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Yarn Evenness
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Subhankar Maity
Department of Textile Technology, Dr B R Ambedkar National lnstitute of Technology, Jalandhar, Punjab 144 0,t1, lndia
m aity.texti I e @ gm a i I - co m

he evenness or unevenness, roving and finally

regularity or irregularity, all these into yarn of uni
mean the degree of uniformity of form character is
a product. The textile materials which really hypothe-
are the products of various spinning tical.
machines such as laps, slivers, Irregularity
rovings, and yarns are inherently
produced with unevenness or in mass per
irregularity in their quality or
unit length
character due to statistical variation
in yarn
in machine and process parameter and The level of
dissimilarities in raw materials variation in yarn
characteristics. Producing a yarn of linear density or
mass per unit
length of yarn
Yarn evenness deals refers to the
with the variation in variation in yarn
yarn fineness. This is the count along its
length.It is the
property, commonly evenness of staple spun yarn that is rated in diameter variability. This
measured, as the varia- of concern here. Continuously preferential concentration of twist in
filament yarns have virtually no thin places along a yarn also
tion in mass per unit variation in linear density so evenness exacerbates the variations in yarn
length along the yarn, is not an issue for those yarns. A diameter or thickness. which often
yarn with poor evenness will have adversely affects the appearance of the
since it can influence so
thick and thin places along yarn resultant fabrics.
many other properties length, while an even yarn will have
Iittle variation in mass or thickness Irregularity in twist
of the yarn and of fabric
along length. While a yarn may vary in Twist variation is important
made from it. many properties, evenness is the most because of its influence on perfor-
important quality aspect of a yarn, mance of yarn and fabric dyeability
uniform characters such as uniformity because variations in other yarn and defects. Twist tends to accumulate
in mass per unit length, uniformity in properties are often a direct result of in the thin places in yarn, so
diameter, twist, strength etc., is indeed yarn count irregularity. irregularity in yarn linear density will
a work of very great competency and cause variations in lwisl along yarn
perfect uniformity is only dreams. In
Uneven diameter
Iength. Soft twisted yarns take more
the case of staple fibres, that too with Variability in yarn diameter is dye and so uneven dyeing is caused by
natural fibres, the work of transfor- important because of its profound high twist variation. Weft bars and
ming millions of individual fibres of influence on appearance of yarn. As bands are also caused by low twisted
varying fineness, maturity, length, twist has tendency to run into thin yarns. Twist variations come from
colour, diameter, etc, into a lap, sliver, place, variability in weight gets exagge- slack spindle tapes, jammed spindles. A

Asian Textile Journal o April 2O17 o 39


certain amount of variation is also distribution of flbre ends in the resultant Increasingly, it is the CV or CV% value
present along the chase of cop. yarn. We call this yarn an ideal yarn, and that gets used for this purpose. For a
still the yarn is having some irregularity fault-free yarn with random variations in
Strength variability and it is called limiting irregularity. thickness or linear density, the following
An irregular yarn will also vary in Limiting irregularity is therefore the relationship exists between the U value
strength along the yarn. The weak link minimum irregularity that we must expect and the CV value.
theory says a yarn is only as strong as from any real yarn or other fibre assem- CT/:1,25U
its weakest point. When there are large blies. A thorough understanding ofthe We can measure the U and CV values
variations in yarn lrnear density, there will concept of limiting irregularity is essential of a fibre assembly by Uster Evenness
be many thin plaies in the yarn, which for the understanding of yarn evenness in Tester at a high speed.
are often the weak points. Yarn breaks at particular, and yarn quality in general. The limiting irregularity can be
the weakest element and so yarns with expressed as a CV value, denoted as CV*
high strength variability will result in high
timiting irregularity such that,
breakages in further processes. A common method of expressing the 100
irregularity of a yarn is to use the -.1 n
Theoretical aspects of statistical term CV or coefficient of Where, n is the average number of
evenness variation. Obviously the higher the CV fibres in yarn cross section. Also, it
A fibre assembly such as lap, sliver, value, the more irregular the yarn is. The can be expressed as:
roving or yarn is said to be perfectly traditional way of obtaining the CV value
100 i +0.0001Cirrl
even when the constituent fibres are is to dissect a length of yarn into many ct\,,^ =
uniform in thickness and the assembly short sections of equal length, say 1 cm,
where, CVu is the coefficient of
variation of fibre cross sectional area.
These expressions indicate that the
number of fibres in yarn cross section
is the most important factor that
determines the irregularity of a yarn.
Irregularity increases with a reduction
in the number o[ fibres in yarn cross
Fig 1 : A perfe<:tly even fibre assembly section. The fibre variability also has
some effect on the irregularity value. But
has the same number of fibres in all and then weigh each of the short different fibre types vary considerably in
cross sections along its length as sections. Assuming we have dissected a
terms of fibre variability.
shown in Fig,1. yarn into n short sections, and the
In case of blend yarns where
Natural fibres such as cotton and weights of these sections are: x1, x2, x3
constituent fibres are randomlY
wool always exhibit variations in ..... xn respectively. From these readings
distributed, limiting irregularity can be
thickness along fibre length. And it is we can easily calculate the following
calculated. For a given count of the
not possible to obtain a structure such statistics regarding the yarn:
blend yarn Tb, and the blend ratio of
that as one fibre terminates, another e The mean or average:
fibre component Bi, the count of each
must be introduced to take its place to f, ,x- I-x,+.......+r, Ir, component Ti can be calculated by:
obtain same number of fibres in all
Tbx Bi
cross sections. Because of the variable o The rtu.raula deviatiorf: Il--
nature of fibres, particularly natural
fibres, and the difficulty with individual
Once we know the count of each
! component yarn, the limiting irregularity
fibre placement in the fibre assembly
o The coefficient of variation: of the blend yarn of n fibre components
using current technology, a perfectly
CV=! xl}O% is given as follows,
even yarn is unattainable in practice.
Therefore, a real yarn would always have
v .,fr cl'-.r t' + tc v,,,^xT,l2 -
o The percentage mean deviation I Yta't*"a =
..... I (CV,h, Tnl
some irregularity in linear density,
(known as the U% value in textiles) T,
because the way fibres are arranged
deviates from what's required to make a
Index of Irregularity (I)
perfectly even yarn.
To achieve an even yarn random Iibre It is clear from the above concept of
distribution is a key objective throughout limiting irregularity that number of
the different processes involved in The CV thus calculated will be the fibres present in yarn cross-section
successive stages of yarn manufacturing. measured CV or effective CV. It is the plays a decisive role on yarn irregularity.
If all processes perform perfectly, we will actual CV of the yarn concerned. The Due to this, a coarse yarn always be
end up with a completely random U% value is listed here for completeness. more even than that of a thinner yarn

Asian Textile Journal e April 2O17 o 4O


made from similar fibres and under further processing. This indicates that into a thinner roving, and a roving is
similar processing conditions. However, the fibre assembly is increasingly drafted to yarn thickness during
it cannot be justified that coarser yarn approaching an ideal one. In other spinning. The net result is a reduction in
is always better in terms of evenness words, with further processing, the fibre lhe number ol libres in yarn cross
than that of the finer yarn. The limiting ends distribution is getting more and section. In addition, the process itself
irregularity provides a reference point more random. At the yarn stage, the may introduce additional irregularities to
and it changes with yarn count. A fair index of irregularity is approaching one, the drafted material. Mathematically, if a
comparison of yarn quality in terms of suggesting that the yarn is approaching fibre assembly enters a drafting process
evenness between similar yarns of an ideal yarn. (roving, spinning) with an irregularity of
different counts is to see how close the On the other hand, there is a general CVr, and emerges from that process with
actual CV of each yarn is to its trend for the effective (or actual) CV of an irregularity of CV",,, then the addi-
respective limit that is the limiting the fibre assemblies to increase during tional irregularity due to the process
irregularity. It is a measure of the degree fibre to yarn processing, with the CV of itself (CV"uu) can be worLed out using the
to which the mass variations of a yarn the resultant yarn higher than the following formula:
deviates from the ideal yarn with random roving's and the slivers'. This is a CV2 -, =CV2 , + CV2.aa or
fibre ends distribution. The index of reflection of the decreasing thickness of
irregularity provides such a measure. It the fibre assemblies, and reducing ctr,r, = ,lctr" *, - cv\,
is defined as the ratio between the actual number of fibres in the cross section of The added irregularity comes from
(measured, effective) irregularity and the the fibre assemblies. At the yarn stage, two sources - reduction in the number
limiting irregularity for the yarn or other the number of fibres in the cross of fibres in cross section and imperfect
fibre assemblies. section is the lowest, hence the CV of the drafting.
yarn is the highest. Unlike the CV% and
(]t Measurement of yarn
I- Uolo values, the index of irregularity (I) is
CVr,* unevenness
independent of the count of the fibre
where, assembly. This makes it an ideal tool for The fundamental method of yarn
I = Index of irregulaity use in the control chart. For instance, if evenness testing is to dissect the fibre
CV"rr = Elfective (actual, measured) the I value is obtained at the roving stage assembly into many short sections and
irregularity for every processing lot and plotted on a weigh each section, and then calculate
CV,* = Limiting irregularitY control chart, abnormalities may be the CV of the fibre assembly from the
The index of irregularity is a easily identified before the final spinning weights of the individual sections. This
dimensionless parameter. In the ideal stage. manual cutting and weighing method is a
case, I = 1. Since the actual CV of a very tedious and time consuming pro-
Reduction and addition of cess when your yarn sample is suffici-
yarn is almost always higher than its
limiting CV the I value is usually greater
irregularities ently long enough. Instead, now-a-days
than 1. The higher the I, the worse the One of the objects of doubling is to there are instruments available to
yarn is in evenness, regardless of the reduce the irregularity. If 'n' strands of
yarn count. Like limiting irregularity, the material, each having the same
index of irregularity also applies to fibre coefficient of variation, are doubled, The limiting irregularity
assemblies other than yarns. then the coefficient of variation of the provides a reference point and it
combined strands is given by, changes with yarn count.
Cljef Aeldli' !+ssr{i
.u =&
where, determine yarn unevenness. Uster AG, a
CI4 = CY of all n slivers at the input textile instrument manulacturer based in
to the drawframe Switzerland, has produced generations of
CIt = Mean value of the CV values of evenness testing instrument for rapid
all the single slivers measurement of the evenness of various
E R&irE Y;rr
Csrfr{r *.aui il:! fibre assemblies. Uster Evenness Tester
siEi tll & 2tr
ct, - C[a+ C'[/2+....+CV,, 3, 4 or 5 are widely used in this regard.
Fig 2 : Changes in CV and I values through n = number of doubled slivers. The Uster Evenness Tester measures
processing stages of cotton yarn
production That is why the measured CV (CV) of mass variations along the length of a
the cotton sliver gradually reduces from fibre assembly. It is based on the capaci-
Fig 2 shows changes in CV and I of carding,to 2nd drawing, and then the CV tance principle as depicted in Fig 4. The
the fibre assemblies at different stages of increases again after the roving and two capacitors detect the mass
the fibre to yarn conversion. It is worth spinning stages as shown in Fig 2. variations or weight per unit length
noting that the trends for CV and I are At the roving and spinning stage, variations of the fibre assembly running
quite different. I gradually decreases with there is no doubling. A sliver is drafted between them. These variations are

Asian Textile Journal o April 2O17 o 41


a cut length of approximately 1 cm

(measuring length). In other words, this
is the U value obtained from cutting the
yarn into approximately 1 cm sections
and weighing those short sections.
CVm : Coefficient of variation of
mass with a cut length of approximately
1 cm. This is the CV most often quoted in
yarn specification and commercial
transactions. It is the effective CV used
for calculating the index of irregularity.
CVm(1m) : Coefficient of
variation of mass with a cut length of 1
m, simulating the CV obtained from
cutting the yarn into 1 m sections and
weighing those sections. The same
applies to CVm(10m) and CVm(100m). It
should be noted that as the cut length
increases, the irregularity reduces.
Index : The index of irregularity (I)
Fig 3 : Uster evenlless tester 5 value, which is always greater than one
as indicated in the print-out.
transformed into a proportional Single overall results Thin places (-50%) : Number of
electrical signal. The signal processing places that have mass reductions of
The single overall results include the
unit will process this signal, and work 50% or more with respect to the mean
Uo/o and CV% values, index of irregularity
out the U% and CV% value, as well as value. Note that (-50%) is the standard
(I), as well as the number of
other useful information concerning the sensitivity Ievel used in the test. If a
imperfections (thin place, thick place,
mass variations. All the details can be different sensitivity level (-4Oo/", -4Oo/o,
and neps). All those parameters are
displayed or printed out. The accuracy -60%) is used, the result would have
expressed as single numbers, which are
of this method, and other evenness been different. The number of thin places
easy to use, particularly in a mill
measuring methods, may be evaluated has a significant impact on yarn
situation. These single values provide an
against results obtained traditionally, i.e.
overall picture of yarn evenness.
by cutting and weighing.
However, if the results are bad, the
An Uster evenness tester provides a Uster evenness tester provides
causes of the poor results cannot be
considerable amount of information on a considerable amount of
identified from these single values. The
the evenness of a fibre assembly, information on the evenness of
following information obtained as single
including single overall results, diagram a fibre assemblv.
value results are explained below.
and spectrogram
Um: Irregularity U of the mass with
Thick palces (+50%) : Number of
assembly places that have mass increases of 5O%
tu or more with respect to the mean value.
Note that (+50%) is the standard
caoactor sensitivity level used in the test. If a
.m f;;;l [-;;-_-l
tr) ffi\
different sensitivity level (+35%, +70o/o,
" ^ +100%) is used, the result would have
1W L'j0
I been different. The number of thin places
has a significant impact on yarn
Neps (+280%) : Number of places
that have mass increases of +280% or
more with respect to the mean value and
Printing a reference length of 1mm. Note that
+2OOo/o is the sensitivity level normally
W used in the test. These short thick places
Fig ztr : Principle of Uster Evennes-s lesler in a yarn are often the results of

Asian Textile Journal o April 2017 o 42


when observed, are fibre assembly does not necessarily

lliss due to periodic faults result in significant increases in the
generated due to CV% value or in the index of irregularity.
"drafting waves" and So the CV% value or index of irregularity
the wavelength due to will not indicate the presence of those
flle an drafting wave in case mass variations.
m 455. will be around 2.5 - Modern evenness testing
3.0 inch for cotton. instruments. such as the Uster Evenness
The single overall Tester, provide diagrams as well as
results are very spectrograms for the fibre assembly
Len!tn useful in that they tested. The diagram is a time domain
Fig 5 : A cliagrant of mass variation
provide evenness mass variation signal, while the
information in spectrogram represents the same mass
vegetable matter or entangled fibres. concise single values. These single variation in the frequency domain. If a
S : Standard deviation of results values are easy to use for comparison yarn has mass variations that resemble a
Q95o/, : 95% confidence interval of purpose in particular. For instance, the sinusoidal wave as shown in Fig 7 (a),
the mean value CYo/o or index of irregularity of one yarn then a mathematical (Fourier) transfor-
is higher than another similar yarn, we mation of such a mass variation signal
can say one yarn is better than the will reveal the frequency (f) of such
The graphical representation of other in terms of yarn evenness. But that variation as a sharp peak shown in Fig
mass per unit length variation along the is often not sufficient for quality control 7(b). For a signal that is not as simple as
length of sliver, roving or yarn is referred purpose. Suppose we now know from the just a sinusoidal wave, it has been
as diagram. It is simply a trace of mass single overall results (eg. CV I) that a proven mathematically that it can be
(linear density) variation along a fibre yarn is not good in evenness, and we conslrucled by superimposing a series
assembly. For instance, if you dissect a want to find out what has caused the of sinusoidal waves of varying
Iong length of yarn into many very short irregularity in the yarn. Once we know frequencies. Therefore, if the original
sections and then weigh each section, what has caused the irregularity, we can mass variation in the yarn is of a more
you will get many mass readings as complex shape as shown in Fig 7(c),
shown in Fig 5.It indicates the nature of then the same mathematical transfor-
variability present in the material. mation will reveal the frequency of each
We may obtain various information of its sinusoidal components as shown
from diagram. Visualization about long
wavelength variations, even with periodic
variation is possible from the diagram Periodic mass variations in a
which cannot be confirmed by spectro- yarn often result in unwanted
gram. Extreme thick and thin places can patterning in fabrics made from
be detected by diagram. When there will such yarns.
be slow and step changes in the mean
value of the linear density, that can be
detected. In many cases, it can confirm Fig 7(d). The different amplitude reflects
1 t,tl, t{]${}
the numerical values of instrument also. the different 'share' of the respective
tl{,1 Lrilgtll
component in the original signal.
If the original mass variation is of a
In this, amplitudes of periodic mass Fig 6 : Spectrogram random nature, then after transfor-
variation are plotted against the mation, there will be many frequencies of
wavelength as shown in Fig 6. From the then try to rectify the problem. For this, similar amDlitude. Further, if there is a
speed at which the yarn is running we need the spectrograms. periodic mass variation in addition to
through the capacitance type sensor, Periodic mass variations in a yarn the random variation, then the lrequency
the frequencies are converted to often result in unwanted patterning in of that periodic mass variation will
wavelengths and plotted into a finite fabrics made from such yarns. They also show up as a sharp peak after the trans-
number of discrete wavelength steps. A lead to increased ends down during formation. Put differently, if a mass
histogram is then plotted automatically spinning and subsequent processing. It variation signal is subjected to a
by the instrument. Amplitude, which is a is esserrtial in yarn manufacture to transformation and a sharp peak
measure of the number of times a fault of prevent the occurrence of such mass ('chimney') appears in the transformed
that repeat length occurs, helps in varialions in slivers, rovings or yarns. signal, then we know there is a periodic
locating the generating point of a Furthermore, the presence of periodic or mass variation in the fibre assembly. This
periodic fault. The spreading of humps practically periodic mass variations in a is basically how spectrogram works.

Asian Textile Journal o April 2O17 o 43


firms), ComPetitive Benchmarking

(Comparison with competitors - within
the country, and outside the country),
Generic Benchmarking (Comparison
across comPanies / industries -
Universal). Successful companies
deflnitely do the benchmarking exercise
continuouslY. TheY maY call it bY

FrEquercY different names as setting standards or

objectives or goal setting. But the
purpose is the same viz. to have
competitive edge or advantage. This is
more than applicable in textile industry
Transformation where there is hectic competition from
inside and outside the countrY.

Tim* tl t3 FrBqlleffl' Uster Statistics

While the evenness index value is of
Fig 7 : Transformation of time clomairt signal to frequency domain
use to the Yarn manufacturers for
'henchmark'. Benchmarking can be internal quality control purpose, what
Since wave Iength is more useful than
undertaken in a variety of situations' In matters to the users of yarn (i'e the
frequency for textile purposes, the
an organization-wide context all the key weavers and knitters) is the actual
spectrogram indicates the different wave
Iengths (on a logarithmic scale) versus factors can be benchmarked. Such items
their amplitude. as financial performance, Profit and loss,
cash flow, investment, sales, production
Benchmarking consists of
A fault-free fibre assembly will give a comparing Your organization
typical normal spectrogram (with neither and productivity are all subject to
regular benchmarking within industry
with another.
'chimnies' nor'humps'), A'chimney' on
top of a normal spectrogram indicates and commerce. In management jargon'
the presence of a Periodic mass benchmarking is a total qualitY
management tool and denotes the irregularity in the yarn they are going to
variation in the fibre assembly. The wave
procedure of identifying and quantifying use. For this reason, the Uster Statistics
length of this periodic mass variation
topnotch or world-class performance is of great practical importance' Almost
can be read off the horizontal axis' A
(benchmarks) in a particular business or half a centurY ago, in 7949, the first
'hump' on top of a normal spectrogram
product category and comparing the Uster Standards were presented to the
indicates the presence of a drafting wave
data with the performance of the own textile public in numerical form' This
in the fibre assembly. The wave length of
company or Product. started a new era in the assessment of
the drafting wave is equal to 2.5 to 3
If a manufacturer Produced some the technological and commercial value
times the mean fibre length. Once we get
yarns and tested the yarns for evenness of spun yarns. Over the years, the Uster
the wave length of a Periodic mass
and then he want to know how good his Standards have developed into the Uster
variation from the spectrogram, and we
yarns are he need to benchmark his Statistics, which have been regularly
know this wave length is related to the
product i.e. yarns. There are several upclated until today and additional
circumlerence of the offending roller, we
ways of benchmarking yarn evenness, quality parameters for sliver, roving, and
can then identify the roller and replace it
including such as Index of irregularity, yarns have been introduced progres-
with a good one to solve the problem' For
Uster Statistics, etc. The reasons for sively. Simultaneously, the methods and
drafting waves, the use of more uniform
recommending the implementation of procedures applied to establish the Uster
fibres and proper fibre control during
benchmarking exercise in organizations Statistics have been gradually enhanced'
drafting will usually solve the problem'
are to increase efficiency, promote Today, the Uster Statistics represent the
Spectrogram is therefore a very useful
understanding, create awareness, make only truly comprehensive survey of the
quality control tool in a spinning mill'
continuous imProvements, enhance quality of textile materials produced in
Benchmarking Yarn evenness customer satisfaction, gain commitment the major textile hubs around the world
to Corporate goals, improve profitability and they constitute the mainstay of
Benchmarking consists of global market intelligence related to textile
comparing Your organization with etc. There are various tYPes of
benchmarking Processes such as quality. The Uster Statistics are first and
another. In this way You can decide
internal Benchmarking (Comparison foremost a practical guide to 'good textile
whether your organization's performance
within Organization), Functional practices' in the field of yarn manu-
is in some waY failing short of the facturing. It just seem to have been made
standard against which you compare Benchmarking (Comparison of specific
yourself. This standard is the functional performance of competitor for quality benchmarking on the

Asian Textile Journal o April 2O17 o 44


corporate level. The key quality moving target. As technology improves evenness, including Uster Statistics
attributes of yarns considered in Uster quality standards also change. which is considcred to be one of the
statistics are: Yarn count variation strongest.
(between bobbins or packages), Mass Conclusion
variation (U% and CV%), Imperfections References
(thick and thin places, neps), Uster Non-uniformity in variety of 1 B P Saville, Physical testing oftextiles,
Hairiness Index and Tensile properties properties exists in yarns. There can be 1999, Woodhead Publishing Ltd and CRC
(strength and elongation). variation twist, bulk, strength, elonga- Press LLC, Cambridge CBI 6AH England
However, it need to be mentioned here tion, fineness etc. Yarn evenness deals 2 Anonymous, Working with the Uster
that there are restrictions on the with the variation in yarn fineness. This Statistics, https://www.uster.colr, acce-
interpretation and application of Uster is the property, commonly measured, as ssed on 1 5th March, 201 7
Statistics. Uster Statistics do not provide the variation in mass per unit length 3 Anonyrrous, Uster Statistic Application
direct access to information about the along the yarn, is a basic and impor- handbook 201 3, httyts l lwww.,
raw materials used in spinning. Good tant one, since it can influence so accessed on 15th March, 2017
quality, more expensive libres are usually many other properties of the yarn and ,1 Anonymous, http://www.textilegence.-
spun into good quality yarns. Therefore, of fabric made from it. Such variations com/en/uster-statistics-201 3- is-out-on-
a yarn with a CV% below the 5o/o line on are inevitable, because they arise from uster-com/, accessed on 15th March,
the Uster Statistics chart may be the fundamental nature of textile fibres 2017
indicative of a high cost yarn. Similarly, a and from their resulting arrangement. 5 A F W Coulson and M W Townsend,
yarn with a CYo/o value above the 75o/o Irregularity can adversely affect many The assessment of yarn quality, journal
line may not be all that good in terms of of the properties of textile materials. of the textile institute proceedirrgs vol
evenness, but it may be indicative of a The most obvious consequence of 40 ,7,1919
very attractive price and just the right yarn evenness is the variation of stren- 6 C Thilagavathi, T l(arthik, Proccss
quality for the target markets. The Uster gth along the yarn. An Uster evenness Corrtrol and Yarn Cluality irr Spinning,
Statistics is merely a global survey of tester provides a considerable amount Woodhead publishing lndia Pvt Lrd,
yarn quality as produced in every part of of information on the evenness of a 2016, New Delhi
the world. Whether or not these qualities fibre assembly, including single overall 7lOchola, J Kisaro, L Kinurhia, i
are produced economically from results, diagram and spectrogram. Mwasiagi and A Waithaka, 2012, Study
adequate raw materials and offered at a Benchmarking is a very good tool to on the lnfluence of Fiber Properties on
legitimate price is beyond the scope of have competitive advantage. Bench- Yarn lrr-rperfections in Ring Spun Yarns
the Uster Statistics. Yarns intended for marking in textile industry can be done Asian Textile Journal, 2: 3)-43
different end uses have diflerent quality in stages depending on the need to 8 Anonymous, Yarn irregulerr-ity (CVrn,X,),
requirements. For example the overcome competition. It need not be, accessed on
requirements of weaving and knitting restricted to copying the best methods 15th March, 201 7
yarns are often different. Therefore, yarn and standards from others, but it can 9 M Ferkl, Yarn lrregularity, http://www.
quality should be j.udged in the context be internal innovativeness. There are qc1 i n k/neste j nomernost-en. htm,
of its end use. The quality of yarns is a several ways of benchmarking yarn accessed on I 5th March, 201 7. m

country, there are

l in the recent

Retail Services. JLL lndia. these malls were located in chennai. Mr Renjhen said, osuuE--
i^ 4^- *^-^ I^^^- l^-1
rn tdr l[utv ucpcilueilt u|

Delhi-NCR. Mumbai and Pune. 'lt was not the first time that the best possible
maintaining rthe p tenant mix and having at least a few
withdrawal of mall space was done;
done, but the.guantum trme wias.
the quantum this time was tenants
tenar from the entertaihinent
ent( and food and beverages (F&B) ',,
far higher than in all previous withdrawals (from the first quarter of categories. lt has been seen in recent years that retailers choose
2010 to the fourth quarter of 2o15) put together.' high-quality malls havrng mixed-use ai the rigrrt locations. Many

Asian Textile Journal o April 2017 o 45