-vcr. 1lIe etj rieo" __ pr;m.uy COlIC IlW
whlI clcx:aftll nIIUer$; . . . . of dIlJrdl ardor _ cliJc:ip6ne _ olleCondlo,
ifll~ n.dcposilioa ol~.IIlbe.SyllOdot AllUocIlIJlP*1ID
!live been l/w. ~I of_ combinarinn <Ii doclriDal and dix:ipllIwy or judicial
C<IIX:ClftS. At llle Synod or c.:sarco and Ihe roun of Ib8 u..- AnlJocll,
1'11'0 jIoritdktlont _ . elI1Ployed. 0fIC eccleslasllcal and OM .;..etieia., in UI
lllCmpllO am all decision CllrICm'linllbe ICCUsatlom whil;h hJd been
brollih1liai!l$l ALhanasius. The S)'IIIDd of Tyte ",ou.!(\ combincllllese two
jIlflsdlclian.t. IlLhouah !be ullimalc $eIIlUlce of the plhulnl would be
pronolIllCtd by 1M bishops. noI the C<lI>IU DionyWs, and. WO\IId be fOl'*ardod
10 ConJwuJnc. for his .ppro.ilI. U1

2.1 TIw C(JlliIt, c(IM $prod ofT".. AD n$


Jolla AldLaph'. mlel'Vie..... itll Ccnswui.... probably dllrint tile liner
pon;a. or AD 331, raIIhed iJI yel aDOlber 1eUan>;.MiolI of the _ ,
~ whidI had been bnIu&"t :tpinsl """'p.';'. ~ NonIberJ is
~ ill bill -.enJoIl dlat !he nd"bia'" _ dIc ...r.u;1lI ~ bdIiDd
1M 'tiSl1 01 AtcMpll II ucerWn. bar. ~ 11II_ 10 their
llI.oM '.~_.Ida'"~""'Ad' .-st.:.Id
be: III .1oC! ~ co-i"Il Cr<-. _ CoIbrt' . \lie I' , d_ PIld the

14OF,-. T.lw -fC...........,.. d. jn.


2.1~. _ _ ~A"'-"'" ..-' I ...
__
........... "
_ ..........-_,100.; ,.d .. _ .........
Iq li4 _' '=;,"~

..... ("""'" ",).


2A'lq. onr-. ~,,; ,<ri</ot _ I~a . do., 66If.
,..
kim$. -14' II II pmible 1Iwll\ldlllp/l nnsmiUcd IbiJ lellef 10 ConilantiDe
in ~ .1 court. Ib.viDj beCII ...-led orq .,ain wllb c:vldeao;:e of
inUbiI;.y lind divisiaa withi. Ihe EcJItlu ctllOltb ...cl brini ~ of
Il:hicviq ... ily bef.... Ihe oITenn, of ... am of Ihe 0IwdI oIlhe Ho/y
ScpIlIWw ill Ja\Isak.m .. Ihe aoacmll of AD 33'. lbe eq;paor c:aIlcd for"
$ynod 10 ClClft_ ill TJft,. T1lc pwpote of !be J)'lIlId. as lift fo:nh by
c---. _ "'1ll ddftld lllaR ill -.cI of .......... I) _ _ IIaJIb ..
yoow bllllbi:ol wtlcl .e ill dIlIp, D brillt bKk I ) ..lty of ~ lllaR .......
--= eli.'t 110 CIDI'lU:t emn wIliJe dlel'l: illIiIl time: ill onja dIM ,.. .....,.
~ - - , . .. _rp""iDoe:t.-l'4
II _ !be emperor', a'O'O'*Cd illl.l:nliool 10 ruoI'fC tllc EJ)'IItiD
lDl>\M:i' wftidI ..., ~oubk>:llhe peKe oIlbe ~ ror ar.- IWf of
hill m".. To IhU etld. Coasw'li peed 10 KfId 10 T)'fC ... f<II'U>U
10_ _ of Syria. _ . I'bTiuI Dicaysills. alon. willi. ",mlafy ponl
fOil ... PUJIClIC of saperYiJiaol aM ",linllli.illJ ~Ioocl OO'der,-H5
Ca tolliM. 100== =. dcKIy indicw M t/liQ lbe.ms 'of . . _-wid
tt:mailI widI 1M biJbcJpI ..... p.dlerecI Tyre. was W" ..... N "id1
u:d=i=tic=a! IIIId "P'*oljc ordu.-u.6 PfolIably!be. elllPCl'OI' it1&eZ1da:1lIE
$ynod 10 boa prdimilW'J' judicial uamWy wboIe K1lonI would IIltrUy
prtpm'll for the. main business vi ehurl:b reuniroealioa. wbidl would ll$elf be
~ompltted later II bis TriuUlJli" in Itl'1,lsalem, '!bel'll. llurin, the
celebfation. I wJer ptbcrinl would rei_ MUI and ~oillll n:I tIleir
fol]OMllI and thus, so Ihe emperor hoped, bring 11\ ClI(l LO Illt EJYplian
achiwl.
Pen:livl... 1hM Cooulantinc'. pienf;e wilb Ihe E,ypUan IJOUbIcs MIS
alrnoIllll .. end, Ihe Eusebius had IIeI 10 Ihe lllSk 01 Of&IIIWna tIMI Synod
otTyre 10 IhcIr IIdYUllaic. Aavius DlonyJlus.lhe pre$idiol w;ular ollicia1.
...... accordinllO Atbanasius, lIIIt of wir own pall}I,:M1 FIu\hcrmoo:. Ihe
EllSCtI;a", penuadcd C<Huurv.i"" 10 "",,"0': lbcil' 0W1I1lJl or dekpw IU Ihe
Iynod (Poblbly including. I>IIf!Ibcr of Meletiu clerlcl) Illd 10 order \he
immedillC IIlUI 0( AtharuWu."" tnyO)' II ~oort, Mlclriu. u one 0( I!l=

20A,..,. n. , \OI>i... U7. n.2a): tf. ",. 71, S (0pIu., lSI. U-ZS)
~.:.~~.(~~I':,~;~),_ '. ok ; ..... _110&
ai_" I"Oii' D_ i......, ....... ~"""" I. 1
i .._I'd" ~ ,.,~ """ pdM>',
........-...., dr ."....._
a; t , .. ~ d_~AooI,I~.., (w It.., . iftrtJl"." r.. MIr
.....s.,. i~"r "'" flIIi_ hoI*f'f ...........,_ .. ; [uebiu,
v.... c__ IV, 0" I (Hciktt. ocs 1, 1)1" 111.).
2A'I...... IV2, ]; Dl- 71. 2 ('Opoq. 119, 2).

.nld"
m . to' ~t . . . . . . . .

i~-..." q f ,.--If... u......


Iflfn' ~ 11*_ ,,4... .,ls" XtIIu.
rwl"r
..~~.qtrr ; [ ". Vir. C_~ lV. 0. ocs
'(HoibI, 7. IU
S.l).
:U1~ 72,) (Opooz, 151. n.11).
,.,

14",,",,- 71. 1 ('Opia. l.~. n


2A9.y.o1. 11, 1lOPin. 1.9, ).4).

101M.
l5O,......: ..... ,..,. "" " ..
n.
I (Op;Q, Ul .).
,.4'_ ..
~Nl. . flJt<w ~
llls.u, 1_. _ C",~.,.. U1~ 60. II. Jlfr..:..-...,..... 19'.
boo .......MI"'" ., IoqIh ill occtiooo 1.3.3 of . . ptUaII -*- II ill p<ri>opo
...ll"lQenI 10 _ " .. Ill.. jIlDo......... "'" sua ltd r..- ""P"<'i"I of
..-,.... po ..' ...... 5""" of Tyra ",Ilk" U' 1'1. ;. ..10 10 <OOIUin ill
r., rrom _w.o. AI !lao boa ...... ill Iho lUI, "'" U<inI of ,..".... ..
",1if.1y m-..w" and, .. has boon _ _ ..... ClOJIbdonblo olilroewJ6eo do
"", .......... 1lI~.. Iho.-.. of"'" 1_. F - - . . .. "'h"M'. "'
w.,. <II ""'" AnfIopil', polilioll II> lilt _ _ ..., lIio............ i; ..
....... iI - . ""likely lho' lie _101 hy. ""'01"" 10 pol;c, of orMkuI<
";'1-. .,,_, "'" Mollfl. . III E&7P< .. "011 lbo I_a u- TIoo _ of
di,,_
of c_. ""or
Atluroui.', 110-.. .-LaiIlOd ";llIi1o lIM Iww......u ......
.iIhin 1M Mclfti. .,.;.,.. _ _ IlIIiI8d .. "',.,;od beI_ "'" SJDOd.
..tioo,. Al th.l1
rivolty,. fr..... _ _ .... _
.... A ~ hM:I. .. _ poio"
, ..
of
~ ..
-101 ......
"'" ..'100< of ..........
,..,..... e6od . . "'" - . . .
-pow <II eo..y, to di.-biq "'" ' ........ .-... of "'"
tdd.cu. -.*rtk
it, ill f.... I 6 1 '_ - " ~
",..
~,.
-,bilil}''''
i
LP 191.
bodI..,ap<I
.. ," t Mr: f_lllnd
(""-" -illiloa '" .,. porioI ........
III - . hil..,. .. "'-~ - . . .. e - .. Tyn.. S 'opoR._
.... CO' - . _
..... .,.-. Tbon II J'"'I.,......
Iorto. """ .... - -.I _
P
., "'"_,
i-ilj'JI _ ...
OJ; ....
..-
_ wIdI, , .;dI S,- T,... .... S,- of e -
of
ond, .. ku _ "'W- olw>oc. ill _w.t "'... . ~
............. i " .. ill EI7JIL
,I '

lllF_ Z - 1 _ Vm (H A.. M m~ TIlb...... is


.....oaI)' pIo<ed _ F_~ I. . vm. ,..,_ .. . - .... ,.,.. AD
m .... """",:' = ....._ ........... '" _ I'uMl LMt.lotIiD. VD.
,.
--'d
1ltc be Iftl:
S)'lIIOd I>k""
rJI e:-a.u.4(kd Md ~ by JDba_AIdIIph)
ape. ._1lII:~~~":_~~.:":.~.~
. JdU: .. docar "I'P""i'jcw
III ArM,";. 111 order III ~ IIiaRIf willi _ elM 1 tr "'fee,., IX
bOdlapo(Ale' ............. ~"'P"*" ..
~ ,,'" ' . M' '+
F I" .Vlllli_.w.Tyft.. Doriq;"'pabl~-._~
d Ill...a 1k iQol ~ 0( Ibe
A.... btt_ow ai8Uy -.I _bflChcIllisIqII_ EcP _ Uby.L
It tbe 1WCfe ID ~,u. aM/Ta AriuIu 11 iI-...a.. A"'_ .eIr:c1<d
forty._ or _ _ half. rJllhosit bOsbops ~ ill EcJ'lll_d UbyI.ICl
P" '1 ~inIlO T,....:n4 Of tbc& fart)'.1C1'U dcrb, lIIl ~ twdn
(po$$ibl'l as . ., .. _w.a1ECa) bad III _ u-e Iocca llIPJIQI'tCtI 0(
Mdeliu,ll' Cf:naia oll.bt:se ror-r MclcI.'-. 1OIdo .. ApoIlmjps
0WKu. . _ ~ IlI4 beeIo ple.ltljlCLlill 1M Ely . p<>&p.-1
lIClIll* 10 .welIel:ll , . . III Ibe fl . , . , "" Adlai [ ..... widll1lc.
.se-. n.oo,.:UC QIIln, SKIr. as A&M' r_
'"lhe iaIaad of
Air....... I~~ MImltiII), I_po' I + ! ; " ol.'I!ml'. Mc.s or!"~~,
Parr of Hetr......,.,~,. Pda&iv:I III o..yrII)"IIClu. " " " ' - ' - or Dim;nlj.
Uld OoeiUI 01 ~ IIlld b:u raisa11G the epilCllpM& by Mc.Ir:tiu md,
fOlio"';", lhdr IIblniIsion. 10 lk Alcnn4n.. .... , had 'elaiDcd tIleir
positlorllllJlCler Akl.ltl(ier aod AIII;uwj....251 II b possible that AlNnasi...
11$0 enppd Ibe llSIblante of one lrenaeus... (OI11ler Mcklian prcsb)'ler,2.SI
\11110. It an _lie,ume, Ilad bua an AriaD dtcon.m Alhaftuilll was fully
.ware IhIllbe Meklian tOIllroVeJSy would too one oIlbe rnaiQ iasuea uOOu
tcNldmlion ... Tyrc and, tbud'<lfC, iDl:llIdo::d llOOd number of uMeIetians
in lhe I&rp COnlp;lllJl (]I dories be hid ..1\1 on 1ll1)1c.
Stconcl, A~jUJ ....Jht 10 tRWIC lI>e .....iblbitily of w\tncsscs who
would COIltIWIia die Mdc~ claims. MaI:arius had bcu IakCllInlo CUSIOdy
by lhe em"eror and ..... alrally ... TyR. The former Mclclilll bi!llops """"
wu inchided b'l Athanuios ill his ddqMioft _Id be Ible 10 SIIpply
rUSllw>d kDowled&c of ~ ..,nyW widlin ElJPI and could ~{Y.
10 bow 0. Nieeae ICOOlds IlIl1 been pOll into tffllClllllllu badI A.. .nder and
2lI3.yo1, 11,. (Oplll, I~, 6-1); t:f. Ad AI- 10 (PO 'Z6, loue'l.
2S<I.y.I, 71, I (Opitz. 151, 12).
_ _.................. IM loaM ..
H-.
~
1M fony_
_ _ oil ........ t.I 11&
""'- .. ~".,. for Ibio ... ,""~I PM'''''''~.71). II ..
_"'~ _ _ "isIIO<l.""il .. "" .. il"
1M _ _ 1 .;. P _ _ .......,. 01 - . 1 0piI:r esl I '"
. . . . . .I)< (OpiQ., 159. 1-4),. .... _ 1.] . . _ ..-I ..
'('"it I fu;',_ _1o_
IbW
_ LlL216. 3 (Opu. I'll. 1~2),
iarL".
'2.56,....,.
2lI,/tOot.
2lI .....,. 11. 6 (Qph, 151. 36).
'U90pila m. lM&, 6. 9.
...TIlo\NASIUIl AHDTHlI SYNOOCSTYRE
'"
. .l..bDasi.,.... ,1,1 wilaess.Il.e MdeciM lri5IqI
~ .....

...,..;....... ~ " ' ftJ .. lIle S)'IICIll -W ~ lIor.


III
em_jew 0I _ _ ...s.,.pc wtoidIW artil:r bca ~qDstlbe
biJbop 01 ............. To dois -s. ","'1!IMjgs MJWlItId. for 10
C'.;;".'''.;';,~ ~ 01 TyR 1PIcil1hc liIIIIle oIWs .. bdi:ft 1IIc
bhdbi=' 260
TIoird. Adl. n twc.ctu willi kim IOTJre d. iCiIlII7 ~ ..
10 Ibs iMoee-. llle _ of 'II'rilicI .. beinI ~ e- ;.
die oIdor
Rom- rrt_l W becon:.........., .. aaia:.1Ild pqlCl'1y absaibed mil
witMsse6 dlxllftleJlU were. ia liIe fountl a4JUY. _.jdered lep1IJ
biedina161 bIlbB E.aA. .... tIenjs. . inIluence lIelpecI D _ _ die ....., 01
wriaen ".~, as billdiq upoI IIle ilIdh,idui (pr indhillWla) _\10
S1IbIc:rilled D -.II brith. 2Q 11lis 4'P<&:lo _ tnIlied ill ........, way
III dooKdoc: "wIaldI".' - I CCDf~ordt:c:iibed obIiprio:m.1lS3
If ......'" ia ..n"d D JIlab: "'" ol1llc Jnin& AnuIiolIIO dispt"", die
dl3tF oI111anla, 11& would pracat 1IIc sY'IIld willi 1M td\edIlJe 01 dcru
subIIlilUld try Md<liu 10 AIeunde:t III pro'I'e lhst IEIlyns haI_ recei-.ed
'4Iid (Wdinaljm and .... Iherd"ooe. outSide ot 1M Nicme KCOrlls CUiW...-.g
1IIc M1elian Klllellloent.164 P=umably, AlhanuiIlS "'llIIld also Ilave bear.
able 10 present lh& letter of l$dlyra in whkb \lie ..hiltlllli, prie$I wnfcs=l
lhst 00 vlolencn I\ad ~en ~Iact=. 1l is certain that AlhsnNh.. tnlc=llhis
leUet as evldcnc:n, Ilona willi lhc: Mcletian ..hedul.. and olher cIocumenu, al
I./Ie blnt Synod of "'leundria, AD 33&1339, and lho SytIO(I of Rome, ...D
]401J41. 265
Alhanasiw ..... """I aware of Ibn danietl wIlictI awalled hJm III Tyre,
aDd if, as bolh Soerales and Soz.omen SUUea. "'= was apprdleluive. lbefe
.... aood reuan. 266 Thn E~1Iad failed ilIlbei, .....pt lO_vince
!he elIIperor 10 ' - a su........,. jlOdlmeD1l1 PIMIIlhla. "'lltast ene or.
accordina 10 L Ginrrdet, tIil'O ciYil acIionI \lrl:lugtIt . . . . Alhausiu had
also faiIod 10 IeCIR I'Iis ooa~26'I WiWa lIln fltSl few mondr/; 01 AD

1110$. . . . . ~ HE II. 1S. Lo (BioIcz, IS. $l.n).


1611U'. .Ic>Iowi<:. . . . riI'. 01.
262/1oU.
W/Wcl.
164,yoo1.71. , tofOu. Ul. 11).11);:.y.l. 21,' ~ I" $l.2oI}.
Ui.y.t. $l. 1 (OfolL 9t. '2S-~); AI*- 21, ,~ 1-' 14-26).
1"' _HEL:tI(I'G".I6llA);$o HIa.1:S.1~""1l).

'" 167.
III 1M __ "' . . ._ .. _ .. ..t)r AD",- an.-.
1
=f _ _ jw-
0
r
_ _

w--.
""....... 'iii' _
,-'lor _ _ . . . '" _
0inriI0I. F, ,. '" N'
1M IoioioI , _ . ia
,., ... 'nooopio _ _
.. oct II . . ...uIII_ (oloooa with """" ..,joaojlieil ""hDpol .r ... ;,uJr
ildtpl-s" _ ..."" w_ .. io>_')0:1....- ...... _ - . . .......
., TlfE EAltl.Y E!'tlICOPAL C\RED. OF A"T1lo\NAmJS

334 hlCriul ..... ItjAa:ed as m. Iftfoa m EDJll by F1lo~" ~

eM ullall,*-lIIlaaha1ldam-rrv"Mol
cwId !I& IIp'IleCI ~
...._ .. rr.a
m"""" md
mel-.:eo.
1Z F
dIIIrdL-
.... :_-=wtlidlrIlledAlhpasjaswilh.......,..forMM C' liod
-1iUlllclnlJ _ ....... IIastilc D Ibo FiaIll,.1lie 5,.... of

,. ..., ~....
h' ,. el_ ' bid

PtdIap rdkciq; .. lboK eCIIU, eart, ill AO 33S AllIatlaIi1I:s IiIIIlI


wrillea" kls e-lellcr. "TbI it is dolt Ii-.. _ all . . . . . . . an:
aIXa r.... die "WOc Oo..s, 1Irntirs,. hism...... __ !My...,
udlldc4 froIII JIoriIyin," God .....i... tl>c. illli. a _ properly .......
caninl .. obIl:o .en olllle fast. -'269 ~ . . . po:obUIy _ 10
n:Il.... dle ~ III 1lIe.uiuEc IriIidI. IRl baa famed . " " iii.. tnd lad
.... I by iasiIlin& ulJ"II dta' 4!:marcItion IIle ......... of l!I dlu:dI
AI well I pttltise .... i......... of l/lose wbo could lqiojmte'y putidpQc in
.....' 1 Calliflin.

2.2 ~"'AIU~"'.S1-Jr;fT~
II Isdiflkull 10 NtC:fUin willi...,. dq:ret 01 ""inodlllbe~
wIlOdl_ anploJulllll tbIo Synod. olT~ P. BaliITol di~ betweao.
Eallan lad WQIImI.....;lj. proceduret. He ClllIUilIoR4lb11lyngdsol die
EallD ......b18 ... p t 01 opeft debate .. bidil WIll prIail;ed ill , . dIoob;
n Wut IIIOdoIcd chwdI t;OU!1Ci4 oa lbI: pno:aa. .... pItQll__ of IIle
R _ tcftalC.2'H1 N.H. Baynes. 'lli'id!oul m.oIdnlllle diJtillctioll be,Wtell
East IIId West, limply WIleS thai ~i1 lou lon, 1lwI fCCOI'Ilwi lIIat !he
proa::dute or \be. tlfl, 0Iristi... Councils ..... based uJlOl!IIIIl olllle R _
Il'Illte. '211 This 1IIQdd, lIo_ver, which inYOlYeilI "fila/I" in wttich 1M
"",au beln. di~ read to !he uoembly, fol\owecl by- role call ill
which f.IClI deleplO ted hi.I "Illenl;", artu whidl >'(Me "'. . taken,"as
IlOl Umlled 10 \he Roman smale but had bcelllakeft up by 1lMI mlUliciJWities
as wcll 272 In the case of !he Norlh AfrIe." .,nodI
whicll illdire<:tly
rolJowod this Pfl)IleU. lhe rcsolution """" VOlCd Upoll ""Wid be pboed in !be

_ _ . . . . ((!if....... ",. ril~ C~). "'-p nch _ 0tlI:m ,.;po .... &
""'" E jH- r....... , eo' E _ 1M _ ....... - - -to
...... ~. A,b;'" makes '" . . oIkeod F !I C.
'l6Icy. Sck...... G$1Il
:M,_t-. vn.. (R
2A6; ~
,
0<,... )
.",. ril. SU).
(f'(l2S, 2218).

2111n.. Iloooi<. , . '" ... . . . - _ _ ........ ,. 8atitJcoL


~ .. .. 1 .~ t..Ia /il.,,w .. ,..d ,ie
I"'.c... ..
f !

0."'0.- JI-96.
111 N.H _ oIoe Go.- _ oIoe ~ C....,.,. _ _
adiEioIt" to-. 1971. II.
212q, ,..... i' .,.. PI E ul SL q,.;... S,.,.,- r-.,. CM. )1
(191)): l:ll-m.
AllU.NASlUS ANDllfIISYNODOFTIRI!
'"
1i;lmI1II'l<tler """"do _ IbaI . . 10 IIIl rJl1he b' pna - ' plaeed
1

iIl1he _,*'a III N. ctadl wbm: lhe ryOlCICIllad IIca Ildd.17)


r.1PPQIUOl' IIIlllerdlJtw,-__iIM ~ ill .,..... pdlaiolp
........ all po , , '[OCy, --., 10 die ........ eod it) IIII11is fonnaI
.-bef ........ oiilea capy III RI:ma IERI:criIl ....h 274 AI lid, II
is pcrllIps bell .. new die pnlCCllln::I """'*'ted bt _. I' ...... ~
ildle foom; eam.y be'"-I btbridl 'fI'hOI JeUinod JIl.ctIIhII. _ &miliK
ill ci...u IIY&in, bI& wt1idIl1Io ..""ided dl.ides for d>I d1ll<d1lO PIl"QI

_iii
italf _ _ III llnlited jIlfidic.IIlIIIbaric)'.17S A~ bod! F. I>'oontik
Md H. Hess _ b i t euua-Ibc.....1Oe III dudo J)'IOdI orp:III ....
xr-'*I modd ... ~ mucIcIe dle 1qillIli...e diIliIIl;.... ~ die
~ lid COOlcilla' III lila body, dlen: CII be Iiak doubt dw
~ U sinllla ~ ndllic;a%16 While. it is bcJ'OI'lllbe .:ape III
. . SAId)' 10 It fotlty Vpoa tlw: prowItn wIlicll .... . . " 11
o...... a of NDoa, It ..1IJt be -.:l lila tlw: ill ftOdd 01 s.a,.s is
..bIwlliutd oa.I, bt die _ _ I of El/.ICllllIS, whlc:ll ..., be pIxed
Con"'NillC ill more CellIIll1 posirim \han is rua, juRific:d.m

173/"~ .. J19.
17lbj~ .. 33.
1HC/. H. H.... Tb Ca"""" of Ow Cu",,11 of S.,~it: JI.l9; Hu.',
"".i<tIon "",."....1'1. lII& linb be<wecn .edI,";",1 1)'Md' """ lII& model of
JlomM .--ial proctlct 10 cl. . br. "" WIIoo.........-....,
._rdo . .
I, fa n ' _ bh ......_
...,1oa00lic0ll _
"'" wIopke 01"""""
. . . . . , b)'
1)1><0 01 civil
.......- _ Ito
~ '=wiIy porfonnool. Iy liIM oJ. Di<>cJefiall
11III C . . . . Ito ...s.t obIIpl)r ... _
of 0Itwi<.. I' 10 1horJ_ _ _ _ .,.o'f 'I <_ ....
P"' wei of\of . . -0"."". bototo.. "
III _ ..i.rieo'..-le of law; b , bUlod . - of -.....,.. poraIW ..
; cl
llooI.f Ito _ ....,_...... _ _ _ ...... ~

..ciI 01 _ .... ~ _ COIIbIIJ .. lho E..I wei ....


iooho W_ 1100 ...... I"I.... oI_~oI.... ~
* .,..,.poaoiow
filth .-...,.

of jIIridicoI 0lIlI00rif, io "'-"Y -..0.1 wIdr. Ito . . . ""WIll of _


_ ...; ......' _ pnIkJ ill ............... o.JIU of cio'a Ioow.
c-. Ioc, dI.l
Oo.opioo _ ' , ill': _ doo . . . . ., _ of . . _ pool '-"'!If
. . S~oIS-..It_'" tJ _It t of .......
............ N~. . ' TJ--b'IO _
__ F 'I' ., _ _ _ IO . . . lb&""""-
_ ~ of .,..., II F I t'y f ...
jorioc!'-j of ,.,' " '
27'1 : <[. T. o...i..l;. E.rIJ e......;.. MIl ' ' ' ' - _ I'fliiliaU
I'.j~". W.' 1966; wei Amidao, . ' riI~ JJ6,
V
1 11.,.-. c::....,_....... ciJ... II; cf. C, L,.,;Wlotid. T" C~l II{
N'_.I.
''0

. CaspIr ..tIile aIlmviq for certliD. d i f f _ belweeo. Nicaea ...


Tyre. COIllellCIs lila Ihcy 'O'CrC esscatialIy similar. f(ll' RddukJ...iJiut tI>ey
Q3R1biIIed .......'"i..ical ..... civil iurisdlainn aDd QdlIllCl under !he dira:l
~ 01 inIpcrW. aII/oily;2.1f .. _ptiooIls mIlll: Ihu 1IIc proc:edwc
employed by ear;b S}'ftOd was also Ii......... K. Oirvclu hat', iii 'cd '"\be
Rek~ ot~-llI aa.....tw cn:ara bJIb.:m Ifld. a11bou&h JirinI
liule mdenoe 10 tI A"'....;."",....I$ olTyre. be cleatty axnidcn lhc
s}'DOd" 1Ia~ bocIllilllc. mere. t!= ... m:k'Wllio' triaI...tIEll apcma1
lUlda' 1M cmt jarisdietioc ollbe lIKe: ""llle iNu ia L!l.iI proc:ess is
CooltutiAe" ill llle pct10II of Dioapiu. M1be bishops bema lis
UlII1i1i4rii. -210 Tbe ICOteaee lII!lkt1 ax:1I a s}'DOd would decjd,e 1lJIOIl.
l/!oetdoo'e, WllUId 0Dly be mvisuy ia II3ll1nl m<hu Wn III IICmai jud&i'>eiil,
wIlidI would be IdIIOCcrtmnrioe 2:11 V. Twcnlqr laue:sa.~, IIIai
1IIc S)W3d oIT,u I" ~ pue llO"'fI' tbaft dlaI 01 ...... advUDry _ 01
1M iIIlperiai WlUiJUzrii" aad e'pened 10 ""llUI_1ellCe on Alhuasius,
......IU ..1lk/I\heJ."lhc ED'.... "'-.med bId.~1hc....,;p.
ofaci'ti1judplerltandllOlsimplyuea:' . ..,._"212 HitcondllSion
is .... '"bere Tyoe nI Nicae:I _ be considtmt as ....liaIly cj;lferent" in
repnllO _..toothy and, prosumably, pmcc<blrL:m
A.H.M. JOIlCS lw lIIUIIlllarizcd \be confIictilllllUi\\IClcs IOwards. and
evidellce tooeemIng. ca:lesia<Dcal synod. <hJrinll1hi1 period:

The Cb\lJl:h had 11 grelIl belid in lIle ~a11le of coullCils, bill hen: again
lhere were no llCCePICd rules to deletfnine ",1\0) mighllwnmon them ;md
whal jurisdiction mer possessed. The Council or Nil:lICll had. as we
"'VI' seen. put provincial couocill 011 regular rooting aII(\ defined thcir
competence. In IIOme area. IoTicr <:l)UllCils were sanctioned by
ltadltion. The bishop> of Rome and Alexandria From time 10 lime
summoned oouncib from !be Su.bwtlic:arian provlooes IJId from qyp.;.
Ind !be biJhop of Antioch from til !he diocese 01 Oriens. Council. of
Illlbe Afritlll provinces wm. reaularly held WIder the pre:siderw;y 01 !he
bisbop 01 ~ But eIie"""m llll:te wue 1'0 I'lllXlgnizcd uborities
10 ~ Wier COWlCils.
'I'1w imperilll"""""""al oflCn look Ibe iailialive. Only !be
ePlperor could SUllllallll a gcnenl councilor the ..hole cllurcb:
ConsalIIllne had emblidrd lbc ,"'Lulu.
a1 Nicxa, and ~ ... in
WI' cae 1'0 ce:a~ eleriwicll auIhorily wlUdl could EL Bul. Ibe
empen:w aIao oflea SWIlIIIOIled smaller COIlIIdls 10 deal willi some

n'L C_. GnrWIu ~ I'e,_.' ~ 1.1.


179L Cit. . . . .",. cif~ 66-7S.
210/ .... 6l.
2111bi4~ 11.
2IlV.~ ........'../a.... T _ ..... elf.. l$$. flI.. ol6..
213,.....
'"
prab.... 011 ... ~ p....,....... QOIIIIl:i1 . . . 1_0'11' t 10 ckcidc:
ConIwItiIle Ipla set !be preoedeIIl by caWna !be _ l i s 01 R"",,"
and "'lee; 10 deaI.-ilb Ibr; D<wwisI '"""'0 ., aad llQeolC ca
and Tyn: 10 Pe ,it"""""1 011 ,,\buM Sa lid AIle couneilJ ~
... .-..okecl by kadiIt& hidlop&. but wtallef 1Iley __ ~
by lqleriel or ~ .iaiWdoe., ........, . . di:+ t1
... ltIcir werdia was foeqec:ftl/)' cM " .,;: by dcf-.l ,.roes wbo.
atIl:a 1ndJ. alIqcd 1bIIl.1lIey ~ I*bd

At_ .... 01 T)tt, ~ plKticc IllCl poooedin . . lItilI_ die


I"'X'C*I 01 deelopollellt. AD..,. MIl 1'01"0'& a,areed CIODtl!. . . . IIIIpcriaI
IW lie......... but S.L.. G....... stode Ilas ex... oed. "'die dleary 01 QOI,nQb
_ aiU to fIIdilIIemary ilia Ibe pxdce ofIca ~ 1M .w.ority 01
tile emperor raIher dlan lbe lnlodom oIlbe 0ucIt.~ fWlllelolOi", ;1 is
olielllMlltdZd _ bo.Xb 1bc Syq 01 Cwo . . ICldlbe S,nocI oITyn: lad.
~ ........ dIM 01 jIId&iq t ' ~ea;lo' . . ., fipre wIlo IIId
bmI ....... """01~ 'Ii th". oIbodI dorila:l _ ..... o.iac doe
period -.o.Adiq dM: SJIIDd 01 c - . IWO .1*'* mIllS -..:
maNis hed 10 dtal1rilll adI-aas. We may _ _ lIlIllbe ~ ......,
10 .iud&e flttlqiuliQI ~ lUll! .... lbe alUR or tIIc ""'II' _ 10
eval.... 1C: any civil nmirlCatiofts. Al Tyn: lIlese lWO rlllonI 'IOCR linted.
Ah.houlh lbe ovcrsllbt ollbe Syqod or Tyre was ulNSlcd 10 all imperial
oI'rlClalln manner similar 10 NicKI, the JlIlIlM* ...as dltrcnonl., and the
CQfIIJOl oIl1>c Mlperol' in. l'llIuet of diJc:ipllne (q QJIPOS110 t/leoloc)') was
_ r.. rcKhillJ.
Apin... A.H.M. JODC:I has NIlmenccd, Cooslllltine cnttluted "lbe
case of AlhanUiu 10 bomd.pkked council presided Oa' by III impaiBl
rornmluionu. He himself prtmO\I~ on A\harwiol's appeal from lhi!
council,.,'J;16 The. 1Ull1! of ~lIlCh I JoeClUlique. whereby !be anperor cllciK
!he bithops who "ere 10 make lI>c decision. and IIll'O\llh lI,y president
JUided lhcir dlJcuulons" was LIllllbe lmperi.ollcwernmenl was 1I'm1 ~I
CCOlIiderabk <It ~ inll""""" m _Iori.. o decWooa. -211
h -.... poper. tb=fore. 10 rqard \tie Synod ~ 1'yN .. pr;m,rilY ..
....,.,......ke' lriaI wI\idI oprsw:d IllIdeI imperial MMtIarllY In ~ per.- ~
~iu DicIIIyUIll. II" ponible lIlaI, as Nicaa, Ibon ... alIo
po 1,", . . . rio KUd .. ~ ecd.....ica' camletpln 10 DOo-)'IiItl.
altJlou&'! dae EQPCiaa bislIOpa - ' o j 1mI:r comptaia IIlIII ...,. .... e-~
spoU IlIId all prucat rrmained Ji!eqj or obeyed lIis iuil'KUana.-211

2101.... ' - _ _ Eapin.. UI. U.",""",


lUS.L o.-Iad&. c _ _ S - Jr- e.-= =.... T' fin.
~ 1""- 10.
21'-..
217-.
'- __ ~ ....... 0. 936.

2U,,",,-I..) ('Orpoco. lM. 12.1)).


'"
AltMup _ EIYJlliu bi*Ips SlalClIbM ~ fII N'.. ,. COIIII!3lkd
die 1#" ,.... 01 ~ ~ 1IIn>qlI DWu)' 1:19 Ie II _ IUd) draI
F '" .e-a 111Ile ,c:siduII __ '~'&M or~, F\Ic:illus of
~ -"" ........... po.oe. dlo:. _ie; lOle.otPielidioc bi*lp.2'lO
,.. h to 100."0, belie-.ell lk P ee1inp Tyre 10 be
pr;..ril, axlcsi.jc., ;" _ -:I MSl I . . . lbdr _ ...... ~
rer:eiwe 1llc IRIrO"aI Mel ~ (II DOc.ysiM ....... by iaCeraoce.
c",'w_:lt! A .....,; ~ T)'Ie.II .... ~ f'O:6Ia:ioa.as.
IU"'" IrbI wtIidI MIl LeVe-icaI audocIricy -.:I oooIy . . IiIna.d tivil
joail&:dGi ....... been IlL .cd by !he cmpcn;Il'.1f1 AI roro-p'M.
biaqclf, tllc cm.pct'OI' cut, JnsideRd it within !lis power to ....-.l dle
.....Odonf of die Synod 01 Tyn: I'ld 1Cl reeumi......y di:spuIaI _ _ IIhc:t
dle fll:l:m Clnie ~ coadudc.1!I=f<ft, duillhe rdaUwe 8Illllllric, of 1M

........
$}'QOd olTyN .... from lbc DUUel, ~ In. VIrift, 01...,.. by ia
.,._ "n
1lIe pnlCIldan: whidl _ folJowe1 by lbt $)'DOd oITyN ~ 10
""'... Iadudod d I(lib 01. civil lI'iaIas ~U II dle 1iJM........ ed fdafi.....
.w
~u~~d. cwdcrilIl 01 1M qt:II<1L The synod beplI willi I lottler fltlnl
CaallIIIIliaoIlll tile bisbops .. .,bil:lI ha set knvdlloe _
be dlxUlld (... """, ).29" In Ihif; Ieuet lIe.bo:! .labli$lled !be
10

jlutJdictional ~Ib.t of -DionysillS, I IDIIII of co~sulIt Qftt.""


FWl!w:>,-.Cpw",u.mter:xcd Ibe ........... ...tlldlllld ...... euended ..
all the ~ ~ and ~ baniJI>menlll. punQblnCllt for IIae
""'" rdIIaod 10 enend.2M This eombiDinl of LhIl nl(ul() wllh Iloe queaioa of
JIlJbdktlon and I tepeIl of I1le S"DII'''''''' (jill !he hybri4 nallUe of Ibe Synod
of Ty~. The. ~lIrIJ OOfllinued with the tr... l Plllpet, in whk:h tile
prc.Ildln, 0.,1= al1e<:1 up'n !he inwestrA pa:tia to pretellllhci, respoctiWl
CDII5. The. aucn1bled bisOOps ""CfC then liven an oppofIun;ty III JWe lbeir
op!nIOIIJ or 10 dil]l<l~ evidence. FinaUy, tlIoCh In llltll _Ill deliv., his
..nltnll" or JudllllUll 0( llle mal1Of, Ylith Ihoo final vetdlcl beinl Olloced in \he
form or. Iellef, TlliI:. ift brief.lppears ID be l'QCIahly!be pt'OOCU wtIicf> YlU
folJawullll 1)'re.

'lI91..... ('Opit&. No 1S-16).


290A-.,pa-wo-._", I' <lie
... S,,-elT)R. ... _ 01. ... Ec1P'i- . . . . . . . _ II T')w."'*- n,
10 (OpiQ.. In.:J4). ....aIy implios Ioio P W ..... ~ If. flo. 1)0); ~f
;y.L I\, I (Opa. 161.6).
~1(l""' .....~ 71.... lSI.
291"","".12. 1 {<lfOu, 161. 11-19).
m""'""....
~E
211. fOpito. 1"- 11ifl.).
, . . Y"'C_ _ TV.Q
295,..,.,.

'"''''
1.1 Tht f>rudUotr. 1M S1IfOd D{"f'Jn, JliI,.tk1t1blr AD JJ5
HlvlllJ left E&7p. on II July AD 335. A!hPMhlt probably 1IJied in
Pboc::DIcla Iaier in lbe _ IIlONh willi lbe P'll"edinp beinc .. ilialCd
JhonIy Illcn:atltr. ~ I(UI .umber of bishopr wbo ulCndad lIIe ryDOd
rarWDs IlIIC'CNia. Soc:noler indicia .... only 60 bIsbops _ ...-.297
Hdele -=t:qJlI tlIiI ...... ber but - * I Ihal iI polllUI)' doc:I _ Ind* lIlc
EeJIIi- "''''M.,291 H.M. O..-.dtllo ..... PEt' lK _ _ vi. ~ 10
bve bocfI .~ UO. ind~ of lbe EI)'Ptiu dck......1M It is
fIOQllII:IIy ~ .:l pI.oe lhc IIClQl -tier vl.lIiJIq:IIpr-. III bee. == 110
aid 150. It is poaible Ibt lile Em:Uu biIeqlI lIN _ . . . vl.6daUy
=1_ dIM tbeir -.ltlmfcn,ltid _ ~ .. lhc IisI v/. jIodces
.. wIIidt ~ 11m acua. ~ - , . blstqII_ ~.:l
ki ' for lite 1ri1:........... IDd IUJ' Ilawe IlJived III dli$ po'. . . .y .ytOl.
.l)n .&I' d pmc-1i" !lid IftIcly tqlIL
....., dle pdlere41lls1lap1 Act ild _kl'-ve JOuDd,. <IUS
.......... Jo1Ia AIdlIplI., '* vi. "prit.cipal ~ or AlftIIaaIia . .
P"*ftl.1OO _ I witll .-.-. Olber MdcOIn hidqlr, iDe OlHnjan
or Pdasi-. EupluI, PIdlolnills, lsc (011 anpoIk?), Adri' v/. a.-.
.... Harmaeon vi. Cynopolil.:IO l AIDOIlJ lbe 0llIcr IloItiIe biIIlopI . . -
or
W'(ft. ElIItbillS Nieomcdia. Nams- 01 NIrolIiu., MaN vi. 0 ............
TlocopIi. or Nie, PwopbillII 01 SqUoopollJ, Gco:qe 011 lOfliccl',
or
TheodO,,1 HerlIe/al. MxcdortiUl of Mopmmi. l.InKlu of Siq:idwlIJDI,
IIId VIlIenI or Mursa, all of whom ta'fOl'Cld Mus'. ~ widlill tIIc
chllfdl 01 A1eundril:.3O:l. Eultbiu. of e.e.Cll IIId FIlIcllllll 01 AlItiocll
.ore alteady been mentioned and Wt/1l probiIbIy IlOt Illy IftCIl1l well ditpoIed
IOWIIdt AtlIaIII$i\ll lhan ~ biIhops IiIl11d abo.... In IddiUon 10 his OWII
bisllopt (10m EIYP'. mlny of whom may hlvo been ucluded flOlll lbc
polla>tdinp of \be t)'llOd, \be bisbop of AJe.andria .... abIG 10 muIlber a lew
frielldt. $ldI II Mplmvs of lerwalenl, Marcellus of Ancyn, ond the
vencnlble blallop 01 T1Ieualoniel, Aleaander,'O] DupiIC lI>eae few
SlIppor\e1S. h appears cenain LIIIt AL!wIIsiut and thoao widl 'i... u Tyre
_lIeavily OIIUlumbered by lhelropponllll.
Sotomea IW'I" 10 Illve !lad _ 10 _ IOlllClRIc or millUlC:l or lIE
poooeoclinp of lbe Synod ofTyre IIld PfO"'idea dle __ CllIDpIctc ICaUII 01

2t'JS-_ HE L 21 (l'G 67, 16OA).


19.H......... dr.. n. n.
mOw","" Sl.-n lA ~ . . dr.".....
1.
:JllDs-_ HI L:lO (l'G 67, 161C),
JOls HE n. n. ]-' (B;a.,. 14. U.1S).

., 3lnq. ..,. 77, I: Il. '1; 11. 1:""


:lOlS
HI n. 1S. I'.
HE n. 1S, 10 (B1oSu, 11, 1I.12k ~ . IIQ, 1 ((Ip;Q., 16G.
'"

3OolS_ HE U. U Iff. (Dido.<. U.n).


305Sctr<r..... GS m. 2>t1, 249.
~ .. v-.... e-__. IV, n
lO'7E; OJ t -io,., H_. 61, I. 3 (J'G Q, 197"); rI. 1lpoI. I, ] (Opib.1)(, l-

lOI...,.. .... HE L 11 (PI.. 21. 4I9B); 'k_ _ HI a. 2S.:ZO ~idool.l1.


10-11).
309...... , .....7.) {OpiI:l, 9l. V-9l. 26~
31DiI,HL 7. I.' (Opia, 93.1 ....::1.1).
lllq: iI,HL U. 1 (Opiu. 164. 5-11).
AntANASlVS ANDTIIIi SYM)OOFTYU
'"
rqated dledlqc Ilw. AlhanuiIlJ had ordmd Ibc Ilo'ealdft& dlbc o;haIice Illd
llad overthro'<o1! .. epi-.pal tIwlle.'12 funha._o, \bey lllellcd IIw
Adluullll II8d ........... lbe _Iicr "'JUI and inlpri_",em 01 IKh)"fU.
probIbly In AD 331/332. by FbvillS H)'JinuJ. IIIc. pll:(ea of Eppl. . . Ihe
rabecbllpof' mini. ~oflbeenlllClQl.'I'
Ca!tjoltm, who Imd tee- willi lbe MelciliIn okkp&iool '"-'albia.
coonplojrwt _ K IoId bo= do P eed b)' AItIMIIiu b - . d ielri:e.
ne IoistqJ 01 ~ bid beaI ,........iW D dIo ' . ' . i AIu.nla-
1IUl1old ...... llkallip lbe Mdetlaa cautIO i_ before Ibe ilIIICt itw
rs.udli:L !'k .... clainwl tloIIlhr..- b!lOt: h, .. _
Iba K bd J ; idcd CQIlI willi AWnuNi 0IulI IIlo bilbop 01
Alnwh'ia _ckatal.oI~ftcllluiD dle a . 01 bl;~ "T\Icre:sai1
of IlIiJ taion. ~ 10 Cal1jnicvl. baci been his . .1III b)' lbe milaty
ro:lo<red b)' JUdic:i&I _ wbile ill aaAIldy. "th. . . . . . . _wIlik Md
1t;O;ecl1litn in Peillliam willi Mark, """0 can-...I ' , _ a ""P'w'"
pmn.l 1 A'J'C otlotT Meletiu w.Mpt:, EapI.... PaebotaiuJ, tsax,
AdJilleol:t., a.I ~ allded 10 Ibis -tlin I 01 <riolexe ad
eoalph,iJled IlIal Ibe)' had. ben lbe IlIlja::II 01 iole<ll IWCb "" lbe
A..,ni_]15
Ourint: !lIatI inilial po;ecdiIlp. whitll cemmo:I ItjiIIII ItIc elliml 01
lsdl)'l'Jl.1Ilt: MdalIa leader Jolla AteIupII tunained ~1tIK,~ DaJIoow
lilt: AriatI aDd Euebiaa r.nion .Ihr. S)'ilOd 10 . . . . IbI Mo:leli;ln <::ale on bia
bc",I(.'le Allbaup AllIanuillS does lIIOl uplieilly IKllLioII AlWph's
_us, Ille. E,ypuan bWIops ift AD 3381339 eeNlJIly imply LJw IlIe
Meletian lCllder's position ift tq:Jrd D die eMbolies bid been ftcllJ'larizcd

perllaps _in.
llllmedialCly before lIMo Ii_ or
Tyre.311 Atcllapll's lftllial sileftt:C ...,
II> 1Il0 ronsldendOlI oIa leacknIlip 1010 in lbe EJ)'Ilti:&n
dlurclllllouid Alhanalius be deposed as a IIIIUII of ~ ..Ilicll ~
beina: IICI forth.

' 12 50., - . I/E u.15.' (lliclcz, .... 13U~


31]/Wol. (B0Iu" .... 1'-17): c(. Bvnoo, no ~_~.. lSI, 1St.
'150"' liE IL:u. (8 11.23).
]U fo , HE 1I,15. 5 (Bida. n.2S).
31'~. 17.' (()pit&. 99. 31100. 3).
311/.." TJri,on; I.. _0_. 0 -";"1 ""'ndkllo. _ _ the
inopI....... oK 11oo EIJ'I"l- Iliotoop ... rho _ _ oK "'" S)'Md oK T,.. IP..:B
of ""'" ArdroopIl. For oM ' " tk r-. '"
... C""...
'" Sene. ' I 11oo _
~ AD &1339 iMIi<_ ""'" ........... Ud _
bel.... lbo S)'Md "',.".,., S< _ tho< - , . ( ~ _ . . M
5J1
WI-
_ _ _ ""'" AIM t tk r)'M4. ,
. . '" I/B u.:u. 2S (Biclez,
U.I1.I9). no.. __ .. iuf. . . . 0 policy. MOO' oK " ' I . ! ;-"

. _. . . . . . 11oo .-t>l>< Ir.f. '" 11IO a.dI.. .. ioo .,...., olIIooop It.
_OOiOIO lU)' ..... _ ot&aooI A _ _ .... A . . . c-. ;. po t

;" .... _ of ""- Mol ~ eM S , - '" ,lor ",= .._ M o:d


. . . ..t; ..,. _ ................. "' ... S,- <Jl-r,....
".
""""""in,th;. r.JRrecital.ion of tlle,cd ~iolcnu. and lnlimidaOOn.lbe
Mdelianl put forwwd """1 ~y conskk.red 10 ~ Lhe primary c _ foe tbe
pa5I Ryen )'Un of un<csl In E.ypl. $ozomon 1 _ "Thoy Il1I "IJecd lhal~
Alharwius ~oblaincd llle cllite:opatc. by means of the deuil of certaiII
penans. it bYin. been.\ forth lhIl no OftIllhould mteive ordination..,110
cOllld not de. bim.df of mIMI bn:Juallt &pinsl bim,w)1I Bca_lbey
IlWevQi AtUr.IIuslO . . . been orcIIined Ulcplly, l.bc. MeI..... o. c ~
lila !hey ~ fran lWn nlhat Iho bishop III Alc>.alldN bel n:pIicd by
IIleaDl of ... ioIenu ud iln~Dl..)19 Hen: lIpin, i. is clear lha Ihe
Meleli_ were /'f.lyin, lIpoiII Iha CMalk&I prtIiIioId of Ihe Coancil of
N~" arda 1ll_~'.dl:pc,.iII(a.
nc Adaliu afflif ... lIll;ll ra1fcd (lIIIQC lIpiJIlty lIE MdeliIns.
So "" ........ ItIM All' . ~ tIIIl ..,. of bis cppma!
II .....

frierldI bcr;-. ~ ... i .. ",pod III Ille. fIldlill. biIbop 01.11), '" 320
l1le Mel....,.. ~ ) dl..."j papLIar -.ppon (or 1Ile:Ir ""'''QUI A
.... II . . III .."., 10 . . .,.-s ... llido IUJIClNd II) COAI:IiIl .-btio:
," rn-dIa __ afAI... '''~'''''''''.'.""""",,..
1qIIId 10 ~nl .
Alh. .";" _ . ~ llilfIopI'" bop 111& bJ1bJ.....,.. ....
n:liiq dlaa.p.wllidl Ndboel ,uw.. lCd.l21 0:naiII ofllle."'T .
wen: draIa . . . CIlII of UncI. wtIiIf. odlors ..-e ldened 10 r..care "c .. of
Ihc. 1J1IIOCl.1U ...... ... . . - - 4T!wn.iu brfN&bI Anenim 0IIl of
1rilbIl. aad III rl ~ ~.... ~ bodI ..... bdOre I1Ie. UKIIIbkd
hishops ul<ilt& ... 0I'l'
_':f 10 ~ Men: dIey MIt .... cd I!M:ir
c,idt&:e 0111& &-..1 1Io . . woadtII belLDol
Pl:ttoIpJ.Ip""" A 'M ' ....... u....KUSI., ......... m
...... IS a1Jady ~ dIdr 1qlIJ. lbc7 -..l dla AdlInasiDlllaCl
\IIdefaI bi*lp, Ph' 10 .... 1101: DIe of Ancni.... ond 10
amI. n ..aIltCIt Illc. biIlIop of H)'llIde. AnaliIaI, "'_oa.
'-I

311 . _"" Ii" "rrq, olr II , ..tIfld-r rls .....


' ......... ~ --*",_ n - /lIIMJIfl xn.--f. nI P
.~ Il"d4Ir d ; S .. H~ D, 26,' (BMIez. 14.:zs.
%1).q._U.lor ..-~ _~d:i, of ...
0'*0)' --m.,; A '. ~ ..:I 1M invol_ 01 rJoo
MalOli....
319 50 .. HE. II. u.' (Biola" 14. %7.:!t).
as. 1_2).
int_._..
320t U. 7 (8ida..
)1lt u. 7 (BOkr..IS. S",,).
S72 t u. Iff. s. _ of r~"""" _ II>
bo ....... ,pba! ........ ill "'" Kia of ')'IU>II ol.ohkh loa ma<la DIe
(~. U. 11). 1>1 onakiDa _ 0I1t1io......,. - . oppa.--o 10 bo. de",,_ _
a...... (HI! 1, 17), _ "'OJ' ..... ""... ""'"'"" oil. inr-";"" from CeIOli.... <f-
GornkiD. e,. dr. 19. I'a. S.
113s """,,- fiE lL:llI.' ('~ Ill. ,.7).
12-41b1~. 25. 10 (8ida.. IS. 17.2.)).
'"
"'P"" flOll'i P\lJsiaftll'l and had JUDe imo bidinl, ~ MeIeti:aRs ~uded
lbal be bid been kilkd ... Ibo llldm of A'b..osi"s -.4, bo't'*... Ancfti.. was
-.ell Ioed by ~i:s fdlow bishops nI had beefl a g;JIIfUJ(l".lIley bad lIOIirJed
lbc macislrIIe.I.3tl The ~1aI$ian of PlusianllS. ..110 was probAbly farmer
Meletiln. in !heir nplanaUort f;CI~1 AlVailll. wenll\ho::a$ lbc
;qgneatlbal mu;b ol .. tw IDOk pIaee iD. ~ _1!Ie I'l:IUIl of .. ~
riYaIt)' beI:weu \lQe Mokliml who had ~ their ,..blol1bip "';I!I
&ktllMlr\a IOId I100Ie ~ bid maainod rlismllie :n6
Willi to _ , E ~ blsloopI p<Qeal, lIWl)' of tbeat form...
Mcklians. AI!lIlIasiUl _ ~ ICI sbow Woq;b lbc COIJlW of ..ven!
aaionIlballl& ..,.prity of lbc doqa wbir;h hid been bfou&ltt . - him
~ poIIZIdkss. The IllI"IIl:lIUe ollhc IJ'IOd Md due teptd for pmpl'Z
"'_.u,
prac:edIIIe. bad aIrcady begun 10 break dowa. Diooy1i.... who IIIlI)'
~ reprded Ihc _bl)' as lillk lAOre II\aIl u iInpcriaI ~
tqIlllO _!be IfOOIlE wbicb wcm I'ft"l"It 10 IIlailltaia order ud appeIf1lD
Ila..., Iimiled lbc IOOPC ollbc ddlale..377 A5 Arwliu .... c><nainIy alive
and IIClive In KQ";"1 his fDnDCI bml=a. and \he 0\hI:r i$SueI had beer>
"*
t I aside. all "'lDIincd ..... Ihc asc: of lsdlJfllS. ~ had remained
Itdamant in his denW ollbc chari" .1>4. presu.... bly. Al!w>uius bad
prut111ed 1lle 'd""llllc of Mc:Jetian cleqy fl'Cllll lhe lime of AiuatIder 10 the
.)'nod. sIlow11li l!W Ischyru had IIOt beelI ord.ined by Meletiu and.
Lherdore. was not. pre<byte. in Lhe Ylllaie of Sccon~s. The logical
conseque.nc:e of tIlit evidence. aI least for Ille Alhanasians...as Lhal tschyras
would not ha~. therefore, bIlen in posoession of a ch\Uth and aiLar. much
lesl an episcopallhrone, and Macari.u, cOIIld IlOl be IItcllsed of sacrilege in
the mallcr of lhe chalice.

2.4 Tiu Mareol;" Ccmminioll. ~"8'WIScpl.mbfr liD J35


The Eusebl~ .ugg.....d tel Diony3;us lh:It a wmmi$.1ion of inq~i1y
shwkl be Wli 10 the ~ to 5t:C11f1: Iddiliooal evidenu. Aihan35ius
consiokrtd $llCh an ul\dl:ttUillg to be M.uperCluous,M pOlrhaps ba:au"" the
bi$llop 01 the Marroli., Agaihammoo (ye! llI10IIler former Ml:letian) wal
already JmSC'nl II 1M I)'lIOd and . . . well aa:q... inted willt lhe CII$C.328
Ne~, Ath3nal'''' ItlUwed that if wc:b cOfllll'liaiol'l . . . 10 be
ICI\I, III _ben $bouId be imputiaI and. \ltmfore, -..clade lboK bisbopI:

311J~::S. n (Bi<Ia. u. 76-16. 4).


316....,..,. 69. 2 ~ 147, 21).
327 A,." . , 3 (Optt. 'H, II_\)). Bee.- of I1la \oIUCn whidl lite
udooI>ced botw_ ~.-a 0 ....,.,.. .... lbo ......u- 01 eM S , - at T_
Cir 11M .... ""'"r " IhIo DioDyI_ .... _ oocuoUr ~ II lbo
1ItJ ill T)'f" <. nt~ ,,). TIUo Ii
d.oIil
1<,__ 01.-...........
' .... 01"'"
__-'Y_,.....
, "'" __ IipI
_~ .. _0I~=J
t _

I.-:t 1>r lIM no:i.-1Iiobop


boo
,;....
\oaa" .. AD :I3"n9 . . - hal b<aI _ -..
32....,..,. n.) (OpiIa. lSI. 21).22).
" .
..bl) h..t already sIlo'fI1l Ibcmzwa II> ~ 'ostik .. rqn 10 biI -..
1"4'" IhhluP Ao.",;ubdie>oed dlal he lIId pel h I Da)'SNs 10
rotIDwdlil_of.u..dJl:_nna.wtaidlwu ;; ': tN' 1'1
lha ~ po-. ~ ... IIod. au 1 sIoIId be. c"dndod J2l'
DiIClro, ''II. dlher rhp. eelc.r-tiq die <ml..lpke biauolf, ... diI'"'*'CI
die. J7llDd I).,.q . . 1MllI'ideaw::us by I ......a.- _. prubabIy UIllIa-
Ille ~ 01 flacillllS of AJlIiodI1"JlJla lI'IaII F"trbi. of Can ea.-tID
bid dady _ IIIIda" lllIaI:t fnIIII Ibe ~no 1lIc _ .....
Ill'*bI7 dlaeii by llimpk. _jorily .... ofllle KCnldiIod .. _ben of the
Q'lIIOll C_1lOdI tJdIllled IItc ~ ~ of Ibe FJn'IliM oklc:pr;o.).
o w ' e1 oITl1tlopi1fJ1NitEa, Maris 010..'....... T1lDocIcnI;of Ker1IdI:a
(\II Tlnool. ~. . of ~-.;" (ill CiliclI), Unad... oI S ~
and V.... of Muna.33l AD of Ihc _beq: _ ope-. AriIII J)"llpillWlers
and au were lnll'Kllbly ~ 10 AIhana$i ... AltIlou&b IJdlJru, Ibe
~ ill die malter. 8CaIIIIpmied dle. l;OCIImi'" 10 !Sa)'JII as I
~ _iii IoW:aios, Ibe.........", !'MY. _Idt .. c-ocIy. T)'R-
Willi miliury pn dloir disp>Dl and aleu.r JCIII.-iDIIk' 'ntt al
IItc prd"m of &yp. ill -..s, me,. .m-I _\be MMeoliI ill lac AupIl AD
33,,332
1lIc p~p 01 dle canmissioIl ... Ille ~ ....- ocal1 biased
and ~ AI lias benl rnenIionod above, the !'"'rca of EoPt. Plll1lCri-.
_ DO fr\l:nd 10 die churd ill A "'nnd~ He mel. the COlMIiaion frvcn
1)rt and ....,. ue ..pplcmcnwl. !be;' milil3ry eKort with QlIIer lIOlder.
~ndu 1111 dUKe tommMd.3lJ As lhe commission bcpl lts IIlqUIrIes,
rtood numbel' of Alllllandri.. prcsbylefS and deacoos mIdo lbeif ....., 10 lIle
Mareocll in (101it. 10 llel fonh evidence on bellalf or ~UIIIlIld 10 "claim
Ihc rillM of bein, pruenl at lhe invesUlllihl" linc:e AlhlnJsIu,', 1~len:SlI
were ll()I tCptCKnted In its mcmbenhip.JJ.4 Their prutnte, howe_."1II
no! welCOmed by the ccmmi$$ion, and they "'ere I~ Iway. In
llOIIMquenu. the ,lltee:I presbyten and flve deIconl f/'Ofll Alexandria
praeml4 I.tMo oommi.tion wi.th wriuen pl'OlCSt CCII'IOemJI'II1beIt elU:hlllon
AniANASlUS AND1llJl SYNClOOFl'YRE

..... -SOtlw; It would _ . tept Im.-..,nt. runba ~ 10 dleo:lIriaau


Flavi... .".~UlI. praumably 10 _ on 10 CoaslantIne. "
PIl11a&rius ..6 lIIe COllllniuiollUl Ie, In lbe . . . of imuropti"l
.._ _, wilhin Ihe rq;o.. 1be ceIllolio: po<:$byIetI UlI * - 01 Ihc
Mareobt .uempltd 10 appear bdooe lbe iIIl1~;ry ..illl I1le iDleJIlGI 01
poaeIIq rll1lhnl_ oIl!Ie .",.. iIwol..... OOyrM but were, like
Iheir ~ m1... I' .. ' tumecllwy.n6 1u.000000000ilhile ........
die r!heN puto,lUI IIId r.nee. '. I P $

~ Palladia Ill6 FlI..... "-isI'" (a ""0:"6 0I1lle p"lU:*,


~ Iwnw:..... . . .
pre{u), ~ dtalldt)Tll blllel:ll ordained iIrtaIl6ly by Cdl..... -.I
. F....._c.lbcy._
Pt II II i .. dIura. that .. c:llIliec: had. beu bootat. Mel Illa Ille .....,
IFIfY _ r........
Oocl-.teo.-- IIId Ilia . . . dIM'" _ .. 1r\ldI 01 . . _.D1 .
bcl"<nPiidltY

1lle commWioft.lMNeW6, '-3 bcpn 10..., ~ ~ 10 obtail


iafOfWUllioL Aa:anIiIlIIO /!.h...... lIleybtpll III naab . . oIdlfta-.l
"ioIeBoe ;. orOct 10 pia IlM: CClOplIfUlon or wil ' J3. ~ ..IQ
- ' 6 .oellaclliale, if.y. ~led&e dille air." ~ : . '
(uc""'W r..:- tile offcria. 01 till: oNItioa), Jews, MId. l.baIe 0MSidIe I1le
et>urt... _ peqiIlalkd 10 OClIlf"l<III LI>e ~ I,piu; AtIlIoIIGiQ ....,
~JJ9 ~COIIlIri'.I.remalnl:d......... "_JarnOCI
IQI MacariulIlacl Y'ililed \he "!bee 01 I weWll!y ..nea\he EldIariIt 'I!OU1cI
_ haoe been cdcbtllCd.}fO 1J<llyrM had lOt en<oIIIIIerCd Macariu u Ibe
time of tile aIlctcd inci6e,u, for lie IlIll beclI ill and in bcd.)<I1 foal !be
..illleSSeS apiasI Alhanuilll, 'IIIllom lie l1li1 been KCll$ed or hidilJl, ICkIed
inrOlfll'lion ... ~io:~ lIelped 10 prooe hit ~142
The M-ooc clerJ;y, .,.j1lleUin,1he pllCeftIinp &om I~, _
yellt10thcr lener, lhb one 10 Ihe tnembm 01 the ')"DOd in TyR, 111 i1l!ley
COfIlpWlltd of "Lbo co"'Pincy wbicll lias been forml apiMI our bil/lop
A1Itanasi..." ancll.he obvioul bias 0I1he eomm:a>OllC,. ill Ihe MItC(ltia,lC
Afier .pin rellearlin, tile faeu IlOlI<'UlIi"l lhe Cll'eu or laeh)TU I./lCI
~DDdcmnln. u.. mabod.a or tile commlulonu.. lbe lelU. enIIed by
eJICOUtIIinJ tile men.bm or tile I)'llOCl !ll oarulder that \bin will abo ""be

33S","". n. 4 (OplI.l. 1'1, D-ID. I).


n,,,,",,, 7., 3 (OpiL<, lSi. 7121).
337","".,.. I., rop;u, Iss. "'.15', II).
"1.y.I. n 3 (Opioa, 162. 16-11).
339A,N1. n. I (Opm. 152, MIl.y.l. U, I co,;lI. 110. ,).
:kG"",,- II, S lOplcz. K, 2A-2S).
541"",,- n. 2 (Opi<a, II:!. 1-9),
542",",.13.1 (Opitz. 162, 1S-16).

, w"",,,, ..=.~ .... , .",


54J... II'lM.....n ~.., ~ I . ..,.,...
1 . . A
.r_
~
-..y.I. 14, 2
..
(Opi<a. 151, ll..Jl).
'"

1.1 T1w J.,_., 7)R. ac,., AD J;U


_"";iJe 1M MIrtIoIie ........ . n _ holdia, ill all""
III tcna.

.. ' tpil:IN Wit .....".., mel ~ P""'durs ton: cd bf lbe IJIDl ~


beIq - . . I ;" l)ft. Ad.IIBRa kIdpd c ; '. . wllh oayAus
- ..... Ihe -.posilioo of Ibc romaIlssioL)oI,' The ronr.."""
E~ llhhcpIli T)ft okIi-eml ~ 10 !lie' Wd bts!IopI. ..
...1licA! Ibc~ delcribed llle MareoO:: commiaioll as lLIyiq bectlldeetcc1
~1a..-_-3017 -.d .. hI"'_OUI~ill Of'dulObriq
MeIcU.... IDIO !be Maieotis 10 teStify qaim A~ias.]' 'They
rgl~ ucl . . _Ill'mk.... wid> ... aJmoa ideDlieaI kttcr 10 Dioaysius
ud, rlftl1ly. witlI.1IlinI pctiIiaa ill 'IIi'hidIlbty ....... r~ IIl'PE*ldlallbc
cue be; IdmnId 10 Ibc un...... himrlf:M9 WbaI Aleunder fIl ~
bad boa iACCW'IlfId .. 10 lI biucd EIioDs olllle , he IiUw1se
_ 100600;,_ ......... bim lila. w:upUlCy bad ben.1\:noed IIPiast
~ ......lIldl ia'fOlnd Ihe ""-.Ihe MdetlMs, Md Ihe Collullriarla
rcprlIil' !he f..1Ite of Ibc EC'Jlli3n dlmdI.'~ for ~iJ put. t>ionysius
_ 10 Ihe ElIfIl=biIAs IlDd iDformcd lhan lIlx Ilodl A"",,,/Ieo" ......
Adwwlllll bad quUtioDed Ibc pro;cdllQl ClllldlX:1 or 1M ryDOd. He abo
prtwldcd ....... willi. ropy 0( the lcuer ftOlll AleuncIer. willi ilia wamina:

'"04,01.75.5 )pi,.. IS(. 36).


J'AlbanoIlu. implia "'.. I><fou
wcnIlO AI... ondrl.
'"""""'I to Kol
u.-.. of tho JRfoel I'lillqriuo:
Tyro, "'" """""Inion r"",
now nI np' .._
fir .... Akflil'/1pn .. ~ ~IIN""" "",{(op~ ~k I'~ 4J'M>!'fl'; ....~
r<lp "d/60..L.:
"'" wlll<ll
A""'. 15. l (Opitz, 98. :19.)(1). 111 "til..........'. """"';ption of
WIIlIIIlilO<d. "'" biJIoc>p of AL.uadri. "",kala "'"' "-
__ ..., "" I'lblqrio ..., tile biI.'- ino......- '" iJoWald.....
op;.o .. ..uoolia ill !he cily. ; '.n, 1M 4yi_ "."aI_ ..,
_ ."UIIt<.
*"_ 1_. '...... Thlo _ _ Ia ;p-ecI 1' T..o. B.,.. .. Iii - . . - of ....
S)'ftOd of T,.. <s..-. C_',.j.. _ E......... 136-
2)f) ....,u . $ "lOr
_"_""' _ _ C
.. .ok' 5
,...'
. ;',
t "..

io, rf. .... IS. III. (qMtz, 91, %').99.'"


IloII_"'''''' ...'
flip< .. .u.-.-

].M.yo.I. 11, I (Opiu. 161. W).


)ot'. . . 77.' (QpCz. 151, 211-11).
).II,yooi. n. S (Opiu. 151. 10-12).

,,~
'.'q ... "." '*' ~ .. _ ...
.y.L '1, 1ft )pia, IU. 1lst, 4).
~ I..-M~
,.1. .,. ~.,..
.......,..-....., ~.....s- ~ ~:""'19,2fOpiu,140, ..

"
'"
INl. CMe IhouI4 be lItea I'CIt ICl pootide poondI roo an appeal by tbe ...........
JWtic:a.UI
Tk -.juril, of 1lIe bislIop:Iln Tyrc Iw1, early in ScpIember.....
ibeir 'Qt 10 ~ far Ihr. ..... jcarjre 01 tbe Oourdl U dlc Holy $epulcIft
- ' eat.sed ~ p1lIeriq wIIidt r......uy rullIliIaed Arim - '
e..... <_ OIIllnallboir pIltJ) ICl \IIc ........,..... ol_a.n:a.U2 i k
onily of Ilw. d11Kll. -.tidI. ee.n.ioc.." Ioqed for, ... _ ...
.........,. a:co&ii'"I' 1 FaIIooriIla a"'"
01 tt' , M_.tlidl1uRd
rro. I) .. 10"'1 .... AD
llleleplll"l 01_ ""i4icmmmji ";
ns.1M biIbopI i
_10 bW io ~ to 'ar
pea~ eM All
TIle lIidqtot ... ktodria,.lk>we_.llad alre.:ly fled. So- M ....... cbaI.
.

AllIanui.-Itad., tomelilnc carlitr, ben roroed


to ~ fnw die public
oM ollloe ayaod owin ICl ... urwIinea 0I1be proceaIInp'" fan b
his safely CM lIle pan at !be aI:lborilief;.~l II it 1iteI)' ..... foIlowiD&!be
appeal ID 1M _peror wthidI abe Eppliall hi...... Ud .....iue4 10
tliil:.)'IiIoI, .'..... P . . had cla;itkd (or _ _ .illClllI) 1I)..u .. way &o:n
Tyn: 10 IJIpUI' bd~ d!oe mtpOfa' .. c."'n,ienple., J"Daliy ~
IIcl<n Ihr. ryaod _oaIIld III hear dle ~ollbe COIIlIIllaicIo.15oI
I. his obtr....... !be S)'IIIOd ~ Ihe R:pc:n of !be ~
commlsslDa. ""'" 11111 rqlOd of lbe rommissiDn doubdels c:cnIIIi_ .
Iarae
number of Imlul&ritiu and incorWSlen<a whic:h wen: omlued fronllhe
formal summary prcsc:nted 10 lhe .yflOd, o.ItboolS/l Julius. lbc bllhop of
Rome. "'OIIld lilef make use of !he" omissiOllI in hi, oSdense of
A!lIanuIus. J The ~ <!wit which CCl,uillued 10 lied." dill an-
aacooOll .... Ille dcsuuctioIII of 1lIe o;haliee of 1Jcbyru. wtIIcll .... ~ 10
by dle 1eIdl.., rnrlllben oIl.he COfIIIIlIlJloa. lS6 The a:t'.... Ioa. JIlIfOUllding
1lIe " __ at of A/seniw; were passed over;" silefn.1S1 A1lIIrI-.i1ll wu
tbueUporl cOIlclemned by lhe synod., dcJ)OKd from his .pillC:opfolC:, and
fOl'bidden 10 ~lum Ie Alexandria in orclct that tUnhcr divilion1 and
diJIlll'llar'ltu rni&J1t be a>9ided.3SS

3SI.y.oL II. 1ft (Opiu, 161. S.I').


)s2", HE n. n. 111. <8 ''1. 2). For,.,.. ...........
doo . _ : ' III _ ... EuaiIIoI ~ III Joe elm do WlAi_ Aria
. d . ,.,. ct. S<"""-u. GS Ill . dI~ 1rnr.
IDS HE n. 2S, 13 (Biola, K, "::n.
~
-
)Sot~
~
..a. 4
.".,......_ 4
,,. I,,, .-. .., 1,.,,_0IfUl'" h ' . " . . . '4lOd

~jd... l)fn .......


.....-.I , , - ' ' ' ' '
In lib-
_es
In. ... , , " r I#7"'Orl ..... rd..-- ~.~,,_~;~. a.
I toplu. 161. 11.

'" "Set.y.ot
)S4: HE n. 2S. (Ii'" n.1). I'
n,'" (OpiD. 10'1. l3-m 13.. (OpiU. 162, I'ft).

mS--HEI.n(PG6'J.I6U).
3JI, HE" zs.. is (1.-, M. 1"11).
'"
Sozomen "'potU !hat following thiI ICIlleIlCe of dcpo.siLioD ~Jo!nI
[Atd>lpbl and his ron-cu......, rclnsl3Ied ill fcllowslllp. . and ClIl:h __
pIaoedtpin in his _D clerical raak- -35') TIIis. howe_, wouJd ICaIIID be

J.
_ ...... or aa anomaly, .. JolIn had Qrlier bo::llltCriYfd by Ihc ICIIIpcmr
n. pert\Ipl. IenlponrilJ by
AJdqph, _
mdI ~ is prcblbIy ..
""'_ri.., Socralcs. wbile DIX .....ua..iIIg
.... AneIriuI was JUI(Rd 10 ~)60 A,pil>.

10 Alhuaiu belen !he IyIIOdaI


l"""..... as AniMiIaJ 1Ilad ~ beerI-.-iIed
;c... Il T,.e.. In bolh _ _ iIIe
~ollhc IldIoriaASIppeaS III be mLt.i1oal MdI Ihcpo' . al ~ d
idlowilll!be c:wllaA bd._ the ncepcjlII of A~.. ..'. wftik
I!lIl biItIop llilllSdf is .njaslly c:oncIomaed. NeY81lIdea, it is pewiNe ilia
tile bisbopI-l'}ft WI mm" special cffart 10 aD"~ pIAJlkl}' 1lle 'l"llidily of
Ibe clerical _ 0 1 the Me " who......,.iD. ............... dll: synod.
loa _ D I oIlbI: , di"&I' and tbe Albsequtlll ~ or Ihe
_blecl biJlIopo: wu ptc!"".... and scDl II) CoIQUI\line.. Farther. a
simibr ItOOUlll or the .,..... of tbe syaod _ included Ul ciIaIW lelia"
~h was _ D "11Ie bishops of aU rqicm:" erljoinill& dlelII 001 II> ~
Ath3nasi1lf in fdlowsbip or 10 rommllfliclle witll him by le\lQ'.36~ BotIl of
me. Ieuers lOltained and atrumed!be multil" of dl_lcslhat bad beto:I
brou&!'l apinst AthilJlasiw both befon: and after hi. ru.ht from T~.
In<;lucled in the till of accusations _ Ilw: panic,,],. indictmem lIIat
AIIwwi.. bas disobeyed the empenr by his failllte 10 appur III caesaru the
previouJ year. The indusioD of Ibis charge, ....hicll 8ppIRnily!lad no1 been
raisod duMg the general $eSSions of the S)'nod, appears to have betn , blalanl
attempl on the PlU1 of the pro-Man bishOjll to conuasl ... wann;".'.
disobedience 10 Constantine's wishes wilh Ariun recent lubOlission.
S=en'ssummary of the syoodalleuer or C<lIIdemnation is IS follo...s:

They lisa ~Iartd in this Jetter that lhey hill been forc!l0 brinS this
CCIlldtnwtion upon him ri.t.. Atharwiusj becI~ .. he>I tQfIInWlded
by !he em~ the preoeding year 10 IpPear berM !he eu.=m bis/'oops
...110 ""'U'e illlwed at Caes3Iu, he dUobcyod the summons. Itept the
bilibops waillnj for him,.lIIIi 21 aside the commandli or the ruler.
They also aaICd !hal ... hen the bilibops had IISCfllbled 81 Tyn:. he 'M';Il1
to !he (ilY intend"'&: 10 <:lIu5e diswfbanee$ and rioIf aI Lhe synod.
bringinJ "';111 him a IIqe retinue {or ttlis fJUflIO$e: Ilw. when ~ k
oI"lCII rdllled 10 n'ply 10 !he accllSlltiMI brou&bl apilISI him. insulted
individual bistqIs,.-I ....""'" call"" Idon!beln he ........ ota ~
IllllI III Other limes did not allow himself 10 be jada:ed. In the same

"'Sole HE IL 2S. IS (Bl<;E. as. 1119).


l6Os--_ HE I. 32 (I'G B1, 1MB).
:MIs... HE IL 25. 16 (Bida. as. '9-m
l61IW1.
'"
Icuer lIIcy specific::llly SUICd lIIaI he ........ilhout dgubt lUill1 of
lllvin, broken alllClCd aII' .363

The Ian(ua&e used ill Ihil deI:~ of plill _ ioIlellded 10 be


j nll8 mN"Yy. IIDIS (lair IWO spccirll; .......... ......,riNWl fin&. . . ~
_ ~. Att jM is '"' 1 . _ wbI *1l1t.o, . . . . f<'d
c .riM', _ _ ID appc.- c .... s.u...t, dlc icw
........ iI"cfaalil:BofUdJ.~ is
$ r.ed. 'TkodepGItb.otltw; IeIer
ate de ' 10 PJ'*MiDg dlc of A1c-m.. beq:. ~
ifldividal .,;.... 1M life of . . (brO. . . beillJ uc.pIifoed by lois
....;ni... 10 K1lleIlt IIlc ~ 01_ 'w ...... ~ Tk tid:.
of *'~ ill \heir ~ aad !be IIbst1lce of ALIIausiu U ilS
~clelr" iMicattd Nt dle..-of lhelrisllop'. ultilrlaa r_
_ nul yet rlllly ...... jdrc! Funher. ifI dlc IftXII" of _ EuPtiIn bisIlops.

-
~ of ~ Il>d 0Iber~- bil' cPO. dlc """11k&, ditspite
~'I IUl:r as:laUCft 10 "-11& HcnDit. ~ .,.,;dy Ira'oe beaI

2,4 T1w: FU,1v ., e-w",iItopU /JItd W" N _ _ 1tD JJj


The ~ and """,net of A"'-'asius'. nijht from ~ bas
n:malned, de'l7ile nllltlCJ(lUS SlIIdies, Yued cpJtSllon. The Ei)'lltiatl bilhcps.
wrilln. "'khin half alleca<le wr\buvet\t. IIaIC !hat. -l/w co",,, lhrt:&.. no:r
Ai.lIaIlasIllI -willi viokno;c on1 ..... uciled .,aiflllltim: LIle bl$hOp fled from
IhIs violenu and weN before IIIc mosl n:lillow emperor" in Ofllet 10 protest

himself WlUIll dIM m.. deeisiCln LO go btron: dlc emperor


iniUal prt*W by AJeuaclcr o f ~ and dlc EI)'lllIu blsbops bad
w.
_SWI,.. IIIc ICtioIII of o;o..ysilis and IlIe I)'nod at Tyre..31W Al/wIasillS
-.de afler IIIe

been presente4 10 Dionysi... ond had., apparently. boell lel ..1cle: "'WhiJe
lNoI.loen MM prOl:eedin. in this 1IWlIler, 00'C wilhdrew from them,,, from.
plherinl of dupllcilOuJ 1ll('tl. fOllhey did ",!wever tI\l:y wl&bed,1fId lhere is
no man in tbo world wbo ooes lllOt know thai pOQCeCldings r.vorlnl al"l:le
'*'1 CIJWIt tit uP'dd. pid.-w
The p\a:Inc:lot oIlhis p ... pecedeI AdlanI$iul'. napilUlaboa of
dlc proc:ecdinp U T)'R and his unati..., of . . ""'P'IiO" of tbr. " " - ...
Jennlelll Fn;a tbr. aIIIIcxl 01 Ills ItCOl'" it llu bea I,p''''''' 1Iw
Al1INslas -.ed)' ~ ~ llIlrirlc 1Ile ~ ltI)'I of AsI,pal; or .. carty
~ of $q:Ilc:nIbu. AIlIolp -0 uaa ..... lQr ilia ~ u.s bolm

36's.-.. HE: n. n 1719_ (8~ 16, 2J-f7.').


' ' A,NL,.2
,.,,~
fl.
\Opit:l,
n. , (OpU.
16\. 11-19).
4-1).

"c__
"'ct P. r-..
~_.r~..,.
-c

1.'pOopo .. S , - "" T,..


...;.
....._ _ .."". do. T,.. m
~ .uc...
, ,)0(1""'): l.-L;_
m.-
A-' ..u 6J (IMS): lJJ-lJ06:
I\ ... H_."-'...
".
esDblislled. it Is blow.. tIw. Athanasius ... i~ ill ColISlantinopic 011 30
(klebe. AD 1)5.361 TIlls d:atin&. bowev<r. presenu _ difT""u11ies. lbe
jowney from T)'Ie II) Ibc pori of Gaza, wIliclI l'OftSlitules. dimncc oimibr 10
tho! uip from Tyrc to CwlSlantiooplc. tool< onl, about t'llo'C'at)' fUys.

........
Alhaus:ius's jowney,llowew::r. is :ppro..illWed. hllvilll bs1c:d fally twO

This illeOll5iscency bas ~r:d puhapr ~y druwic


.~ioII ol ~lS IlII lbc pan oll;Utaill. IddIn.. Far P.
Pa:1!Q, 1lI,,1dj... ...- lhe ~ manhakd by Eo SclrwvtJ..lUUCSlS lbal
cum""',
tloo Iellllll ollbe ..".qe J:urd ilia ID do willi Arblnasj,u", ....se cl
lfJIlJllONOOn- PlIeIen __..... l!lc Syriac It1fJ/I#widIift lI'Ie ...-i.e of lbe
FUlill U~ IIIda vrn as -ralt~ Pol opitleIlNl At!IaalIsius fOW1d -. timba
tall I'1oIIlaI . ie Ibc pan- and made: IliI: WI)' out of tile Iwbor.
-~bliq. priDoa m*ing his csape. -lQ ToO. Banocs _ /OlloM:d
Ibis Inditioll and cvd= all evu &ICIII<'Z _ at ~ ...heII be-.:s
IIw. - Alhinasiu Oed 110m ~ iD .. optII 00.1 alId ulldcr lIle <:oVa" of
darkness, eYllClillllbe soldien .,Ito ...... ,"'le pauolled !be hIfbor. - ) $ A.
ManiIl is oenainly c:om:cI in $IIgge!lina tlw "'it " ~ DOl neo;esaary 10
dtalnlti20e tIrf further lbe sailin( &om T)'fe of -..bidI " do not know \he dale
$<ftl, as t/IM of I1le aniYlll 01 Conslantinople. -)10
In Iny case. ,he,e are <e'!.Im difrll;ullles whh IhCIe dramatic
,econsuvo;tiona, and Olhcr pouihle explanationl sllouId be brought forward.
It il cleM from lbe ICCOIIn! of Sozomcn thaI tile first wilbdr:awal of
Alhana$i\l$ from lbe sessions of the Synod of T)'re was II lIle instigation or
"the ofrocen ...110 had been ":lTI'inled by the emperor," who were CQIICemed
fOf the safety of the bishop. 1 In this namlli.e. AthanUiu.'. flight from
Tyre lmmediately folio"" his ",moval from !he pI'OCCCIdinp by Ihese offICers.
R.I. FTank, in hi. study of the .chol"" palm;/tM;, writelllhil

...ben questlolu of occurity and order ItO$e il .... $ qyilC IlIlural for
so:iItJklnllO be Ulled.
Seeaily "'as _ noubly I prclliem .1 ilIe COIulciI of Tyre.
1lNb.,....,ly lhe most disonlerly millti even say uproariuus---of
III the _'is. ... Dioaysius bad AI hit: <:orlUIIIIld dcw:b1JlCOl of
toIdieB. They ae nriousIy caIIcd "Illiliury paards.~"fo.diJlClS~(dlal
is, VtIliJu), ..... impc:rial detIcIifDt:f.... ~ and "!bole ...1Iom lIle emperor
had _ 10 lIIIillllia Dfdcl.~ 11 is cbr 1Iw1hey -...ere imperial panIs.
Evenu stIuwcd iIw ibc pards were needed... The bisllopll
hostile 10 Alhanasius ...ere 50 iallerosed lila !hey allll:kcd birD ia I

369Jl--. C
370H o.N , A. M
371s. I HE
~

n.
_ r~_ 23'9.
214.
..
367 FuMl ""'-I.... vm (H_~. A. ........ D3).
36&IIN~~ ....... "t:Epi\oll><." ~iI~ 13<'.1'

2:S, ]] (8..... U. J.1l).


'"
body, and onlt I1Ie iaI......... olllle l . w 011I dul)' a>oed!he
~ rn. ........ deadL The aIT_ ;" doIrp IllCllI: Illlll 1M 01.
IlIe '-II br _ ail ...t lbat ai&IIl _ Ilia. "'87 c. tard lIIIip
.. anlIIr 10 ...... fur'daer ~.J72

Is i1111Q prwibl, 10 P'W"lar IbIl ...... ' . ' . fIi&bl rn. T)re-
IIOl N 01. .. elClpilll pri hit ruher or _ ..110 _ _ D
Coft..a";'" .. _ or ~ CUAOdt'
NeIIlurwl aape 011I raft IlJ saWl . . boN ~
CmaiftI,.
II , _ _
Illc

1""1 ':T IUc. wlia Al!lalIIsiIB SQtC!I1lI:III fi,. EoPciIa t II "" ........iPs
AnIDoII.~ ...,....bi<w .-lPtIU,aDolwboln l>adbeea.~
WIII'r. p _ Coas\IntiDople. il.Im, ~r .''1'''' tim on llilI
jouraey.l13 If lIle jowl. 0{ !be syllOCI !lad, ill fKt, been w.pe..decllO
"boo- Illc bidlopIlO mate Ibdr way II) \he ceIebmiont ill JCIIIAJem (13-20
$qrlllmbcr) II IIU, be possible 1<1 SlID'''' thai AlhanM:iu IJld ILls
toIllf*IklnIloft T')'re \IIIIdef !be proIlion 01. DloII)'SI1II about 1M _
Ilme. ~ IuP ollllc joImey WllIIId lIlad>y be _bed 10'" fony
dltys or taI_ woWclllJow far Alhanal:iIoI'.1"tliru ~ wltlI lila.
AdaliDcdly.lOIdI. ~jmi"l ol1llQe W1&1ed 8Ild ill-reponed cI2W
illlrpoclltticaI. \IuC _ ..., .u thal in tile lar Iw of COUtl!ll;"" II
wtIltll ,eun4 Al!IIRal;iI.lt 10 lUI ...,. d!O! _ Wnp1M4 III ~ for
l!le blIllop'.uik _ _ of proectiorll'rora 1liI _ _ .J1. DeIpiIe lila"
uaerUoas 10 !he oonoary. _ llUy.lbc::rdore. poulbl'J qllllltion ....tJcI/ler or
llOI AlbInQIus'. fli&bt horn T)"Je was undct lbe prolOl:t1oII of imperial
'ijlllcrily lind ...., hive JlI1l"'ided l!le aeoesis for ..""I ...........Y. been
asidtrcd I face-AvllIi lllClV)l device. If this it allowed poa.IbiUly. !he
_ount ill Lhe Itllto' or Conswuine II u.-y be .en as IOI'Iltthllll 0IIlet ltw1
polile flCllon.
Wbc:llAtlIIII&IlllllIId his CDmp;aDim"llIrivcd in COftSII.n~nople 00ri:I8
lhe lllltr ponio/I of Oclllbu, Comwlt''''' ..as 001 in lbe cily. The emperor
appearl 10 III.. len Lhe copila! fill" N"lC<lpOlis on Ill" .Ilow 2\ 0e1Ober and.
rewmed 10 ConQlllinopk, tIOCOCdiDS to A, Martin'. calculation" Oll JO
0e1Ober. wlocrwpo. be encoun~ ALlwlasiUl.37S Al/wIMIlJI had moa

)TZu JOr.-. _ , 'ri"o<'


u.,.~"""N~al1k_
n.,... C_.,.. __
' i_a-VoLD,
~

a - I"'. 1160111.
3'73"",,, .,. '2 (Opa. 16l. 4.6). For doo po fII _ ........ Do
Tyra "'..... : iii,! .. t 1 : . ' _ . . . . ;o..q. .. <:0-_ <t.
11.'"
1 .,.

~ 11, '('CIpio, j j f..... U. '22).


)7~"y.L n... 7 (Opim, 16l. 11-29).
nSF-.I ' - - 1_ vm l/lisU>ir A. N .... ~ T.D. _ _
-......... 11>.. .... 1- ........ flldoo.lMo.o. oM
........... """"'"" io . . uP;w _ )(I a.- AD m ... .., __ ..
_

......... IOIIIiI 1 ~Io = ...... 1k E_lIOooo ,...,. " - T)N """''''' 0I'i0Ili0.
,.
probabl)r been Ipp of fIllbt; Ii_ and ~ 0/ Ihl: (:101"....... 'J - . r ..
~ enIeftld IIle cily 001 1lcnebKt. lbe bIsllop of AJeunckia "is
~ bIoclcd dle wly MId 'pp<a:load die empen;w in ~ .. ;~ or
1M f'OIIl..- Alhanasius'. appearaacc _ .-do \hal CorIIwlIinc did ...
.........zr him. r.... II wlitdy 1IIou.1hl: bi*'P Iud dialed hiJudf u.
.......... aJlIlouP be. . . . auempud IlJ ocIiq III ~ his
..... cc Ji.... iI is dar IlIIt Joe po .. lllMIdt ... 'OIccd ad
~4epeftd",,'p)i+" ill!II: ... J ,116
Ala lIleaapeoor'l ...,.mrs ~ Ibt; bisbap'.ldwitr IlIlI
mmplaiDl, ~_. e-untix rdllStd 10 J'al'1 .... bon.,; .... pmonal
1Iaria..... _ eloa III ha~iq !be bisIlop Jordbty tetllGoecI f.... lhe
'*"'ay. At I!Ie ~ ll" A',,", .'" 6ecllncl1llal toe IIkecI o-Iy one
ra-.
T t

_lie llia/>l"u (DIIIIpbd! 10 lite. _paor" -.e


IIoe llI*'PI r.o. 'T)ft 'fr!lo IoId W-.r:d.... r..1l"int "U",, -As.
po at
IhiI ""","*M 10_10 ~'I"" ,,- .. ; I _III t t IlliI kaa ID be
wrillI:a III yGol.- !be biIhcpI ~ -10 ilia all of )'011 wIlD fila .p die
lywXI whidI was bdd T)'re lIIipt quickly ad 'WldDat cIe1Iy come lOW
f;QUfI oflllY clrlllellC)', Inonler 1 0 _ by ~ e .... yo. hI~~ ..
impIniaI and JOUld jud&meN..-371
C vri....... ~ Y " yetllD;CfUia III whal b3d ll'IRSpind u
Tyre .... .soc. not _ 10 have """" iJI. pone.;'" alllle S)'llOCbIItuer of
candcmlWlon. By militia, lISC of ManiJ!'. cakulMioas. we 1<_ tIIM
AlhanuIu& eouJd "-~ Ia4Id ~vmol. days ia .. ~iclIlll conv;lll:e C<MllWltiJle
thaI be h~ been unjustly deall .. il/l II Tyr.. What hlwened a....1 is
uDCc:rWn, bul il illfguell by some. ti~e Pwen and Btmel, lhal Euseblu. of
N!CQRXd;I, ICCOffipanied by Theognis, P.trophil~., Eusebius or CIC$are&.
Ursac:ius, and V~I\I, arrived in the capilal 011 6 No_ember. Lhe YUy lilly IlIal
..,
Coasc.>line was prepar1.., his IeUCt.31 ' This ean-.ient and dramatic
1l2IlUio.1loweoa-. is baed enWdy OII~"e'riokncc.
,.Fuwl ww flfdu VW illforms.lIIa..w-ius.mcd iJllbf:;
ap:Ui1 011 30 0c10lJer bolt had 10 wait eixht lIIys bd~ praencioI,llimself
tdcn Cmaanrir'C,!haI is, umil6 Nooenlber. The JIIdu abo jQct;":::s Ibai
AIAlllash.....at _ iIuo aik . . the. fallowiq cII)'. 7 Novaabcr. 379
Atttloq;b GJl. S ~ -zuo:d. thai this dilte .. ;1lCOl,ea ad U,ould-hc
, led 10 S Fel:Jrg:y AD 336. lIle11'...... i daeol.l NOfl:iilba AD 315
. . beerI ddeaclod well b7 P. Pt>eu>s &DCI is in.. ..ulIlbe """- ollhe
k~pIuJh. wllidl iadi<'allIlhaI. IbI: cWnDon 01 AihalI&slus'. r_ c:illo ....
twenly~ IItOIllbs aDd ckYeft days tiJllC wlllcll....... III wts 1tidl lbc
bishop'. ~ (rom !be apil3l 011 dIi$ day.l'O lr SieYa'5 is irwkcd
iLta.",,(, and lIle cimlmswnial <:Yideace does _oa 10 iDdio;Me .... lhis is
!be case. it .... he ........... 1lIIIlllbc EIISebin pa'ty _ prolNIbl}' ahQdy
pam, in IIle(apiWOll6(1 Now:mbrs.
A. Martin, ~_. has arlDCd that 30 Octobef was tbc: dale of
Athana$i",'. (nl mecling ",lib Con... ~ w.... d OOIl1le cia... of bis urival
in the t;apilal. as I!le '/fda WOIIId have IIIID bel1evc. w:Ja1 This -...ould allow
for. period or &emll days, Wrina; ",hicb. Atlu;rouiu:s milhiliave lllel ",illl
the elllpel'Ol' II'l<l the letter of ConsWltiM could have been prepared for
di$palCh. Within !his nnl week of No""mber, lbe Eu.seblan Jl'lrIY from Tyre
CO\Ild also lIlIyc arrived and learned of whal ""&1 lIklnl place. Althougll
iOOIIKlWhalleSlI dramatic. such sequence does seem $Ol1lcwllat ~ realistk.
II i, Ilighl1yleu puuling, therefore, wh~ Alhanuiul Indicarci thai
Eu5ebhl.l and his tollfederalU had read lhe IeIW Of ConSWll1roe prior t(llheir
journey to the capital and JRvcnled any other bilhopslhllll lhemllelvcs from
Itlending upon ~ cmperor.J 82 AthanasiUl'1 narrative simply cornprn;...
C~enI$ pUI ~ poiJll of ~icaIICC\ll1lCY. 'The IUMeqIlClll.aionl of
1M Eu~ianl II coo.t would have cm.1iJlJy con~iJll:ed AlhlnUiUl1hallhey
hid ~ informed bef~ of 1M alOllenlS of ConSllDlinc'IIcucr. HId !he
Eu5eb.... bccD ... lhc o;spital for CVCfI a few da\'l. ;t is ditro::ult 10 believe
tlw they _Ill IICIltlve IIad acces:s 10 IUdt WonnIIion, SIOdI knowledge,
tto-_, could oaly bave Ileal obtai....... af1ef lIIeir IrriYIl in COn$tllUj'qlic
11 is eauJdy likely iIw T D, BII1ICS ill comet in hill aucrWn IItat. by
Ihe tiIne of AlIlInIsilll's lIIrinI ia ConswlIiDople. 1M ~ EoDebiaII bisbops
_ aIftady _ I D lIEapiuI bl'arin& !he I)"'OdalIelter of IXIIllIeIMaliOX

l1la-.., c.-c .... _ .c""'n . cil. 240; ,.,....... "'l."EpilDpc. w


. oil" \]7.
]'!tF...-U- t_ vm rpUfDW~. A. ~ 2D}
lIOo.., S~ ......,;i yo..........l Eia Borilrll _ Geot' l *'"
All.......; ZfludoriII fir 1lUuwUcJw. T~"]I (1161): 91; </. - . .
-c w " " . l66fL .... Hi-on. A. Mor\iIt. W. _ 2.4.
ltlHiI_~. A. Mona.. m._nt>.
]12""".11. l (OpiI<. 1M. ]6.166, 2),
".
from T)'l1l io onkr 10 deliYa" il in pc.- 10 Ihc empervr,)1) If. as E.
SclI.....u SUUem. Ihe Onal XDioa of Tyre ICIOt plai:e fi:r Ihc S)'DlId at
JauDJem (1).20 Sq:ulllbe:l'). Eusebilll L'ld IIiI companiolls could cuily
"YC Idl Tyn:. durin& !be e.ty portiort of Oclllber Illd mille !be 1 _ , Uys'
jooInIey 110 ~ ... idllbeir ....... taIIillI wilt1ln Iha r... ...t 01
N_be:r. b is. I sllon tiooe afler A~'I r... Hi., wiIlo.

T)ft..,. be ~ ljo lby At


_ I allllll: ~ ~ Ibcir arri'+'IIl
Did "J~l abcal. llle
,;n..... w_~)1$
e"" il .
e-..-.."" 11w.1My c.riaI. 1ridI . . . . . . . . . . fJ'lllII _ Spod of
. wboa. tpoo;UallJ _ ....... lloe
f;:lIIIiUllllll ....,. 110 Iclqcr
Ind Ancci-. IlaYiq P=CiCd thai the

. , . ; _. : 10 B. . . . Ihc ~ d!oM IoId IUen pIKe .... dla lhe


......Q1
_
1lIdonktcd .- biIIaopI fn:a T)1C. 10 0
"'" [ in I' .lbenfa.. 0 - " ' .
t.le . .
liM
IiIqdeCr.
Ille!ll 'ft aIr<:adJ
. . . br Ihe -.cil. -)16 nil; view ...i l I _ D I1Iou of It. Oirarllet. wllo
COllIUllll 111M AIll.......' uile sabsajuo.al 10 hi. IasI ilumrlew willi
em.a~ _Ihe emperor'llqal Me......... of 1Ile judgmelu oJ. T~ -311
E.,;h of these y;ews JftSUpposel WI tINI Synod of Tyre 1I'0llened
a . . . . . dolly _ dian advllory 1OIlIlori.,.. WIwe_ 1M ..... UleDI of Ibis
IlII!IoriIy - . ~vu. _b$equenI.,allS sbow dearly IbM e-tinc
...ftc!e>'ed IIle Jadlment of lbe syaod 10 be IUbjKl 10 IIi.I nwIew IIld. u
IllIIWS U'lftSpin:d. all of 1M pn....,. IOIRCI appear 10 be in acroe- 1haI.
A.thanacI\ll'1 banisllmem ..... bax:d ~ ID lIC:CI4Mion whi(:h Iud not br.aI
brooi:ht r_ _ o1 It Tyre or included in Lhe I)'I'IO(W IellCr of COOdCIlU,"00ll.
To thl. CAlCntl\ would seem thaI Bames LsIUMlIlntll.lly ,,10Ie' 10 1M truth
of Ihe mllllCt in hi. asserdOll that Constantine annulk:(\ Lhe judamenl whiclI
Iud bwIlJ'll1'11u1pIed by lhe I)'lIOd.
Boell Socralu W'IlI S(W)nlell. ""Ill" rollOWi"l Ihe clwoolot;ically
inlmnlC IlImUve of AltllnasillS; ' .... ac the COOII-uc. of the bisbops
II ~0Cr thelCUiDl Mickorlbcir iud&- by thcempe.or,3.. ~
indicalal thIl thc Eullebians """0 journeyed 10 thc Clpilal doeicled not .....
IIIow Illy runllu inquiry". COIIC(:I,,",& the brokea cup, the 0'Nthn>....
lila", or thc til~nl or.v-illl, thIl is. lIloce wety ctwBes inc:lllCled in l!lc
lynodIlleuuof concItmrwioa.319 Sozomcrt. howe_, wbile emp/llsWnI
the rar of l!lc IIishopIIil T,.., 0Cr l!lc CllIpc.or'l~. c1IUa' Ihar. the

313 1 _ c....ri.. _ r.....~ . dI. m,


3Ms-on&, as m. ,.7.
lU"",,, 17. I, 1. cW.
3I6a.-. C-w _ E--.., .....~ lotO.
3I7a.... C__ID_ _ 'i"'*l_ _... dr. n.
,., )".son-r.
l a s - - HE lU.I (PO~. 16'lC):

1. ~..
S HE n. 21. 13 (Biola, tl.
'"
ElIdllIm ",110 /wi ...... lheir way 10 COnI\IIIlinopie Jill'~ Illclcd rlUtbrs
IIIX'UWion 10"" ,.,1lkb '-d been 8dVlnced dle synod..
Willllhll Dri,iDallynodal <:ondemnalioa of AlbaoIUi ... now. for aU
in_ IIld ~ _ aaIX"'" tbc _perot ~11Ile m:all of dle
biJbcp:110 ..- ..men .. ConsWltillOPle. EuatbiUl 01 NioooaediJ, aad doc
OIlIer five biJbcp:I_Dd IIplOI _ coura 01 KIica. 111 .. inIerviI:w wid!
o.panrinc, ~ 011 IS ~",bu. 1.1 wlliQ; 1M pn>A'hu. . .
DpdM blsaqlo wrn abo ~ Ibqo ICltUIld doc biIllop 01 AIc.wdrio, ol
-.:NI ne .....
-li-
_oIl/1e<:hup_1tIa~....
10 ~ lhc I"MIpOI'IIliaa 01 pUl r- ECJ'P. 10 rw-eminopk m
WIlahot AIIw ". Ihc CIJIlXlIUDitJ 10 _ _ *is dlaJe is
....-... W'laen t/lebilklpol AIe.. ndria rdMal d1B' .... t . . . . r-r
~ aI\co" . . Cetll., he JWed 1ba IIle empcrar ~ 'luiell)' ~ aid
d

. . . oIl11Dwina . . llIearin&. he . . . . . .....,. IMo 0 ....- b11hc


Ieuu 01 EcPti- ........ ,~. 'f>TIlIQI c.ly wee ~ Ihe
COfIfIO"' , AI......,;.. _ 10 be pruaII ..... Ih8 IUlIe
bJE J '01"'''''-';' forusmlari/;l; 41ccb''''
t _aXdoa:
IiIaI he ..... iAc::apibIc: oI lIl.IoltiIlJ; JDdIa d!fta .. Ilol poor _ widloat
SlIdI power .. Ilis posiDoR.m Eaebi.', ,_dod ..
n:p;.der. IIIlI
llImlM, . . 10 rqlW publil;ly llle. d'wp II'Id . . ilia A ~.. _
dUo

ridlllld IlO""'Ifgl . . wIlo _1Ib1e II) do lIIytl\iDJ.l9S Eplphuiu reWs


a. AWnasiuI_ indeed po-... and ~ by CoftAIIItine.1D ans.....1tU
IICW lCCuaOon. In c:oone oIdle inlCn'Cw. ~ 10 1lIIs_ru..
bollI Coualdne 00:1 iuI: ~ inc:rasinIlr upy unUl, Ihe .....
the blsbop or ~ in'l'Obd divine judpncnt ell ~ Ilw God ..-kI
deciIk bl:t_Ihem,3'16
Tlkla. t ' - KC(llIn(J .OCelbcr, it _11'1 likely WI AlIlanllllillS ....
prete"l ror.t Ieatt IClRIC portion 01 thli fInaIlnttrvit... .,..illl COnIlWlIine.
WllaIAlhInIsilli1taiel tIIat he....,.- illo c.illr. ""ilboul' hearin&. it may
be dIM th8 biIbop I\ad ~ I formal ~ bdore Ihe ftllpelllf In .mcb
be '"'OIlId bl.vo: t.l1blo oppor!UJUly 10 1Id_ colcSmc:c 011 ru. bdlIlf in order
10 di~ Ibc WDn,ion. Clearly. no rucll rllnllal mqllif}' lOOk pI-. It
...., 1110 be nollld IbM wbile tlle leuer or IIoc E,)'lltiarI llilbops inchldcd
AlIlIIl&IiuI'l eJnOlional ....ialI.lllr. bishop bim..1I' IIIIla 110 _Iioa cllloc
- . " . dc:x:riplioft rJI EpIwIiUI. wlLlJc 1M __ ~ IIId litely

ms.,.. HE n. '21. l) tBida. 91, 5-10)..


391""". 11. 1.1 (Opim. 16S. :M-166, ,).
)rnfN/~,yol. , ... (Opk&, 95.1"'20).
393A,ooi. 17. 1 {Ofitl. 166, '-I).
'M.. 1" It- IA.ol"lS' I .....QI 01 wrP/F "t~ _ _
.......,. '." fOpib, !n. 15016).
'""*"_ "'"' ...."'"
3'5.
(Opiu., '5. 11).
nl u-.Ioo .... .",~"""'. 9."
)M,;pi....... H_. M. 9. 5 0'0 42. 1910).
""
toIlveyin,tbe spirit or the encounter. is ..ithout coooabooation as 10 the
detIiII pili e lllld.
All 0/ IN: 1lM11lliell qn::c: OIl one poiJlt ifl psniadar. the ~ of
Con$tantine.. WIIcthc:r lIlis anger .... owillt 10 uaspenUoa or Ihc:
jNv.............. of AlhIftasiu or EuJebiu "",II IjUly mnain .......... coed
q~. Wllaliscenain.,~. is Ilw CooatmIinc lI'>led ~'O'Cl7. No
fur1her Irial war IleId. No finbeo" synod .... calkd 10 COllSider the. 1UUOf.
Am.-iuI_ . . ~ fcrmaJly _\' d III !he bishop 01 A~ "'"
was banidecl 10 Trier .. Galli. 0.. 7 Nowmbcr AD 3JS. a1_
;",mmalel, afler lb lISt illlervie... At1l:lnasius ICt Ail fl'1l4'll
e-iIlclpIe. jXJSRbly ID3Ikioc Ills W2)' 10 Tria' by way alRome.H7
WJw. l/leQ .... die reu<III far Arhanasics'l lln:l exile! AU al !be
13IITIll_ ..,.ee Il:uIIlhe primary cause of ~ ' I ..... bacllD do, ia
_ ""oIly or~. willldlC aIIqcd d:tt:It oL AtIlaIlUius c:oaccmiaa the
deUy 01 paill stlipmcnu fn.m /rleYondriro IOConswltinopIe. Ac:alrtIiq II>
Socmes. eo.uw.~ had issued daily allowanoe 0( eipll;y Ibuusmd
_ of pn 10 the cilizc:ns or Ihc ClIpill1. He runtlcr _ thatl/lis
cma -1lnJu&hc di=Ily rnm AIcundria.3\I' The delay or inJpcdlnjr: of
lbese sltipmenu wauld """'" beaI dis:o:$IrJ cI the rlrSl rankror eoo.wuinc'.
Dupin. capilal. AI very Dearly the same time u ... lIIxw.i... 1 rlfSl exa.,
anodler lllCidenl lOOk pIKe which illustrates Ihc tmporwoce LhaI ~
placed upon these "'Iular delive,i.. f,om EIYllI. Barnes describes the
iJ>7.ldenl as folklws:

SO\llIler, pupil 0( Tambl;chllS, had freqllC"~ the ceurt of Liciniu.; be


~me to lhe coun of Constantine .fter his muter'. death. Despite
S()p;ller'l paanism, the empem, held him in hlah esteem, conversed
\oIl1 willi him, and used him as an adoi$\\!' wben condutlin. public
buli~l4I. Ho.... e~er. ooe aulumn Ibc pin sbiPll ....ere delayed by llJe
....eathel. and lbe bungry cmwd in Ibc bippodlome e~inccd its
displeaSllle with the emperor. Sopatu'J eIlemleJ pouncc<1. They
ImlIld the plIiIosopber 01 felSeriDi \be winds. ConJl3olline conclemned
Sopaer 10 be Iw:beadM (pcrbaps d>ow d>e _lime III AthaDasi... J
manleJ ~ his mooYll1 by Kal:Sirq; bin> or dll1l<nenilll the gmn
JUPPly).399

From tbe xalUIIIldaed IIbovc, iI is ~ easief 10 Iillllelllai>ll whaI migbl


IIlbcrwise IppW 10 1;10. ....my rbcIorical ~ iIllhe IelIcr or tile Jl&yptiaJI
billlops ..nuen thJu; yars 1aleI...hich SlKeJ lbaI "\he aracc or ODd ...

191Cf. c.1'idri. -La Qo>oo"'- 4"........... _ _-


l.UrI'1W. iK.
' ' ' i<{N; n
9Is--.. HE D.. ~ (PC '7. '20\110).
I).
maar-. e....".. .. EaMbi... "". ~;,_. Z).
m

.a:l.......... fOpu, t1, 11-10).


~'.y.oI. II. 12 (Ope. 1110, 2i-J2)..
.cI:ZE,...,d.'" (Opi<z, l~ _ . . . . S).
.a3. NE.t n. I (l'(l " , "IA),
404$, HEU.1I.'.{BiIIa,9J.ll-U).
provi"iIl capiul wi.
!he crime(1) witb ..1Iidl Atlwla$iul ..... 1CC\IKId, _ "*,,ilh_ 10
lilt =llon of his dipil1 as 1 biPiop .... .digIIt
pUllilhmfAl. lk Itllll.'llCe in ilSoelf lIlIJ' l i p I/IIl CO"'lIlIlilIe _
COIIYirad lela of Ibl: bishop'l wn)OlIdoiq IhIn of his beinI:" im~
II) IlNCIllrII .My ..-ilhIn !he dlurdl.
Suc:k. \icw -.J&hI be 1U"'lI" I b1_ faa IhallbellldAmr....
,".','.... flo:uc. .upa-....clI ....Mlliol dtlc.Il: allet T)ft.. Soc' "I
tqlOl'U dIM follow'" lilt ."is ! ot Altw...u. lIIe E~ d11C'Ck
t

becIlll<: fIaIonaIized, ";1II _1\IPPCIftUlI Allw-iCI .....uk Illec M! -


IlId lJIl*Ul.ly put rQrWVd Jo/II ~ . . . . . . 110 biJIlop of
AkMdriL Wilen COIIllllt1ac b1_ lware 01 1lls litaltiool. he
i_ctilldy uilod llIc. Mdtt'" bOtr, impoII"I uptllI Mill 1k _
_ _ tIt ............... ..tbdI .... betlI ru:eiYlld b1 At" I.. Tbc.-
ti- b1 tbt. 1ldtoriIII _ lb lbe ...pen:c .... 1lllYi1liQ& II) ra:cffl;"
reqlItIUor petia.a- 01 "'Illy pa-. Qo ~ol....... di ....
01"Ilrif.- "';1UI lha 0ristiIa COln.H ly. 'll "'.~ b1 ..,. of an
tllicoriIl COI1III'ICM, -'10 rdaclltiIr. . . dcatICI <II lbo $)'DOd of l)n -did _
briq Ill' benetitl- 10 Job An:hlopk -..d, b, Implklllotl, the. Mdetiln
O(lIIlfflllllily ill qypL- Slldll 1CIltmelll1tndlp-eattr..aPt 10 I1tIc new
Nt lItt _ _ oITyrc "'U't ....... ,........izrd
by aitbct COnIIIanor llOOd
_ , lllIlus willli. I1tIc c:Ilurdl &I beina: bitldin& or f;OIJ;:luIive. FIlnIlermcn..
althOllJ/t COMuIntinc IIQIlld ..pill AIIlDll' tilt Hcnnillllll III ~ove:rIccIt ll>e
decrees of IIlo a)'lIOd- of Tyrc in rtJ:IId 10 A........illll, It is clear that !be
elIIpetOJ hi_If IJClIltd thtm \/try li,hlly in practict. ir. in filet, lit lOOt
them in\{) _Illlllt ..1. 07
AtllanaliusllimJell" would liter COI\ltIlII .... l OlDIlalIliIle lAd baIlislltd
him JO lIIal lit would be proteCted fran:a IlII> hQJIUity and hatted of his
~ Il iI imparwu.lIowtV'tr. 10 _ that ... makes thll claim rl1Sl in
~1i0ll willi the leUet at CanIlIllline II ..b1ch . . . wrilleOl 011 l/It
ao::am. oflbt biIIlap'11UUnlI fl'llll'l his rllll alia, 17 J_ AO ))7.1114
-.c.d in 00IlleCIi0n";t11 his 'jM tIIM e--u. did Illll ...ik IlUll
ill orOer 10 pie-. lilt Ei4etJiao Cor Ibl: ernpel'Ql" did IIOl ~lKe !lim &I I1tIc
IllIIlop 01 A Ie"ndria witII 1 a""jclote oIl1ltir cboice.~ III e-.:tIl;lIIe tile
t:n'lflbSif ... bt:cn plaa:d I4lO'I dlt Wi..... 0I1bl: qItfQ" aIone_ . _
!be ~ judJ:meat or 1M Syaad ot T~ MllfllO'IU, tilt rlCl tlw
e-..unc did nat a::udt 10 I1tIc wiI1leI 01 tIoo ~ billlopl ill RpdICl
the YJCIIl( . . . or Ak.undriIIDIy indir:* t1III the ~ of AdIInuiDl ....
i ... W by Ibl: cmpcll.ll" ICI be llar:pOrIf)' ..- . II tlIlllll by ~

~,... .. HE n. ll. 4-5 (Bidu, K, '20-29~


- ... ...., ofM. ""'-" '1......,., ... 1It1ornd.. ~ I, n,.o
_ ~ ; Sa" HE D. 31. j (I&' 96, 2i-%7).
~'S , HE n. 31. J (I&' 96, 14-1'~
~'A,HI. II. I) (Opltt. 161. 1-101; Hut....... ,." 2 (Opicz. 212, 4-9~
on

Il in ilia Il:um.Q TIle possiblIi" remains. u has betIl SIaW1 ~ \hat


A_ad... _ ie.""..... Cam T)ft for his _01 prceo:tian. 111 lIle irlIt.olK
poIemieal ~ which surrt)IlIlllod ilia renorn !l'Onl c.dJe and e<lntinped
ialO fUlute l'QI'$, tIlis c:lplanM.~ IN)' weD bve beta ulen(lo(l by lIle
bisbop ad 1liI ~ II> """'"" lIle whgk ollhr. fltSt WI&.
T1le faa .-.... dw t!aIi _ 01 AluvldriI dOd ~
Iluoo""'" A" ",,', finl. aile. 'Ill IdcIitiaI 10 Ihr.
~ iI ill poIIIllle dIU ~1lI 01 f'!r*moi roUDwiolllu owa
of)oM

............. -...d 10 _ P'iKoI, " " - pubyD 01 ...... Mdria,


II ~;. A'''''_ _',ae:Ill. .'0
Eo SdI-a ~ ell:', ill olllle cpiIlio-.
dw Pia. _ oaIy IUde bi*'P olllol MarooUa. ~ Ibis _ _
1UIiikd,.IIIJtl1)'l'a1 ~ III Ilave t=dewIallO IlliI ' - ' III' ~
for bis Rn'bI T,re. 'I In.-y case. Pislu doe$ noc ..... 10 bYe been
.......i.... by dtIla "" feUow der&1 cr . . iatperiaI audIGritia .......
fades from 'riew. AIlIloqh -;.w 11) . . . . . . . . . . ollhr. c.1ll~ ill Trier.
""""";;'111_- dlo.bisbopol A.... 'Mdrilo, -.w:.i!l.....'lIIbr.IaicmOC
doe S)'llOCI olT,.cfl:l
Froln Ill. 01 Ille eidoDcB pheted lboe. It Is . . lllUeuonabk '"
toIICludc 1M IhII ~aI AllQnuiu byCcnPln,m.. _ .... ~
<aul, ollho ~haria broIogbl ~ him III Tyre. mllCb ..... of"".,.nocIal
kuer of cllIIdemMliofl which the bisbops II Tyn: put tanrtard. Possibly
U1ttfldl:d 10 be Iltmporary n>eUlIte, 1M nile _ 1M mlll, 01 .. imperial
ediCI issued '" an effort to lUIOI'e peacI> .. iLhiIl LIIe Chrbtlan mnmlll1;ly.
Tbe JUlie 01 Lhe y.lid;ity of tho deciJlons made II the Synod 01 TJ~.
~vu. would eOlllinue 10 follow Alb_illS LJuoughoul his ",aWning
epilt'\'ll' amcr.

f#J~ 11.' (Opit:t, I'"


.\0","". lA.l (Opg. Ill!. II.'.).
20-25).

411Sdl.om, GS m. 9I;y.L 1S.]..7 (OpiIz. 163.


11'1,_ ' - X. I.
,t-,.... l).
CONCLUSION

ADd )'U _ -..Id MIl ...... illiD& let 4ic~ tbc "'lll'lII ill wllitll to
lUll)' "'l'iIm 1lI0I: fcII caosni~ 1O do Ioanqe III . . I iCe'" . .
IlIOUl IfO"'J(IfJ NniMlZ"'l" euIau illOO~, ppIOUIl'oI
IIIOdem ~, Hooter', will li.e wll,le Eftilip iI IPQI:tl: IIld
Oibtal .nltatloI fDf A'~.vh'l.' bonl r\lkI 0 ( _ illht .. DIe
1iplfk:IAt. coUt,; r-r- OM ..... I;OIl)d biOI: IQ tor
Ovdl benleI.,. 1m t aaa.., bel!lou&tlt oprifQllJ wont.,.
of rer;olJoc:lia. " Iloe dtqI reli&i"'"" n . Iloe _ _ ied
1 _

._l\rn:a"'
.... "

IUUOIII "
, ...,. ri h $0..... """ bam'
dlealT"'" v :.wbid . . . IllnlIO
........-
od tbc Il't:II. ~ trod CIIwdHUer .,.;m Dc
': til
_

~iIicI'"opporturtiPeI; ~ 1D'1I'UIy 10 .... -.1

111 A".rna iod!.1Ic .. ,1 t 1IIIflPDIt wbldIlle


. . . . . .

eajc;cd fraa!tlt _1Ild kn IIIis poIllb by ooptililll"


cccltsjrtjcal m.ttL In ba)'tlll. ifllelO~"OClIIIdNtij;Me.

pnt,..wcI. I'O""Cf i"""""""


rial or ........... 1llt ortk:rl, ad",illiwatioa til dle tM,. A1IIInIsi..
til tbc emptlllr wbidllle built .p ...
plI"ptC~ by rioItDc:c. Lib aodet1l &DIller, be: eOtocl
wid I lJmislnr!l.podaiaocdlOllliallOOellCl . d - u , . _led
II ....... f;OOIrittion DIlIpecifIC: dlllFS-:Z

Tlllse im<:oncillblc views of AtIIanasiw are uueme eJ.pres.lionl ot


lWO .chools of ihougllL To 1M tim haw: belonged nearl, all of tile
lIiJInriInI of Alhanalilll ~'Iioous III lIle uri, l""'lllllltth <:eIlUlry, ....... U as I
1IIIa11 poup of mDIltm IUlhtn. ,.. nujority of 1llt&, 1Inwevtr, it IIInuld be
Jelllembcflld. wen: (or~) t/Itm$clVei COMeCIed wil1l relia:ioul U1lItiliolli
wMc:1I ~Ive Iookr.d willlre_cntI upon AthaN.llus. To tile _and lias

1W. BriaJrt&, T'" 0 , - . '" Sl. .w..-a......... ,... "'...., __


tdidM. (hfor<I. I ...., o-el.
"'.0. e..-. C_........ _ ~ t.o.Iooo, I9I'.:tlO.
".
rub$::ribed. 10 IfQlI::r or k:s9cr dcgtt>tS. the .... mIJOritJ of modem dlolrdl
historians.
Tht SVpporIerJ of the filSl"ue IhaI A~ ~"'=" wi.Ih minor
m..:1a fb-s. was a nlIJusI ap<Dllellt of the r~ of l/Ie dIwc. and a
clwIopioa 01 the N"occne ckfinilioa. Wbile "'illiJli IhalIle was oltcD lUll
. . ilnp""""IS or ia......... in his ,I. ,010 'I" .1 1tImlJIol0lY. 1hey ~ !hal
his qualilielar. wrill:r aad ~ r. owwe>p Illy 6dlI ollhouiltl or
c!laiaaet wllidl toe may haw: ,. F d 1JI1llort, a>UJ, ~ _ I :
the ""';ten of tbc tinclentll cetllll<y. IOQlr;; tOO lI'IC'Iitic;al riew of
~ius, "'Ilo, ic IIl>ZSl be 1dnUued. .. .x. rlnt liP I 'IIOflolIy &aU ...
p'~. loIripe _10 ha... .........xd Iin:I &lIlll1be earlioa daysot
IUs ~sc:opiIe As')'OWl1l mel rdmcly po_.M bishap. lie may ~
done 1aI1llao was ""IlIinld for !be =ancilialion 01 the Mdeliln alOIlIIIIIIily
in EuPt. He Uelt malyofdleJUlUliYequalitia oIlIis IF- Tooofu::a
Et;ypciaa ecdesiuical dispuleS dissoI-..l Wo Cr3Irictdal 'rioIence. widl the
.-sibilily of outra&cs beillJ conuaitwl by aU iavolved. I WllUId -zge,
howe , lIIM mudl of l!Ie e.idtalCC pmviIbI by AlNNsjg. himself baI aftI::n
l:a:a di:Ic:oonIed. and ~ ~ ' - been liven 10 nwaiaJ from mun:cs
whic" upoo dJou&hIfui inYCSligalion do 1001 al....ys presetlllllc de.- pit1ute
of miKmdllCl 011 !be pan of Alhana<ius in the urly years of iii. cpi$COplllC:
tbt II oftea claime.d. ~ thc lIWicalion of modem standards of
conduct upon fOUJd'>.:nIllry pc<sonaliLies it somelimcs less lh:lf1Ilelpful in
an enquiry Of \his sort.
The:second school of though! maintAins thai Alh.anuius ..... wholly
driven by I ''Wille ZUI" Mach~ " en~ly consumed by greed Jnd ambition. and
ronslslenUy prone 10 resort to violence. especially in Lhe early years of his
episcopate. Concerned only with self-lggran\1i1Cmenl, he was [00
.hofuighLed 10 I~nd 10 the true imereslS of Lhc ehu",h IS In international
aIld C(l$Il'lopolila/l entity. This vie~, howe""" ianotes \he seriow m..mer
wit!l ....hich Alhlllltolius llJ'IX'03<hed his responsibilities U he perceived them.
Very fe.... can question \he S<lJlPOI1 .... hich Athanasi~s enjoyed wit!lin the
ElYptian ehllfl'h alll>OSt from the ootsel, III !he la:p number or Mdetiu.
ducy wloo JUllP(Irled him even IIplnsl: tht.ir fortllu coreli&ioaisu. IJt
syftCldaI plheriDp and ;" !be ptUeDCe of tbe cmpuor, Alhanasilll time IIIId
time IpOn rrvwaled tile _pIS Dfhis enemit.l; 10 remove him by ......... of
demORSD1lbIe eville:llce ~hich proved !he bbity or tbelr "X"... ions. His
InUllS or defease in sue. sitDalioDs .,.. oflell IQimatic In(\, akhoup.
IIIlI'OllU1- wit!lllis OJIlXlneIIlS, pnved 10 be ccnviPcing 10 Ibe emperor, d>e
W-.. bistlops. Ibe J:.cplian IDDDaSlit: commllllitlel, IliI own dern'. and
nell _ or tbDsc ...tID hod ona: brou&:ht clIa'FS .... o.st hinI. Ii lUJ' be
..,..xd' ,abIy m. Athuasius _ lit uuane IenJW 10 maiIItaiII his
position _ IIIat bis basX lIIClivation _ . tbtteIore, !emsb; b<It lhe.
coouislency wllll wbich be prncbiD>ed hi, iltllOeell(:C Pel marshaled
ob:ilXPU Illd willlalCl lit ~ II;, daiJm ~ tuuea _ dept>e or
COftfIdalee 011 "" I*l. ... ltidIlOl:S beymd mere hraYida or pll&SII:rlite
-.ality. The.,..y;yaJ or the d!mdl u he pua:i'fed Ie by Illllc: ilelrtoL
m

Ik abo knew, havilll _n


hi$SUUUIe.. Th.II.. CYefI in IIle arly )'WS or bil epillXlpUC;. ~ tDew wdI.
\he depo$iLion of ElI$lIlIli", and hlYina willlC'SlC'd
1M otbu .,;li'tities or EuJebjut 01 Ni(omcdil, !low lIIa his =cmies
tOllId be ilIlCille1'lqlheir eads. "_1"11 .qhk 1O lbeldcn.1Nt
hit -uI _ IIIV1r. 1Ii1u17 IItaI a jlOii..... or IIIldet1atcn .... eJ.ueJMly
fII"O"OCMi~ ~ whicll could hrte beell ued Iatct II) . . - . . . . !lim; iI is
~ fnlon IIle; irwatipiaM IifIdeI I:ts III tIllIlIUdy lIIaI be _ did ...
III
fan. boI1l rie..-s or ,,"'_h.
IlaY'& "'o.uJiu.plfied al:aJipb
I 01 ~ ~ by eqlII1/y coaplu ~1icL o.e IllO
1*' dI& ocber 100 criaic:al -.u views I!w'e. taM fa! r.ilin& ..
aulilia& ~ lturiq; \llt; eIf'Iy )'tall ol ~I f ! willl _ _
em ) . . ~._ia/1ucoa __ t (Joraoodorblll),1lla
lie ~ '" d 8odI...., alIcI ....... 10 \lie ~ a b::aI
pqaonl .......... til-. lie uti .....,.,. ,~i11 ,. lQ "'JlPCIft
..ichil E&TPt _ dta1y 1 IloIld .. 1O _ , ot lIiI _ wricia:p.]
nis disIotlioa oIl1islory .. cu tor Ille _ COIIIaIIpararies of
ANasius, (JRpY aad \he ~ for uampIc. . ., d .=I_1Iave
caw 111le bisIqI's illtIumcc and PlI""G ill W inlcfallI oIl1qjup...,
t

or dIc:lr 0Wll Im.......- ob:ui:lalllld """""riMrica' ...............


la I Jialillf _ . dle circumswlca IlItt'llUlldiDl 1M Sy..xt oITyR.
IIId 1UIIaNsIuI'.1lInI1lIlntm b1 CouWlu. boo abo beelI CMninIpIif.ecl.
By 1M rear AD 33a,1be F..... bdns appear 10 l1li", bepR. Cllnpli,p II> line
the dcpo$i'ioo of AlhanasillS '" T~ reeoallized by lilt Wc.aaw. bishops
(l!Sl*'i.IlIy Julilll of Rome) and IIle MW RQlIar IUI/IoriIY which "ad lIceo
vesled In CoIlslantlIle n. Cocu&ans. nl ConSl&IlulIIll followi dle dCIllI of
ConsWltille!be Gtell on 22 May AD )3711ld LIlew pnxllmllion IS aqJUli
01 9 September of IJIII IIJIl<: year.. All anl~ 10 Ille lcucn o(!he
Eut<...... 10 Ihe ~ tmpetM was lIIIlkrIaken by lheSyood of Alcundri.I
in AD 3381J:J9, n.. EJ)'lltian bishopt apcei(ouIly tnlwercd lilt ~
which led 10 ilia Synod of T)'R.1Il4111e IUbseqllClIt .roans of that plhcrioIa
wilh rqard 10 die iIInoteIlce of AlIwwius widllbr.1IJllIII assmian that the
bisbopliit ~ licked Ibe aadloril)' IIld dle mealll 10 deplle lbe bishop of
A ~ They IIRlQI' 10 mailll*in Al"-silll', 0'1111 claim thIt be had
IxIen uiled by imperial audlority 110M and eould, LlltfdOfC, rilbdy &lid
Iclll1Jr b8 ~llImed 10 hit eily b)'. ~ imperial duree. lhiIlime

lnw .......'" __ of AIlItrIaIiN """ _Il)r _ ~PJi"'''' .. c.


1I:_Jie',., A'-" I A-'" bI<tw ...m.o.. 'TWo>JocIo WoIOriqloo
10. P.no. 1,.3: ..... c. 1I:_&i-. ~SI. A~;_ "" AloA___
.... ,...... Hlt hlillul """ ,..... 0.1 ~" C..., c_ .........
ool. 9 , ) (JolII9U); 61-1',
'q. ~): S' (Opia. It. 19-90, IS), - . HiM. N .... 9. I (Opi<l. IU,
).S).
SC/, ~ 1, 1.-1, S (Opitz. 93, I..... lO).
'"~

i - ' 1l)' \be eldeR ~ o-o...m..', - . COI>JlIfttiooe. II. e- 11 J_ AD


)]7.-
II _ I +Ie .. _ dIa !his aax. ltad toe -.mal_ rI.
0-
E&Jpt_UA'l,..l Mono_.J..,
bra. ~
". . . . . . !lad e.e-
ot fie adin
po: , ''1WIllIc.-_
. ..
"'*" h",
wit)o C III V_" eilta ~ _ bisblp', ....pltal-.y
_ In 2J No. brr AD 33'1 or oay _ ~.' b ol:so
oppran _ III bst ' - ol_lItqUlI" were _wi0a4. CI' IIO~
__ ot upedie-'y. l!Iel Ar..... . s', lint aile ~ rI.
..-a.c ot "pcriallUthclrity II'd IlOl: !he .......... ot .,..... ~
~ E.<_ dll. 110 tIoc c:omlfY 'IIo'OUI4 fII'O"iok 1M ~ for bolh
l!IIIl .,.;ond c>.ik 01 ~ _!be S}'llOd ot SadQ, wllln \be cbrp
rrom ~ WOIaId be. rni.m. ~ iI is impJr\allllO -xc bit ....
... ...ci1 MIlIA&sNI', ~t III Ibe -..tJ 01 the.
or "T'pft', lulbDril;y became CCIIU'Il F\utIIetnl(lR.. il _
...,.m
Ibat l/Il: iIsae
01111 aIitr
A.. psi''',
~ .-.1 \he ~ of E,..biDt from Nio;oIncdia 10
C_rinopk dIM Ibe ....Il:orily 01 T.,.e bccanI poilli or
o;orUIelIlion
beu,..", !he Easlcm and Weuern bisbops. To c1aUlI. ~. tlIat dle
;.da_t or lllc Synod of Tyoe ..... 1Uli_ _ 1, tCCOl'liud f.om dle
bcliMina it II) dismiss !hoE ~ wbiclllaUllly JlIf1UlIDlkd d:e
~ 1Ind ...in' iUI ",tcbI:diolp Daly liam Ih! E"'sebl point of
l!Ie Iouet I)'DOCIIIt ..... Dodl and Sardica. Sur;h an oUlJoolc 1M
OftnimplJlU(iulllld. perhaps. of zc:eptiIl, EvIeb\aII INcrprewion of
of "*
'Yenll "'hieh .... ~y ana<:bronistic by d'Ie lime of SwdA.'
A Iwdy 01 !he .,.ly episoopo"" of Alhanasi\lll 00es. ho~_, reveal
Inheren. CQIl\ndlc:tlolll. AI !he bi.!1Iop of AIe~drif, he posseued an
crI.Iblishod IIId _mln.ly hi&:hly "'Ianiud =lalutlcal ,tnlClllR:. The
III:Iiquo: posItlon of Ille Alullldri.on cmrch as:.
plvOl between Eut -:l W,*
~IIOI bc q~. YCI Arius"","" 0I.lI of Abllld:ril. Libya oI'len ""'&hI

'For lllis if. ApDLI1, ._1 (Opia, 166. 1I29~


'Sd\ GS Ill. W.
'Cf. U C-.. s (S_iot. SC 56. 9)). A1lhooIp Iho ...._ 10<
"~''''';'~'' _ _ .. Ale. it. .. No. .... ADn1. ,.... dI.- No ,.... AD
nl. it. C.....,........... . . . . - of A. M....... HI...., ~. 11-19 .c
_ .
M,.Iouod~_"'

... -.:1 _
TM _ . ,

. . 01 AD m
__'.or-.
" .....
or' 01 ~"lb'M.j_ ~

lOllqool..,. ... F I _
...-
sa.-
lEA. 1; (1m);
$on:Iio . . . . .
, .. - - . of 1M FUI" l.cIfD ... AD 1K. no.. 5m
01
W.~_

~"'.
....... _

... __.. chiioI_""'- . _


.. --.....
~.
_ 0 1 ..
Us_' ,," .,.
hoi) _ _ b 7 _
', ......

.. How-t.
'No........... lba ...... aiIq: T)ft .......... .t ...... -
dr_.l; _.SaIdi<a"~b7H.~n.C_.,.
e-IJ. .,s.4a, 01ilnL. , - . 9ff.
,,,
_1-"'puoOul nalU, Ibe MOnUtie ~llIliliu wut ......1'.
t " P'OCP' lite I!Ie Collqbi",. _ Mt""
.. Iidd ...., ;. _
..... rep.. .. r... _ -id-lhisd cetCWJ' Ille IlliWlk 01 boIll ~ -.I
W_ _ biItqos _11 Ale t i.I Cal Gal1 be ibc4.. t"&*""
Ma 01 .... "'*-ius !lis ....,. )'l'aQ biIllap -'ted f:tGI'
lhiIea.b_....c. 111M be ...-o_Jial fipre. _ ill . . ~ l'C'W*
01 <:IalM be dclricd. 1hM _ " 01.. 0001'' ~
i"t1coillOll 1bo be """'P""
nc q 001 All' ',.', chat .... ill!llelc ewl)' ~ 1lcJweo<oa",
~-';" ~ dlilIll'Ud, .... beiq " p1aocl 1lle Ioa,........, IUdy 01 die
founll.--y ...... t;Vlllooo' by1be 111& RJ'.C. ~.1k ~
f 1M CIIrIsIi4Io l>tJclriM ~ GDd. wu poblisbed. IO AIIbouck II is . .
pouibk' 10 do Ml ,iusUa: ~ .. Ille IDJII(:riaI put forward by " - - . IOlnC
.............. be . . 01 ~ poiJllI '*"idI are ~ scnn- D die
~ ..laIch brIe beell .-itcd in abe ...... body ot 1Il1l..... FlrR.In wbal
is allUllWflll ~ of IIIMCrials and IllUOCeI, ~ ripl/)' peleei_
Ibe cllanaa of Align_us iD lbc carty yean ot .......1ICl:lPUI .. briJlI
aveQollO OWI..clelltllldin, of Ibe periocl.lI Ullron-d,. Kaua hu
teCqlltd. albeit ..itll tome: ~ Ibe witUl.Cl of ",he;.. by
Sdntanz, &,r-. Uld XleiIL 12 FurIlamI:n. Ibe III at P!lilllAoIPzs.
..1KIftI H.oa_ rccocniza lIS ..... UIttlne Arian,' Ire cglsidenc1 10 be
~mocLrBW- an4 MCoasequrlltlJ all tile m~ WOfUl couldainlJ.-1]
ConcemiIlc Alhullsilll" elecOon 10 Ibe 101: 01 Aluandril.. HIn$OlI wrilQ
lhilllle biaIlop - _ indml decled. b'"llOl by .... ;fIl~ IIId _Imam
KClM1IIlion, and IlOI wi1llout suspicion of $Iwp 1DCtlce.-\. Ko doeI Keept.
howe_.1hIt the Melelian bishops were I"'Obably nc:ludcd r..... the eIetUon.
allllouth LhilIliw.uon is nol COIIneCted with the 1'UIIt.- 01 the ll:h;sm.l~
Althoullh mllth mon: could be said abo\Il the panlculan of his Wimale
ot AthanMlUl &Ild !he circumSWlCe$ ourmundJllI1he Synod ot Tyre. HI/UOIl
hat h;m~lr pro~idelI In ;ns\1\lCti~c: .ynopsll 01 Ibe ""!erial: "When
lhudore we II')' to roc:orutr1ICt dle eW>l1S ...hicll-...cd A!hInui", (rom
hi' electioft;,. 328 umil Lheeo...cil olTyre in dle ...... _01'33', we mWl
bear ill mind Ill-. our lII&iJI ;n(0JJIlaIlI (Al!wIasiUl himJclt) II delenninoe<110
conc:eII ~I ....... beIIrtiCJr by a1Je&inIllw.u _ ilI-emed by pe.opIe 'IIo'llo
..- da"F"wl IlMxics, and IbM _ of ~ !ell ollhe IOlIJUI, and _

IGuo.c. ~ n.s-..p,"'C o...-.-1GM. Sf I .,..,


19...

100....
II ~ ....if. 2l9.11:J_
n/6W., 1AO-1oI6; ~ _ .
,f .. ot Ad .....
_iri_ . . ....-
1 t- V'"L 01"21).
of Sdl_

lJ~ ...... 1AI.


141""~ 149.
"L.. ..tI.
'"
wrilell since. luIve l&elIlbis plea:ll face value.."16 HaDIOII, tto...cver,
bdieved 1lw _ pieoc of evidcDI:t. "'tbl: .;...Lr_" of which . , . IIlll yet
,WIt in ewerywllete., ~ l t l l l S l _ us 10 ICCqlIlhe!hells iIw ~Am.-iIlSs
rl/'S$ effons III P1ISIerism in JUs diocese bad nodIitl& III do willi diIT=nced
opillb aboolllb/: AIbjoc:t of lhe AriIII Coo'bOoaS)'. but _ dRafd Ipinsl
lhe,.~"11
The~ .. hid> HaBD> briftp f-.d ill LJ> 1111'. Heincrodul:a
Ioi:l Q!e fOr !be ~ of1hiJ ~. follaws:
We _;,hI clisnUJI l/If:. 1C('t .... 'ion .,ailul At!wl&slIu de1allcd by
Sozanea.. Ill4 ~ . dle IlfO(Iua ollMer plr"iPmI>i;! mel . -
wonhy of aedeace. as. for inswIot. GwIlkin cloeI, Inll """'1 cbrdo.
lIiSlOrila bcfan: ad after biJn ""'" . . . .nil 10 taR A~'
proM'f'Mions of bis in. . . . . . . . . . lIIcir flu Ylll We 11li&flt bdiPoe
!he diIect cknial tbal ArIpDlsj..evcr .lIItor ~ lIlyllllltmade
by lhe ECfpIian bistIDps in 3311. W. lIliahl difmiU &be .""011' of
lhe CounciJ of ~ md IR:allhe IlXlI$a\ign:s IIIJde apm AIIlanzlius
by lhe Uslen bisbops, " Sardita ill 343. willl lhe same: steplicism as
we tud IIle. diefmce ofhim made Illbeame lllOIlIelIl by !be WC5lem
bisllops.. or .. illl evell more. All tIIeIC are 1U.elUCnD made for
propaganda purpom by \Iry much inlerelted pllflies, lhoulh CYUI iII
\bose cin:umllaro:es it would be unwise 10 tefLlSe all crcd.i11O \bern.
BUI. accidenLally or providentially. we have available 10 us
cOlllcmporary evidence which we cannot J)09Sibly dismiU as invenlion
Of cuggeration or~. to <lecide !hi.! poinL
The c,idellCt con,ists of JXlpyrn. leuers diso;ovcrcd by British
arthaeologlslS and publis,,"d by H.I. Bell In hi. book Jew3 ~nd
C/IJ'IGIII11IS in 1111'1. fl

Hanson .cccpu LP 1914 as Bell publi$hed iL wilhoul any ~ritiul


evaluation at LIle doXwtI.... SlIve for LIw of \be Ietiers distillJUisbe4 editor.
For HIn$IOII, !he Ieuer dIows ~Alhanasiu, be/lavilli lite an employer 0{
thqshlted 10 lnlimidoe his co:mics. -19 ODe may _ , !loW(:_. al_ ill
eollU'W;liction 10 his e.1ier .... mml, tIw. HanSOII COlllmenlS ill a rOOUlllle
LIw ~iI sholald be poinlUl OUI llIat these~ are by no IlIClIRS !he .... y
evideIlOe (or LIle ease apinsl AlhanasiuL Yet, even ~ Ilu .tmiUed.

16/""'_ m.
11,W~ u; 2Solo.
11,,,,,,_ 151.
1"IO<l~ ~.
20"'14.252" flo. U To lbo ~ .......... _ . . .!IIoo T_
c.r_ _ , _ S"",* lIdd ... 0."'" Ia A _ 1911

,.-1_Ilio""""
.... '""' ...__ .. '
~

H _ " ~ """ ~ [ I ill -.1__" ~


wdI ..- - . ... _.dllq,4 . ~
'"
. . -=tI ecna;. dailu..-
IN! 1:IltR blilllkde. e'idt;ax; 1bII is

be~ " - 1m WI cd. II ti" ol


dM:
idicaecl ~ adler _

"W''''
10
01 .."'...,..., At 1lIls pDiII, I
II) LP I'H """"'.
bu beet _ _ illaoiI: ~1IIIdy, is bs .... Ildpful. Mtrt' '; 01
dle _ -'ij:tI it dafts 10 IqIlXL ......, ",.-..., boIIl C(Illc.uuaI..:l
wllidlllne btaI ...,' cd taeo-e. ClIle'
Jqe IlIII ~""'UrdQ/. ~ lbcpel-.l ~ IIIOllb
_III...,.
1C::UWII........ .........-d..reprdlOU' 1914. iII
be
IO iauaI
As E..A.

wIlo hl:d ill ......nclriI wae... rlllt!lu ~ ,.jpI be. WlIIt IOlt 01
EI)'IltiIlI_ p" ~ .. AD J3( is pII<1 b71l1c - . . .-ollbe
old ~ Qll. -dllll the .-eslollbe 1lippocII...... dfOClioody within dle til}'
;!K1t? l Flll\beln........ lIid H.t 8dI111Otice sucb an iDl:au~J wbea lie
ctIoIe 10 nIlIlJIe roof in LP 1914 as "'1IosIel'" rlIdlu ItIan ~
did in u> 19131 2 C\earty this I"'PY"" posa IIlOfe " " "...., lban il
_was ",idIlny d~ of l;:Cflailtly.IhnsoIL" OYeI'llepelldenu apoollhil
docwnent Ill"'" place in _ dotIhl ......,. of hill cond...... _nina:
AlI!:tnuin c-.:ltr...,bd..... <!mmI theccly rand"- f, :ptt'
H _', lIUlmCn\ of l.Il~ Sr-od 0( Tyre Is 1(laI,,,~ lIloOfC
c~ ~tbcu&h bee jlI"CJVideIl ~ briefN"Xl"q' of1lle p """lnp.23
He KUo"1edca that -c.x1m3slical ctl""d l, ~ IlJId. Lont contblllOCllO
be. inteftlCly UIlSItIsflClOlJ' orpm of jwllee, .. itt!out fOf1llI Of .-ldinJ;
Ol'den 01" ~n ....110 COIlId COIIIJOI tbem Of _ COIIau.., or Vl)Ies."lot
Once. more. howe_. lie acecpu \he leS!imony 01 AdIIllISllII'. mtm~ wilh
liUle n:aard rcr COIIIU.I ItI4 ....1eS Ihallhe bisbop of Alo:xandrill', supponen
~be"."Cd d~rlnl !lie IIIISlion of Coulll:il in distwbin. and lIItea1ellins
1lIM __ lllCIlllal "bil enc:O\lIlI;jl........t Over ..vefJl)'W'll1O bis IU\lPClI'ler:J m
behave like hooU,1llS was now recoilin, on his own IQd. ..:1$ AJlhoulh

Odor<l .. 1'17. ""'....,,'ef..... ooacemod 01111 willi \loo. IUNU dlfrlOllltieo ;,. lJ'
1'1., or ... hkh HINOII - . . DO ....-. .............1 1'0..........."""', lI\e
",,-.fI;IaIlMIerial jW_ _ io lbis I!Msis.
2'EAl\ldf.. 1'bc oItiost Use of M_1toI rOIl M. .' (P. Coll. v.......
0ripIa of 101__;";_ - J. ._ P, _lor _ C , , " - - 20
77)
tI,'I1): 'Iloif..,....,.
it : h , ..._ _ " , . . p>poptly
" '.1IolIIc _ 10 1I:oo"'Gooo of. S ..- (U' I"" II. 1).1')." _ _
s-"''' olil _ _
'"'""- ...,.
or "'1<,
_
_it, _lloo_ io . . . . . ~ .... lloo
(LI' 1'1., 1.9), _ '''I. t1 ..
...... N , I' _ ..... io Dorlq_
CIIriod_fio'
.... ...,. _

.... ..-.y.
... L
_
P' ;J
in""
_."-;"10_', . - -.op ..... Uoe
No _ _

,~_'.';;LP
,;
"I" 1.16. ...
'cl), r- aon. J_ _
LPC19n.
- '1.2;
62
""1
""-
:I _ ,..........

2.,.....
2 3 , , - . do.. 25f..262.

,,~.
:160.
'"
-
~ lI1lowIlbIt 1beR ... __ air of aemesiI" IboIoIIM SJftOd 01 Tyn:
widl .epnllO ilf PO' ~iag:r, lIII iii.. 11'0', is PYUlN Ihtle _ (n1 is)
Iiak *'obt IIboul AltImlIsilll'l .....26 Haugn ~ &he 8Ctiau 01
... Nabod, e:- pn:II:E l!Iu ... puceediap Tyn: _
. . . . . of jasI
1 'in& 1lIedi~r.:iIlJ_bdbopIplIacdlbln_"'dley
COoIld 0-11 ~ oa 1IlC'ciflc.. ..... .-.aI. dIoops,'" i t _
dm".QlIl1O olIcU C'O"~ oalpOCifoc cbIpI. Be lIl8r w cr-
AthP.m- III ~ 10 defend kinUdt. l1lol t t0( IriI
.....

IUppclI'1ttI dW'i1ll" tbt; rial was "",...,in Dd ~I IIllI


IU~ Ilw he - . more COIlCC> ..... willi coereiorIlIIaII widl Justi=
II !DUSt 1Ia..e been dear II> etfYbodl . . he bel been ror _
time
usinJ iJo;krensibk .ir>Imce ill "" ia~ or ~i. ~ CD
IhcIuIh It was -. YU}' easy ID Ilrq 10 boct: on a.,;l dlqes. ZI

Yce ~ &ill 10 IIlemloo. d1eattlda ~ ~ , die inlafcm:lCle of


IXoa,PlII, lfte. proIcSU of bislIopI from 0IIUidI: of EJypI .., Illc false
chirp of mll'dtr: tile vioImce ol!be MaraU: a;IGlIJIiasioa is couldeoed lJIIly
in .. aside. TIle IltIUmen1 presented .. OM bllsed llpoll ,ilenee Ill>d
ptCllllppositionlI concmtiog !he chano;leI" of Ibc bl.shop of Alu.~
In conchtdlna his evaluation of LIlc behavior of AllwwIlul, Hanson
.uCi:U lh&l Lhe ~mllCCnd""l or lhe bishop of Alcnndril ..It LIle mDSl
seriouJ ClIIJlI of the bmad> bclweon &he Ease IPd West 1JlaI became IIfIpaI'eDI
I. Satdlca. He cllarw;tr;riu;s A1IwIISiUI"' bdII"ior as foll/)wt; ~EefI if
DIU: of ..... povc:eedinp of !be ColJllCll of Tp. ~ llia;bh"""d. ;1 was
beyond. do\Ibl lllat Alh:&rwilll had beJ:la'tCd wilb .iolclll;f; .pnn 1M
MeletiaM ... evinced in IIi! petal tondllCl .. Illlhorltar!lll ctwae1er
deteminecl LO uploil tbc influence 01 bb see. -11 De.tll;le Hl.nSOIl's
_nions 10 LIlc oonuwy, 1I1d1 an inclitImenl 01 Atlwwilll dlfftfJ YUy 1ill1e
flOlll IJlOIID of O. secck ... It Scb.... anz.. For HaMon. Alhanasilos. ""'ile
aenuille IheoIosbn. lmIlIined -... uMCtIIpIlIcus poliliri..f 29

:U1tU~U2.
11111i4.
21/.~~ m H _ .............. "'" daiot. of N. S
" , - , . . / ~ - . . ~ 1919. U1. _
......... i0oi1\11 .. -.II poui1llo"
-A_.i- ..oo. pu-.
tH_'. tnMI~.r
..
u..,
:cI, U <Tis'
~

E-.~_ f ""*".,--, __ II .,. Il1o


Ii............ s...lia. Pt.," .. 110M .... A'h,". _ IfIioJwd "'"
..",..oI._ofu....lIi*>pa. , ,. .AIo' I "''flo",': . " _

-
W..,olhoo of """,.. n.."
poIiIi<al. , AI.....,. _
jI' 10. 1M - ' - .......... 1M
01. ",""""",,",..-a. &... .-
lo0oi ",.,"
c-....,I,
29 H _ c.. an.
'"
n.e pieW'e 01 A....".. wlllclllwl _ ... 110 ~.,..,. 01 ~
- . : I I po I ,"'" ial/lia Sbldy ii, ~ J . Cat lIltleftM tro. ...... lias
~ owined ...... I bd~ WI -uii. aac:rtiou C(lrlCUllm, A1llarI&Pus
III.,. III IUde OIl ~ basis of .... mearcb. Pt'teInme.1 IhUc
...... dzaw:' . Ihol.lIlrnilfltlelle." b1loc .
""Ok 01 A..... . dIM .... 1Ie ,,: I rn.. .....,1

'inc ol 8--. or Ue odler eatUl aiDtI. MaD)' 01 lhc


< PtI'll', ~_WacAd . bI~_lICldo...,.dDaallll:i. . y
c,idncc IIlM ~ .. IIiIllCrial u.u.,. "lIdir::ir:M IllM pew llIrI '" Ih& r...
_pet 01 O. S<:edr; 10 pooe dw.1lIJIqI of AIeuIodriI. 10 lie. foqet,)O
T1l& m..p rlOla die aiDe-...-<:aU1rJ .ne.. of A,b,pi,. IIQ beea
;.n,'C,* _ by dimaIe ol aiIicU. willi _ cb Dry
- . SldI.JIlllCIea....,. .... p/.IiolIy dIe-.-sy.. ._
A" 's ckcliool ... ,__ .. IIiJtIop of ...... nndril. 1k
PhiloMclrIiIlllUlUial Ilas bcCII well mo- for III., )'Ql1, be iIs 'I'lIl""
. . . _ured 0"' lpiQI. m<JI'iJ rdiabk sources and iu inhen=nl
~Md -'P'J," ".QlIIIIId illO becwddmld, I bdio.... ripIl,.
II bdIlI olliUk IIdp III ~ lhc _ of AD m. Yet Iloc wort
ol W. ltu;ft 1ItIdu'fOrS 10 oonoillcl: dIoc mder dIM dtillUIeriaI _ lie
CllllSidaeclll ta,. ol cqIIaI iqIo:IrtaKe 10 lllhct wdl t4',' I _ 3 1
11M (jIUeIlion of ... MeletiaM IIld U' 19'4 ill _whit clilJerelll. '"
Illi! Call\, 'IU'J lill~ mlical ~lu.al or cOllle~tu&l evallallion hils t*en place.
ThlIIlas led 10. blind ICl:epWlCe of. docwnenl hlclIlIl\lSt be C<VISk\etecI
enIl""U;:, 10 -.y dle "'Il'Y least. a. till> bWI of b 1llldeI'IaUIlmill
(It, L.P 1914.PlJCI'S 10 be _ofplloe willi ~d IOconIW., IJld i _ or
not wholly IUspac:O in 'C&-.I 10 lis COOleftL]1 In COIlntion 1II'it.II lhill
document. 1loweCf, II i. clear thaI dle I1\Ijor OOIlltOYerly in EJlypI fn:wn AD
32810 AD 33' 111&1 .Imost compklely concuned with lhe Mcletlan' and,
pcrhapl, lesser Ehl""- groupllillCh lIli!he Collullliln, n!her IhaD wilh
die. AriaJI pan,. """* "l;",a, willi 1M KllisNtlc lJ'OUll': WIlli I..s...l and
prllbebI,/ um-n 10 Athtn";'.or1lNil AD lJ4I335, Ii II abooenain Iha
AI~2 , .. Illljo)a1" ~ suppon rn. Mrl .. _ ...110 ta.i.-iIcd
1hea>td'fU1O tile - . cJ AlcuIDir.IhIn IIu beelI Jft..w:.J'1 t'-pa. ~
lilIllPll't cootinund Ihrou&~ 10 d>c S)'IlOd of Ty~ and "''1 wdI '-"10 bIOe/I
inslnamelIlaI ia lUI winn'"
!eM." eMf !be EaJptian l( u.1e: connuniUes. _'/

II;*t r.-
idcspUKI GIl;)
die...;0.-
oJ """kII bid MdeIiIfI F'lInhcr-. dIcft.""", liake.1cka::e..
01. _ 'w l!laI ArM- apl"'" ..
Ill;'; 'ioll ~~ widliA 1liI-.. em-ty, doc 01.
OR...,. Nazianza piooides no - " lUG " , tv'III a.e..tI dIoo.al 01. iI:I

3Ov'.. __a. II""


"v
''Iv
~.
_ .. 42ft.
,]y 62-6S. 14J11.
~_"tr.
... ruE EAJ.Ly EP!SCOPA1.CAREER Of AlllANASIUS

~_ variouI fe'1.
uPl"$iwe 1t\t;1OriC:.J~ II is, ~. likdy thal. ,ClOd deal ol violence
of !he ~ d\tlrclI .... y 1laYe ..... pIa<c dIIrin&
~ COIIl'toe 01 lbis turbIlIent period. bw the ev_.,~ illdieates tIw no
putic:uIar JIIIft)'.....::II kaI aD)' """ pr:noIl, _ e<dldiely respansibk.36
Fiully, tome evaluation mllR be made 01 I!lD$c eYC1llll ad
eircumsuo_ which led 10 the Syaod of Tyrc an6 the rll'lt uik of
....._it#. This Sludy _lmds lha lime cYCrllS"" ciI_ ......... ..tlidI
kd 10 lbe S)'lIOd of Tyre IIIIUl be 'D'ridrftd. im~. lIle Pl.btrinl
iadt'm. dxnfon,proride lbe ) ~ for~ wbIl
IIOOkpla<c ill the_mer _ _ of AD])5, Ally hislllric:IllWl'Mioeis
_ IIIan Ics consUlIIml em.....' ....., ItwI. inlOnJlltion Iboul pIac:a.
daa.1Ild ~n'N' r iI is adul&lk>p::al MrOIIfl( olllClians "" plZ3Da WI:I
1llOIi-. ~ Ittic8I: and mOli\'CS a:miDr; fO&aber Ia panialI. CYeIIIS. To
. . ._id lIlemoliYa .... Ikir ............ c:erlllidyfeqUim~1bouI
the ~I illvolVQ1,~. in:slillllions. alld clDcumenll. bull111ks1.
l)'IIl/Iesls is made of Ibcsc da.......ilh CKh Olber Ifld ..iIJl the elcmcnl ol
time. we we Idl. ..itbaw. IN!: 1IislIri;aI ...... tive. T)Te. IIlcn:ron:. caDD<lt
be viewed ill i ion.
To ItIit end IIIaw: allf';InpIed 10 pbu the Synod 01 TJn: wilhin the
CClIIW.lolllle ...... y-ur:r .,.......~ot Adlana5illlll bdon: lIlecmpt, .. , lIle
Meletiatl tcltism ill Egypt, tho evolution of tuOOI Ia.., .,nodaI ~
arid aUlhocily, IIId lIle earlier, bul similar, deposillon of Eusathius of
Anlio;;h, To lhese 'lUicd canleIl1l:Ll ele"","-u romrnenu IIaYe II1lI been added
_millg Imperil! luthorily and it< n:lalion$hip witll synodal dccm:o. Il is
clear thaI lhe calling of the SyDOd of Tyre "'II concerned Ie with
ALhanuius'1 alleged m;scondoc( in Egypt lhan with llll: ElLlebian party's
de.lire 10 rid i!Se1f (If ill OpponenlS and SOCW'e the readmilSion of Ariol and
hi. fellow. willlin the Egyplian church. h also seems probable thaI
A!llanasiu,J WII ~w~ of the Arian influence upon the mllChinalions of the
Meleti<onl and Lhat!he Arian party 9ti!llin ElYJlt poled no rcaJ lhruII io the
early yun oIbis episcopae. a11lJou&b!he IlilWltion in Ubya may have teen
diff<mlt. I would CCIl-.d 1lw !IIese bY]lOlbt.loes .e 5llpponed IlOI ooJy by !he
iDwnal evidence of !he documentary ~ themselves but also by !he

f;OIIlr'OVel'Sy. In !he cad, AIhanasiw;'I hanilhIDMt w.


ulemal evidence of ollie., corroboratiJll .:Mlll:el IlIat IIUrOIIIIlI the
!he n:sull of an
imperial decIee .. the bail .... ex"wion wbldt bad DOt eYCII beat railed
M ~ and which _ 1 0 IlaYe beat imprdlable witb IqIrd 11) ill c:oaImL
The IIlIn)' lI(:l;I_ioal made tpiftSt AtbaI\aIi.... before., dlIria&, and
after ~ q>fe oIlell teen (.,eA,oed evideDce lhat _ tr\IUI ..... Sl..cI
behind \he ~ eYCI if porti<:uIar indictlnems CUllIlI be ...,...ed.}7 II
ftIt1$1 be aid, ~YU. !hilt even a dase ua.m~ .. the Kat<Miaa'
'"
IpiIlJl ..........111 ptOlIidelliuJe coam.enl cvidmf;e to ;""Ic-e his pUt.
sboIlld CMlS4 _ 11> " .. p " lIE _It,
On dle ex.u.y. lIE Inconsislerq o(!he 1CC1ISIlionI .... by ~iI OJIllOiClIb
or IUdI clwJw .00 Ibe moIi_ aC
his ICCllSaS. if 11m IJIl<ftIl eridmce of !he IIldi::IIDeDllI Is IIIlpl'OCIucliY II)
lOll IlIhe ~ for IDIlCrial ~ 01 pIlt, for ~ rn.. Ihe dispaJed
tlaUas 01 LP 191& IQd !he eonfused _ of PIIik*ClJsi"" .iuk clx
......... 011 !be 0ClIIIUaf)'. Mcktiaoo IQd IDlIftUUc IUppon vi Athlnasia
appewIlO po.. ~ lh: -,. periOlI 01 ~ .........1lictI .... . I is
; IMd tel be lhe _
dil .... _all<
,.... lIo-.c_
oIlbedllJ&a 1IIIlle"
IelM: in !lit IIllepcl ~ De
~ Ihvqlt Ihe
iadr>ecllbc. ci"jJ qllllily 01 1M rlNll ..
, . &lY
' ....
apiMtllifll .. ~ ill AD m. - " I iowIjnI. . . al1anpI1O pa.y
. . lbedlltpr ' ~ ....... olo..."""'.....-'ol'J~dlc:1DJy
ol"'um~ _ tIo.. WI "it beGll or WI capilaI.
lflbe_ywn . . . . .u. '-_ .." .....0 eel_
Ihe III:IianI 0( Ibe Sr-t vlTyre1ll1UpllCl dIM 0 -. . . . . . _QWi.iwIId
ID ftC&lIl!Ic . . . . . . 10 CIWlSIW;nnp!o', Ibe~....uo. of die tlIlpUm" ill

ne _ ~ _ ob.'"
~ bodI \!Ie biIIIop atA""IllCIria...., JoM ~ __ Ill: ., t:d..
1lIOli........ dail'& tor Mil, wia=r, IK
East<ra dlul'l:ll. ~. ~ilt this _,. fU'I.1A llle priIlll: ~ fcc
eoa,IMtillC'. ICUons. it doesllCl uc:ludc W. poI$ibiHl, Illallh= ~
odler lIlillOf fllCllCln, possibly politicallJld _allie, .bid! wen of Dlle
UnpotWlCc.. ThIl combiJQlioII of Imperial rupeet - ' !naslnolion .ilb
AtlIanasild ..bieh cllbninaud in bls baIlilllmen., wIIiIe dlmclIll for Ill..

CoManlint ""'It"
moclem ruclcr 10 WIderIwlll, does seem 10 bvc bow ~isten( !rail 0(
was c>.cn:ised in his ~1.tloDshJp wllh 1d8 \lVic1y of
chUftIl ~ T.D. Samet hal COII'\II'ICtIIC lIpG1l tIIis flCCl olQlnslanrl~'1

"""""' 0lYlc1al pronouncemencs by WI)' &IiIQC:. . de.5uYe 10 ~ lrea1ed


...il1l -Wn skcpdciUlt. Bill C<!nlla"unc'l 1e.l1Ul to biohops,
ptluu, Ind cburcbel, fall Illic 10 CllnIweal petlml ot ~t
~ wi\ll l'rv.sttuiclll WI il iI diffk:lIll lG f'CIIl'd tllcnI U <rae
prodll(U or 1Kt. dJplomKy, or poIit:,. TIae ellIpetOr', penonaI
IlUituda Pd COIlyiaion. ~Il, ollCoIck. ud lie . . . . . ODe
c:ulYa'arlI willi pllao.t'op/1, andllwolocJ who 1lIl~ belieoa!be
lIIvaslon of da Romu EJropR 10 aashJp or !be 0lrUliIn God far
more Wl\pDnlInt ...... ~ (and poteIltiall, uclu.l:r.e) del. ..... 01
Ihl: mlCllol1uaI COIIlCOll 0I~,.31

For Ihe ClIlpenlr. !he aile or A\llInariu., u well . . 01 Jolln Aldlaplt.


problIbly hlocI lillie. III do willi Ihe. ....nll lllc okc:rou of ~ iIWCId.. boi1I
~ IIIId lllc ~ ill up. -..: ~ 10 Ibc . , or
Ibe Euu:ra cllun:ll aad tbc InchlllYCtlCU ""hlcll Ibe _puor dc$lrU.
".
Abhou&h Irrc .., 1lI~ bCIpall!lollK Synod ol1)'fe _1cI1tll1e Ibl: . . . <II
E.c'Pl. ..... k r.iled 10 do 10 lie IOCIt; ~ alO a..dI. Yet II
rftUlM Ilipi/II;e _ ea.......... appIiew,. Id'*'ll 10 ~ A""'"Prim
Moo , .... t ...,. btsIIq>af .... IcX 1 .~ llIeIoe\I u.iIed 10 Trier."
a.u.w by "periIl--. apM fn:n. ..... jucIp. . . "'
"'hr WllOIId abCl_ fn:m c:rlle 10 AkAIldNo
S)'IIOd o(1)ft,
JOWJoo..... ol
It_..,.'"
ilnperiaI.n,t t rq.

.-
.I...;'~_;
oo.apWtA'1lIftMi...... 1ke.fy yanol_
be lfi=iaoed out ollQood., aq. _ aa be. 'N bed
~ no pmi....... of lbese dufteI -.. irwbd, d!e Iiuca of . .
S)'IIOd ofT)rc..,. beup6liDod ill l<m1I of r- u ~ 10 the EcfIlim
d1-" taiIl d\IlIlllnlu:&b ...,. 01 ils iDDDIIl:lIiliIIp or IIlc ~t of ill
bisllcp. l1w. iNlnIl n ill ~ espec:ial!r ~ IIle Mdel........
Colhllllian -=llisnIaliQl undoulMedly conaibutiac fED. bal lhe
cvideKe...,.., "III lIIcse d~ scbismlOc:l we-. e.cowlW<4 ....
m ...... "" 1IIe ~ . . . . eI. br&cr plIlIlO Ill.. An., lUdmiQcd
willlill dlo: f:opciIlI ~II. R=lurse III Ihe _pel'lll' _ r. . employed by
thiIm ...., bcfln ...... Ii. . after tinIe the tllIrJa 1piII. AthInuiIIr
_ .dlu..1 T\r. desire 10 1It.I~ Alhanasi'" IAll*" bef_ J)'JIOlI. in
_ _ rea j.....'" of Eo him, ...... bI>l -ocr put of \IIiI __ pro::ca.
ne talliDt: of Iloe 1)'IlOds ol Cacsma InC! Tyre, Illero:fGnl, c::aIUlOt be riewaI
in the _\IClItioui KUe <JL leSlS of &Ui" 01 illlllXUCC but u lI'qlc: tno.o
aw.,,10 r..... iliar 10 our 0 - calIUfy...... verdiN or ....iclI Ad been deQdr:d
r.iJIlMMDceoflbeir _tina.
In doaiJIi Illis stlJCIy of the early episc:opal e.cer or Alb_illS of
AIc:UlIllria, I tonl'eu I!lal !hen: is mil much 10 It... _.,.illl Ill "iIaIly
impo,wll period of the blshop'J life and career. Pl:rhl,. new 1OIRe. ..ill
tome 10 HlhI. or furlllet Investigation of prelel\l telIlR:U m.y yield new
illJi,hIs. Ytlll:&l\l\Ol but fttl tholllle bishop deserves. MllU r,~ tblJl 10
serve lIn"". lerlulUions continually u ... example of fllO'lh-n11l1)'
1I11l1lilOr or In ll/IJII;rupuloui churcll politieilll Of LIlo laIo CoosWII.ifliln
epoch. For oJl!Iou&'t dle~ may have been times when AtlwIIIllil wu rub
or lIls IIlOYaDCrIlI ill Jud&ed, IIlore is liuJe JOIid ewide_ from lbe urly 1U"
oIllis eplll:tlI_lIw he behr<ed in lbe runnu ..hiellllU been suue-ed by
I(l ....., lllldletl 0'Iet Ihe put three ............" ., _ III _ ..!her lha
the _ 01 HIn>Io;k, .w-p 51i&l:&lY 0mWtId . . . . tltIl _ _ d
Ilis 0*rI tim&, _Y yet JlfO"e 10 be _ _ . . For AlllINsius
lllIfI t!oll ..~ d lIlIll7 CUIIUll..... YaitlQ:: ~If _ _ Ilinl by
t!oll R . . . 01 tois tioe, _ c=. ~ IICIChlrtt \plbIo or . . . aboat
. . ....0

J9fWol~ uo.
"0,,- _ H_ _ H'-7 '" Dros- ~ .-.~ .... l. _ - .
E4iIolMp. 11191. U.
APPENDIX: LONDON PAPYRUS 1914
...

h..... lett !Urii-. fr.... lop to bouOfll 01 'M "".IlS:

V.rso:
'"

Tr_'F of ~ """""" ttl. """""" ......... of


. . T r - of ... Briclolo UlIr-Q-.........
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". 1HE EAJU.y EPlSO)p...... C..'FF. 01' A11tAI'4ASIUS

H/sIW, diMllf... Vois. I _ 2. Gm:k 1C>;.I rlVOll Ihe. tIiWcxl "" J.


Bilb. b1uuduc:iilM by B. 0rilIet and O. $" TJ '$ ~ by A.J.
t )

Fc:sluI~ Anro'" brO. Sa!>balI SC lO6. ...... 1!IlI3.


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__
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'':/trw 14 (Int): 3-2A.
HemrlaJla. J. "'EiIl Sucl1,&(:$pikll mil ~ithcII AIpInc.lIIca
~ KaiJor ~ Imd. Bidet UberiaL .. FclUCNflfilr
HlIIU Ue "edit<14 by V.K. <:lbr:!ourer .... ILK. '.... , 7'1-16.
EJ" &'. 1~,
_Hmnaa,L A '~.r.'4ufuri""""". ~EW~""""""
__ ~~ I..etrerIs I. b...b"d.lm.
C ' r CItwdMd"tJPI'CYu.E.lJC~.T_........
by J, W'1Itb. ~ 1912
Ika, H. 1M C _ .rltc CDIUIdJ II{ SlII'llino A.D, 141: A / .. I<IIt u. 1

1Jw"",,~.e-Lrw. 0xt0rd,19j&,
Hi&&"-. MJ, -rwo Noll:s: t. """"w'" _ ENc:bi\ll 0 - _ Conncil or
Nicxa: 1. n.e. Papt'. Rip II> Try hm.dl 0- DilcipUa.y
Oar)e..- Ia ,.,qu"IMiDA: Fnudvi F.tuu D6J,.,r. n&-2H.
I' 'h P-z, IIl66.
!W. K. '"Die Be' Clb ~ lIlCliu . !teo lIIbadw &-
ltieKi... C , ..... s u - ~... ~ , . b 1 aU'"
W/,U,UtIw/Uli. n.iloIopllixb-l:tiI.IclrUcu K1uK 1925, 11-31.
llepriau:d IoIll:1 Gf:.....,nu: NjI4tu 2 (1921): 21)..291.
HallaolcI.D.L ""JkOalClsorN"aa..-I~R~- CItH
l8 (I~ 1A8-'2:61.
- - . '"Die Syw;lde .... AD~ (n(I2j) MIl illfe B ' lJiiiI &-
F_Nw .... 0
16]..tll.
ea"'" du KoWl _ NitaL- ZJCC II (I!17'l1):

'11 Dd AriIIIIl: WlIJ' _Imp'"


HgDpw!
M"~ .
J.A.B. .......
""""'1icM M~ 30(1971): ~7.
- ... . . .M i . . _ AriIzI:: WbaI NDwr Mq.-.I
II> Reducer
11wf>It,~
Metw28 (1969): 16-27.
- - _ . ~ Dc:.dopt!ltDI of !he 1'Iinilari-.1lIeoIoo or ... ~u ill H.
CorItlkl "';111 Conlcmpo:xary Hetesics.." Ph.D. dia.. Univenily of
EdlJIbw"gII. 196).
_ . 'Ibe Irtlpllc:alioM of AthanasillS far UL 11>r_d. ~oIo,;c,,'
I1fY/tw 31 (1972): Ig.
--:c. ullI, The Solution or AthanasillL- 11-Jo.....d. TlI#oJo,it"t Rr-int
30(1971): 6!l-7a.
,.
HolIigl1Wlll, E. "La L_ori&iJWede$ pbullc Nil:6e, Byll4 (1939): J1.

Hoppento'ou~ H. La PI.... Notitll. V"riM ,,,,1,,, tit ID Vic: de I.


~",,",A~, Nijmcgea. 1!iI6O.
Hess. K.. Stlfdk. fib,t, dtu ScJvi/mun IUId di, TlwoJolliI du AI~IU.
Frdbllt&.IIW\l.
HllUer, v. "Ilef hi. AtIunasios TrP:iat ill Ml 11.27." un 42 Ogll):
431.... 1.
- - . -Mai'. L.kau.ommenlar uad ck. Trakt., D, pD.llio,",
athnullllbchell Gua" "lIm<43 (1919).
HlI&bea, P. ~ CAIU'CA ito CrUis: A Hisli1,., '" lAo! CtM,oJ CAluu:ils m
/&70. New Yorl<. 1961.
~,Il 0;" ItJxJuprllClllicW pmfQM
om.
UUn/t",.,a-,-u-. M ...idI.
Javiene, 4..M. Ellt_ /i~ <k /0 sea '6,:
~ #lCaa... 4I1ca. z.1t:ll.196).
fIGIIl d '''16--
Jedin.K. He ""' ~irc~. Val.2: DMI1~_,...
"'''''"e''i
.
~ IftibIq.
Hudb.d4ur,,~1IicJw..
197'VoL2II:
. DitKirck_NikrJiis
/lis C~_, FtduJ.
I9'U,
8llJllOOllI'd'HY
""
'"
'"
- _ "CMI a quaM! Aria' j II ,-ilia 7'IrodMr Ia~ ediIecI by
P. Onnfidd _ IA SaP"""" 1: ...... 346-:U1. ~. 19?O.
"LeP... m.U-4eJhtair.doaA'_ _ d.'AIn-ne.- Ia
F,..i..d,: FuudrifI J_ DtlaUto.. ecIiIt:d by J. F tow UId C.
It " . PMis, 1972.
""SL ""_$i...
of Au....... Red'KG'''ecl: His P'l:Iliaial ....
r-w Adtie.l:iI""dL CDplk. C/uudl/t.,...,. 9. 3 (Fall lila): A.
".
"U T......... IkILdru FuJJJkJcIc I.~'" IIdlleok
rAptHo,w ~~ lu pakfU-S. f I _ - , " , IIlll ",rH." _Sit 12
(I~): 91100.
---:; "TWolocie et ~ L.e ScftI 8CIDel 4e 1eIa' Bpport -'fit
tkl. A ~ d'Akuadrie. 1-. Huwoi_ ., Jo4 ,"'llw_:
Illu.,a rcW~,1OU "" a"',"";'. rlMtil'" tillltc>ll,w. 'n,
odiIcd by C ~ aDd Y. Mardlatsllo. IWiI, 1976.
---=;.1.e. Te.ue CllWI do lh ~ MI.. Pc- SA n (Iw..):
j19.!J6: n (1965): n-ll1.
- , ed. &IrlJ CoIriJriM SpirilJflJiilJ. TnrndM'd by P. Brip.. Soun:a
ot&rtJ~'J1loqIIt. P!lilodelphio 1986.
- - , lid. I"r;>Iiti,w: II ~ ~ cM. ~ d' AkmNI,... AatI 01.11
COIIDq.... OI..lin,. 23-'25 Sep(c:mbfe 1973. 1b6oloP .isloriqlle
n. Paris. 197.(,
.:.....0..... K. 'N ' .....A'l""cW>)'l'a n>il MrtdJ- 'A"''''''",0f'. Thessa-
Iooiki. 1961.
Karpp, H. -rulloililldle Bemerl<....gen zu Alhanasius. Dc doorR' Nk_
l)~odJ n, 1,- VC 28 (1974): 14H43.
Kaye, J. W""U II{ 10M /(~. London. 18'76.
Kce. A. COItJ/(IJtl/lWl ....'"" C/trist: TM T,ilUllpll tf ItUo/"". London,
1981-
Kc:llrhahn, T. 0. 141l"; Alhtvlasii qlUM! /C.'tu "'~r", ~~'tll1<'lUkPN.
Berlin. l!m.
KtU,. J.N.D. t;,i't CIvUn- CrUlls. 2d lid. L.oncIon.I967

...
Earl,ClllistiIMDaftriltu. 4dud.. L.ondorI, Ill6&.
KelIlp..W. ~Bi""_P...sb,unlllAI"'''''riI.~ JH6(195S): 115

KeMocIr. G.A. TIll An '" R~ iJo tIte " ' _ WMU, J()() '.C.-I<.D.

c.. 1_
J()(). PI iw ... 1912.
---=;. s.c. .
CWIiul
/II"".
AMimr ...
,II""IiI>ric.....,
r.-r.
/uOriJaiM.u
a.pd Hill, No
-...c.. CudltJwMric....,~Ln,wJ"". "'i....
T. . . . . fr_

1911.
,,,.
Xftllcr. F.H.. '"Der ~ Sueit iIl.\JYlI'eL ~ 1JiW 35 (1936): IB-

Kido1, BJ. A H""I1{. C.ilIvd ... A.D. 46/. Oo.rcnt, 1m.


Jl:\ria. R. C - w n ud I< clJri.rtlidw Ki,dw. W.B.o., I..... der
Fcn:!loMs- IliII-.dl, 19n.
'"
- . '"Zat Ollubwllrt!ia:tel\ ~i.tloritcher "alAlen lies Bixbof.
Al.huui... OIl ,u....ndrien llbto" die: Rdi&iODJpolitit cIes Kaisen
CortItaIItIu n.- s",
11 (19'82): 996-1017.
Klijll, A.FJ. ~Jcwdll ~ in Ea)'lll. In no.
tt_s 0{ EVPtitul
C/uiJrinlli,y. edilt4 by B. Pc.ar- II!ld J. Ooehri.... 161-171.
!'bi!lcltlpbil, 1!lI6.
-:\ n Led. e.ubi., W~. Vol. 4: Dk trl1IiJcN1I dIri""id.,.
k~*r~_JM :do: fit. Bat... 1m
~. A.L "'P.-\atm lllllll: onine Nalurc:; n. u. 0111 ~ 1:4 by
AIb _ _ W 11 (1912): 101"'1023.
K~. T.A. A Hu-y 11( "'~ '2 'fOIa. I'Ki isoc Iik&>p
Sa;a .. e-tridp, ~WI.. 1979.
--~. "'Nco-Ariu kdiJion.: n. "Idala: of the Ap#s."lic
CQ/Uti'lUio.u," III Ali...i,... cdilil:cl by R.C. O..,U. InI79.
1'tli1adI:lptlia. 198.:1,
--.::. "J'rolCgw Cllartes KIAllen~, View oIllll: AriaA Crisis: A
Cricique Ind Coanler'PlopotIl..- Colloquy 41 of tIl& e - far
tkmItneulQl Studies i. KelklliJbC Uld Moclem 0Lb....,. '1-611.
r.
8eI1<ek l 9lt2.
Knfi, H. K__ lCtlllllOIIlUu ulifl6J' E/lblldJIUI,. Tllbinaea. I~S
. q......0$". ZKG 66 (I9W!S); 1.24,
KtallJe. M. -oas ..lIristlic:1le Aleundrien and leine Bu.iebun,en Z1UII
kopcikhen MD\*a," I" AJU4ItdTin: KsdllU""r"IIIIlt~" drelt.
Jd!vtQ_..u1Jll Sd'md:riqtl tlMr tNdiu"tlNJI Grou:uatk, edilcd by
N. Hlrub, '3-62. Aelypdaca ~ I. Mal..... 1981.
~i1ump. H. "The OriJ;n of 1M PllriaIdIIle of COIlSwu.Inopk ..... IhI:
Firs! Roman RoJlliliol 01 hs Pauian:1IaI Jwisdicllllll.- Ph.D. diu..
Ihe c.aJo)Iir; UIliYUSily of AmericI. 1\l66.
WIO. K. "Some Funller NOlel 011 lhe Mu. or llle Writinll of SL
Albnul".~ /TItS ~ (1903): 1(l8.11".
Lab. K..and RP. CaRy. '"TlIe TUl d the lH: j~ ....","""",ol AthMlaPlD.-
HTIt, 19 (1926): 259270.
Uminski. A. ikT lIeilip Oft. tIls Grist CItrilflIINI GNr w G~:
D" aei"a, flu Af~r _ ~ : ... For...u-, flu
triIti~ DoIITW iIII tv. lltl. Eri\anu .,.........ior/Ic
SUoclc 13.
1 vii 1969.
Un-.nmt" G. bIMil., Mardlteu. EilllteiI4r /Cud. bri A/'-""';as:
v.... tuwJ ~1tri.JUic1te $(HtrioIo,w IINI rnlerWotk bri AI"'"'-iIU
_ AIUJIIldrioo. Gru. 1918.
- - . "'Ei1lile Aspekte dea Ill. ALhaIlMiot lllt Eiallcil lIer Kirdle.-
~ta 6 (191"): 1A2-1S9.
'--"'.1. "1.EItl~~.EaI:Oe et 1eI1a... ..... II." R"... tie
r /IisIIIiT. flu TtIi,w- 111 (1967): US-IoU.
I .... her\" F. LtOrA du "~AdlcM1lj.. fIu G~... ell' . 1911.
ow lAJw flu lttilI",. Af*WU;as flu GT6##.. l..cipli,. l~.
m
'" THE I'.AJU.Y EI'lSCOf'AL.CJ!'FE, Of AllU.N.ASIU5
'"
".
"'.anin. A. AdlanaIe tt It$ Mallieas.- In I'Qliliqw.
M " 'IrIo/tilk. edikld by
_ C.IWI~. 31-61. Paris. 1914.
_ C;. -A... ori.llles 6e I'~&lise caple: L'[mplaal&Uon et k:
~cIIo~"'FQJ*(Io-lVclikkl).~
R~da
, , . . , . ' ...,18(1911):]5..56-
- - : - "Lcs I'rallion SikIa ... Cb.. AJcnr"'ie.- RIYtU tIu

EdIIh:iI"
''''''',.u,-piWuu)O(1'J84): 211-215.
~. J. "Obcr ~ ckl' _ beo1j.... A~.~.~~
'- a.- Q l ~ Vila ~ fkr /(/Il/tDU!; (1886): Heft
I, Naa FoJte ll. An.. XXXJI. 4U316, IIld An.. XXXIX, 619.636;
Heft U. NF S6. An. XlI'Jl.t91.
Mcljlrirla. EJt. 'TIle DocaiM oIl!1e W .. . . of dIt Tr>.iIJ .. b ~
afOqaryafN-' _ - NMnTn(l9'7n %24-Dol.
_-:-' -."" "'""' frr 01 ,Jo. 01 ........
ExmiIJ.- VC 28 (I9'}4):
161-169.
Di, -.011 Time and
- _ GtM. 8m.,. Hisl1J'ry: SllldiuiA I'dlrillIC 1'1IilMtJplr,. ~
..... Odo..l.lm.
- _ OtllttJdoq /PId 1'/4I0IliIz,.;" AWuwI&f: SJNMM ()T ANidtnir.
2dcd. LeidI=lI.I914.
O. ManaJdus. CItrUti<llo EIJIII. ~w IIIoM.,., ClIro. 196~.

=
=~. CItriIri"" E,JPf. FtJido """ Li/6. Cairo. lUI.
~AII EuRlinadon of Ihc Tnodilions PaWnint Illlllc RdQ of SL
Mart.- OrCllP36(L!nO): :>4&-316-
MeiMokI. P. "Die JesamlClIris~icbe Bcdeull1llll des. bl. Alhanaslus.- Kyri<n
14 (1974): 97.114.
,,,.
Meredith. A. "Emanation in Plotinus and AtII.,..,illS," 51!' 16 (1985): 319-
- - : - "OnJlodo.y, Huay, and Pb;JcmpIly ill lhe Lauer Half oIlhe
Foun.II Ceaa.y,- Iftl'Jorop low"'" 16 (I91S): '-21.
P. ~;ftO. I'.uclNll, Sou_Ill"",: EiJw U"u','ldu..., 1M, die
OnukiltIIut., N. IIlIwuuiIU _ AIW>Adrie. Uo illru Be~
.M de_'tll1w:lvlrllklw_ ue,eti:fC~41wo1"""M_ O/JttUqm'llle_.
ManJUr.I96j.
Mc:slia, M. in Ariau <f DiMIIL Paris, 1967.
MalMa. JI..1.J'. bIrl'J C/trristilIIIlltUrpuw",,,, 11/ HIs:t1rJ. ~ l!Ioqm-
t._d 19S2. I <wtew 1954.
MiIita". M. AJd\JIi; Ln=nry C1l:>aop~ J_ _ II/ HdJuk Slodin ~
(l'~ S4--sa.
~,JoA ..w-.r.a.,
diU G_,.,../ die KInJw uiItD bu. k-.:len
1.0 K-.pfe rril duo Arliwi..... 14 ed. Mllru, 1844.
--:-' ~ '" GnJlldel U,1ise de ... lelltpl a /1Ute. r.~_
TransInol b)' 2itt...:lU1' and CalIon.. 1 OIl. Pwis, l~!l.
~Ii.
}(I~): 129.
'1..aQt.........
.ckrid6l:de ..~....qnliq"c m1'R
Momil';" It. ............ Otrisliu " ' -.....'J '- \lle. FoIriI Ccaaary
w
"D. 111 TIw ~ ll{ ,.,. . . . VIII CJlftIliMhy '" die FOfUfi
~. 711-99. Odord, 1963.
M< !' ~V m;,cp sotlC!ll aaag.a........- Ana-
H~ OIIUfic:-l(l969): 4}.11.
MOmk,Cw. -Da A.cblepoDd .... <k ....... OO.... C.. - N~mT4
(I~ J1I.412.
~ ... O. w papUolt>p.. Torino. l""';;;'''k
Monrd,F. ~~ltfie>:icrls_ .... _, ,." VC}4(1~ m-
"I.
Mcnira. A.M. ,.~u. LiJfIoft.v u '" _ _ ........... I..aunia,

'''',
lhwh=m:-, A.A. Tk C~k of EIUGrl.,
r....... l.ewislNr&. Pa.. 1979.
<Md c;r"* C"'-o~

Mowsoubs. LO. 'N '~/"..<; /ttI{ MI.,.r '..1"'-0105".


AlhaIt. 1!n5I.
--.:.:. '0 ~ 'A~. Aibal$, 1974,
- - . "tc Prolllttnc de II lbte du 'TrolIl1ixOlUl' COIlll"t Ics Ariats
d~dAIe1Anllri8." Sl!'16(198S): 32A}41.
MlIl\k::Ibu E. ApoIliNlri ..,..., Wodic~. GOlllllgcn. 1959.
"Vtrilt CI bonlt de Dieu." In Pollri,"., ,III/!1o,I., edited by C.
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MOlll:r. C.D.O. "Alh.,lIIius von AJe.an<1rien II' kopt!schu S<:hriflslcllu."
K".los 14 (19'74): 195-~.
Nalll;o, P.. "Ow, lnterpolluOfIlI orthooOllQ dJo... lIaC !elite d' AIillS.-
A1ti>l801/67 (1949): 13114l.
--~. "'U Dcx:lrille dNi.... """,""",. r &01. pnIII,u du HiWU
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Neale., J,M. ""is>ry f1( 'M Holy Dsu:rll Cluud: 1lot PfIlriDrcllau af
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Neuder, A. G,MUU Hisl(Jry of 1M elvin",11 R.II,I... tMd Cbrch.
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N."""IalI. J.H. Apt>b;>t" F... Vua S"".. Bd,.." HIsrD<7.., lIis Rdtio.s

:;~o~"~_~'~V.
TMA.ri<rAr..,dwF....,.It~I'l.". I IU).
S~D/CdrdiIlDlN~. '
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1890.
Aa Es,., ... 1M: o-0JJ-tIl of CIvUIi<JIo Dui... ho-. aL
I...,. 1m.
L~~ l~l!Ied. ' ....... 116"'1.
Sdt T-UU.., 51. A*MR.. ill Cdhli;.;.,"~,...,.. llot Ariau.
2 ..... 2decl. I ....... 1111.
lk N"1CGla, A. "LlI to .. .......... ~ ad
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C_.
1Ofa-D~

~dba . H. AIIII:I........... I. Hdsinlri 1961.


. AI~IIS."" 1M 1llpC"". COllll"eRl:IlioMlI HUlDanaram
U~_)(l.J. Helsinki. 196.1.
'"~ lHE EARLY EI'ISalPALCUEEll OF Anu.w.sIW

_
_~.~"';""""n'''''
~" .,"'''~.
TrIlC/QIa
C
Coatnr. cates tIII4 De
'M-
!oDe: .u
UDoi._21..].
KelIiftb.. 1961.
F
"011 dII Bihk Teo
!
~ SI.. M_ .
no. Nn; vb/rid.. 3 (l'il62);
AmclI. AcU"",1
Il~141.
+._.
~A R Of otd!oo I>aleof "t
..... .... C-w ~fOW ad
D<t""'~ rie Sd' 1 (I!il6I): 2&-2166.
Nonb. E. DW oItliU XMSOM. 2. 'dI. I . . 1191.
Nona... l(.. ~Dcifaao.: ne Conceai fJl AlhM";- SoIcrioIoIJ.~
PIl.D. dill- DI*r. Uai"III"IitJ. 1910.
NorriI.,F.W. -o..tpyNazlmeaIOpponcaIl.~)I.~ la~
Idiw1 bJ' R.c. Cln:g, :121-ID. Philadolp/lia, 1m.
NyInan. fA 'TlIOI AriIa ea.lnlftI5J frcn III Bc:Jianlpp 10 ltw. Ccluncil 01
Nicaea.- DJ'tIil.diu...01tcI'd.I'XlO.
-c -rbaSymd g( Aatial:ll OU-US).ud 1be<:ou.:i1 fJlND:a. til'
... T1J '79 (1961): 48).489.
0piIz. M.G. "E.-b _ e - ds TbeoloV Eia V-..- 'ZNW}(

==
=
(1935): '19.
"'tlM SyriKMCorpa Alhmasi3run.- lNWJ3(19Jf): 11-31.
. Ualuacb,qa UII' 0baiUf_, dtI, Sdvif/u Iiu ~...
"'1lei_ _ ~ll1latill""'l.4<Pc.19JS.
-Co. -pie bill"'", des arianix..... StrrilC:Il _ cltn AABftsc8 biI..,."
Jahr 3:z.a.- ZNW n (19J.4): 131-159.
OI1mdl, T. S\lU'Apo!o&iI secundo (conn "rillu) di ALana$io di
AIcasandtia.- AU,IIJtiIlWIIUII 15 (1975): 4979.
Osborn. E. - ArirIn Obcd~ Sroutina: for TheQkllianJ." R'viIl.... of GreU
II'dOrotl.urtyAriMimt P.tMkNUlI6(l984): 51.56.
Plpldopoulot. $. :A.8<rI'd'",os- 6 Mtra~ 11/ " ikoJ.oy{.. r/f.
ol.... ~.. .n1f' <7W6&o<I AIhm., 1973.
de Pluky, W.c. ''The l<lea of M3n in AlhanasJ\llI." TluoID,) 11 (1926):
l3H}8.
Payne. R. TIw I/tH, Fir.: TM SU>,., oftM FI>J/w" 0( t/w &.ttu~ C~",c~.

~
I..<lnckln, 19~.

""""'- , ...
~. B" Pd J. Goehrin&. als. Tile RtNJlS 0( El1pdllll CIv/stiJJJoilJ.

P. "Conl_ ~ AIhaDae S'cmfuil do Tyr .. llS.- kltdl.w rv,tIh


"" ."fItw: 6.n.tiIt." cl4s# du _uru.. MI.x..as -.MS.'
pDlhifas S JO(I'HS): 131177.
-
,,,.
. .,.Epi S)'IOk die Tyrca liS.- AMIJI6I1 '3 (19045): \}I.

PdiboI. J. TIlt CItnniMt TrtIdilitHt: A His1tw7 0( "'" lh'ortk .. t1{


DcocIrlM. Val. I: 71wUtwrZftUt1{IAoC~n ...... I ........
1911.
- - : : -e-:il or Falhcr or ScriplIn:: 1k Coao:pt 01 AIJlboril, .. Ibe
TMolosl 01 MaiimIlS die eoa'n_.-
I~ TAo: H..ra,c of lAo EIv"
'"
CIowdo: Eu.y,I. JI_lJf 1M V.ltu. e-tu V. FIDrDvIlcy. odllCd
_ _ Cbr D. He;..... -.d M. Sdlalkin. 277-188. R-. 1911,
. 71lt E.r:ullflll &!pVt: 1M FilII cf R_1lNI fIw TIi. . (J{ lite
_ _ C:""'d'. San Fi_iico.I987.
Hit/OriNI TIw""'".....co",I"Jr, .-.1 CA....... ill CIIris,i<u
DocuiM. New York, 1971.

-,.... _.r
- - . Tlot U,1ol tJ{ IN World: A &uic I-Zt bo u"lJ Cllristitul
T/wIqItl. New Yorl. 1962-
PtJI.OA Die LQn ~ IwlIiIO' ~JU S8IIdo!..." Erl&~.

Puciwal, IU.. eel. TIw ~ &-.lal CllMdlJ f1{.1te U""n.k41.


Cla,d. 1Wr e-.s fIIf4 Oo,..uk Duras. T"".1Jtu Mllt All
C-.os 0/ IJIIoW l.4l S,.,odJ IV""lI Haw R_ _ En _
w
k,,-u. l.NPf", 'U Mries, Ol 14. RcpMI cd. On.! ~
MidI., 1914.
Pm, V. "Lhh +.iadelleL.mae~"d1_""~""Clall~
.v- 3j (1961): 2U6.
hridIIool. P. "Pow lrM ldition _'fdt. de l'lliMoriea SacnIC: La
~etIctWQ. . . .ItSAn(l96S): ll:l-In
Ptnorl. R..E, TIw MINk q{ ~,Iul !HdIl4Alid1lll <1/ 1M EtufJ
E,_ttiuI CAluK/J.I: M 1"4"'''"'''' IN: F_tW~ l!{Strip<we w
iU/lwe-.dllll{Na- fMIIlEplw_. Bael. 1m.
TnIdidQ,o
~ A.M. "1lle om ol D:eminl SpirilS in llIe viw ANoIIU 16-44.-
$'1'17(1981): ~I\lS22..
Pcnt'. ... A.L "Chrisf. Dulll-A Llnualal EeBI ror Athanasi... or
~r TIw 0".,.....". Itttli"" 346 (l~): 21-]1.
- . "Did AI!I~nuiUI Deny Chrhl" Fearr SetHI"1! 10l<1'fIJII of
TIvIJioIJ 39 (1986): ]27340.
- - _ . "'The Queslklnill& Jesus 1ft Alllanuilll' COlli'" Ar"-s UL" In
Ari4Iui.... edilOd by R.C. Greg:. 2A).2SS. Phi"Ip/IiII.I98.5.
_--.:;. ~ A Ronlln1Cdoll or die OIle of Cho CDIIIT" I~ttlU_....o~
i_ttl/olwof A!hlnmlnol ~ - StJ> 17 (1932); HlJOI04O.
--~. ~'To Floe or NoIIO Floe': An ~ I of AI/Iana<iu1' lhfitfil
, .....- In I'UUCIIlIDII oNI T~r(Jlj{M, edilCd br WJ. Stleils, 29-<12.
Odonl. 19&01.
PiqleI. M. ,wei BlJua" _lIe/Il OAefbrid del ALIIInuius _.bIw. 364
(PIp. 1Ierol. 119041).- ZNW 37 (1938): 73-76-
~ S. "NtICius de b coIl4bliit diu ElUH>c lie C&.6< {IfuloiIe
_lbiNllque).- StJ> 10 (1970): )01.)l)S.
PiI:ai, C. "'La ~ dAlha..- .--de Rome (lJI..36O).- I",.~ n
I~Iit. Olti1llll by C. ~, 9)..126. Park, 1m.
I'llIlItd. T.E. -Elndlilll 01 Ce.. ca IIlIll rile Synod 01 Antkdl (32'.25).-
Ot1ulk/u"""ucltidtdicM (l1IlV_~. t4ilClll by F_ hd>U.
---=. -n.e
Bertie., 1981.
EKcua 01 loluo X 30 ie rile .-Iy T. .ltam. Coerm-
'IU1ie&.- Ifl$ 3 (l9S7): 334-349.
- . '1bc EuFSis of Scripture aftd 1l>c Arian ConlrOVerSY. w The
8tdllfi~ of 1M Job RyitJlfdt lblJrj of IIIa..;:MM' 4' (19S9): 414_

==':,..,.,.
:". J~ Cltri$loIQD <DId die Earl7 Cbrd. CarntJridF. 1970.
"LosoI_ Soo in Orip, Ariut. Illd AlbInasi.... w $" 2 (19S1):
~_ -rheOricdJalAriallism. nJt5.NS9(19S8): 103111.
M

PtWipe. F. NIII1IVIlHldL lkidt!brr&. 1m.


Ptali"". G.L. 'Ar/w-"rror- and
M rcww.,rds" _
KiIl4n:d Wonh i-.
__ "'""':. . . IhcEzlJArims.w .InS 24 (1923): ~~
'J1yi.vhJros- ud Ca~ Words '" AlhaIlasi..... JTIIS 14

==
M

(1933): 2S8-26S.
God;" 1'~ rlioorllot. I cwlM 19ft.
FIIlIv,sMdIl_tia. l...ooldnaandNewYort, 19o1O.
=
Prilmm. K. -My$IUioa' ....... V~ bci AdIIftasius.- ZKT1I 63(19)9):
3SG-3S9.
Pusey. E.B. T1w e-nciJs<~ lite C1uu"cll. l.cndon. 1857.
Qtaslcn.J. 1'4frOIo". 3 ouI... Antwap and Uu=t, 1975.
Radfonl, LB. T1oT Teac/tus ofA.1nnJfdrfrJ; TlttIOg/lOSoo.l'lenu. aNil'elt,.
Cambrid&e. 190&.
RaItntr, H. Ki,e"" IUId SIQat imfrllllu CMUltnlllm. Munich. 1961.
Recheis, A. "$.ancli Atbanasii MlIgni Doctrif\ll de primon1iis SCII '1l><>111Odo
expliQ!veril G~im 1-3." NIlo"'an.... 28 (I9j3): 219160.
ReiLlen. R. Dcs All""'".,..... Wed: iUn, das Le~1I dlt AnIOlli..,: ,,,
plli/olog/Jehu Beitral ..., Ouch/ell" du M6nchlu"".
$ilZ\lng.sberichlC, Altatlamie Heidelberg. 1914. Phil. Hi$!. K1. Abh. 8.
Reynold.!, H.R. AIM""';"': Hi, u/e and WINk, Lon(\(ln, 1889.
Rczelle. J. ''LA. Mysltre de rtglise dans III COOllOYer1$ antiarienne c~ saini
AlJlanase. Srudii Biblid F'lUIcisctvll Uhf' AMUIU 2S (1975): 104-
118.
Richard. M. "Slin( A(harwc et la ps)':'holog;e du ClIti$t.e1an lc:s Ari"",_~

_-=M~ltk JC~,," .tJig~_ 4 (1947): S-~ .


ed.. Nlt,;i StJpIlis_ C~~ ill I'IDl_ q_ SJJI't'_.
$ymbolleOSloen.... FI!C. Suppletn. ~Yi. 0sI0.19S6.
Rieken, F. wHiltaill1s Krisis des alu:brisdiclten PIaton;Sl'lllS.~ TI' 44
(196'1): 321141.
- . "Zur Rezcp'ion der pb10Giscben Q,"olocie bei EulChiu. _
KaiAreiI. Arcic>I UDd ....".. . .. ~ TI' 53 (1978): 321352-
Reidel. W", llnd W.E. Dvm. cds. aDd nIlS. ~ C _ II{ Ah\oo......., 0/
A/ulJIodrl4. London. 1904.
de RiedmIuea. it W Mia dJi. P"x.u tk I'll'll .s.u...uure. IUMlt _ 14
. dtrintM,v A J~ lV" sikh. Fril;o;>r" 19S2.
RiucJs!, D. ~Al.b_; Sowu DC New Quesliou.. II Kuuptt:
ael_lrf A-/Id'u. YQI. I: l'"tTUtisclN SIdU~. 7an. Bern.
1976.
- - _ AlMir4Ji.,: Vernodl tiM, IlUf'~uui.... Zuricll, 196t.
'"
~
,....
Itincr. A.M. Diu KllArii ", J ( ~ . . . rcbi S,..".

A. ~
S - MIL 01 die Wrillolp 01 SL Art r... Pw1 L ~
GOcl:ill&ea.

n.u 1 (I902): 97.110..


SlIf Jlfmu." ....., Utun "'AI_usia', 6Ww1p of A ~
Po. .~. 2d oai<:s, ""'-., 11511.
7

Jtocdle. G. Z. Gudlidt4tkr ~$)rooadtlI"J. """ . J~~ """"


Freiboq. 1937.
RoiaLa. S. DIe 1uI/,~,. u, ui4JWdwIt S,.,lru. FatIcIlWII" zur
~ Uwnb.Ir..-.d noe" "ics;:hic:Me 7. I. PIdeotlOill, 1907.
RoIda4uI. J. 14 Clvw " / ' ' ' ' ' - 4us 14 rllhUl,l, trA,1IiIJuIM
fT"'"w"IIIri#; e.-. " ' ~ tU .. CGACf!"'.
""" III ,~... Studies .. lIle HlsIory or CIIriIliIP l'bouPl .
r",,-

Lddea, 196L
R...,..... MJ. "L~.~_aP Q'~ VC22(I968):
176-197.
--~. ~ _VdIe ~dc !'iDf!1JCIO;II: lia&aired'EUIINIr. de Ch 6e
"..
lIll' Albalwe: L'l~ des ~.~ _Sit, 56(1961): J8.S.

Rordoff. W" atId A. Scllneidcr. rtw>/l'IitJIo Ii. cort(,p! _ lr<ldioo~ tkuu


/'I,U#<VIcknM. Tndili"Christiana S. Bcmc,I982.
Reuther, R. G~lD'J fI/ Noz;QllZw: RMfOl' IUtd I'IIi/oll/pM', Ouard, 1969.
RUfCh. W.O. H"
la recllerchc: <Ie I'Athanase hislllriQue.~ In 1'"liriqlU: II
IlIIIow,i., ediled b)' C. ~gies .. r, 161-177. Pili.. 1974,
- - . "Sam" CommenUi (HI AlhanasillJ' COn/Ttl ApiXIiIllU,'" 1,3." In
ArlaNs",. edited b)' R.C. Gregg. 223-231. P!lilldclph;" 1985.
- - . ed. and uans. TM Tri"'uui"" CO<trrow,,.,. $oan:eI of Early
CbrisIian ~ Plri'-'phil. 1980.
Ry&II. OJ. 0. Uw:tu.I"WM '" Al.r..-uia.s. Pan I, rltf 4PI, Ru.1ISimt
/II1J/l1IripII. SlllllIea Md Doc1Ilnl:mJ 14. ! ondon.I9S4.
Saab, H. 1'1Ot_lDiot'": UflUrnd"u.~~ ..... Gdsrorrlf6,.,bi, L..
}Q/taJIMIt_'rU.... loti Ori~ rtNt AI"'-uiM _ AJuwrdriu.
FrankIUt\ ..... I>1aiJI, 1911
--~. '1)u F'rl$bipt zum usteIl St.nopionbrid lies A'b"Mias VOD
,,,.
Alexandrica ab: pneIlll''''''''Civhcs Programm.- VC 26 (1972): 188-

B.!blleroa. "'~" tM1U "" CllriIJ dn IGiM A'h-,... If~.


RolIlc. 1967.
S-pIe, ILL , . . 00riIl0l0t:r cl tlIc. ComcU cl Aa&iodl (26lI c..E..)
R : ut.- C.w48(I979): 1&-26..
I'

S....-"CJ. MAd._i", MMt:dIus.Md&ldlialclc CL SGK


n-I/* c. ~ R-.hlma:sand ~M ~
ed:Md.,. ILC- Gnu. 2S1-2lIS. ..

s~. J.M. ~atk lie ~ It II ..io.... lie 11 lb6arie


'C&' A1im'.M 6'jZ U(l972): 13119S, S)2."..
Sbo6c ., S. ~1lC iIW<ltaIi <Ii alcooe .. ;~ <Ii IIIlli dci KCOti III
<V~ - IC~ 2 (1m): 57.61.

,SdrIeictw:ila, -z.......,.
F. 11.""1_ dos A'h= .... ~ .,z41 (l9Sol): n-
O<.
~. W. MAlhaDasiltl __ .oeuad:riell aIlIl1loclIoce.nd al,
Kiid...... jlit....- ZNW 0 (19S0-$I): 242-256.
_~. "'Die Epiauia E:ac,dicIo lies AIM,.-. ~,.M lu~.
.. ....

290-D7. n kJniR., 19R


--~.~-.-~.:cadSlNltinl4.1.~.''''~'~LlIIDw 1Crr:--.,uicIltl.,
~",,ri.udlul wadr, ecli$ed bJ G. R~ m.m. Da tt"r,
,m.
- . -Ocr ~ ill ""'" 'Apeqia' del Adm.... I.
Tu-w....I--G'-k, ediIal by ... lledll,. D-:U,. ArkiI<oo_
Get ; ."rh!eso'Ikrm,NewYort,I9llO
"211I' OuuaolcIJeda .ioaaW.... Suei-." TIoLZ 79 (19S'): II.

"'"""
SelloelUlUl. JA. -Etal.. In dell Scb,itwl des beil;,u AtJwwillS.
~ 16(1941): 335-l5O.
S".. oeOei, HJ. Di.scipliNIry DK~ II{ 'M ~r. C.-cib. l.moe
'm.
$chM w. -Alexandria.- RAe I. cols.2112.83.
Sehwart:l:. E. "Ou ""liocllcnilcbe SynodaIscllreiben 'Oft 3'U.- NCG 19O1l.
lO5-374 [OS 11I.169-18'71.
- - " . -Die 001<_ del ariaaisdaca SiR:iltS bil3S1." NGG I90S.

--=. ~7-299 [OS III. 111-1681.


D~I G.s<:~ic~rn>'ll'. du ThUydltk" Reprint e4.. from lhe 3d
WiliOll of 1929. Hildeshelm. 1969.
- - , -Oll: Q~IIe11 nber den meti1ianl!t1left SlI'eit." NCG 1905, l UJ7
IGS 1II. 171 l6j.
- . . 1hr'.,.ScnnomajolclerldeduAto\cllwi.... MlIDkll, 1m
. ow SytIDIk ."", AIIl~1rioo .... JIIJu- :IUII2S; /11 B.i'N', ""
(Asclricllu tIu K""ozilI_ HidM>. llerIin, 1913,
-~, "Von KonsunIins Tod bis Sanlica 342," HGG 1911, 46'1S22IGS
_ _ '~II, 26J-l)4l.
, ~VOOI NEia bit q ~Tod.~ NGG 1'11,367"'26IGS
m.ISl-'X>olI.
- , 1M GUl"Aidu: ~ dIU. J(iTcJw MIl Utru .~"'u. (GS IV ~
- . . ZMr Guew",," du AllwwilU. IGS Inl.
"Zur ~esdlkb~ des . J ~ . ZNW)4 (1935):
1~21l1GS
~Soo"~c. E. ow S,...._.".
IV, I-II0l.
"Do ... /...,. n4-2J. BcrtiIl, 191).
Soect, o. GudUcIlu du ChJuJ-p flu "",ita Il'dl. SlDII,pft. 1m-

--;""" . flU __ ... Kg, lad Pipsufb _ I . , JJI "., 476 .. CN.
... OIbtU .. r;., ,., '.' ....... . , fWUdit. . IC.._wiL SMl;pI.
1919. JltpiM; cd.. mBf-. 1961.
B!J.I ........ PKY

--_. -un.mlldllllll'C" __ Gesdliclne del "icIoniIdIerllton:Ula.- ?XG


11 (1896): 1_11. 319-362.
Seiler. R. -AlllaIwiul' ApoIo,itl ttHllrll AriaotN: Ilw Iltabu, IIIId
0Itie:rq.- ",.0. dill... ~ otTtill':" DC Idnrl. 1932.
SdIcG, LV. u--ltiu ~ A.uiIJd . . Hi$'''"''"- ill,. &rly H'-1 t1{
C....... DtIcfriItI. Caubi 1921.
ScAa, V. Kwe. IUIIi SII"U ~II-11plJllliAiu Itridw uil
"".."r..,.'"
1M lldi,.~
G uJ /lis
drriJdk
FilJk X_pg .;.."...". Vol I'
6oola:MtI K./bu _Xo-pg-w.
.... c.w.r.r. ... TAl f 0 (JI'.Jl/OJ. I.;pr;,.. 1973.
sc-. W. -c M.... BDIIap..- IllS 37 (I!N7):: InoJ.
Seuoa.IC.M. CtlriDMAttWdr ~ 111I
He- yen. 1!N1. RqnM.cd. New yen. 1961.
u;:c_"'" F-.J/c-,.
Sicbtn. liJ. -A!hMaIias Ilbcr dol Pslll': ""-'r- aiMs Brides all
MarodIifIMs.- ".I(lm): IS1-I73-
_ - " . -IbmtDI:UliqI&do I'erqtrtloplaliqucd'~- In,oIitiqw
__ :61 IlIIok>Pt....... by e. g ..,,'"'C. '. 19S-11. Paris, 19'U
"z.r EatwPlIIIII doer """.asjk Wcnk. YDd Eaeaan det
KOftZilsideedelA'" QSjlll_~." "4S(191O): !S]...].89.
Simonttti, M. LA crill ariMO lUI IV .ecok1. Studi. Ep/l(meridis
"Aui\lS!inl.anunl" II. ~ I91S.

:
=~. "NocuuUarianoe-tido." O'lHwIU 10(1963): lSI-IS'

......
"Le ori&illi dollAriancsimo.- RSLR 1 (1911): 311-330.
Revp or G~II aDd Groll, Ell'" Ana";'",. RSLit 18 (1983):

- . SrlUli 'M/farionen"",. Rome.I96S .


"Teoln8ia .leaandrina e leO!o,bo qil1b II ooncllio di NiclU..-
Aurwtillil/llllm II (I913): 369398.
Sin,.... e.G. "AiJlIaIilUo." Jo""",d of Clvtuia1l Reto>Ul.ucti.,. 1 (197S):
l6).l1&,
Sk_, K.E. -Die .....'*""'""'1 dcr McoIIebHrtlul& 0riI&i IlICtl dcr I..dIore
des til Atlwluius.." Sti_ tkr O,,~ 8 (197S): 46-SO; I'
(I97S): S3S7.
51_, M...Atlwlalius. CDNro ~I and De boeIf,,,,,ti_: PIau IIId Ol&c
of Cornpo$icicMl." nloS 31 (1986): 11.-111.
Smidl,J.O. TIw/hfltIUlfe~l'~ !'ie,,-yen. 1m.
s.idl, R.W. 11w All of I/JontJric .... klMdrioa. n.r. Kapc.. 1914.
SIMi ...... D. "l.I 00c\riIIc do sai:llI A u - _ II saIIIL- 111'~ '"
__ :'lthIot~. etlilelS bye. "ar_,ieDef. 227.29). hriI, 19'14

(1974): 1S-41.
SWlIey. AJ>. Wet.."
tlI61.
0-.Vi....
~ Et\OsuIIpIefte dc& lII. Athanasi..... Cr-." K"nos I~

S.... O,C. ~AIInaIicr.~ 111


H~ fI/. .outomo CA..-d. ,-'"".

ill ~lico ~. uri 'I,d ~ I,


etIicecI by It.. Dl ~ 1911.
DIE EAIU.V Ef'tSCU'ALC.'fE' CW AlHANASlUS

_ _ MAlbItlasioas' IN;''avIIIJti<HIr. All EdiIlon ~.iewed. WFIlt5. NS


31 (1910): 371-l9O.
_. MA"". . 'EaJiea WrilIl:Jl wen..Mm. NS lJ, 1 (Apil1911):

= ="'~".
, "1k~ 01 Divine So........... - VC29 (1975): 1_14.
01";"" S........ (hfonl. 1m.
"E, I' aDd the ee-cil 01 Nicae.L nu, NS 2.4 (1m);
M as.
100.
_ . -nw. F~ oIlbc: Will IIId l!lc AriM Cc.tn;noeny.- 10
... ~utlC~ FUUdwilP,HdNfU.D6nK.odiJed
bJ' ltD, B'- and F, M... J,wkcA /IT A.-dU w c.vu-r-.
.. ' 1't'OI. 10(1913): 2.45-2S7.
, -UCl w ' . ' It-. .. pcas6r.lIe aillt At!ltM= - In ...tlliliqw '"
~,aliJcIdbJ'C KaMcrlIieacr, nl~3. Paris. 19'14.
-..:... "1k""""" Cl( Ariua.' nIlS. NS IS (1964): 16-31.
- . Rniew of 0.0, Draps, $I. At........,'"
nIlS, NS 39. 1 (April 1988): 22S1.
c_. A,oJUOIV,...

:=~. '1lh::bic:al MethocI in AWIIaius.. vc 30 (1m>: 121-131.


M

"'T'be Scripnll'u aoo lIN: Soul or ChrlJI In AlhanaslllS.- VC 36


(1982): 233-2.50.
- - , "'T'be Sipit'.canc:e oIlbe Hclmoo'I$" - S.... 3 (1961): 391-411,
- - . SIIInUlitC, tINI JIIe-;" I~ CltrUriIuI FllIlttrs. 1.lIlodoa. 19B5.
- . lha TlwUia of Anlll ond ~ Testimony Clf Al!IaMtius." nllJ. NS
29 (1978): 20-52.
SlUf\SOn, JoN. "Basil 0' Anqn and lIIe COIlrJ<l ol Nkma Orthoclo>;y,"
D.Plill. dia..O.Jwd UlliVO"Jity, 1983.
Slelmam, A. "Z..- Datietuna cIt:r cItel Reden des lleililCll AthanMius le&tn
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Sleldle. B. "Hamo D"i MIO";..,. ZUm Bikl des MailM. GOIIU im oJlen
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Slel&de, P, lNT Az-writM,riJ!;" Ihr ,rilIIrcltt.. T1wDIatic da MUll
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Slevawn. J. Stwtk, ill ElUdJiu. Cambridge Mel New VOI'k, 1929.
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,M

Suaqe. C "AIftItouiwOll Oi. ...... - S.... 16(1985): 341)46.


StJaer, Ii. 1M E:rl6nIIrlk." da Ill. ~.., Ftdburl.ll94.
S.,...b. J,A. "COIlswlIiae u Kot"OS' ',,(rn/o.-or. nadilioll and
laOOVlllan ill the Fir5l Olristiln Elnperor'. Ma,ieJly,- 00'" 21 (1967):
__ ~~SS .
~ Kl:Jualtia aIs 'C1I1~ rQo. &nIr,- StI' I (I9fl):
67U9S.
S ~ P.M. "Die TriaiIaIsldu1: IlielIIoL A,i1",.im IlllCI ilIr Ma"a-=!u
ioa Abad-s.." K,w 14 (1974): 4l-t1O.
SIlItIket.. A.. A'M-ed...: li~,~ uJ .,,~sdWlII'liM UfIl6-
IIIC~" TV 19,4. I eipril: 1899.
Tdfer, W.R. MAriuTakes Refuse ill N".,.,w"i. w nu n (19)6): 60-63.
'"
nO! lOll.. U. /JItaciru p(IID $UYU. r/lUJoi" ~_ d.. .u
pnllti,u sikw. 16 ools. (Vol.: HiJIOin. I, A'.............) hris.
169).1112.
TorjeRJI. KJ. '"Tk TmcSn& F~ of lite 1.0lOI: Allaasi-. Dc
_'"'""- xx-xxx. i.~ III ~ edited Ilr R.C Greg. 21}-
221. Phillclelphla. 1985.
TQf11I-, T.F. -,.,ltpnine A SUM!)' ill . . "-dations or 0 ......1
1"JoeoIIlIy.- 111 T,..U .. 1t~iJiIu_ 2!S..266. I _ _ MIt
0RIld RaPds.~. 1975-
"'1lle. ~ of Sai.. Al!lanasi ...- cc/uitutW>s I'wtJ
All. h ..... S'2(I~ 44646lL
Spiriud CrcaIDr. A ~ 01 Ike T~. of $L
AlIlInIIius MId $L Basil-III TMoIon ill It_tWao..
2O!l22S.
London. I~.
- , e4. rM
1.,dntdliQ... E~"UIl Sl""iu .. /Aw Hlud,-
UM".'i~a-04 ... .0. 38J. Em Lata. I!III.
Ttnijlno, R. '"n. Earl)' 0wiIWa o.=~ of Abandria.- SIP 12 (1975):
.'1.471.
Tlilpllllil. <:.N. -Aspects or AtIl3nalian Sowioloo.- KlIJpo"..,t
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738-'19.
--~. -IA Sew do. "ldjeclit tm:1tmt!~lq~ datu Illr'ldilioll.postoIique II
dan. II uadition byzanti~. NQwvtll, ,e"~, IMolo,lqlUl S6 (1%4):
26().271.
--c "L6Sens do rume ~or>U<n"," dam Ie __ bul.R tb6olo&iQUC
d' AriIn et Ikl'bIc d' AnOo<:l>e-. SIP 3 (1961): '21..(:10.
TulJoell, J. -AlJwwillll,- EM:yc1cpedi1J Brll4MictJ. 9Ih eel. I..oOldon, 1$89.
T\unef, C,H. '"N0IeI on lbe Apo,loUe ellASl/l./;IJIII.- JTAS 16
(I914/191$): ~~I.
T..,...H.E.W. Tfw1'.,.,.."o/CIorisriGIIT....uo. 19pdat!.I9S4.
T~. V. ApoIt4Nw,s TIvottos: TIv 1'ro-c, 11/ R_ /IS Rqltd u.
dw C~. HillDryof EudJia <1M iii' His ~,. Wrln,s
of $f. Adla"a".' """G_. MilIlIler.I912.
lJ1lmu", W. "'1llc Conqjt"0imll SiJllir_ of CllIuIantiM Ihc 0_',
SeI1leInctIt" JEll 27 (1J16): I I&.
Uqer. D. "" Special AJpIlCl 01 A1h_.' Sc*>ioIoo." F,~jK:"
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<k I.lr'bmI. 1.0. "L'w- _ _ ell CriSlO "" ooodo S. AWIaSio. - otCllI' 20
(I9S4): :n...}.
- . N;d~~. e-p".ri"""'. HiAon eMs CDlciIes ~ Ol
I. hN. 1961
--~. J St.rboUl N,CDfO. MIclrid.lCU7.
V.. Hlela.J, "l.a ~ P'C'JT"""'&iq'" 00ll0tl_1'~ca EIJ1lIC: i
1~6eo. . . .;"," bit',. ",'.,*~.l~"
CH,'~" II/''''''''D, 499..... 29-U. T - . 1910.
... WiJIclea, J.c.w.
"Os 1M On: of ~ . Apoklrcind TJ ,.
VC:lt (1J1S); 291-29S,.
VBiliew. A.A. HiIIorJ II{ I.. ~j. ~ n4.J4JJ. 2 ..... iteJIrU
at. ~,W.... 1958-
Vbud.O. L4UtwrkftlQ>pfatfEmw. "-iI, Ilnl.
VoellU, L Do K..,., KotulllAliA: ~ltJl ri.- ZdtwuM, .106-311.
Miula. 1"7.
'lop. HJ. .. lbo. Hiaxy of ... o.dI: A!I'M ..-I Hit
C- poo " TI '.....t by F.
1979): "'- I. }l-4'.
Me"'.... !

C"todli. . (19'13-

....
V.... O. "'t..a DllniolII: clIo.....,.,.,.L&ck . . . AU.,._ - I1HE 1 (1900):
"..
VllOlluI. A. dDn' 1IIII:.ekau.... Bioi'.... del AlI........ _
"'&l~
8'fl71 (1!f7I): 36-40.
,....
~,-
_--.:;. A fllMtIrJ '" AlnIirisJll i~ Iv SJrl- Orioot. 2 -011. LoavaiD.
ck Vria, W, ~~ 0Ilkirthl: und die CIlhedta Pari illl IV. Ja!lrlIlIDdcn."
Ore'" 40 (1974): 1141.
- , ~Die ScnlkIW' ck. Kirche llCmkI clem entm Kgnzll \I(KI Nibia lIIId
.a.." 'Ui~' In Wft~C'v": f'~'/raM ..,'" M), G~bw/,t4', _ t',.",.
Dr, fI.rltWtW,ild /rI. Bifdf'mIJJt/I OSA. cdIlC1d"" E. C, 5~llller and C.
P<Moclr, 0. lls1.lic:be CIlrWcnlUnl. N.F ~ vol. 1$, 55-81. n.d.
WaJ~r. I,B. "ConY<:nancc tpisttmoio&iq"" de l'homoow:iorI dans La
1~1oJ~ d'Atb.nuc..~ In PDII/if" ~f IAlDf..,f~. cdlted by C.
Kanne/li1wet.255--2'75. Paris, 1914.
Wllbco-Hldritl.0.5. -n.c E....,biuI OIronidc: l1lc Euen' and 0 - of
Corllpolition ()/ lu EIrty Edilion. ~ nIlS. NS 6 (1955): 2A81$3.
- . Eutbi"'u/CII(!~". Londm, 1960.
W.tlJis. F. "On SomCI M.<s. oflllc Writillp or SL AlhuIaslltl: Pan I II'd
PIn 11,- nItS 3 (1902); 97-111.245--251.
WIlIaS, C. M"""," Itrc"-oloty iJlEt]pt.. W_iuu. 1974.
WInd.J.W.c. Dw,tllldCtnUIdls. 1..I:n;Ioa, 1962.
Wcbef, A. ApX'f: EiJo Bdlrtl, III' ~,;. ftI 1UJIbl", _ CbtJr-.
RoIne, 1961.
Wei'" E. u.""..~ UIr C.......p du III. AI..........,. Plidnb.....
1'14.
Weijcabcq, It "ApoIIiouristil: lalul. . . . . . . IIIC r..... _ A..........
of 362..~ Sr1' 3 (I'll51): 324-3JlI.
Weill. J. '"""' .... , .. 10 Desip ill ""...... .-l Mil"". ~ TIle
'dlrillkllJliJ ~ 11nt- I. I (19l19): .c5--~.
Wt$t. M.L -nw.Mwl: of Arias':noau....- ITllS NS 3] (1912): !l8-1QS.
WidI, J. C_lIIJIio, Cbrri, dNt'<Jq '" EtJr/7CIlriIlidiUrJ. Tl'I'l!IbIcd
b)' L HcnI'.... 0Uap>. 1972.
THE IWU.Y EPISOOPAL C~lIfE' CK' AlltANASJUS

Wib, M.P. , . Defence of Ari - nIlS. illS II (1962): 3)9.~1.


_ _ '~l'P'.bIjshed III w....tilolf'apcn DaclriM. 2131. London, 1916.
TlttNoa.,lI{CIlristUlaDot:trT-. CanUidF.1961.
Wiles, 1oU'.......c. o.eu. .AsIeriw:: A New (]r,opa''' die H8lry vi
Arluilllllr la A>;ui~. cdilCd by R.C. OlTaI, 153119.
Jlhitwltlpbio 19K5.
WilWI., R.L "TlIdilDl. Eacpis. _ l!Ie Olrinoloc'lll CaoollO"Uy.-
CAH ~ (1965): (2).1.1.
Willia.ou. O.M. "Orislo6ot;y aal Omn:iI-5lKC 11.,,1....... III \Jle. FoDn.II
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W"1lbu. RD.
lS-".
-Arias_ l!M: Uektin SdoiIra.- InS. NS n. I (1916):

--.::. hi-s: lIuUy6. TrodilitM. 10llC!cw 1911.


- . '"tk 1..QP: vi - fll&S. NS ,. (913): 56-11.
- . ""nIc Qlleavl His:IoricIl TItaIiL- InAlI..u...GItd by ..c.
OITI&. I:l'. PIliIadelpbia.I9&S.
w_m.-.. P. -Ocr IrinilatUclIe SftiI. ill xil.I....._f!cr SPi.- DIU
AI_ll(l96T): 99-101.
Willla', It "'Roc:_ 10 Rome: BatilToI........ . - .- Rn'w lSI r U __sili
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W"*', J.O. Uft Mdl.aw,i11 f'.,,~ Ana MIcr, Mldlipa. 1931.
WojlotoUcll. M. f'",wrlllfl IUId KDlUiI' ..... lSI~ A1{<bI,,,, Ills ... lAo r (U().
46/}. SlUtlpIt.lI.d.
Wolf. C.U. "E,*bius of Cacsatu and the Onomaaioan." Blbll,.r
..."IIDlop 21 (I~): 66-96.
Wolfson. H.A. "P1IilosophiUllmplio:alion, of AAlIlIbm and Apollinarian-
b,m." 001' 12 (I9S8}: 5-28-
--.e:.''''''''MMtI.
TM II{ 1M Chllld. FtIllI#". Vol. I: Fairh. Tri~lly.
I'1oi"'U>f'1r7
Cambrid8e.Mass..I~.
24cd.
YIIlJIeY. R. "TIl6 Church behind Saini Ath&IWlua the Great." Cop,l,
C""I'd Rr-I,.. 9. 2 (1988): J5..0W.
YOU/ll.F.M. F_N~U!~. London,I9IJ.
A R=Jmldention of AlewIdria:m ChrisIoIoo." JEU 21 (1911):
IOJII .
--.:::, TM Ux II{ SIIc:rijfdlIl Jdas 1& GI'ul: Cloriuiaa W"""fr'- , .
Nn> T,,,_ U! JtJIu, CIrry_",- r.ristic: MoiOOii ....' Series S.
PIIilP!CI""", 1979.
bIla. T. For~:IlFGr:,.."Idv"_ ~-'K_""""'"
aldj,dIJic/wa UWIIlrU. PwI. 3: Sqpk_._ CI.-JUi.....
Et1InIao,I884.
bphis,(j. .._
~~cleOiald~A .. dAIn-drie.~
n,.~.6(19'H): 61-96.
--=;. "'Dfr Lop aoue. &1.1 Quelle des Lftlez>s .... Alb- ' .. cle.-
0 . - . . IA l'Jt;loultia.editcd..,. A. K&1Iia. MGms=. 1980.
BN xx,uPHY
lado.

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