0 Voturi pozitive0 Voturi negative

30 (de) vizualizări9 paginiIEEE

Oct 04, 2017

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT sau citiți online pe Scribd

IEEE

© All Rights Reserved

30 (de) vizualizări

IEEE

© All Rights Reserved

- 1756-In005_-En-p ControlLogix Chassis and Power Supply
- ATEC-MDM3100
- Voltage Collapse
- [IEEE 2015 IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting - Addison, TX, USA (2015.10.18-2015.10.22)] 2015 IEEE
- Transient Stability Improvement in Transmission System using SVC with PI-Fuzzy Logic Hybrid Control
- EMC Part 1b
- energies-03-01049
- IEcon1_Hengwei
- 8313 Berg Power Factors And
- EM6400 Modbus Map
- An Optimization Technique for Real And
- Research Paper Improvement of Power System Stability by Simultaneous AC-DC Power Transmission
- EE2036-FACTS question bank for two units.doc
- ejsr_42_1_10
- 3a300
- ENG_2013011610182971
- Sajadi 2018
- Unit 6
- Distribution Networks
- ANSI C37.16-2000.pdf

Sunteți pe pagina 1din 9

3, MAY/JUNE 2013

Energy Storage in Hybrid ACDC Microgrid

Poh Chiang Loh, Senior Member, IEEE, Ding Li, Yi Kang Chai, and Frede Blaabjerg, Fellow, IEEE

AbstractThe coexistence of ac and dc subgrids in a hybrid the grid-connected mode too if the mains grid is no longer

microgrid is likely given that modern distributed sources can infinite, probably caused by a significant increase in microgrid

either be ac or dc. Linking these subgrids is a power converter, capacity [3][5]. Regardless of its nature though, the voltage

whose topology should preferably be not too unconventional. This

is to avoid unnecessary compromises to reliability, simplicity, and and frequency of an islanded microgrid are negotiated by its

industry relevance of the converter. The desired operating features distributed sources, which might no longer be at their maximum

of the hybrid microgrid can then be added through this inter- power points if the loads are not large enough to absorb the

linking converter. To demonstrate, an appropriate control scheme generated power.

is now developed for controlling the interlinking converter. The Continuous tuning of the source outputs is thus needed and

objective is to keep the hybrid microgrid in autonomous operation

with active power proportionally shared among its distributed can be achieved with or without external communication links

sources. Power sharing here should depend only on the source [6]. The former is usually viewed as less reliable since any link

ratings and not their placements within the hybrid microgrid. The malfunctions will likely lead to instability. Communicationless

proposed scheme can also be extended to include energy storage or wireless control based on the classical droop operating

within the interlinking converter, as already proven in simulation principles is therefore preferred. Various methods have since

and experiment. These findings have not been previously discussed

in the literature, where existing schemes are mostly for an ac or a been proposed with [7] and [8] focusing on the line impedance

dc microgrid, but not both in coexistence. effect and output impedance design, respectively. Marwali et al.

[9] and Prodanovic and Green [10], on the other hand, con-

Index TermsAC microgrid, active power sharing, dc micro-

grid, droop control, hybrid microgrid. tributed by combining low bandwidth and droop control with

some considerations given to nonideal loads. More emphasis on

I. I NTRODUCTION nonideal load compensation could be found in [11] and [12],

followed by stability improvement of droop control found in

A MICROGRID is a small grid formed by grouping mul-

tiple distributed sources together to better merge their

advantages [1], [2]. The formed microgrid can either be con-

[13] and [14]. Other efforts include [15] where different load

placements were considered and [16] where different control

methods were discussed for multiple converters. These methods

nected to the mains grid or operated like an isolated island.

were mostly confined to an ac microgrid, which might not be

For the former, the voltage and frequency variations of the

the most efficient since modern sources and loads can either be

microgrid are fixed by the mains grid, which usually is treated

ac or dc.

as an infinite bus with much larger generation capacity. Because

Forming a dc microgrid [17] might therefore be of interest, as

of that, distributed green sources are more like controlled

reinforced by recent studies related to stability [18], industrial

current sources at their maximum power points. The energy

[19], commercial [20], [21], and offshore wind [22] applica-

thus generated would either be consumed by the local loads

tions of a dc grid. A dc microgrid is, however, not likely to

or channeled to the mains if there is a surplus. The scenario

replace an existing ac microgrid because of its long historical

would be different when islanded, which usually is linked to

development. A more likely architecture would hence be the

rural grids or any grids during faults. Strictly, it can represent

coexistence of ac and dc subgrids intertied by an electroni-

cally controlled power converter shown in Fig. 1. The formed

Manuscript received December 3, 2011; revised April 12, 2012; accepted

June 24, 2012. Date of publication March 12, 2013; date of current version

hybrid microgrid has so far not been studied for distributed

May 15, 2013. Paper 2011-IPCC-738.R1, presented at the 2011 IEEE Energy generation even though the same grid-connected and islanded

Conversion Congress and Exposition, Phoenix, AZ, USA, September 1722, control objectives would apply. They are, however, tougher to

and approved for publication in the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY

APPLICATIONS by the Industrial Power Converter Committee of the IEEE

realize, particularly for the islanded mode, where autonomous

Industry Applications Society. This project was supported by the Agency for operation demands controlling the interlinking converter ap-

Science, Technology and Research, Singapore, under the Intelligent Energy propriately. This unresolved challenge is now discussed with

Distribution Systems program.

P. C. Loh and D. Li are with the School of Electrical and Electronic

either capacitor or energy storage added to the dc link of the

Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (e-mail: interlinking converter.

epcloh@ntu.edu.sg; e080010@ntu.edu.sg).

Y. K. Chai is with the Singapore PowerGrid Ltd., Singapore 117438 (e-mail:

CHAI0054@ntu.edu.sg). II. D ROOP C ONTROL W ITHIN AC AND DC S UBGRIDS

F. Blaabjerg is with the Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg Univer-

sity, 9220 Aalborg, Denmark (e-mail: fbl@et.aau.dk). Mirroring classical synchronous generation theory, power

Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online

at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. sharing among sources in an ac microgrid can be achieved by

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TIA.2013.2252319 droop control during the islanded mode. The droop control of

LOH et al.: AUTONOMOUS CONTROL OF INTERLINKING CONVERTER WITH ENERGY STORAGE IN MICROGRID 1375

TABLE I

DEFINITIONS OF PARAMETERS IN FIG. 2 FOR AC SUBGRID, DC SUBGRID,

AND H YBRID M ICROGRID

two ac sources.

The same droop principles can be applied to reactive power

sharing (see the first column of Table I), but usually with an

error accompanied. The error is caused by different source

terminal voltages, which would almost always be there due to

different system parameters and line impedances (Za1 and Za2 )

[7], [8]. Enforcing a single common terminal voltage is there-

fore tough even though methods for improvement do exist.

Fig. 1. Example hybrid acdc microgrid.

The discussion of these methods is not planned here since the

intention is not to create another droop control scheme for an

ac microgrid. Rather, the objective is to develop an autonomous

or decentralized control scheme for coordinating power flow

between ac and dc subgrids in a hybrid microgrid. This attempt

is not straightforward and has never been tried before.

B. DC Subgrid

Fig. 2. Generalized illustration of droop control for a two-source grid.

The droop control of the dc subgrid shown in Fig. 1 can

similarly be performed. The resulting scheme would compa-

a dc microgrid can also be done and was, in fact, tried nearly

rably be simpler because of the absence of reactive power and

two decades back [17] even though it has since been stagnant.

frequency. The axis assignments of those droop lines drawn in

These droop concepts are now reviewed since they are applied

Fig. 2 would then be in accordance to the second column of

to source control within individual subgrids of the proposed

Table I (x to active power and y to terminal voltage). In the

hybrid microgrid.

steady state, the dc network will force the dc source terminal

voltages to be close, but usually not equal because of different

A. AC Subgrid line impedances (Zd1 and Zd2 ) [17]. This mismatch causes

active power sharing error, which, in principle, is similar to the

Referring to the ac subgrid drawn in Fig. 1, the droop control reactive power sharing error experienced by the ac subgrid.

of its two sources is performed by applying those two droop

lines shown in Fig. 2. Units 1 and 2 in Fig. 2 then represent

III. C ONTROL OF I NTERLINKING C ONVERTER

ac sources 1 and 2, and for active power control, x and y

represent active power and frequency, respectively (see the Power converters have long been used for tying distributed

first column of Table I). In the steady state, the ac network sources to the grid. Their source-tying mechanisms are there-

naturally enforces a single common frequency f , which, in fore well established and hence not the topic of concern here.

Fig. 2, corresponds to the single horizontal dashed line drawn. Rather, the challenge is to design an autonomous control

This dashed line intersects the two droop lines at two steady- scheme for the interlinking converter whose responsibility is

state operating points, whose power values sum to give the total to link the ac and dc subgrids together to form the proposed

ac load demand exactly if only the ac subgrid is in existence. hybrid microgrid. The control objectives demanded here can

The power values are also in proportion to the ac source ratings better be visualized by grouping the ac and dc sources into two

if the droop coefficients or gradients of the droop lines (1 and consolidated sources tied to the same interlinking converter,

2 ) are set as like in Fig. 1. Quoting the ac subgrid in Section II-A as an

example, if the interlinking converter can be controlled to

1 Sa1 = 2 Sa2 (1) behave like the ac grid network, proportional active power

1376 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 49, NO. 3, MAY/JUNE 2013

sharing can be enforced between the two consolidated sources, where the load change is triggered. Individual sources within

and hence their individual sources located within. each subgrid will also share active power proportionally since

So far, the existing literature has only tried to imitate syn- they are controlled by the established droop control method

chronous generator droop control using power converters. The reviewed in Section II.

idea of emulating the grid network using an interlinking con- The aforementioned sharing principles will, of course, re-

verter has never been tried before. The identification of this quire the interlinking converter to transfer active power between

analogy and its implementation with either dc-link capacitor or the two subgrids. The necessary amount PI is given by the

energy storage are therefore new contributions of this paper. output of the PI1 controller, which will be positive for dc-to-

Relevant details are now provided as follows. ac transfer and negative for ac-to-dc transfer. Reference PI can

next be converted to an active current command II,d for the ac

subgrid and another (II ) for the dc subgrid based on

A. General Methodology

II,d = 2PI /(3VI ); (II ) = PI /VI (3)

Recalling from Section II-A again as an example, droop

variables used by the ac sources must be of the same type where VI and VI are the voltage amplitudes sensed at the ac and

(ac frequency f ) before the ac grid network can force them dc terminals of the interlinking converter, respectively.

to be equal. The difficulty faced by the interlinking converter A reactive current command II,q

can further be determined

is thus the different droop variables used by the two consoli- by measuring the ac terminal voltage VI of the interlinking

dated sources (ac frequency f and dc terminal voltage VI in converter and then using it with the standard droop equation

Fig. 1). These variables must first be brought to a common per in (4) for determining QI and II,q

unit (p.u.) range like 1 to 1 or other preferred numbers by

applying the following two expressions: QI = (VI VI,max )/I ; II,q

= 2QI /(3VI ) (4)

f 0.5(fmax + fmin ) where I is the droop coefficient for reactive power sharing.

fpu =

0.5(fmax fmin ) The nonzero II,q

should only be used when active power trans-

VI 0.5(VI,max

+ VI,min ) fer reference PI is positive. For negative transferred power,

VI,pu = (2) II,q = 0 should be used instead for unity power factor opera-

0.5 VI,max

VI,min tion. The explanation for that can be found in [23] written by

the authors. The description there is equally applicable here for

where subscripts max and min have been added to represent reactive power sharing.

the upper and lower limits of the accompanied variable. The current references formed for the ac and dc terminals

The error of the normalized variables (fpu VI,pu ) can then of the interlinking converter can therefore be summarized

be passed to a proportional-integral (PI) controller, numbered as (II,d + jII,q ) and (II ) . The former can be tracked by

as PI1 in Fig. 3. In the steady state, the error input of the a synchronous PI2 controller since it is already in the dq

PI1 controller would be zero. That simply means that the two frame. The latter can be tracked by a PI3 controller, but

normalized variables have been equalized just like what the in the stationary frame. In theory, both controllers would keep

ac grid network would have naturally done in the ac subgrid. the tracking errors at zero, while yet maintaining simplicity.

The grid network analogy has hence been realized, allowing the The latter is certainly an advantage in terms of easier industry

two subgrids to share active power proportionally, regardless of acceptance. The described control scheme must, however, be

LOH et al.: AUTONOMOUS CONTROL OF INTERLINKING CONVERTER WITH ENERGY STORAGE IN MICROGRID 1377

Fig. 4. Topology and parameters of interlinking converter used in simulation and experiment.

medium added to the interlinking converter. Relevant details

can be found in the next two sections.

The interlinking converter considered here is assembled by Fig. 5. Storage charging (negative) and discharging (positive) control.

connecting a standard dcdc boost converter to a standard dcac

inverter, as shown in Fig. 4. Such arrangement allows voltage teristic (or other chosen characteristics) like PS,min and PS,max

levels within the ac and dc subgrids to be flexibly decided, while should rightfully be set according to the storage state of charge

yet allowing bidirectional active power flow. At their common

dc link, either an electrolytic capacitor or an energy storage can vI = fpu + VI,pu /2 (5)

be added for buffering, filtering, or storage purposes. For the

PS,min , vI vt

case of a dc-link capacitor, a fourth PI4 controller must be added PS = I (vI vz ), 1 vI < vt

to the control scheme shown in Fig. 3. The intention is to keep P vI < 1

s,max ,

the dc-link voltage constant by producing a small active current

reference (II ) for compensating losses in the dc-link circuit. PS,min < 0(Charging, N egative)

This reference can be added to the active dc current command PS,max > 0(Discharging, N egative)

(II ) and hence drawn by the dcdc boost converter from the dc

subgrid. The modified ac and dc current references can then be I (PS,min PS,max )/(1 + vt )

summarized as (II,d + jII,q ) and ((II ) + (II ) ), respectively. vz = (PS,min + PS,max vt )/(PS,min PS,max ). (6)

Incorporating the chargingdischarging power reference PS

Instead of a capacitor, an energy storage can be added to the to the active power transferred PI , the modified ac and dc active

dc link of the interlinking converter. The control scheme shown current references are given by (7). The ac reactive current

in Fig. 3 must then be modified to provide for storage charging

reference II,q , on the other hand, remains unchanged

and discharging based on the following criteria.

1) The storage should charge only when the loads are low. In II,d = 2 (PI + 0.5PS ) /(3VI )

other words, there should be excess generation capacities (II ) = (PI + 0.5PS ) /VI . (7)

from the sources not demanded by the loads.

2) It should discharge when the sources cannot or can only

marginally meet the load demands. In other words, the

D. PI Controller Gain Selection

sources have no excess generation capacities.

The aforementioned two criteria require sensing of excess In total, four PI controllers are used. Their respective func-

generation capacities from the sources, which, in principle, tionalities are recalled as follows:

1) PI1 for equalizing two normalized variables fpu and

can be done by measuring the dc terminal voltage VI,pu and

network frequency fpu in their common p.u. range. Their mean VI,pu ;

I can then be computed using (5), before substituting it into 2) PI2 for tracking the ac current reference in the syn-

(6) to get the chargingdischarging power reference PS . The chronous frame;

graphical illustration of (6) is shown in Fig. 5, where the 3) PI3 for tracking the dc current reference in the stationary

storage is defined to charge at its maximum (negative) power frame;

PS,min only when I is high. When I falls, the charging 4) PI4 for regulating the voltage of the dc-link capacitor.

power gradually decreases until the storage starts to discharge PI2 and PI3 are faster inner current regulators, whose pro-

and eventually reaches a maximum (positive) discharging limit portional and integral gains are chosen as Kp2 = Kp3 = 0.3

PS,max . Parameters linked to this chargingdischarging charac- and Ki2 = Ki3 = 2000, respectively. Tuning of these gains is

1378 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 49, NO. 3, MAY/JUNE 2013

after setting the desired closed-loop bandwidth to be a fifth of

the switching frequency or lower [24]. The inner PI2 and PI3

controllers can then be modeled by a time-lap and a low-pass-

filter block for representing computational delay and capacitor

charging dynamics like in [25]. Doing this helps to simplify

the outer PI4 design, whose proportional and integral gains are

chosen as Kp4 = 0.1 and Ki4 = 10, respectively.

The last step is to design the PI1 controller, which, unlike the

earlier three (PI2 to PI4 ), is unique to the proposed interlinking

control. Its proportional gain can be determined by first defining

an acceptable error band eB for the two normalized variables

(e.g., 0.5eB fpu VIk,pu 0.5eB ). For error greater than

eB during the initial transient, the interlinking converter is

designed to transfer its maximum active power PI,max between

the subgrids to rapidly bring down the transient error. The

proportional gain of PI1 acting on the initial transient error can

then be tuned as Kp1 = 2PI,max /eB , where the factor of 2 is

for accounting bidirectional active power transfer. The transient

error eventually approaches zero because of the integral term

of the PI1 controller. Its corresponding integral gain is set as

Ki1 = 1000 to make it slower than the inner current regulators.

Fig. 6. Simulated active and reactive power flows with energy storage added

to interlinking converter.

IV. S IMULATION R ESULTS

The simulation was performed in Matlab/Simulink using

building blocks from the PLECS libraries for assembling the is not important and will not affect the performance of the

network and converter shown in Figs. 1 and 4. The voltage proposed control scheme.

and current sensors added were oriented such that, when their A transient step was subsequently introduced to the modeled

sensed values were used to calculate active and reactive pow- system with its results shown in Fig. 6. A comprehensive

ers, positive power values corresponded to those directions overview of Fig. 6 could also be found in Table II, from which

indicated in Fig. 4. For the ac subgrid, its total ratings were a few important observations were described as follows.

chosen as 10 kW and 5 kVAr over the ranges of 49 Hz f

51 Hz and 255 V VI 270 V. The voltage range chosen Before Transient, t = 0 to 0.4 s

was mainly based on the assumption that standard 600 V

AC and dc loads were initially set as {9 kW, 5.2 kVAr}

semiconductor switches (or 1200-V switches if a safety margin

and 2 kW, respectively.

of two was preferred) and hence a dc-link voltage of 600 V were

Since the dc subgrid was underloaded, the interlinking

used. The decided range then gave a modulation index range

converter automatically drew 5 kW from it. Out of this

of 0.85 M 0.9 (M = VIK /300), which was quite typical

amount, 2 kW was passed to the ac subgrid with the

in practice. Individual source ratings within the subgrid were,

remaining 3 kW used for storage charging.

however, not explicitly given here since the main intention was

Storage charging was appropriate since the total load

more to demonstrate correct active power flow through the

demand was only 11 kW out of a total source genera-

interlinking converter, and not within the subgrids.

tion capacity of 20 kW.

For the dc subgrid, its total rating was chosen as 10 kW

Each subgrid therefore correctly generated about

over the voltage range of 393 V VI 410 V. The ac and

7 kW for meeting the total load and storage demand.

dc subgrids studied therefore had the same rating, which in

Reasonable reactive power sharing was observed with

practice could be other ratios depending on the types of sources

the ac subgrid and interlinking converter, producing

and operating conditions considered. The subgrids were then

3.2 and 2 kVAr, respectively.

intertied by a converter rated at 8 kW and 2 kVAr with a

3 kW energy storage at its dc link. Ratings of the converter After Transient, t > 0.4 s

were mainly decided by the amount of power that the ac and

dc subgrids agreed to share. Their values were therefore always AC and dc loads were changed to {8 kW, 5 kVAr} and

smaller or equal to those of the lowest rated subgrid. The 11 kW, respectively.

formed microgrid was eventually tied to a dc load and a three- The dc subgrid was loaded more, prompting the in-

phase ac load, whose power demands were spelled later, while terlinking converter to inject 2 kW into it. Of this

describing the simulation results. This load arrangement was amount, only 1 kW was drawn from the ac subgrid.

planned mainly for testing purposes. In practice, load placement The remaining 1 kW was discharged from the storage.

LOH et al.: AUTONOMOUS CONTROL OF INTERLINKING CONVERTER WITH ENERGY STORAGE IN MICROGRID 1379

SUMMARIZED POWER FLOWS OBTAINED THROUGH TESTING (SEE FIG. 4

FOR P OWER N OTATIONS , IC I NTERLINKING C ONVERTER )

DC voltage and current were positive. That correctly

represents the active power drawn by the dc terminal

of the interlinking converter.

The phase shift between the ac voltage and current

was lesser than 90 . That correctly gives the positive

active and reactive powers injected by the ac terminal

of the interlinking converter.

After Transient

Negative active power was thus correctly reflected

(interlinking converter injecting active power to the

dc subgrid).

The phase shift between the ac voltage and current

was 180 , implying negative active power and zero

reactive power drawn by the ac terminal of the inter-

linking converter. These were in accordance to those

observations noted from Fig. 6.

V. E XPERIMENTAL R ESULTS

A scaled-down experimental setup was built for testing the

proposed control scheme. For full verification, the number of

waveforms monitored simultaneously was enormous and was

therefore tough to show in a synchronized series of plots.

Because of that, only active power flows and their related

voltage and current waveforms were shown. That was not

restrictive since the main intention of this paper was to prove

the proportional active power sharing between the subgrids. The

number of waveforms monitored was eventually reduced to 11

and was displayed using three four-channel digital scopes.

Returning to the physical setup, the ac subgrid was emulated

with a droop-controlled dcac inverter having a power rating of

1.2 kW and a frequency range of 47 Hz f 51 Hz. The dc

subgrid, on the other hand, was realized with a programmable

dc power supply programmed with a rating of 1 kW and

a voltage range of 180 V VI 200 V. The experimental

Fig. 7. Simulated voltages and currents for transient event shown in Fig. 6. frequency and voltage ranges were generally set wider than

those in simulation because of noises unintentionally picked

Storage discharging was appropriate since the total up by the experimental system. The noises can be reduced

load demand of 19 kW was near the total source in practice with better shielded sensors and surrounding. The

generation capacity of 20 kW. ratings of the subgrids were also intentionally set different to

Each subgrid therefore correctly produced about reflect their different kilowatt generations in the steady state.

9 kW for meeting 18 kW of the load (19 kW in Their p.u. values, normalized with respect to their ratings, were,

total). The remaining 1 kW demanded by the load was however, still equal because of the implemented proportional

discharged from the storage. active power sharing.

Since active power was flowing into the ac terminal Linking the subgrids was an interlinking converter, whose

of the interlinking converter, it produced no reactive configuration was shown in Fig. 4. At its dc link was a battery

power according to Section III-A. storage governed by those expressions in (6). The parameters

Relevant voltage and current waveforms measured at the ac chosen for (6) were PS,min = 0.3 kW, PS,max = 0.375 kW,

and dc terminals of the interlinking converter were also plotted and I = 2.25 kW. With this setup, 11 waveforms were plotted

in Fig. 7. Observations noted from there were summarized as in Fig. 8, whose meanings and represented variables in Fig. 4

follows. were clarified as follows.

1380 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 49, NO. 3, MAY/JUNE 2013

Fig. 8. Experimentally captured waveforms for hybrid acdc microgrid (refer to third paragraph of Section V for description of each waveform).

1) Upper plot: C1 ac subgrid source power (P ),1 C2 panying PS was caused by the fixed reverse orientation of

ac terminal voltage of interlinking converter (VI ), C3 the current sensor found in the battery.

ac current flowing out of interlinking converter (II ), and 3) Lower plot: C1 dc terminal voltage of interlinking

C4 ac load current. converter (VI ), C2 dc subgrid source power (PD ), C3

2) Middle plot: C1 dc-link voltage (VI ), C2 ac power dc power flowing into interlinking converter (PI ), and

flowing out of interlinking converter (PI ), and C3 C4 dc load current.

negative battery power (PS ). The negative sign accom-

1 AC subgrid source power was not measured but computed by applying

instantaneous power theory and then filtering. Computational errors might have Observations noted from the three left plots of Fig. 8 for

caused those oscillations observed with trace C1 in the upper plot of Fig. 8. the load step-up transient were summarized in Table II to give

LOH et al.: AUTONOMOUS CONTROL OF INTERLINKING CONVERTER WITH ENERGY STORAGE IN MICROGRID 1381

described as follows.

An interlinking control scheme has been presented here for

Before Transient regulating power flows in a hybrid acdc microgrid. The results

AC and dc loads were initially at 1.03 and 0.1 kW, show that proportional active power sharing can be enforced

respectively. based on ratings and not placements of sources within the

Since the dc subgrid was underloaded, the interlinking hybrid microgrid. Proper charging and discharging of energy

converter automatically drew 0.55 kW from it. Out storage placed at the dc link of the interlinking converter

of this amount, 0.25 kW was transferred to the ac have also been demonstrated without affecting the accuracy of

subgrid. The remaining 0.3 kW was directed to charge proportional active power sharing. These findings have not been

the storage, as intended. previously investigated and would definitely be of relevance

The total source generations were then 0.78 kW for since modern green sources can either be ac or dc.

the ac subgrid and 0.65 kW for the dc subgrid. Both

gave the same p.u. value of 0.65, as anticipated. R EFERENCES

After Transient [1] R. H. Lasseter and P. Paigi, Microgrid: A conceptual solution, in Proc.

IEEE PESC, 2004, pp. 42854290.

AC and dc loads were changed to 1.03 and 1.1 kW, [2] H. Nikkhajoei and R. H. Lasseter, Distributed generation interface to the

respectively. CERTS microgrid, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 1598

1608, Jul. 2009.

The dc subgrid was loaded slightly more, hence [3] M. Datta, T. Senjyu, A. Yona, T. Funabashi, and C. H. Kim, A co-

prompting the interlinking converter to inject 0.2 kW ordinated control method for leveling PV output power fluctuations of

into it. Of this amount, 0.05 kW was drawn from PVdiesel hybrid systems connected to isolated power utility, IEEE

Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 153162, Mar. 2009.

the ac subgrid. The remaining 0.15 kW was correctly [4] M. Datta, T. Senjyu, A. Yona, T. Funabashi, and C. H. Kim, A frequency-

discharged from the storage. control approach by photovoltaic generator in a PV-diesel hybrid power

The corresponding source generations were 1.08 kW system, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 559571,

Jun. 2011.

for the ac subgrid and 0.9 kW for the dc subgrid. [5] C. Wang and M. H. Nehrir, Power management of a stand-alone

They again had the same p.u. value of 0.9 because wind/photovoltaic/fuel cell energy system, IEEE Trans. Energy Con-

of proportional active power sharing based on ratings vers., vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 957967, Sep. 2008.

[6] J. M. Guerrero, J. C. Vasquez, J. Matas, L. G. de Vicuna, and M. Castilla,

and not placements. Hierarchical control of droop-controlled ac and dc microgridsA

general approach toward standardization, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron.,

vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 158172, Jan. 2011.

B. Load Step-Down Transient [7] A. Tuladhar, H. Jin, T. Unger, and K. Mauch, Control of parallel inverters

in distributed ac power systems with consideration of line impedance

The load step-down transient was triggered by returning the effect, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 131138, Jan/Feb. 2000.

[8] J. M. Guerrero, L. G. Vicua, J. Matas, M. Castilla, and J. Miret, Output

ac and dc loads to their initial values of 1.03 and 0.1 kW, impedance design of parallel-connected UPS inverters with wireless load-

respectively. The captured waveforms were plotted on the right sharing control, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 1126

of Fig. 8, which, in general, conveyed the same power flow 1135, Aug. 2005.

[9] M. N. Marwali, J. W. Jung, and A. Keyhani, Control of distributed

conclusions. They were thus not repeated here. Rather, attention generation systemsPart II: Load sharing control, IEEE Trans. Power

should be focused at an event that occurred immediately after Electron., vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 15511561, Nov. 2004.

the load step-down transient. During that event, the interlinking [10] M. Prodanovic and T. C. Green, High-quality power generation through

distributed control of a power park microgrid, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron.,

converter had not yet lowered its earlier dc power injection vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 14711482, Oct. 2006.

(lower C3) even after the dc load lowered (lower C4). The [11] K. De Brabandere, B. Bolsens, J. Van Den Keybus, A. Woyte, J. Driesen,

dc subgrid therefore had a temporary energy surplus, which and R. Belmans, A voltage and frequency droop control method for

parallel inverters, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 1107

caused the dc programmable supply to trip because of energy 1115, Jul. 2007.

backflow (lower C2). This problem could be resolved in prac- [12] T. L. Lee and P. T. Cheng, Design of a new cooperative harmonic filtering

tice by adding some energy storages within the dc subgrid for strategy for distributed generation interface converters in an islanding

network, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 19191927,

temporary cushioning purposes. The supply power (lower Sep. 2007.

C2) eventually rose back to its new steady-state value after the [13] Y. Mohamed and E. F. El-Saadany, Adaptive decentralized droop con-

interlinking converter changed from injecting to absorbing dc troller to preserve power sharing stability of paralleled inverters in dis-

tributed generation microgrids, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 23,

power (lower C3). no. 6, pp. 28062816, Nov. 2008.

The same problem was not faced by the ac subgrid, which [14] R. Majumder, B. Chaudhuri, A. Ghosh, R. Majumder, G. Ledwich, and

was supplying power to a high ac load (upper C4) and the F. Zare, Improvement of stability and load sharing in an autonomous

microgrid using supplementary droop control loop, IEEE Trans. Power

interlinking converter (middle C2) before the transient. The ac Syst., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 796808, May 2010.

source power (upper C1) could therefore lower immediately [15] R. Majumder, A. Ghosh, G. Ledwich, and F. Zare, Load sharing and

to its new steady-state value, while the interlinking converter power quality enhanced operation of a distributed microgrid, IET Renew.

Power Gener., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 109119, Jun. 2009.

changed from absorbing to injecting power to the ac subgrid. [16] J. M. Guerrero, L. Hang, and J. Uceda, Control of distributed uninter-

The injected power first came from the dc-link storage (middle ruptible power supply systems, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 8,

C3) but was gradually shifted to the dc subgrid after it recovered pp. 28452859, Aug. 2008.

[17] B. K. Johnson, R. H. Lasseter, F. L. Alvarado, and R. Adapa, Expandable

fully. When that happened, the storage returned to its charging multiterminal dc systems based on voltage droop, IEEE Trans. Power

state with 0.3 kW absorbed. Del., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 19261932, Oct. 1993.

1382 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 49, NO. 3, MAY/JUNE 2013

[18] F. Mura, C. Meyer, and R. W. De Doncker, Stability analysis of high- Ding Li received the B.Sc. degree in electrical

power dc grids, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 584592, engineering from Wuhan University, Wuhan, China,

Mar./Apr. 2010. in 2007 and the M.Sc. degree in power engineering

[19] M. E. Baran and N. R. Mahajan, DC distribution for industrial systems: from Nanyang Technology University, Singapore, in

Opportunities and challenges, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 39, no. 6, 2008, where he is currently working toward the Ph.D.

pp. 15961601, Nov./Dec. 2003. degree.

[20] A. Sannino, G. Postiglione, and M. H. J. Bollen, Feasibility of a dc From July to October 2009, he was a Visiting

network for commercial facilities, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 39, no. 5, Scholar with the Institute of Energy Technology,

pp. 14091507, Sep./Oct. 2003. Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark. His research

[21] D. Salomonsson and A. Sannino, Low-voltage dc distribution system for fields include multilevel inverters, Z-source invert-

commercial power systems with sensitive electronic loads, IEEE Trans. ers, renewable energy interfacing technology, and

Power Del., vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 16201627, Jul. 2007. current source inverters.

[22] C. Meyer, M. Hing, A. Peterson, and R. W. De Doncker, Control and

design of dc-grids for offshore wind farms, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl.,

vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 14751482, Nov./Dec. 2007.

[23] P. C. Loh and F. Blaabjerg, Autonomous control of distributed storages Yi Kang Chai received the B.Eng. degree in electri-

in microgrids, in Proc. IEEE ICPE, 2011, pp. 536542. cal and electronic engineering from Nanyang Tech-

[24] Matlab Control System ToolboxUsers Guide, The MathWorks Inc., nological University, Singapore, in 2012.

Natick, MA, USA, 2012. He is currently working on the operation and

[25] H. H. Kuo, S. N. Yeh, and J. C. Hwang, Novel analytical model for maintenance of high-voltage distribution switch-

design and implementation of three-phase active power filter controller, gears, transformers, and cables with Singapore

Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng.Elect. Power Appl., vol. 148, no. 4, pp. 369383, PowerGrid Ltd., Singapore.

Jul. 2001.

B.Eng. (Hons.) and M.Eng. degrees in electrical en- Frede Blaabjerg (S86M88SM97F03) rece-

gineering from the National University of Singapore, ived the Ph.D. degree from Aalborg University,

Singapore, in 1998 and 2000, respectively, and the Aalborg, Denmark, in 1992.

Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from Monash He was employed at ABB-Scandia, Randers,

University, Clayton, Australia, in 2002. Denmark, from 1987 to 1988. He became an As-

During the summer of 2001, he was a Visiting sistant Professor at Aalborg University in 1992, an

Scholar with the Wisconsin Electric Machine and Associate Professor in 1996, and a Full Professor

Power Electronics Consortium, University of Wis- of power electronics and drives in 1998. He was a

consin, Madison, WI, USA, where he worked on part-time Research Leader at the Research Center

the synchronized implementation of cascaded multi- Risoe, working on wind turbines. In 20062010, he

level inverters and reduced common-mode carrier-based and hysteresis control was the Dean of the Faculty of Engineering, Science

strategies for multilevel inverters. From 2002 to 2003, he was a Project and Medicine, and he became a Visiting Professor at Zhejiang University,

Engineer with the Defence Science and Technology Agency, Singapore, man- Hangzhou, China, in 2009. His research areas are power electronics and

aging defense infrastructure projects and exploring new technology for defense applications such as wind turbines, photovoltaic systems, and adjustable-speed

applications. From 2003 to 2009, he was an Assistant Professor with Nanyang drives.

Technological University, Singapore, and since 2009, he has been an Associate Dr. Blaabjerg has been the Editor in Chief of the IEEE T RANSACTIONS

Professor at the same university. In 2005, he was visiting staff, first at the ON P OWER E LECTRONICS since 2006. He was a Distinguished Lecturer of

University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, and then at Aalborg University, Aalborg, the IEEE Power Electronics Society in 20052007 and of the IEEE Industry

Denmark. In 2007 and 2009, he again returned to Aalborg University, first as Applications Society from 2010 to 2011. He received the 1995 Angelos Award

visiting staff working on matrix converters and the control of grid-interfaced for his contributions to modulation technique and the Annual Teacher Prize

inverters and then as a guest member of the Vestas Power Program. at Aalborg University. In 1998, he received the Outstanding Young Power

Dr. Loh received two third paper prizes from the Industrial Power Converter Electronics Engineer Award from the IEEE Power Electronics Society. He

Committee of the IEEE Industry Applications Society in 2003 and 2006. He is has received ten IEEE prize paper awards and another prize paper award at

now serving as an Associate Editor of the IEEE T RANSACTIONS ON P OWER PELINCEC Poland 2005. He received the IEEE PELS Distinguished Service

E LECTRONICS. Award in 2009 and the EPE-PEMC 2010 Council Award.

- 1756-In005_-En-p ControlLogix Chassis and Power SupplyÎncărcat deLuevandres
- ATEC-MDM3100Încărcat deDasuki Fahmi
- Voltage CollapseÎncărcat deNafeesathul Isha
- [IEEE 2015 IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting - Addison, TX, USA (2015.10.18-2015.10.22)] 2015 IEEEÎncărcat dejohnson
- Transient Stability Improvement in Transmission System using SVC with PI-Fuzzy Logic Hybrid ControlÎncărcat deIOSRjournal
- EMC Part 1bÎncărcat deAlexander Ong
- energies-03-01049Încărcat deanon_592309352
- IEcon1_HengweiÎncărcat depouyan
- 8313 Berg Power Factors AndÎncărcat deAbdulyunus Amir
- EM6400 Modbus MapÎncărcat deAnoop Kumar Panday
- An Optimization Technique for Real AndÎncărcat deShreevats Pandey
- Research Paper Improvement of Power System Stability by Simultaneous AC-DC Power TransmissionÎncărcat demaazsiddiqui.ee7193
- EE2036-FACTS question bank for two units.docÎncărcat deSaran Arun
- ejsr_42_1_10Încărcat deAbdulrazzaq F. Atto
- 3a300Încărcat demdtaher
- ENG_2013011610182971Încărcat deWaseem Nosimohomed
- Sajadi 2018Încărcat devinayaka
- Unit 6Încărcat derathneshkumar
- Distribution NetworksÎncărcat deAjay Rawat
- ANSI C37.16-2000.pdfÎncărcat deIvan
- 83525-202053-1-PB (2)Încărcat deRohit Nandi
- 617030_FULLTEXT01Încărcat deAlfredo Lopez Cordova
- Offshore Wind Power Plant ControlÎncărcat deTanna Chang
- Simatic St70 Chap02 English 2015Încărcat dejexxxuxxx
- Power FlowÎncărcat deDavid Cllol
- SVC and STATCOM Application in Electric ArcÎncărcat deGolfkung Pairoj
- reactivepowercompensationusingstatcom-140223125603-phpapp01.pptxÎncărcat de1balamanian
- DC Powering Rane RAP UnitsÎncărcat debob dole
- Electric Power Systems - Synthèse Version 2Încărcat deBertrandFocher
- Multiphase Bidirectional Flyback Converter.pdfÎncărcat deArceu Campos

- L-26(TB)Three Phase TransformerÎncărcat develisbar
- High-Efﬁciency Modular High Step-Up Interleaved Boost Converter for DC-microgrid applications.pdfÎncărcat deVamshi Krishna
- Power Management for DC Microgrid Enabled by Solid-State Transformer.pdfÎncărcat deVamshi Krishna
- Integrated Full-Bridge-Forward DC–DC Converter for a residential Microgrid Application.pdfÎncărcat deVamshi Krishna
- Multilevel InverterÎncărcat deVamshi Krishna
- 19.basicÎncărcat decaptainhass
- Autonomous DC Voltage Control of a DC Microgrid With Multiple Slack Terminals.pdfÎncărcat deVamshi Krishna
- Microgrid Power Quality Enhancement Using a Three-Phase Four-Wire Grid-Interfacing Compensator.pdfÎncărcat deVamshi Krishna
- 16.basicÎncărcat decaptainhass
- 11.basicÎncărcat decaptainhass
- Fault Detection and Isolation in Low-Voltage DC-Bus Microgrid system.pdfÎncărcat deVamshi Krishna
- Auto Transformer ModuleÎncărcat deIkhwanJack
- 9.basicÎncărcat decaptainhass
- 7.basicÎncărcat decaptainhass
- TransformerÎncărcat depav46
- 6358716 Solution of Current in RLC Series CircuitsÎncărcat deLin Chong
- L-17(NKD)(ET) ((EE)NPTEL)Încărcat deA.K.M.TOUHIDUR RAHMAN
- transf 1Încărcat deRavi Mehta
- L-12(NKD)(ET) ((EE)NPTEL)Încărcat deRahul Kumar
- L-13(NKD)(ET) ((EE)NPTEL)Încărcat deSuhail Zargar
- L-04(GDR)(ET) ((EE)NPTEL)Încărcat dealovingsight
- L-06(GDR)(ET) ((EE)NPTEL)Încărcat dealgefer
- L-05(GDR)(ET) ((EE)NPTEL)Încărcat dealovingsight

- RE Grid Integration and Distributed Generation Specialization Syllabus_100916Încărcat demalini72
- Ee6503 Power ElectronicsÎncărcat deSurya
- AFE_eÎncărcat deDương
- Lecture 5 DiodesÎncărcat delong
- chapter 2Încărcat deabhikesh wale
- Simulation and Laboratory of Control System for Wind TurbineÎncărcat deHazrul_Mohamed_Basri
- ToshibaGlobalInternship2019_ApplicationGuidelinesPositionListÎncărcat deFaiz Mustain
- Filter Design for Grid Connected InvertersÎncărcat deRaja Reddy
- VGO36-16io7Încărcat deHoàngTrần
- IEEE_04758417Încărcat deniakinezhad
- PG_EPS_SyallabusÎncărcat deGyan Prakash
- Model Predicitive Control Solar FlybackÎncărcat deMohibKhan
- PBPO080_Chung_Cover Options for EditorsÎncărcat debensumbb
- Chapter 04 sedra solutions.pdfÎncărcat deMaryam Sana
- 211810572-Khanna-Check-List.pdfÎncărcat deMirWaseemBugti
- A Comprehensive Analysis of Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation for 3-Phase Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) 01 JuneÎncărcat deGJESR
- 8485574.pptÎncărcat dejayaraju_2002
- Journal of Computer Science IJCSIS November 2014Încărcat deijcsis
- Battery Setup for Huawei TP48-200Încărcat deAnonymous 3btOVt
- Silicon Controlled RectifierÎncărcat deEysha qureshi
- Dynamic Modelling and Control of Some Power Electronic_Lesson-1Încărcat deAlfred Tham
- RectifierÎncărcat deMaverick Naidu
- CEME508IndiaÎncărcat deDipanjan Das
- Bidirectional Flyback Inverter WithÎncărcat deArceu Campos
- Functionarea IGCT Si IGBTÎncărcat deFaqRO
- Ac to Dc ConvertorÎncărcat dekultardeep
- Project Advertisement 2017Încărcat desuburaaj
- Dokodoc.com With Ieee Std Ieee Standard Digital Interface forÎncărcat dehaythem
- Service Manual FP2 Rectifier FamilyÎncărcat dedmax13
- PEC DC DC ConvertersÎncărcat deJoshua Hamilton

## Mult mai mult decât documente.

Descoperiți tot ce are Scribd de oferit, inclusiv cărți și cărți audio de la editori majori.

Anulați oricând.