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Percent Cell Distribution of

Ontogeny and Different Tissues in Humans

Phylogeny of Morphology Functions Electron Microscope

Primary Secondary B cell antibody- Tissue B- cell T-cell B cell T cell

Lymphoid Lymphoid Organs mediated immune Thymus <0.5 >99 carrier
cell cell
Organs: (further Spleen reaction Bone Lymph 20-40 60-80 Electron Numerous Flat
Target cell - +
differentiation) Lymph Marrow node microscope projection surface
Ab + -
Bone nodes T-cell cell- Spleen 30-40 40-65 IgE recruitment + -
mediated immune Carrier - +
marrow GALT Blood 30-40 60-80 C3 recruitment + -
reaction - Thymus Spec
(adults) (Gut-assoc Thoracic 10-15 85 Fc rep + +/-
Hapten + -
Lymphoid duct Immunoglobulin +++ +/-
Thymus Tissue) Bone 40 1-7 in surface
ConA - +
(adult) Tonsils marrow Method of Immmuno Rossett
Phytohema + -
Fetal Appendix Tonsil 50 50 identification Fluorescen e form
LPS + -
liver Payers Lymph <25 >75 ce with
(young) Mixed - +
patches fluid Sheeps
(e.g. RBC
Salmonella Effect in CMI - +
typhi in

* Bursa of Cells of immune Mononuclear Phagocytic Classification of Macrophage: Functions: Molecules secreted by macrophages:
Fabricius system: System 1. Free cells (body Cavities) Phagocytosis and
counterpart of the Blood monocyte peritoneal, pleural, alveolar, antigen Enzymes
bone marrow in a. Hematopoetic and (2) free and synovial macrophages processors Lysozomal enzymes
avian system (bone fixed macrophages 2. Sinus-lining cells kupffer process of Acid hydrolase
* stem cell comes marrow) RBC, WBC, Represent 1-3% of cells, splenic, lymph nodes, converting into a Lysozymes
from bone marrow platelet circulating wbc in bone marrow highly potent form Proteinases
* thymus found at b. Monocytic normal adults 3. Tissue macrophages recognized by Plasma proteins
the back of (mononuclear) Remain in blood histiocytes (connective tissue), lymphocytes.
fibronectin (universal opsonin)
sternum Phagocytic system (1-3 days) then microglial (CNS) and mesangial
coagulation function
c. Granulocytic migrate to tissue cells (kidney) Process antigen highly
potent form recognize complement cascades
system (months/years) and
lymphocytes introduce to Monokines
d. lymphoid system become mature
phagocytes IL-1 activates resting T cells
macrophages -
(e.g. opsonization) & acts as endogenous pyrogen
divide in tissue, do
not recirculate, do AnG presentation Interferons viral infection and
not produce to AnG sensitive prevention
memory cells lymphocyte (T&B
Secretory cells
monokines e.g
ar cells)

A. Neutrophils Lymphoid System

- 60-70% of WBC Principal cells: Lymphocyte
in peripheral blood
- Predominant Classification:
phagocyte but not - Central or Primary Lymphoid
capable of tissue Peripheral or secondary LT Size: (usually)
sustained - Regulate production & - Lymph nodes round or 1. Large T-lymphocytes
phagocytic activity C. Basophils differentiation of lymphocytes bean shaped 2. Small B-lymphocytes
- Cant process - 1% of WBC - Site for maturation of Functions:
antigens B. Eosinophils - Little or no phagocytic act lymphocytes in the absence of 1. B-lymphocyte related
- Half-life: 12 hrs, - 3% of WBC - Granules: contain chemical antigenic stimulation. 2. T-lymphocyte related
additional 2 days - Less efficient in mediators (vasoactive - Responsible for the acquisition
in tissue phagocytic activity amines) like histamine of lymphocytes of the ability to
- Cytoplasm: has - Control allergic & recognize self and non-self
granules with inflammatory reaction antigen.
enzyme - Include: thymus, bone
- Increased in Half-life: 30 mins, 12 marrow, bursa of Fabricius &
acute bacterial days in tissues fetal liver
infection - Has granules with
enzymes &
eosinophilic proteins

Central or Peripheral or Secondary

Primary Lymphoid Tissues

(1) Thymus (2) Bone Marrow (3) Fetal Liver (1) Lymph Node (2) Lymph Circulation (3) Spleen (4)
-master organ - B-cell differentiation 1. Peripheral cortex - lymph flow to thoracic duct 1. Red pulp destruction of aged RBC GAL
- fully functional: and maturation predominantly B cells (500 mL/hour; 1x108 2. White pulp lymphoid tissue around a central T
birth - also has 2. Central medulla few T & B cells/mL) arteriole called periarterial lymphoid sheath -B
Atrophy: puberty macrophages (can cells, macrophages & plasma - lymphocytes containing T cells cells
(becomes also be considered cells * 2-12 (blood) are
thyrothymic as secondary * 24-48 hours to complete 1 B cells scattered foun
ligament) lymphoid organ) 3. Paracortical zone or deep cycle Separated by a marginal zone with macrophages d
- cells: 1. cortex ill defined area bet withi
Thymocytes cortex and medulla, mainly T- n
(mass of cells the
lymphocytes) follic
2. Epithelial cells les
- layers:
1. Cortex: divide -T
and differentiate cells
2. medulla: further are
maturation foun
(acquire surface d in
markers and the
ability to recognize inter
self antigens) follic
- T cells: ullar
- recirculate to area
blood and are s
distributed to
different peripheral
lymphoid organs
- most die within
the thymus
- epithelial cells:
- secrete
substances which
regulate the
differentiation and
maturation of T