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INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATER TREATMENT

A.D. Patwardhan

INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATER TREATMENT A.D. Patwardhan New Delhi-110001 2008

New Delhi-110001

2008

INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATER TREATMENT A.D. Patwardhan

© 2008 by Private Limited, New Delhi. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, by mimeograph or any other means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

ISBN-978-81-203-3350-5

The export rights of this book are vested solely with the publisher.

Published by Asoke K. Ghosh, Private Limited, M-97, Connaught Circus, New Delhi-110001 and Printed by Jay Print Pack Private Limited, New Delhi-110015.

CONTENTS

1 TREATMENT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATERS

1–5

2 FLOW MEASUREMENT, CHARACTERIZATION AND TREATABILITY STUDIES OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATERS

6–10

3 UNIT OPERATIONS AND UNIT PROCESSES

11–22

 
 

 

 

4

STREAM POLLUTION AND SELF-PURIFICATION

23–28

5

PRETREATMENT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES

29–31

6

TEXTILE WASTES

32–61

7 DAIRY WASTES

62–70

8 SLAUGHTERING, MEAT PACKING, POULTRY PROCESSING, FISH PROCESSING AND RENDERING WASTES

71–81

 

9 TANNERY WASTES

82–96

10 SUGAR MILL WASTES

97–109

 

11

PULP AND PAPER MILL WASTES

110–124

 

 

12

FERMENTATION INDUSTRY WASTES

125–153

 

 

13

THE ENGINEERING INDUSTRY

154–187

 

 

 

 

14

PETROLEUM REFINING INDUSTRY

188–199

15 PETROCHEMICALS INDUSTRY

200–208

16 FERTILIZER AND PESTICIDES INDUSTRIES

209–225

17 VEGETABLE OIL, FOOD AND ALLIED INDUSTRIES

226–240

18 DYESTUFF AND DYE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES

241–252

19 RUBBER WASTES

253–258

 

20

RADIOACTIVE WASTES

259–265

21

ORGANIC AND INORGANIC CHEMICALS

266–275

 

 

22

COMMON EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANTS

276–283

INDEX

285–292

PREFACE

Chapter

TREATMENT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATERS

1.1 WATER POLLUTION

1.2 CATEGORIES OF POLLUTANTS

1.3 TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES

REFERENCES

Chapter

FLOW MEASUREMENT, CHARACTERIZATION AND TREATABILITY STUDIES OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATERS

2.1 MEASUREMENT OF FLOW

2.2 COLLECTION, PRESERVATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SAMPLES

2.2.1 Collection of Samples

2.2.2 Preservation of Samples

2.2.3 Characterization of Samples

REFERENCES

Chapter

UNIT OPERATIONS AND UNIT PROCESSES

3.1

INTRODUCTION

3.2 UNIT OPERATIONS

3.2.1 Screening

3.2.2 Sedimentation and Flotation

3.2.3 Filtration

3.2.4 Mixing

3.2.5 Equalization

3.2.6 Flow Proportioning

3.2.7 Drying and Incineration

3.2.8 Freezing

3.2.9 Foaming

3.2.10 Dialysis and Osmosis

3.2.11 Adsorption

3.2.12 Gas Transfer

3.2.13 Elutriation

3.3 UNIT PROCESSES

3.3.1 pH Correction

3.3.2 Coagulation

3.3.3 Oxidation and Reduction

3.3.4 Aerobic and Anaerobic Processes

 

REFERENCES

Chapter

STREAM POLLUTION AND SELF-PURIFICATION

4.1 EFFECT ON THE WATER ENVIRONMENT

4.2 EFFECT ON THE WASTE WATER

4.2.1

Self-Purification

4.2.1.1 Disposal into flowing water

d

dt

d d t d d t 10 k 1 t 10 k 2 t d dt

d

dt

10

k 1 t

10

k 2 t

d d t d d t 10 k 1 t 10 k 2 t d dt

d

dt

10

k

1

t

d d t d d t 10 k 1 t 10 k 2 t d dt

L

a

k

2

k

1

(10

kt

1

10

kt

2

)

10

k t

2

dD

dt d D 2 0 2 dt
dt
d D
2
0
2
dt

Figure 4.1

Oxygen sag curve.

4.2.1.2 Disposal into lakes and coastal waters

REFERENCE

Chapter

PRETREATMENT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES

5.1 UNIT OPERATIONS

5.2 UNIT PROCESSES

Chapter

TEXTILE WASTES

6.1 COTTON TEXTILE WASTES

6.1.1 Raw Material

6.1.2 Manufacturing Process

6.1.3 Spinning, Weaving and Sizing (or Slashing)

Figure 6.1 Cotton cloth manufacture in a composite mill.
Figure 6.1
Cotton cloth manufacture in a composite mill.

6.1.4 Desizing

6.1.5 Caustic Kiering (or Scouring)

6.1.6 Chemicking or Bleaching

6.1.7 Souring

6.1.8 Mercerizing

6.1.9 Souring

6.1.10 Dyeing and Printing

6.1.11 Reuse and Recycling

6.1.12 Substitution of Chemicals

6.1.13 Modifications to Machinery

6.1.14 Good Housekeeping Practices

6.1.15 Characteristics and Treatment of Raw Waste Water

 

 

 

6.2 WOOLLEN MILL WASTES

 

Figure 6.2 Manufacture of wool by detergent scouring.
Figure 6.2
Manufacture of wool by detergent scouring.

6.2.1 Methods of Treatment of Wool Scouring Wastes

6.2.1.1

Hypochlorite process

6.2.1.2 Acid cracking process

6.2.1.3 Anaerobic treatment [25]

6.2.1.4 Calcium chloride plus carbon dioxide process

6.2.1.5 Solvent degreasing process

6.2.2 Biological Treatment

6.3 RAYON WASTES

6.3 RAYON WASTES

6.3.1 Sources of Waste Water

6.3.1 Sources of Waste Water

Figure 6.3 Viscose rayon manufacturing flow diagram.
Figure 6.3
Viscose rayon manufacturing flow diagram.

6.3.2 Treatment of Waste Water

6.4 SYNTHETIC FIBRE WASTES

6.4.1 Cellulose Acetate

6.4.2 Nylon

6.4.3 Polyester

6.4.4 Acrylics and Modacrylics

6.4.5 Synthetic Fibre Waste Water Treatment

 

6.5 SILK AND JUTE MANUFACTURING WASTES