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2, FEBRUARY 2010

A Wide-InputWide-Output (WIWO)
DCDC Converter
Hao Cheng, Keyue Ma Smedley, Fellow, IEEE, and Alexander Abramovitz, Member, IEEE

AbstractThis paper presents a new wide-inputwide-output quently, buck converter losses mount at low duty cycle, whereas
dcdc converter, which is an integration of buck and boost convert- boost converter efficiency deteriorates when the duty cycle tends
ers via a tapped inductor. Coherent transition between step-down to unity. Accordingly, voltage conversion range of the buck con-
and step-up modes is achieved by a proper control scheme. This
paper presents theoretical concepts and experimental results. verter below 0.10.15 becomes impractical whereas that of the
boost converters is limited to below 810. Additional prob-
Index TermsBoost, buck, coupled inductors, energy recovering lems associated with narrow duty cycle are caused by MOS-
snubber, wide step-down, wide step-up, wide-inputwide-output
(WIWO) dcdc converter. FET drivers rise and fall times as well as pulsewidth-modulated
(PWM) controllers that have maximum pulsewidth limitations.
I. INTRODUCTION These problems become even more severe at higher voltages
HE BUCK, boost, buckboost, and Cuk converters are the and higher frequencies.
T four basic dcdc nonisolating converters that have found
wide applications in industry. The buck converter can step down
Introducing a transformer helps attaining large step-up or
step-down voltage conversion ratio. Transformers turn ratio
the dc voltage, whereas the boost converter is capable to per- should be chosen as to provide the desired voltage gain while
form a step-up function. In applications where both step-up keeping the duty cycle within a reasonable range for higher
and step-down conversion ratios are required, the buckboost efficiency. The transformer, however, brings in a whole new
and Cuk converters can be used. Simplicity and robustness are set of problems associated with the magnetizing and leakage
among the advantages of the buckboost converter. However, inductances, which cause voltage spikes and ringing, increased
the pulsating input and output currents cause high conduction core and cooper losses as well as increased volume and cost.
losses, and thus, impair the efficiency of buckboost. Further- In a quest for converters with wide conversion range, quite a
more, the buckboost converter uses the inductor to store the few authors proposed using converters with nonlinear charac-
energy from the input source, and then, release the stored energy teristics. Single-transistor converter topologies, with quadratic
to the output. For this reason, the magnetic components of buck conversion ratios, were proposed in [1] and demonstrated
boost are subjected to a significant stress. These disadvantages large step-down conversion ratio. This method has successfully
limit the applications of the buckboost converter mainly to low achieved wide conversion range in the step done direction. A
power level. The isolated version of buckboost, referred to as different approach to obtain wide conversion range utilizing
the flyback converter, can achieve greater step-up or step-down coupled inductors was proposed in [2]. With only minor modi-
conversion ratio utilizing a transformer, possibly, with multiple fication of the tapped-inductor buck, [2] shows low component
outputs. As compared with the buckboost converter, the Cuk count and solves the gate-drive problem by exchanging the po-
converter has higher efficiency and smaller ripples in input and sition of the second winding and the top switch. The problem
output currents. A significant improvement of the Cuk converter of a high turn-OFF voltage spike on the top switch was solved
performance can be achieved by applying the zero ripple con- by applying a lossless clamp circuit. Due to the coupled induc-
cept. The Cuk converter can be found in many high-performance tor action, the converter demonstrated high step-down dcdc
power applications. conversion ratio, whereas the converters efficiency was im-
In theory buck and boost converters can generate almost any proved by the extended duty cycle. A tapped-inductor buck
voltage, in practice, the output voltage range is limited by com- with soft switching was introduced in [3]. Derivations of the
ponent stresses that increase at the extreme duty cycle. Conse- tapped-inductor buck were also suggested in [4] and [5]. An-
other modification of the tapped-buck converter was realized
in [6] for power factor correction (PFC) application. With the
Manuscript received November 7, 2008; revised January 20, 2009. Current
version published February 12, 2010. Recommended for publication by addition of a line-frequency-commutated switch and a diode,
Associate Editor J. Antenor. both flyback and buck characteristics were achieved and large
H. Cheng is with the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer step-down was demonstrated.
Science (EECS), University of California, Irvine (UCI), Irvine, CA 92617 USA
(e-mail: Some applications, especially battery-operated equipment,
K. M. Smedley is with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engi- require high voltage boosting. To attain very large voltage step-
neering (ECE), University of California, Irvine (UCI), Irvine, CA 92697 USA up, cascaded boost converters that implement the output volt-
A. Abramovitz is with the Department of Electrical Engineering (EE), Sami age increasing in geometric progression were introduced in [7].
Shamoon College of Engineering (SCE), Beer-Sheva 84100, Israel (e-mail: These converters effectively enhance the voltage transfer ra- tio; however, their circuits are quite complex. In comparison,
Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online
at tapped-inductor boost converters proposed in [8] and [9] at-
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPEL.2009.2025375 tain a comparable voltage step-up preserving relative circuit
0885-8993/$26.00 2010 IEEE

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The converter topologies shown in Figs. 1(a) and 3(a) are

strikingly similar. The idea proposed here is that these two
topologies may be combined to form a new two-switch topol-
ogy, with an extended conversion range. Same conclusion can
be reached comparing the converters given in Figs. 1(c) and 3(c).
The proposed WIWO range converter topology is described in
the next section.


A. Proposed WIWO DCDC Converter Topology
The proposed WIWO dcdc converter is illustrated in Fig. 5.
The converter is comprised of two active switches S1 and S2,
tapped inductors L1 and L2 with turns ratio n = n2 : n1 , diode
Fig. 1. Buck-derived converters with tapped inductors.
D, and capacitive output filter C.
Specifically, note that the tapped inductor in Figs. 1 and 3 is
simplicity. In [10], the boost converter output terminal and fly- reconfigured into a pair of coupled inductors in Fig. 5. Being
back converter output terminal are connected in series to in- equivalent electrically, this reconfiguration is beneficial from a
crease the output voltage gain with the coupled inductor. The practical point of view. In Fig. 5, S1 and S2 are connected to
boost converter also functions as an active clamp circuit to re- a common junction or midpoint. The midpoint is periodically
cycle the snubber energy. switched by S1 to ground, which allows recharging the bootstrap
This paper proposes a new wide-inputwide-output (WIWO) power supply and reliable operation of the flying driver of the
dcdc converter. The new converter is an integration of buck top switch S2. Consequently, a standard half-bridge driver chip
and boost converters via a tapped inductor. By applying proper can be used with the low-side driver operating the bottom switch
control to the two active switches, the converter exhibits both S1 and the bootstrap high-side driver activating the top switch
buck and boost features [11], [12]. Section II discusses the basic S2.
switching converters with tapped inductors, and offers motiva- WIWO can operate either in the step-down or the buck mode
tion and guidelines to the synthesis of the new switching con- or in the step-up or the boost mode. To operate the WIWO
verter. Section III presents the topology of the proposed WIWO in the buck mode, the switch S1 is assigned a high-frequency
dcdc converter and the required control scheme. The operating switching signal with a predetermined duty cycle D, whereas
principle is described in detail providing the steady-state (dc) S2 is switched complementarily to S1. The diode D is kept ON
and dynamic (ac) models as well. The theoretical derivations by the inductor L2 current, which is assumed to be continuous.
were verified experimentally and reported in Section IV. Modi- To operate WIWO in the boost mode, the controller keeps
fications and additional applications are discussed in Section V. S2 switch continuously ON and issues the required duty cycle
Conclusions are given in Section VI. signal for the S1 switch. Thus, the diode D is forced to switch
II. MOTIVATION IN THE SEARCH FOR NEW SWITCHING on and off complementarily to S1.
CONVERTER TOPOLOGY In both modes, the capacitor C filters the pulsating current
and provides a smoothed output voltage for the load R.
The basic buck and boost converters can be transformed into
a number of new topologies by bringing in the tapped induc-
B. Control Scheme
tor. The proposed tapped-inductor buck-derived converters are
shown in Fig. 1, with their corresponding voltage conversion For the proper operation of WIWO, a modified PWM control
ratios plotted in Fig. 2. The proposed tapped-inductor boost- circuitry is required. The implementation is not unique. One
derived topologies and their corresponding voltage conversion possible realization of the modulator is shown in Fig. 6. Here, a
ratios are given in Figs. 3 and 4. Here, D is the duty ratio of window comparator is employed to derive the required switch-
switch S, M is the voltage conversion ratio, and n is the turn ing signals for S1 and S2 by comparing the sawtooth ramp with
ratio of the tapped inductors, which is defined as n = n2 : n1 . amplitude of Vm to the two control voltages VC and VC . The
As the turn ratio n tends to infinity, the conversion ratio of the control voltage VC for the upper comparator is delivered by
buck-derived converters approach the characteristic of a basic an external source, whereas the lower comparator input signal
buck topology. On the other hand, as the turn ratio n goes to VC is derived by the PWM circuitry, downshifting the control
zero, the conversion ratio of the boost-derived converters ap- voltage VC by Vm : VC = VC Vm . The relationship between
proach the characteristic of a basic boost topology. Inspection the control voltage VC and the sawtooth ramp amplitude Vm
of the conversion ratio plots, as given in Fig. 1(a), reveals that the can be expressed by means of a variable m as VC = mVm .
proposed buck-derived converter achieves wider voltage step- WIWO operates in the buck mode when 0 < VC < Vm , i.e.,
down than a basic buck converter. Also, by examining Fig. 3(a), when 0 m < 1. Here, the upper comparator generates the
it becomes evident that the suggested boost-derived converter required duty cycle for the S2 switch, whereas the lower com-
attains a wider voltage step-up than a basic boost converter. parator is in 1 state and commands the NAND gate to provide

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Fig. 2. Voltage conversion ratio of buck-derived converters with tapped inductors. (a) 0 < n < . (b) 0 < n < . (c) n > 1. (d) n > 1.

whereas the lower comparator and the NAND gate provide the
required duty cycle for the S1 switch. Thus, the converter enters
the boost mode.

C. Operating Principle of the WIWO Converter

In the following, the steady-state operation of the proposed
WIWO converter is described. The analysis is performed as-
suming that the circuit is comprised of ideal components. The
coupling coefficient of the tapped inductor is assumed to be
unity. Under continuous inductor current (CCM) condition, the
proposed WIWO converter exhibits four topological states, as
shown in Fig. 7. Here, the large output filter capacitor is re-
Fig. 3. Boost-derived converters with tapped inductors. placed by an ideal voltage source. The waveforms and timing of
WIWO for both buck and boost modes are illustrated in Fig. 8.
1) Buck Mode: State 1 (t0 t < t1 ) is the buck-mode
the complimentary duty cycle for the S1 switch. Therefore, charging state [see Figs. 7(a) and 8(a)]. Here, the switch S2
WIWO operates similarly to a synchronous buck converter. On is turned on and S1 is turned off. The diode D conducts and the
the other hand, for Vm < VC < 2Vm , or 1 m < 2, the up- coupled inductors L1 and L2 are charged. The energy is also
per comparator is in 1 state and keeps S2 continuously ON, transferred from dc source to load.

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Fig. 4. Voltage conversion ratio of boost-derived converters with tapped inductors. (a) 0 < n < . (b) 0 < n < . (c) 0 < n < 1. (d) 0 < n < 1.

Fig. 5. WIWO dcdc converter topology.

State 2 (t1 t t2 ) is the buck-mode discharging state [see

Figs. 7(b) and 8(a)]. Here, the switch S2 is turned off also cutting Fig. 6. Proposed WIWO dcdc converter and PWM control circuitry.
off the current in the L1 winding, whereas S1 is turned on and
the diode D conducts L2 current to the load. and S2 are turned on charging the L1 inductor. The diode D
2) Boost Mode: State 3 (t0 t < t1 ) is the boost-mode is cut off by the negative voltage induced in L2 winding. The
charging state [see Figs. 7(c) and 8(b)]. Here, the switches S1 output voltage is supported by the capacitor C.

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Fig. 7. Four topological states of the WIWO converter. (a) Buck-mode charging state. (b) Buck-mode discharging state. (c) Boost-mode charging state.
(d) Boost-mode discharging state.

in [11] using state-space averaging technique. WIWO voltage

conversion ratio, output voltage ripple, voltage stresses, etc.,
were obtained. The characteristics of WIWO are summarized
in Table I for a general case of n and separately for the special
case of n = 1.
WIWO voltage transfer characteristics M (n, m) are plotted in
Fig. 10. Clearly, for n = 1, the voltage transfer ratio is smooth
at the vicinity of the buck to boost switchover point m = 1,
whereas for other values of n, the curves exhibit a slope change.
This statement can be verified analytically by calculating the
derivatives of M (m) at m = 1. Using the expressions for voltage
conversion ratio given in Table I, the result is ((n + 1)/n) for the
buck mode and (n + 1) for the boost mode. Obviously, the slope
of WIWO dcdc characteristic becomes continuous for n = 1.
Table I also presents the line-to-output and control-to-output
transfer functions. The small-signal transfer functions of the
WIWO converter were derived by linearizing the state-space
equations around the operating point [11]. The line-to-output
and control-to-output transfer functions reveal strong depen-
dence on the operating point and a right-half-plane (RHP)
zero. This is also the case in other tapped-inductor topolo-
gies [13], [14]. These characteristics make the WIWO com-
Fig. 8. Waveforms of the WIWO dcdc converter. (a) Buck mode. (b) Boost pensation network design somewhat difficult.


State 4 (t1 t t2 ) is the boost-mode discharging state [see
Figs. 7(d) and 8(b)]. Here, the switch S2 is still ON whereas S1 is A 100-W prototype WIWO converter was designed for input
turned off. Both windings L1 and L2 conduct through the diode voltage range of 1248 Vdc and a constant output voltage of
D and discharge the stored energy to the output. 28 Vdc . The turn ratio of the tapped inductor was set to n =
1 with a total inductance of 400 H. The switching frequency
of 200 kHz was chosen. The tapped inductors were wound on
D. Steady-State Analysis C058548A2 toroidal powder core, chosen for its low leakage,
The steady-state models of the proposed WIWO converter with 50 turns of AWG20 wire for both windings. The design
are shown in Fig. 7. These models preserve the tapped-inductor yielded 400 H inductance with only 560 nH leakage induc-
symbol. More suitable for analysis purposes, however, are the tance. Two FDD2572 MOSFETs were paralleled to comprise
models of Fig. 9. Here, the role of the magnetizing inductance the top switch and two IRFR3518 were used for the low switch
Lm is clearly shown. The detailed analysis was carried out providing low RdsO N and low gate capacitance. Schottky diode

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Fig. 9. Switched circuit models. (a) State 1. (b) State 2. (c) State 3. (d) State 4.

Fig. 10. Voltage transfer characteristics M (n, m) of the WIWO dcdc

Fig. 11. Experimental waveforms of the WIWO converter in the buck mode
(see Fig. 6 for designation of variables). Top trace: drain voltage V 1 of S1
20CTQ150 was selected due to superior reverse recovery char- switch (50 V/division, 2 s/division); second top trace: drain voltage V 2
acteristics. of S2 switch (50 V/division, 2 s/division); middle trace: input current Ii
(0.2 A/division, 2 s/division); second bottom trace: output current Io (0.2
Experimental waveforms of WIWO converting 48 V input A/division, 2 s/division); bottom trace: S2 switch gating voltage (20 V/ divi-
to 28 V output (buck mode) are shown in Fig. 11. In the buck sion, 2 s/division).
mode, S2 is the leading switch, gated by the duty cycle command
shown as the bottom trace in Fig. 11, whereas the bottom switch
S1 is switched complementarily, similarly to a synchronous The experimental waveforms of WIWO in the boost mode
converter. Switch voltages (see Fig. 6 for definition) are shown with 12 V input and 28 V output, under full-load condition,
as top two waveforms in Fig. 11. The middle traces show the are shown in Fig. 12. To supply the power requirements of the
winding currents. These were measured by ac probe, so only load at lower input voltage range, WIWO calls for greater input
the ripple components could be observed. As could be seen, as current, and therefore, turn-OFF voltage spike on S1 is observed.
the S2 switch conducts, both windings carry the same current. In the boost mode, the S1 switch is the leading switch that
At the S2 is turned off, the input current ceases whereas the is issued the duty cycle command, shown as the bottom trace
output current is doubled in amplitude, consistent with WIWO in Fig. 12. Since in the buck mode the S2 switch is constantly
models in Fig. 9(a) and (b). The ramp portion of the current ON, the drain voltage of S2 and the drain voltage of S1 are
is hardly noticeable due to the relatively high frequency and almost identical. The winding currents were measured by a
sufficiently large inductance value. The leakage inductance of high-frequency ac probe, and therefore, only ac current compo-
L1 developed a turn-OFF voltage spike across S1 that is smoothed nents are shown as two middle traces in Fig. 12. As S1 switch
by the snubber circuitry. The snubber is used to clamp the voltage conducts, the input winding carries the input current and is
spike, as described later. charging, whereas the output current is cut off. As the S1 switch

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Fig. 12. Experimental waveforms of WIWO in the boost mode (see Fig. 6 for
designation of variables). Top trace: drain voltage of S1 switch (20 V/division,
2 s/division); second top trace: drain voltage of S2 switch (20 V/division,
2 s/division); middle trace: input current Ii (0.5 A/division, 2 s/division);
second bottom trace: output current Io (0.5 A/division, 2 s/division); bottom
trace: S1 switch gating voltage (20 V/division, 2 s/division).

Fig. 13. Comparison of K with K c rit for n = 1.

is cut off, both windings carry the same current and are dis-
charging into the output capacitor and feeding the load. For this
reason, the currents ripple components appear in antiphase, as
predicted by WIWO models in Fig. 9(c) and (d). Also could Fig. 14. Comparison of the experimental and theoretical voltage conversion
ratio under different loading conditions. (a) K = 2. (b) K = 0.2. (c) K = 0.02.
be seen is the snubber circuit resonant discharge as the snubber
recycles the stored energy.
With decreased load, the converter enters the discontinuous ratio in DCM is higher than that in CCM, as shown in Fig. 14(b)
conduction mode (DCM). To measure the tendency of the con- and (c).
verter to operate in DCM, the parameter K = (2Lm /RTs ) is The efficiency of the experimental WIWO dcdc converter
defined as suggested in [15]. The critical value of K for n = 1 for different dc input voltages versus the load current is plotted
is compared with K = 2, 0.2, 0.02 in Fig. 13. The experimen- in Fig. 15. The output voltage was kept at the nominal value
tal voltage conversion ratio M as function of m for different of 28 Vdc . No attempt was made to optimize the preliminary
values of K plotted on top of the theoretical curve is given in design, still the converter demonstrated high efficiency.
Fig. 14(a)(c). Due to the parasitic resistances in the circuit, the
experimental voltage conversion ratio M is slightly lower than
theoretical prediction. For very same reason, the experimental V. APPLICATIONS
M cannot become infinite and drops as m approaches 2. A A continuously conducting diode D has a considerable
narrow buck- to boost-mode transition can be observed on the forward voltage drop. This is not desirable for low-output-
WIWO characteristic in the vicinity of m = 1. The conversion voltage applications. The voltage drop can be reduced using

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Fig. 18. WIWO PFC acdc converter.

Fig. 15. Experimental WIWO converter efficiency.

Fig. 19. Energy recovering snubber for WIWO power stage.

Fig. 16. WIWO dcdc converter with the synchronous rectifier.

port, whereas with the switch in position 2, the power flows in
a reverse direction from the right port to the left port.
The WIWO dcdc converter can also be used for PFC appli-
cation (see Fig. 18). Here, a sinusoidal line voltage is fed into
the rectifier input. The WIWO dcdc converter can accept the
rectified voltage and directly produce the required low dc out-
put. With the line voltage greater than the output, the converter
works in the buck mode. As the line drops below the output
voltage, WIWO enters the boost mode.


Since the WIWO operates a coupled inductor, the energy
stored in the leakage inductances becomes a problem to deal
with. Besides increased switching losses, discharge of the leak-
age inductance energy causes oscillations and increased voltage
spikes across the switches. The resulting voltage stress becomes
intolerable at higher voltages and higher power. If not snubbed,
overvoltage breakdown of the MOSFET devices may occur.
Fig. 17. Bidirectional WIWO dcdc converter. The proposed lossless snubber is comprised of a snubber
capacitor CS and a pair of fast diodes DS1 and DS2 . The snubber
is fitted to WIWO, as shown in Fig. 19. The snubber is effective
a synchronous rectifier with low Rds -O N instead of the diode, both in buck mode and in boost mode.
as shown in Fig. 16. Detailed description of the snubber operation is out of scope
Interchanging the position of the inductor L2 and switch S3, of this paper; in brief, however, the operation is as follows. With
as shown in Fig. 17, the WIWO topology becomes symmet- WIWO in the buck mode, at the instant when the S2 switch is
rical. This also allows driving the top switch S3 with another turned off, the snubber diode DS1 conducts L1 leakage current
flying driver. An additional advantage of the circuit in Fig. 17 and allows the stored energy to be discharged into the snubber
is the ability to sustain a bidirectional power flow. The direc- capacitance CS and to the output of the circuit. This takes one-
tion of the power flow can be controlled applying a single-pole half resonant cycle dictated by the leakage inductance and the
double-throw switch, which may be controlled manually or au- snubber capacitance. CS will remain charged until the S2 switch
tomatically, as illustrated in Fig. 17. This WIWO can be used in is turned ON again at the onset of the subsequent switching cycle.
a battery charging and discharging application. With the switch With S2 turned ON, the energy stored in the snubber capacitor
in position 1, the power flows from the left port to the right is discharged into L2 winding via DS2 and recycled.

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In the boost mode, the snubber operation is similar. However, [5] K. Nishijima, K. Abe, D. Ishida, T. Nakano, T. Nabeshima, T. Sato, and
here, S1 interrupts the current and is subject to the voltage spike K. Harada, A novel tapped-inductor buck converter for divided power
distribution system, in Proc. IEEE PESC Conf. (PESC 2006), Jun., 18
while S2 switch is constantly ON with zero voltage VD S 2 across. 22, pp. 16.
[6] G. Spiazzi and S. Buso, Power factor preregulator based on modified
VII. CONCLUSION tapped-inductor buck converter, in Proc. IEEE PESC Conf., 1998, vol. 2,
pp. 873879.
This paper has presented a new WIWO dcdc converter, [7] F. L. Luo and H. Ye, Positive output cascade boost converters, Proc.
which is an integration of buck and boost converters with cou- Inst. Electr. Eng. Electr. Power Appl., vol. 151, no. 5, pp. 590606, Sep.
pled inductors. The paper described WIWO principles of opera- [8] Q. Zhao and F. C. Lee, High efficiency, high step-up dcdc converters,
tion and offers a comprehensive summary of WIWO analytical IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 6573, Jan. 2003.
characteristics. Simulation and experimental results were also [9] N. Vazquez, L. Estrada, C. Hernandez, and E. Rodriguez, The tapped-
inductor boost converter, in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Ind. Electron., Jun.,
reported. A modified PWM modulator scheme required to make 47, 2007, pp. 538543.
the converter work coherently was also suggested. A prototype [10] K. C. Tseng and T. J. Liang, Novel high efficiency step-up converter,
WIWO dcdc converter was built and tested. The converter Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. Electr. Power Appl., vol. 151, no. 2, pp. 182190,
Mar. 2004.
demonstrated in practice the WIWO dcdc conversion ratio. [11] H. Cheng, Wide input wide output (WIWO) dcdc converter, Masters
The new converter topology has several advantages. The thesis, Univ. California, Irvine, Dec. 2007.
WIWO retains the features of both the buck and the boost con- [12] H. Cheng and K. Smedley, Wide input wide output (WIWO) dcdc con-
verter, in Proc. IEEE Appl. Power Electron. Conf. Expo., 2008, pp. 1562
verters; however, it achieves wider step-up and wider step-down 1568.
dcdc conversion range. The WIWO converter can operate with [13] R. D. Middleblook, A continuous model for the tapped-inductor boost
an input source with broadly varying voltage or, alternatively, converter, in IEEE PESC 1976 Rec., Jun., pp. 1019.
[14] D. Edry, M. Hadar, O. Mor, and S. Ben-Yaakov, A SPICE compatible
feed loads with variable operating voltage such as dc motors. model of tapped-inductor PWM converters, in Proc. IEEE APEC 1994,
The converter has a simple structure and moderate component pp. 10211027.
count. The advantageous buck feature allows turning off the [15] R. Erickson and D. Maksimovic, Fundamentals of Power Electronics.
Norwell, MA: Kluwer, 2001.
output voltage on demand. WIWO is also inherently capable of
limiting the inrush current and can protect the output in the case
of a short circuit. Due to the nonlinear characteristics, WIWO Hao Cheng, photograph and biography not available at the time of publication.
can avoid operating at extreme duty cycle. As a result, WIWO
efficiency remains high even throughout large input voltage
swing. The transition between the operating modes is inher-
ently smooth, and causes no transient disturbance in the average Keyue Ma Smedley (S87M90SM97F08) re-
ceived the B.S. and M.S. degrees in electrical engi-
current. Among the disadvantages of WIWO is the coupled in- neering from Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China,
ductor whose leakage causes oscillation and high voltage spike in 1982 and 1985, respectively, and the M.S. and
across the switches. Clamp circuits are needed to clamp volt- Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the
California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, in 1987
age spikes upon switches, so as to recycle the leakage energy. and 1991, respectively.
Another disadvantage of WIWOs is that small-signal transfer She was employed at the Superconducting Super
functions include an RHP zero, and therefore, WIWO is some- Collide from 1990 to 1992, where she was respon-
sible for the design and specification of ac-dc con-
what difficult to stabilize using a single voltage loop. To resolve verters for all accelerator rings. She is currently a
the dynamic problem, current loop should be employed, which Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science,
is a good practice in any case. An additional disadvantage is that University of California at the Irvine (UCI). She is also the Director of the UCI
Power Electronics Laboratory. Her research activities include high efficiency
WIWO does not provide isolation. This, however, may not be dc-dc converters, high-fidelity class-D power amplifiers, active and passive soft
much of a problem in systems with multiple stages. switching techniques, single-phase and three-phase PFC rectifiers, active power
Modifications of the WIWO to synchronous WIWO dcdc filters, grid-connected inverters for alternative energy sources, VAR on demand
for modern grid, motor drive, fault current limiters for utility, solar and wind
converter, bidirectional WIWO dcdc converter, and WIWO power conversion, etc. She has authored or coauthored more than 100 technical
dcdc converter for PFC are possible. Numerous advantages articles and holds ten US/international patens.
indicate WIWO as a viable candidate for many industrial Dr. Smedley is the recipient of UCI Innovation Award 2005.

REFERENCES Alexander Abramovitz (M06) was born in

Kishinev, USSR, and repatriated to Israel in 1973.
[1] D. Maksimovic and S. Cuk, Switching converter with wide dc conversion He received the B.Sc., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees all in
range, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 151157, Jan. 1991. electrical engineering from Ben-Gurion University
[2] K. Yao, M. Ye, M. Xu, and F. C. Lee, Tapped-inductor buck converter for in the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel, in 1987, 1993, and
high-step-down dcdc conversion, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 20, 1997, respectively, and a postdoc from the University
no. 4, pp. 775780, Jul. 2005. of California, Irvine, in 2004.
[3] J.-H. Park and B.-H. Cho, Nonisolation soft-switching buck converter He is currently an Assisting Professor in the De-
with tapped-inductor for wide-input extreme step-down applications, partment of Electrical and Electronics Engineering,
IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Reg. Papers, vol. 54, no. 8, pp. 18091818, Sami Shamoon College of Engineering, Beer-Sheva
Aug. 2007. and a Visiting Researcher in the Department of Elec-
[4] K. Yao, Y. Ren, J. Wei, M. Xu, and F. Lee, A family of buck type dcdc trical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California. His current
converters with autotransformers, in Proc. Appl. Power Electron. Conf. research interests include switch mode and resonant power conversion, high
Expo. (APEC 2003), pp. 114120. quality rectification, electronic instrumentation, and analog circuits.

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