Sunteți pe pagina 1din 26

How to benefit from

DCFTA

Practical guide


 How to benefit from DCFTA Practical guide This material has been produced with the assistance

 How to benefit from DCFTA Practical guide This material has been produced with the assistance

 How to benefit from DCFTA Practical guide This material has been produced with the assistance

 How to benefit from DCFTA Practical guide This material has been produced with the assistance

 How to benefit from DCFTA Practical guide This material has been produced with the assistance

 How to benefit from DCFTA Practical guide This material has been produced with the assistance

 How to benefit from DCFTA Practical guide This material has been produced with the assistance

This material has been produced with the assistance of the European Union. The contents of this publication are the sole responsibility of project implementing partners and can in no way be taken to reflect the views of the European Union.

CONTENT

 

INTRODUCTION

3

Part 1. What is DCFTA and what kind of opportunities it provides to business?

4

Part 2. DCFTA status in Georgia, Azerbaijan and Moldova

5

Georgia

5

Moldova

7

 

Azerbaijan

9

Part 3. Best practice examples and failures of exporting to EU: case study Latvia

11

They

succeeded

11

How EU internal market forces might fight back:

12

They felt the rage of EU market forces

12

Part 4. Planning for export: SWOT analysis of example products

14

Part 5. Recommendations for export support to SME helping them fully benefit from DCFTA

25

Georgia

25

Moldova

25

 

Azerbaijan

26

2

of 26

INTRODUCTION

This handbook is a result of a project “Benefitting from EU open market: SMEs practical guide to DCFTA learning from experience of Latvia” supported by Eastern Partnership Civil Society Forum Re-granting Scheme. The project was implemented by Georgian association “Women in Business” (www.gawb.ge), Business Union of Latvia (www.savieniba.lv), Social Strategic Researches and Analytical Investigations Public Union (Azerbaijan) and NGO BIOS (Moldova, http://bios.ong.md).

The handbook is based on the round table discussion held in Tbilisi with participation of entrepreneurs and government representatives and series of workshops held in partner countries.

The project partners and authors of this handbook extend their hope that the information gathered in this handbook will help SME’s and their representatives to better prepare themselves for the battle that is waiting for them trying to export to such saturated market as European Union.

Authors:

Gunta Mis āne, Eduards Filippovs (Latvia) Nino Elizbarashvili, Revaz Burchuladze (Georgia) Ilqar Huseynli, Elkhan Heydarli (Azerbaijan) Eugen Roscovanu, Valentin Ciobotaru (Moldova)

©

Georgian association “Women in Business” Business Union of Latvia Social Strategic Researches and Analytical Investigations Public Union (Azerbaijan) NGO BIOS (Moldova)

October 2017

Public Union (Azerbaijan) NGO BIOS (Moldova) October 2017 The project benefits from the support through the

The project benefits from the support through the EaP CSF Re-granting Scheme. Within its Re-granting Scheme, the Eastern Partnership

 

Civil Society Forum (EaP CSF) supports projects of the EaP CSF members with a regional dimension that contribute to achieving the mission

and objectives of the Forum.

 

The donors of the Re-granting Scheme are the European Union and National Endowment for Democracy.

 

The overall amount for the 2017 call for proposals is 290.000 EUR. Grants are available for CSOs from the Eastern Partnership and EU

 

countries.

 

Key areas of support are democracy and human rights, economic integration, environment and energy, contacts between people, social and

labour policies.

 

This material has been produced with the assistance of the European Union. The contents of this publication are the sole responsibility of

 

project implementing partners and can in no way be taken to reflect the views of the European Union.

 

3

of 26

Part 1. What is DCFTA and what kind of opportunities it provides to business?

If we would play a game asking people to guess – what does letters DCFTA stand for - we would have some peculiar answers. No, it is not Dark Cat Feeling Tricky Always or District of Columbia Freight Transport Association.

! DCFTA stands for – (D) Deep and (C) Comprehensive (F) Free (T) Trade (A) Area

DCFTA is part of Association Agreements (AA) that have been signed between the European Union (EU) and Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. These Association Agreements in turn is result of the Eastern Partnership (EaP) -– a specific Eastern dimension to the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP).

Although Eastern Partnership covers EU relations with Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine, only Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine have taken necessary steps for closer co-operation with EU. In relations with Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus EU will follow a more differentiated and tailored approach.

! If you want to work with EU get ready to learn a lot of abbreviations! Otherwise reading official documents or reports might be a nightmare.

The main intention of DCFTA agreements is to create preferential trade relationships, based on mutually advantageous treatment, giving to each other better access to their markets than that offered to other trade partners.

DCFTA agreements cover a range of topics like lifting technical barriers to trade, reducing tariffs, quotas for the trade, approximation of sanitary and phytosanitary measures, securing intellectual property rights, ensuring fare competition, transparent public procurement also other issues with aim to align rules of operation for businesses in trade partner countries.

Although DCFTA agreements in all three countries follow the same outline and structure, each of the agreements is slightly different depending on the specific nature of situation in each country.

DCFTA provides opportunities not only to large companies, but also to small and medium enterprises (SMEs):

Helps SMEs to seize new trade opportunities with the EU and within the region which have been opened up thanks to the DCFTA;companies, but also to small and medium enterprises (SMEs): Improves access to finance for SMEs, enabling

Improves access to finance for SMEs, enabling them to make the necessary investments to increase their competitiveness;the region which have been opened up thanks to the DCFTA; Allows SMEs to integrate into

Allows SMEs to integrate into global value chains by becoming business partners of foreign direct investors;the necessary investments to increase their competitiveness; Enables SMEs to comply with new sanitary, phytosanitary,

Enables SMEs to comply with new sanitary, phytosanitary, technical and quality standards, as well as with environmental protection measures, thereby benefiting local customers and boosting exports to the EU and beyond.Allows SMEs to integrate into global value chains by becoming business partners of foreign direct investors;

4

of 26

Part 2. DCFTA status in Georgia, Azerbaijan and Moldova

   

Georgia

Moldova

 

Azerbaijan

Year of signing DCFTA

 

2014

 

2014

 

DCFTA not signed

Year of coming into force of DCFTA

September 1, 2014

July 1, 2016 (provisionally – since 2014)

 

DCFTA not in force

Export to EU

Mio EUR 1

% of all export

Mio EUR

% of all export

Mio EUR

% of all export

2000

59,03

24,4%

123,69

35,1%

Not available

Not available

2010

231,43

18,4%

545,53

47,3%

10

300,0

51,4%

2014

514,13

21,8%

1 026,26

53,26%

13

200,0

53%

2015

592,65

29,3%

1 118,39

61,91%

10

700,0

53%

2016

542,77

27,1%

1 264,03

65,14%

7 600,0

43,2%

 

As of 2016    Electrical machinery and Mineral fuel, lubricants, etc. - 98%

 

Electrical machinery and  As of 2016   Mineral fuel, lubricants, etc. - 98%

Mineral fuel, lubricants, etc. - 98%  As of 2016   Electrical machinery and

Ores and concentrates of copper - 54,6%apparatus and parts thereof (including non-electrical Food and live animals - 0,7%

apparatus and parts thereof (including non-electrical

Food and live animals - 0,7%Ores and concentrates of copper - 54,6% apparatus and parts thereof (including non-electrical

Manufactured goods - 0,5%(including non-electrical Food and live animals - 0,7% Ferroalloys – 29,6% equivalents of machines and

Ferroalloys – 29,6%equivalents of machines and Machinery and transport - 0,3%

equivalents of machines and

Machinery and transport - 0,3%Ferroalloys – 29,6% equivalents of machines and

Grapes natural wines -appliance-19%   Chemicals - 0,2%  

appliance-19%

 

Chemicals - 0,2%Grapes natural wines - appliance-19%    

 

Top 5 export products to EU

19,8%

Clothing and accessories -16%Top 5 export products to EU 19,8% Crude materials -0,1%

Crude materials -0,1%Top 5 export products to EU 19,8% Clothing and accessories -16%

Nut products - 25,3%Seeds and oleaginous fruits -

Seeds and oleaginous fruits -Nut products - 25,3%

 

Alcoholic beverages - 16%  12%

12%

The waters are mineral andVegetables and fruits-9%

Vegetables and fruits-9%The waters are mineral and

carbon

13,9%

Beveragescarbon 13,9% - 4%

- 4%

Mio EUR 1

Georgia

History and legal background for trade relations

The Association Agreement between the European Union (EU) and Georgia is a comprehensive treaty covering Georgia’s relationship with the EU.

On June 27, 2014, Georgia signed the EU Association Agreement, which came into force on September 1, 2014. The DCFTA is document of vital importance, which will enable Georgian entrepreneurs to ensure a place for Georgian products in one of the largest global markets.

5

of 26

The agreement incorporates elements which encourage improvements in the rule of law and in effective governance, as well as further moves towards a well-functioning market economy through the removal of tariff and non-tariff barriers it includes a wide range of trade- related issues: trade in goods, trade in services, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, technical barriers to trade, rules of origin, customs and trade facilitation, intellectual property rights, public procurement, competition, trade remedies and sustainable development and envisages gradual approximation of the Georgian legislation with the EU legislation, and allows Georgian producers to export majority of their goods without tariff barriers to the additional 14-mln high purchasing power consumer market.

In addition, while the Agreement is intensely technical, it is an act of geopolitical significance for Georgia, affirming its European identity and its strategic foreign policy priority of developing closer ties with the EU.

Within the framework of the DCFTA with the European Union, Georgia are undertaken to bring the production process and quality closer to EU standards in order to make the products produced in these queues freely available to the EU market. However, regulations demanded

within the DCFTA concern not only the entrepreneurs and exporters of the EU but also all the companies, as the agreement of the domestic

business environment should be changed. The amendments are

skills and financial means to be able to bring their production process and infrastructure closer to European standards.

particularly acute for small and medium businesses that need additional

Along with Association agreement, one of the most important treaties for foreign trade with other non-EU countries is The Free Trade Agreement between Georgia and European Free Trade Association (EFTA), signed in June 2016 and entered into force on 1st September 2017. At this stage, the agreement has entered into force only among Georgia, Norway and Iceland. For Switzerland and Lichtenstein, the agreement will enter into force in 3 months after the ratification of the agreement by both countries.

Georgia is also the beneficiary of the general system of preferences (GSP) of the following countries: USA, Japan, Canada. Georgia has free trade regime with all the CIS countries and Turkey. The main essence of the GSP is to establish a lower rate of basic import tariffs for imported goods from beneficiary countries, which facilitates access to developing countries in the developed countries.

Most of Georgia's trade partners are members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and, therefore, trade relations with WTO member states (158 countries) are based on the "Best Supporting Regime" (MFN).

Export results

Decreasing trend of export that started in 2014, from the 3rd quarter of 2015 was mainly driven by price effect and decline of real export has gradually slowed down. Moreover, decline in nominal terms has also slowed down and from September of 2016, export shows growing tendency. Export in real terms has significantly increased from June 2016 and in overall in 2016 real growth amounted to 10.1%. In 2016 Georgia's foreign trade turnover was 11 966 million. USD, which was 20% up compared to previous year.

In May, 2017 export has further significantly increased and growth rate amounted to 25%.

Graph 1. Import and export dynamics of Georgia with EU

significantly increased and growth rate amounted to 25%. Graph 1. Import and export dynamics of Georgia

6

of 26

According to Geostat, national statistics service of Georgia, In January - August 2017 the external trade turnover of Georgia with the EU countries amounted to USD 1804,4 million, grew by 7,4 percent compared to the corresponding indicator of the previous year. Exports amounted to USD 400,9 million (26,6 percent higher), while imports amounted to USD 1403,5 million (2,9 percent higher). The share of these countries in the external trade turnover of Georgia amounted to 27,3 %, 23,8 % in exports and 28,4 % in imports (in January - August 2016: 28,5%, 24,2% and 29.7 % correspondingly). 30,8 % of the trade deficit came to the EU countries (31,9 percent in January -August

2016).

Graph 2. Georgian exports by country groups January - August 2017

2. Georgian exports by country groups January - August 2017 The capacity of Georgian products to

The capacity of Georgian products to find a place in a sophisticated market like the European is encouraging for several reasons:

It shows innovation in agriculture, a significant part of the economy;market like the European is encouraging for several reasons: It shows that Georgia can be competitive

It shows that Georgia can be competitive with high-value added products with, meaning they are profitable for the exporters;in agriculture, a significant part of the economy; But most importantly this development is interesting because

But most importantly this development is interesting because meeting the legal requirements to sell food in the EU is a major achievement.with, meaning they are profitable for the exporters; Despite achieved success, SMEs are currently facing: Most

Despite achieved success, SMEs are currently facing:

Most of the enterprises are not certified and do not possess international standards;Despite achieved success, SMEs are currently facing: Most of the companies are not yet ready for

Most of the companies are not yet ready for export:not certified and do not possess international standards; companies do not have an export strategy, analysis

companies do not have an export strategy,

companies do not have an export strategy,

analysis of already implemented exports is not studied,

analysis of already implemented exports is not studied,

the target markets are not well researched and the action plans are not developed based

the target markets are not well researched and the action plans are not developed based on the marketing and logistics plan,

Companies cannot provide sufficient quality control; Low labor productivity, lack of information about new technologies; Lack of tailor-made approach in SME support schemes for internationalization;are not developed based on the marketing and logistics plan, Companies do not have relevant experience

Companies do not have relevant experience in participating in international exhibitions or events.approach in SME support schemes for internationalization; Moldova History and legal background for trade relations

in participating in international exhibitions or events. Moldova History and legal background for trade relations
in participating in international exhibitions or events. Moldova History and legal background for trade relations

Moldova

History and legal background for trade relations

Moldova has signed DCFTA in 2014 and it came fully into force in 2016. Since then Moldova has undergone some political changes that might have influence on the implementation of DCFTA in future.

Originally four policy areas of critical importance to DCFTA implementation were identified by central administration:

trade in goods,of critical importance to DCFTA implementation were identified by central administration: trade in services, 7 of

trade in services,areas of critical importance to DCFTA implementation were identified by central administration: trade in goods, 7

7

of 26

technical Barriers to Trade and Market Surveillance,customs legislation and customs procedures. Important challenges in implementing the DCFTA are: to ensure harmonization

customs legislation and customs procedures.technical Barriers to Trade and Market Surveillance, Important challenges in implementing the DCFTA are: to ensure

Important challenges in implementing the DCFTA are:

to ensure harmonization of laws with EU acquis,Important challenges in implementing the DCFTA are: accountable manner to boost productivity, enhance national

accountable manner to boost productivity,DCFTA are: to ensure harmonization of laws with EU acquis, enhance national competitiveness, implement public

enhance national competitiveness,with EU acquis, accountable manner to boost productivity, implement public administrative reform, introduction of

implement public administrative reform,to boost productivity, enhance national competitiveness, introduction of e-governance, to improve governance, to

introduction of e-governance,competitiveness, implement public administrative reform, to improve governance, to reduce red-tape, to fight

to improve governance,public administrative reform, introduction of e-governance, to reduce red-tape, to fight corruption, develop Trade and

to reduce red-tape,reform, introduction of e-governance, to improve governance, to fight corruption, develop Trade and Investment Strategy

to fight corruption,of e-governance, to improve governance, to reduce red-tape, develop Trade and Investment Strategy to attract Foreign

develop Trade and Investment Strategy to attract Foreign Direct Investment in Moldova.governance, to reduce red-tape, to fight corruption, Although important steps have been taken there still are

Although important steps have been taken there still are shortcomings in the implementation of the AA and the DCFTA. The civil society recalls that the conditions in these documents are incompletely fulfilled. The government is not consistent in fulfilling the international obligations, including in implementation of DCFTA:

in 2014 the Moldova was considered the „success story” of the Eastern Partnership;obligations, including in implementation of DCFTA: in 2015 – due financial and political crisis Moldova

in 2015 – due financial and political crisis Moldova started being labelled as „captured state”, attaining a high level of political and economic instability;the „success story” of the Eastern Partnership; anti-European rhetoric of the new President of Moldova, who

anti-European rhetoric of the new President of Moldova, who has been promoting since his election the idea of denunciation of the EU-Moldova Association Agreement.a high level of political and economic instability; Also, Council conclusions of 15 February 2016 highlighted

Also, Council conclusions of 15 February 2016 highlighted the main challenges and key reform areas to be tackled in Moldova:

excessive politicisation of state institutions,challenges and key reform areas to be tackled in Moldova: systemic corruption, lack of judiciary independence,

systemic corruption,in Moldova: excessive politicisation of state institutions, lack of judiciary independence, the financial sector

lack of judiciary independence,politicisation of state institutions, systemic corruption, the financial sector governance and insufficient

the financial sector governance and insufficient investigation into the banking fraud.systemic corruption, lack of judiciary independence, Export results Despite political turmoil in the country, the

Export results

Despite political turmoil in the country, the DCFTA has already been and continues to be beneficial for the Moldovan economy. Potential investors are interested in producing in Moldova. The DCFTA had a positive impact on exports to the EU, even better than expected, including 65% of Moldovan exports going to the EU and an increase in agricultural exports to the EU of more than 30%.

Graph 3. Growth of Moldovan export

the EU of more than 30%. Graph 3. Growth of Moldovan export Source: GET Moldova Exports

Source: GET Moldova

Exports of goods to European Union (EU) countries totalled US $ 542 million in January - May 2017, up by more than 15 percent over the same period in 2016, accounting for more than 63% of total exports. The main export partners are Romania, Italy, Germany, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Bulgaria, Poland and France.

8

of 26

Concerning the volume of the export quota set in the trade with the products for the trade with goods subject to the preferential quotas, there was a major increase in several groups of products. E.g. the export of cereals to the European countries, especially wheat experienced increase of over 196%, processed cereals experienced increase in export of 321%.

Moldovan exports to the EU will continue growing, thus supporting the economic development of the country. The fiscal-customs policy for 2018 in the Republic of Moldova comes to harmonize the provisions of the national legislation, as well as to transpose the provisions of the EU directives.

Although export to EU countries are increasing there are several challenges to reach full export potential of Moldovan producers:

1. The increase of prices of imported raw materials and intermediate materials for production;

2. Dominant monopolism in export;

3. Limitation of access to new technologies and capital assets;

4. The postponement of the upgrading process related to the domestic energetic infrastructure;

5. Extremely limited financial resources;

6. The transfer of technologies required for the economy, of know-how, including in the management and marketing area, is minimal;

7. Lack of qualified staff;

8. The delay of structural reforms and upgrade of national economy;

9. Corruption.

Azerbaijan

History and legal background for trade relations

Currently the legislative basis for the trade relations between Azerbaijan and European Union is established mainly by two documents:

Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA) andand European Union is established mainly by two documents: European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) Action Plan. !

European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) Action Plan.documents: Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA) and ! Please note - DCFTA Agreement is not signed

! Please note - DCFTA Agreement is not signed by Azerbaijan yet.

The Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA) was established in 1999 for the regulation of several socio-economic and political issues among which a special place is devoted to trade relations. Articles 9-19 define general rules under which both parties assign Most Favourite Nation (MFN) trade regime to each other, and the trade of goods is carried out within this regulatory framework. This regime considers special concessions on tariff and non-tariff trade barriers.

Although the document deals closely with the customs duties and charges on imported exported goods, the rules for purchase, transportation, and distribution and their use, the creation of a customs union or free trade area is not considered in the document.

In early 2000’s, some Eastern European countries, including Azerbaijan, were entitled to the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) by the European Union. The goal of this trade regime was to give a preferential trade status to some developing countries in order to promote their trade relations with the EU and, thus, contribute to their economic development. The regime envisaged a 66% cut to all EU tariff lines; 6,350 products were included in this list.

Two product categories were defined for trade: “non-sensitive” and “sensitive” products. Non-sensitive products were the product groups which were subject to full tariff reduction and enjoyed duty-free entry to the EU market. Sensitive products – the product groups which are considered of special importance to the EU and must be protected to some extent – are subject to a 3,5-percentage-point tariff reduction compared to MFN rates. The groups of sensitive products mainly include agricultural and processed food products; that is, for Azerbaijan, some part of non-oil exports to European Union were subject to only partial tariff reduction. This tariff cut also differed for some product groups; such that, textile products are subject to only a 20% tariff reduction in comparison with MFN tariff rates.

As of 9 December 2008, Azerbaijan was included in the group of countries entitled to the GSP+ trade regime. The GSP+ regime is the enlarged version of GSP, where both the number of products and the tariff reductions are enhanced. In this case, duty-free access was

9

of 26

applied to both non-sensitive and sensitive products, with the condition that, tariffs paid for sensitive products are composed of both ad- valorem tariffs and specific duties and the total amount paid is equal to the specific duty.

By the decision of February 2013, Azerbaijan was no longer considered to be eligible for GSP+ status according to the graduation conditions from the trade regime, which stated that the country’s income level is higher than the level defined for the countries eligible for preferential trade partner status. As of 22 February 2014, the country was deferred from preferential trade partner status and returned to MFN trade regime.

The ENP Action Plan, was concluded in 2006. This agreement considers the further enhancement of trade and economic relations between Azerbaijan and the European Union through trade facilitation and full implementation of PCA. Security of imports and exports and customs control, as well as reforms on the harmonization and standardization of food safety and sanitary and phytosanitary regulations, are considered to be effective tools for convergence towards EU food safety and rules.

Capacity building and staff training on international trade relations for those working towards accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) is seen as an important task to be carried out on a bilateral basis. Most importantly, the document mentions the possible establishment of a free trade area between the parties upon Azerbaijan’s accession to the WTO.

The document states the following: “The EU and Azerbaijan to jointly explore possible options for further enhancing bilateral trade relations, once Azerbaijan has joined the World Trade Organization, including the possible establishment of a free trade agreement between the EU and Azerbaijan. In this context, the Commission will undertake a feasibility study which will also look at regional trade and economic integration aspects”. (EU / Azerbaijan Action Plan, 20069 ).

Another framework for enhancing economic and trade relations between Azerbaijan and the EU is discussed within the Eastern Partnership (EaP) initiative. Six eastern countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine are closely engaged in a new level of trade and travel facilitation.

EU proposes the enhancement of relations in three dimensions:

a) Association Agreements (AA)

b) Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA)

c) Visa Facilitation and Readmission requirements.

These measures not only consider the regulation of trade, non-trade relations and travel issues, but also envisage the standardization and harmonization of economic and political legislation in the implementation of related projects. Moreover, the prospective engagement in a free trade area with the EU is one of the opportunities introduced for EaP countries to achieve greater international integration and sustainable socio-economic development

Export results

Graph 4. Import and export dynamics of Azerbaijan with EU

Graph 4. Import and export dynamics of Azerbaijan with EU Source: Source: CESD Research Paper: Feasibility

Source: Source: CESD Research Paper: Feasibility Study on the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA) between Azerbaijan and EU.

10

of 26

Part 3. Best practice examples and failures of exporting to EU: case study Latvia

Latvia signed first trade agreement with EU in 1992, followed by more comprehensive Free trade agreement in 1994 and European Agreement (or Agreement on creating an Association between Latvia and EU) in 1995. It was in force till Latvia become full member of EU in 2004. In 2013 Latvia also joined eurozone and introduced euro.

Thus, Latvia has more than two decades of experience working with EU, trying to export its products and services to other EU countries. These two decades show many successful examples of Latvian companies conquering EU market, but it also has many failures, cases when Latvian businesses have met strong opposition from the side of EU competitors.

!

Strategies for SME’s to succeed when exporting to EU:

Become a supplier of parts, subcontractor to big companies. They will help you to enter the market;! Strategies for SME’s to succeed when exporting to EU: Produce under names of EU partners,

Produce under names of EU partners, companies;to big companies. They will help you to enter the market; Sell your company to EU

Sell your company to EU investor;the market; Produce under names of EU partners, companies; Buy a company in EU; Find a

Buy a company in EU;of EU partners, companies; Sell your company to EU investor; Find a sector with low competition:

Find a sector with low competition:Sell your company to EU investor; Buy a company in EU; there is no interest for

there is no interest for big companies;Buy a company in EU; Find a sector with low competition: too complicated for others. Produce

too complicated for others.low competition: there is no interest for big companies; Produce and export niche products, services -

Produce and export niche products, services - small volumes, complicated, high value added.no interest for big companies; too complicated for others. Although it must be noted, that written

Although it must be noted, that written programmes, plans undeniably increases accountability of the government as it provides better tools to business organisations for following the implementation of these plans.

They succeeded

Valmiera Glass Group

"

“Valmieras stikla šķ iedras r ū pn ī ca” was a company successfully working since soviet times. After collapse of Soviet Union production volumes and the number of employees dropped, enormous losses were incurred due to high inflation rates.

The government of the Republic of Latvia decided to sell the „Valmieras stikla šķ iedra” factory by attracting foreign capital. In 1996 the company became a part of the German glass fibre company Glasseiden GmbH Oschatz. As a result of the investment, production development accelerated, while the expertise of the German partner helped to adjust production to the market and find a stable niche within it. In 2002 Vitrulan Textilglas GmbH became a second shareholder and partner of the company.

New products and markets and exceptional products allowed company to grow and in 2013 JSC „Valmieras stikla šķ iedra” bought the company in UK that was producing products that currently were not on the list of the Latvian company. Through the uniting of JSC “Valmieras stikla šķ iedra” and company in UK, Valmiera Glass Group has been created, positioning itself as a vertically integrated supplier of different composite materials for the aviation industry, architecture and other branches – from glass fibre production to impregnated / reinforced fabrics. Source: https://www.valmiera-glass.com/en/group-1/history-1

11

of 26

production to impregnated / reinforced fabrics. Source: https://www.valmiera-glass.com/en/group-1/history-1 11 of 26
production to impregnated / reinforced fabrics. Source: https://www.valmiera-glass.com/en/group-1/history-1 11 of 26

BIOSAN

"

Biosan is a biotech company producing laboratory equipment that competes with the world leaders. The company’s offer is amazingly rich, starting from shakers, vortexes, PCR-boxes, to end with the line of instruments for DNA/RNA analyses. Their key to success has been capability to produce innovative niche products and flexibility to produce high quality laboratory products under the names of other brands.

Innovation, design and focus on the individual consumer proved to be in demand in the world biotechnological market and during recent years. Personal Laboratory products produced by BIOSAN have become well-known all over the world under different leading brands (e.g. Biometra, Bioneer, Boeco, Fisher Scientific, Grant-bio, Life Technologies etc.). However they market under their own brand also.

In 2015. BIOSAN was announced as one of the best exporters of the country with their products reaching 80 countries. Source: http://biosan.lv

How EU internal market forces might fight back:

How EU internal market forces might fight back: Involvement of trade unions to strongarm providers with
How EU internal market forces might fight back: Involvement of trade unions to strongarm providers with
How EU internal market forces might fight back: Involvement of trade unions to strongarm providers with

Involvement of trade unions to strongarm providers with cheaper workforce.How EU internal market forces might fight back: Fake news destroying credibility of newcomers in market.

Fake news destroying credibility of newcomers in market.trade unions to strongarm providers with cheaper workforce. Tangling newcomers in legal actions even knowing they

Tangling newcomers in legal actions even knowing they are wrong. The time and money it takes to prove you are right sometimes is too much for small company.Fake news destroying credibility of newcomers in market. Governments might ask for additional certificates that were

Governments might ask for additional certificates that were not explicitly known before or ask for some very specific skills or knowledge like knowledge of local language for experts.prove you are right sometimes is too much for small company. Dumping prices. Large companies sometimes

Dumping prices. Large companies sometimes can allow themselves to keep a very low price on some product while it might ruin a smaller newcomer to the market.or knowledge like knowledge of local language for experts. Buy out. Sometimes it is easier to

Buy out. Sometimes it is easier to a larger competitor to buy a small newcomer and close it to avoid competition in future.while it might ruin a smaller newcomer to the market. They felt the rage of EU

They felt the rage of EU market forces

Swedish Trade Unions against Latvian builders or Vaxolm-Laval case

#

In 2004 Latvian building company «Laval & Partneri» Ltd won a construction contract in Sweden to renovate a school in Vaxholm town. They won with cheaper price which was achieved by using workers from Latvia. Latvian workers were paid average and higher salaries than paid in Latvia but far less than salaries in Sweden.

Swedish Building Workers’ Union requested Latvian company to sign its collective agreement, that would require much higher payment to workers than planned originally and provide more favourable conditions than required by EU Law.

Laval & Partneri refused to sign the collective agreement. Swedish Building workers Unions together with Electricians Union called a strike to blockade building sites. As a result company could not continue providing services in Sweden.

Laval & Partneri brought a case before the Swedish Court claiming that this blockade infringed their right to free movement of services. The case was referred to European Court of Justice. In 2007 European Court of Justice adopted the decision that blockade was unjustified and against EU rules.

that blockade was unjustified and against EU rules. Photo: http://www.nordiclabourjournal.org Laval &

Photo: http://www.nordiclabourjournal.org

Laval & Partneri were right and they would be able to continue providing services in Sweden if only they would have survived the long wait. Company was forced to file for bankruptcy and is no longer operating.

12

of 26

Danish professor against Latvian sweets producer

#

In 2011 Latvia’s sweets producers have spread their wings and are looking for new export markets. They are actively participating in fair trades, exhibitions promoting their products.

This is moment when a Danish professor Steen Stender during a conference claimed that “Selga” wafers produced by NP Foods, Ltd brand “Staburadze”, have 44% content of trans-fat acids, which is severely higher than the allowed limit. Few days later it turned out that the incorrect number was named by someone in his laboratory in Denmark; actually, the trans fats in wafers make only 9% in the total content of fats. Latter it even checked out that the correct number is only 4%. The amount that is acceptable in EU countries (except Denmark where the limit actually is 2%)

Professor corrected the mistake in media; however, the harm was done. Trust in the product was lost and producer suffered extensive loss.

In response to criticism NP foods, started to produce waffles that does not contain any trans-fat acids and for a limited time they had a cartoon of the Danish professor on them.

time they had a cartoon of the Danish professor on them. Photo: LETA Latvia is not

Photo: LETA

Latvia is not producing sugar anymore

#

In 2007 following massive EU level restructuring of sugar production, sugar producers were offered three choices – close production and receive compensation, keep production and try to survive competition, restructure and start producing e.g. bioethanol.

Owners of Liepaja and Jelgava sugar companies decided to take compensation. Compensations were paid also to sugar beets farmers to allow their restructuring. In total about 30 mio EUR were paid in compensations.

Since then Latvia does not produce sugar although old sugar brands still exist and you still can buy “Jelgavas cukurs”. Only it is produced in Denmark.

old sugar brands still exist and you still can buy “Jelgavas cukurs”. Only it is produced
old sugar brands still exist and you still can buy “Jelgavas cukurs”. Only it is produced

13

of 26

Part 4. Planning for export: SWOT analysis of example products

It is true - DCFTA provides opportunities to businesses to enter EU market. However, it depends on businesses themselves how successful they will be in exporting their goods and services. By signing DCFTA government has provided framework. It is up to business to use it smart and gain benefits.

One of the keys to succeed is to meticulously plan export strategy.

Simple questions of strategic planning:

What do I have? (Situation analysis)export strategy. Simple questions of strategic planning: ❓ What do I want? (Setting aims) What do

What do I want? (Setting aims)strategic planning: ❓ What do I have? (Situation analysis) What do I do? (Planning actions) Have

What do I do? (Planning actions)I have? (Situation analysis) What do I want? (Setting aims) Have I achieved what I wanted?

Have I achieved what I wanted? (Evaluation)do I want? (Setting aims) What do I do? (Planning actions) Planning starts with gathering comprehensive

Planning starts with gathering comprehensive picture on the situation that you are in. Asking questions like: Which country to enter would be more beneficial, plausible, comparing to other potential countries; What kind of market restrictions, requirements, certifications, and taxes do you have to consider in the target market and our country; Who are your competitors? What are they doing? - and hundred other questions that can help focus export strategy.

One of the key questions during this phase is - Who are your potential clients and how to reach them? Can you picture them very specifically: gender, age, interests, income, communication and purchase habits? Do they use Facebook or Twitter? Do they watch TV or read newspapers? Do they know about your product, service? What do they think about you, your product? All of this will help latter to define channels reaching your client to introduce your product or service.

% Your client could also be a company, government, NGO, but still – it is a person who takes decision to buy your product or service.

This is the moment to perform SWOT analysis of your product, service– analyse Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats that your product or service will face in the export market.

Setting clear strategic aims is a next step in defining effective export strategy. It is not enough to set financial goals like “to increase export value by 10%”. Goal like this will not help in defining how to sell your product or service. Strategic aims are a step into action.

Do you agree - these two aims for a wine exporter ask for different strategies and actions to be fulfilled?

“To become niche supplier of exclusive, gourmet wine to restaurants in Latvia in five years” = exclusive niche player in short termfor different strategies and actions to be fulfilled? ❓ “To become market leader in Baltic states

“To become market leader in Baltic states in low cost wine market segment in ten years” = low cost market leader in mid termin five years” = exclusive niche player in short term Strategic plan is the phase where

Strategic plan is the phase where you define what exactly are you going to do to reach your client, what channels are you going to use to reach him or her (information channel) or to sell your product (distribution channel - e.g. online or in shops), define product appeal (thus defining why exactly your client should buy your product or service), deciding on advertising, social media communication, media relations or public affairs support. At this stage, you also try to balance available and necessary financial inputs to implement a strong export strategy.

In defining specific marketing or public relations solutions you might need to involve local consultants in target markets as in this day and age of fragmented information, it is so easy to decide wrong for example with placement of advertisements.

Evaluation surely depends on the aims you did set up. You can either see the financial results of your strategy or perhaps increased reputation or recognition of your product, company.

14

of 26

Here are some examples of potential products from Georgia, Azerbaijan and Moldova and various outlines for their export strategies.

Example 1 (Georgia)

Name of the product: Fruits - Blue cranberries

Characteristics of the product: Guria and Adjara highlands, is in high demand on the global market because of its unique properties. The blue shoemaker is a bushy, berry crop that has a round ring of blue colour. This year, 12 tons of blueberries grown in Georgia were delivered for sale on the British market for the first time. Target market: Poland, Netherlands, United Kingdom Clients: Population with average income from 23 to 70 years

The blueberries is frost and can withstand the frost of -20 degrees.Clients: Population with average income from 23 to 70 years Brands of the blueberries with geographical

Brands of the blueberries with geographical indicationsis frost and can withstand the frost of -20 degrees. Contains vitamin C and antioxidant properties

Contains vitamin C and antioxidant propertiesBrands of the blueberries with geographical indications Pleasant flavors and colours Used both raw and dried

Pleasant flavors and coloursindications Contains vitamin C and antioxidant properties Used both raw and dried The moist, light and

Used both raw and driedC and antioxidant properties Pleasant flavors and colours The moist, light and good drainage soil and

The moist, light and good drainage soil and the relief is suitable for blueberriesPleasant flavors and colours Used both raw and dried Blueberries are distinguished by their taste and

Blueberries are distinguished by their taste and are appreciated on the EU marketdrainage soil and the relief is suitable for blueberries Due to its high dietary qualities, widely

Due to its high dietary qualities, widely distributed all over the worldby their taste and are appreciated on the EU market Deserves great attention of consumers and

Deserves great attention of consumers and its realization on the market is not difficultdietary qualities, widely distributed all over the world The blue cranberries give the first harvest the

The blue cranberries give the first harvest the second year after plantingand its realization on the market is not difficult The blueberries life is 50 years Under

The blueberries life is 50 yearsgive the first harvest the second year after planting Under the proper planning and good management,

Under the proper planning and good management, blueberry plantation is very profitablesecond year after planting The blueberries life is 50 years Smaller farmers can get a serious

Smaller farmers can get a serious economic effectgood management, blueberry plantation is very profitable Widely used in culinary and folk medicine Processing by

Widely used in culinary and folk medicineSmaller farmers can get a serious economic effect Processing by modern technologies The original, sweet taste

Processing by modern technologieseconomic effect Widely used in culinary and folk medicine The original, sweet taste of berries increases

The original, sweet taste of berries increases its popularityculinary and folk medicine Processing by modern technologies Decline in blueberries demand Changing the taste of

Decline in blueberries demandoriginal, sweet taste of berries increases its popularity Changing the taste of the consuming population Decrease

Changing the taste of the consuming populationincreases its popularity Decline in blueberries demand Decrease in purchasing power The need to procure modern

Decrease in purchasing powerdemand Changing the taste of the consuming population The need to procure modern technology Lack of

The need to procure modern technologyof the consuming population Decrease in purchasing power Lack of Technical skills and experience Lack of

Lack of Technical skills and experiencepopulation Decrease in purchasing power The need to procure modern technology Lack of financial resources 15

Lack of financial resourcesDecrease in purchasing power The need to procure modern technology Lack of Technical skills and experience

15

of 26

Example 2 (Georgia)

Name of the product: Georgian Cheese Characteristics of the product: Cheese production in Georgia has been a few hundred years since historical artefacts. Cheese varieties in Georgia are more than 30 species: suluguni, Imeretian cheese, Mtskhetachecheli, tanili, green cheese, Georgian cheese, blue cheese, Megrelian cheese, Guda and ctr. Target market: Italy, France Clients: All lovers Georgian cheese of all ages of the population

Very tasty, very interesting and diverse.All lovers Georgian cheese of all ages of the population Georgian Cheese is a very valuable

Georgian Cheese is a very valuable food for children, adolescents, pregnant women and nursing mothers.of the population Very tasty, very interesting and diverse. Brands of the Georgian cheese Svan and

Brands of the Georgian cheese Svan and Megrelian Sulguni with geographical indicationschildren, adolescents, pregnant women and nursing mothers. Georgian cheese contains easy-to-bite proteins and fats,

Georgian cheese contains easy-to-bite proteins and fats, rich in calcium, phosphorus and other mineral substances, with vitamins A and B.Svan and Megrelian Sulguni with geographical indications Georgian cheese increase customer confidence and safety

Georgian cheese increase customer confidence and safety guarantee.and other mineral substances, with vitamins A and B. The Georgian cheese are according to European

The Georgian cheese are according to European standards and distinguished on the EU marketcheese increase customer confidence and safety guarantee. Attracting foreign users and market realization is not

Attracting foreign users and market realization is not difficultto European standards and distinguished on the EU market The tradition of cheese storage, which is

The tradition of cheese storage, which is remarkable in honey and wine saperevi, which, on the one hand, protects against it and adds a special flavour.foreign users and market realization is not difficult Processing by modern technologies Sulugun is a universal

Processing by modern technologiesone hand, protects against it and adds a special flavour. Sulugun is a universal source of

Sulugun is a universal source of proteins. It contains deficient substances - triphophan, lysine and methionine acids. Sulguni are rich in phosphate, mainly lecithin.adds a special flavour. Processing by modern technologies Used both raw and dried Arrange tasting cheese

Used both raw and driedacids. Sulguni are rich in phosphate, mainly lecithin. Arrange tasting cheese festival 16 of 26 The

Arrange tasting cheese festivalrich in phosphate, mainly lecithin. Used both raw and dried 16 of 26 The need to

16

of 26

The need to procure modern processing technologyboth raw and dried Arrange tasting cheese festival 16 of 26 Lack of technical skills and

Lack of technical skills and experience16 of 26 The need to procure modern processing technology Lack of financial resources Control of

Lack of financial resourcestechnology Lack of technical skills and experience Control of bioorganic produced product Introduction of new

Control of bioorganic produced producttechnical skills and experience Lack of financial resources Introduction of new technologies in the workshop, Attracting

Introduction of new technologies in the workshop,financial resources Control of bioorganic produced product Attracting additional investment to mini laboratory for

Attracting additional investment to mini laboratory for dairy quality testing,product Introduction of new technologies in the workshop, Market Standardization Legislative changes, on which

Market Standardization Legislative changes, on which industry, branch administrator, licensing and consulting with international institutesof new technologies in the workshop, Attracting additional investment to mini laboratory for dairy quality testing,

Example 3 (Georgia)

Name of the product: Wine in clay pitchers Characteristics of the product: Georgia has an 8,000-year history of continuous wine making tradition. Today, around 45 grape varieties are commercially produced: Kindzmarauli, Khvanchkara, Rkatsiteli, kakhuri Mtsvane,Saperavi and many others. Wine in clay pitchers has better flavour, is naturally cooling and refreshing. Target market: Latvia, Estonia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Poland, France, Germany Clients: Population with average income from 21 to 72. According to World Health Organization alcohol consumption per capita is 7,7 liters per year and wine share is - 49.8%.

The unique diversity of endemic grape varieties;per capita is 7,7 liters per year and wine share is - 49.8%. Transportation and of

Transportation and of Wine in clay pitchers is feasible;is - 49.8%. The unique diversity of endemic grape varieties; Long history and traditions of wine

Long history and traditions of wine production;Transportation and of Wine in clay pitchers is feasible; Georgian wine has also medical prophylactic characteristics;

Georgian wine has also medical prophylactic characteristics;is feasible; Long history and traditions of wine production; Local and unique technology of clay pitchers

Local and unique technology of clay pitchers making;Georgian wine has also medical prophylactic characteristics; Favourable natural conditions and resource potential,

Favourable natural conditions and resource potential, especially micro zones;Local and unique technology of clay pitchers making; Favourable quality-price ratio. Ornaments used on clay

Favourable quality-price ratio.conditions and resource potential, especially micro zones; Ornaments used on clay pitchers give lessons about history

Ornaments used on clay pitchers give lessons about history and traditions of Georgia.especially micro zones; Favourable quality-price ratio. Developing high quality raw materials Opening new European

Developing high quality raw materialsgive lessons about history and traditions of Georgia. Opening new European markets Using the unique methods

Opening new European marketstraditions of Georgia. Developing high quality raw materials Using the unique methods of wine aging The

Using the unique methods of wine aginghigh quality raw materials Opening new European markets The impact of viticulture and winemaking on economic

The impact of viticulture and winemaking on economic well-being of the country and its populationnew European markets Using the unique methods of wine aging Implementing innovative technologies in making of

Implementing innovative technologies in making of clay pitcherson economic well-being of the country and its population Raising awareness about beneficial characteristics that

Raising awareness about beneficial characteristics that wine in clay pitchersinnovative technologies in making of clay pitchers 17 of 26 Awareness of the wine in clay

17

of 26

Awareness of the wine in clay pitchers on international market is lowcharacteristics that wine in clay pitchers 17 of 26 Viticulture and winemaking sector requires development of

Viticulture and winemaking sector requires development of a restructuration programof the wine in clay pitchers on international market is low The level of competitiveness of

The level of competitiveness of Georgian wine is lowsector requires development of a restructuration program The barriers to entry into a market aren’t studied

The barriers to entry into a market aren’t studied perfectlyprogram The level of competitiveness of Georgian wine is low Lack of financial resources, investments and

Lack of financial resources, investments and innovative technologiesbarriers to entry into a market aren’t studied perfectly The research of target market of producers

The research of target market of producers and consumers isn’t complete;resources, investments and innovative technologies Changing the demand of the consuming population; Changing

Changing the demand of the consuming population;target market of producers and consumers isn’t complete; Changing the legislation of the exporting countries;

Changing the legislation of the exporting countries;consumers isn’t complete; Changing the demand of the consuming population; Consumers low awareness about the product.

Consumers low awareness about the product.isn’t complete; Changing the demand of the consuming population; Changing the legislation of the exporting countries;

Example 4 (Moldova)

Name of the product: Essential oils and herbal teas for weight loss Target market: Germany Clients: People with excessive weight esp. Women at age 40 -50 and older people with health problems at age 60 – onwards

Good weather conditions for growing productsand older people with health problems at age 60 – onwards Inexpensive work force Fertile, clean

Inexpensive work force60 – onwards Good weather conditions for growing products Fertile, clean soil in many localities to

Fertile, clean soil in many localities to grow ecological productsconditions for growing products Inexpensive work force An enormous market Many people are disappointed with

An enormous marketclean soil in many localities to grow ecological products Many people are disappointed with chemical health

Many people are disappointed with chemical health productslocalities to grow ecological products An enormous market Strengthening cooperation of producers Products can be used

Strengthening cooperation of producersMany people are disappointed with chemical health products Products can be used in SPA, sanatoriums, etc.

Products can be used in SPA, sanatoriums, etc.health products Strengthening cooperation of producers Lack of financial resources for initial investments

Lack of financial resources for initial investmentsof producers Products can be used in SPA, sanatoriums, etc. Products are unknown in target market

Products are unknown in target marketetc. Lack of financial resources for initial investments Bad reputation of Moldovan products Lack of processing

Bad reputation of Moldovan productsinitial investments Products are unknown in target market Lack of processing technology and up-to date equipment

Lack of processing technology and up-to date equipmentunknown in target market Bad reputation of Moldovan products Lack of qualified specialists Insufficient number of

Lack of qualified specialistsLack of processing technology and up-to date equipment Insufficient number of large scale producers Unstable

Insufficient number of large scale producersand up-to date equipment Lack of qualified specialists Unstable climatic conditions, frequent drought The

Unstable climatic conditions, frequent droughtspecialists Insufficient number of large scale producers The inconsistency of state policy which impacts export Lack

The inconsistency of state policy which impacts exportproducers Unstable climatic conditions, frequent drought Lack of affordable finances, seed money Competition with

Lack of affordable finances, seed moneyThe inconsistency of state policy which impacts export Competition with enterprises receiving subsidies from other

Competition with enterprises receiving subsidies from other countriesimpacts export Lack of affordable finances, seed money The emergence of new competitors Lack of trust

The emergence of new competitorsmoney Competition with enterprises receiving subsidies from other countries Lack of trust of wholesale buyers 18

Lack of trust of wholesale buyersseed money Competition with enterprises receiving subsidies from other countries The emergence of new competitors 18

18

of 26

Example 5 (Moldova)

Name of the product: Fruit and berries pastilles Target market: Sweden, Norway, Denmark and the United Kingdom. Clients: Children aged 3-12 years

Very tasty and aromatic 100% natural sugar free product, that contains micro-elements, fibresand the United Kingdom. Clients: Children aged 3-12 years Storage term up to 12 months The

Storage term up to 12 monthssugar free product, that contains micro-elements, fibres The price of raw material is cheaper that competitors

The price of raw material is cheaper that competitors in target marketmicro-elements, fibres Storage term up to 12 months Production process already in place Can be used

Production process already in placeof raw material is cheaper that competitors in target market Can be used by other segments

Can be used by other segmentsin target market Production process already in place May be used as raw material e.g. in

May be used as raw material e.g. in confectionery or for medical purposes for a healthy lifestyleprocess already in place Can be used by other segments 19 of 26 Unattractive exterior appearance

19

of 26

Unattractive exterior appearance as a result of lack innovative packaging due to specific of the product (the product is sticky)or for medical purposes for a healthy lifestyle 19 of 26 Requires special storage conditions (conditions

Requires special storage conditions (conditions must be neither wet nor dry)due to specific of the product (the product is sticky) More difficult to use for the

More difficult to use for the elderly people with teeth dentures as the product sticks to themstorage conditions (conditions must be neither wet nor dry) Unknown product that requires significant contribution in

Unknown product that requires significant contribution in promotion of the productdifficult to use for the elderly people with teeth dentures as the product sticks to them

EU standards for food productsdentures as the product sticks to them Unknown product that requires significant contribution in promotion of

Example 6 (Moldova)

Name of the product: Exclusive premium class handmade coffins Target market: Italy Clients: The most prestigious ritual agencies

Exclusive, high-quality handmade productItaly Clients: The most prestigious ritual agencies 
 Qualified local specialists already available High added

Qualified local specialists already availableritual agencies 
 Exclusive, high-quality handmade product High added value product from high quality materials

High added value product from high quality materials available in the countryproduct Qualified local specialists already available Individual and flexible approach to each customer's

Individual and flexible approach to each customer's desireproduct from high quality materials available in the country Product is easy to store and deliver,

Product is easy to store and deliver, with low risk of damaging the productand flexible approach to each customer's desire Product is in permanent demand, does not depend on

Product is in permanent demand, does not depend on external factorsto store and deliver, with low risk of damaging the product Prospects of selling product to

Prospects of selling product to direct customer without intermediaries like ritual agencies (creating own points of sale)is in permanent demand, does not depend on external factors Expansion to other EU countries not

Expansion to other EU countries not only Italylike ritual agencies (creating own points of sale) 20 of 26 Inability to produce in large

20

of 26

Inability to produce in large amountsExpansion to other EU countries not only Italy 20 of 26 The product has a high

The product has a high volume, so the transport costs are highonly Italy 20 of 26 Inability to produce in large amounts Difficulties to adapt to changing

Difficulties to adapt to changing customer's wishes if the product isproduct has a high volume, so the transport costs are high already in the process of

already in the process of being completedto adapt to changing customer's wishes if the product is A narrow segment of the market

A narrow segment of the market with high competitionif the product is already in the process of being completed Specific customer requirements, that are

Specific customer requirements, that are not always possible to executeA narrow segment of the market with high competition Complicated equipment needed to carry out specific

Complicated equipment needed to carry out specific requirementsrequirements, that are not always possible to execute Moldsilva Agency has a monopoly on forests and

Moldsilva Agency has a monopoly on forests and production is dependent on themequipment needed to carry out specific requirements Transportation (long distances and large volumes)

Transportation (long distances and large volumes)a monopoly on forests and production is dependent on them Competition Dependence of intermediaries - ritual

Competitionon them Transportation (long distances and large volumes) Dependence of intermediaries - ritual agencies as they

Dependence of intermediaries - ritual agencies as they can increase the service feeon them Transportation (long distances and large volumes) Competition Dependence on the reputation of intermediaries

Dependence on the reputation of intermediariesand large volumes) Competition Dependence of intermediaries - ritual agencies as they can increase the service

Example 7 (Moldova)

Name of the product: Wine

Target market: Romania, Poland, Slovakia, Czech Republic , Austria, Germany Clients: Population with average income from 23 to 70 years old

Branded wines are well recognised on the international market in expert circlesPopulation with average income from 23 to 70 years old Brands of wines with geographical indications

Brands of wines with geographical indicationsrecognised on the international market in expert circles Favourable microclimate to produce high quality wines Elite

Favourable microclimate to produce high quality winesexpert circles Brands of wines with geographical indications Elite taste qualities, pleasant flavours and colours The

Elite taste qualities, pleasant flavours and coloursFavourable microclimate to produce high quality wines The soil and the relief are suitable for winemaking

The soil and the relief are suitable for winemakingwines Elite taste qualities, pleasant flavours and colours Highly qualified winemaking experts Opening new European

Highly qualified winemaking expertscolours The soil and the relief are suitable for winemaking Opening new European markets Introduction of

Opening new European marketssuitable for winemaking Highly qualified winemaking experts Introduction of grape processing with modern technologies

Introduction of grape processing with modern technologiesqualified winemaking experts Opening new European markets Production of wines with new qualities Implementing new

Production of wines with new qualitiesIntroduction of grape processing with modern technologies Implementing new marketing practices Planting of European

Implementing new marketing practicesmodern technologies Production of wines with new qualities Planting of European varieties of grapes 21 of

Planting of European varieties of grapeswith new qualities Implementing new marketing practices 21 of 26 Vineyards with European varieties of grapes

21

of 26

Vineyards with European varieties of grapes are smallpractices Planting of European varieties of grapes 21 of 26 Limited areas of irrigated soil prevent

Limited areas of irrigated soil prevent expansion of vineyardsof 26 Vineyards with European varieties of grapes are small Great reengineering needs The need to

Great reengineering needsareas of irrigated soil prevent expansion of vineyards The need to procure modern equipment Lack of

The need to procure modern equipmentprevent expansion of vineyards Great reengineering needs Lack of financial resources The emergence of new

Lack of financial resourcesreengineering needs The need to procure modern equipment The emergence of new competitors on the EU

The emergence of new competitors on the EU marketto procure modern equipment Lack of financial resources Constantly changing legislation in the importing countries

Constantly changing legislation in the importing countriesresources The emergence of new competitors on the EU market Decline in wine demand Changing the

Decline in wine demandConstantly changing legislation in the importing countries Changing the taste of the consuming population Decrease in

Changing the taste of the consuming populationEU market Constantly changing legislation in the importing countries Decline in wine demand Decrease in purchasing

Decrease in purchasing powerchanging legislation in the importing countries Decline in wine demand Changing the taste of the consuming

Example 8 (Azerbaijan)

Name of the product: Carpets

Target market: Western Europe Clients: European Carpet & Rug Association and their clients

Azerbaijani carpets are the sample of rich and ancient history of carpet-weavingEuropean Carpet & Rug Association and their clients Not many competitors in the market Azerbaijani carpets

Not many competitors in the marketare the sample of rich and ancient history of carpet-weaving Azerbaijani carpets are handmade and it

Azerbaijani carpets are handmade and it makes them precioushistory of carpet-weaving Not many competitors in the market Variability in production Skilled human resources Technical

Variability in productionAzerbaijani carpets are handmade and it makes them precious Skilled human resources Technical experience in dyeing

Skilled human resourcesand it makes them precious Variability in production Technical experience in dyeing and designing Existence of

Technical experience in dyeing and designingprecious Variability in production Skilled human resources Existence of significant potential market The interest of

Existence of significant potential markethuman resources Technical experience in dyeing and designing The interest of private sector in investment Determination

The interest of private sector in investmentand designing Existence of significant potential market Determination of the government to develop non-oil export

Determination of the government to develop non-oil exportmarket The interest of private sector in investment Technology progress They can be expensive as they

Technology progressDetermination of the government to develop non-oil export They can be expensive as they are handmade

They can be expensive as they are handmade and are made from pure cottonthe government to develop non-oil export Technology progress Unfamiliarity with modern marketing methods Azerbaijani

Unfamiliarity with modern marketing methodsexpensive as they are handmade and are made from pure cotton Azerbaijani carpets are unknown in

Azerbaijani carpets are unknown in European marketfrom pure cotton Unfamiliarity with modern marketing methods Reluctance of producers to use more modern designs

Reluctance of producers to use more modern designs for carpetsmethods Azerbaijani carpets are unknown in European market Compliance with the technical standards of the EU

Compliance with the technical standards of the EUof producers to use more modern designs for carpets Increase the producing of machine made carpets

Increase the producing of machine made carpetscarpets Compliance with the technical standards of the EU Recession Copying the design and patterns of

Recessionof the EU Increase the producing of machine made carpets Copying the design and patterns of

Copying the design and patterns of Azerbaijani carpetof the EU Increase the producing of machine made carpets Recession High customs tariffs in target

High customs tariffs in target marketsEU Increase the producing of machine made carpets Recession Copying the design and patterns of Azerbaijani

22

of 26

Example 9 (Azerbaijan)

Name of the product: Wine

Target market: Baltic countries, Poland, Czech Republic e.tc. Clients: People with age of 20-50 irrespective of gender

The product will be prepared from 100% organic Azerbaijani grape in a traditional way which may be of interest for EuropeansClients: People with age of 20-50 irrespective of gender 
 Azerbaijan has a long history of

Azerbaijan has a long history of producing wine having great experience in the fieldin a traditional way which may be of interest for Europeans Positive trend towards Eastern European

Positive trend towards Eastern European consumption habits, especially in food, and drinks (more wine less hard drinks)of producing wine having great experience in the field Increasing tourism from and to Azerbaijan, and

Increasing tourism from and to Azerbaijan, and of the exchange students which have spent a period of time abroadespecially in food, and drinks (more wine less hard drinks) Increasing trend in the willingness of

Increasing trend in the willingness of consuming healthy and natural productsexchange students which have spent a period of time abroad 23 of 26 The prices can

23

of 26

The prices can be high due to transportation expensesof consuming healthy and natural products 23 of 26 Constant difficulties in creating synergies among

Constant difficulties in creating synergies among Azerbaijani wineriesof 26 The prices can be high due to transportation expenses Scarce knowledge of the European

Scarce knowledge of the European system by the Azerbaijani wine companiesin creating synergies among Azerbaijani wineries Lack of infrastructures in the local distribution channels

Lack of infrastructures in the local distribution channelsScarce knowledge of the European system by the Azerbaijani wine companies Lack of interest towards Azerbaijani

Lack of interest towards Azerbaijani wineof the European system by the Azerbaijani wine companies Lack of infrastructures in the local distribution

Example 10 (Azerbaijan)

Name of the product: Summer and winter tourism in Azerbaijan Target market: European countries, Persian Gulf countries Clients: Families, primarily targeting parents age 25 -55

Favourable geographical position providing both summer and winter tourism productsClients: Families, primarily targeting parents age 25 -55 Rich historical and natural sightseeing places - Caspian

Rich historical and natural sightseeing places - Caspian Sea, low and highlands, mountainous areas of Caucasusposition providing both summer and winter tourism products Azerbaijan is a safe country, no terrorist attacks

Azerbaijan is a safe country, no terrorist attacksSea, low and highlands, mountainous areas of Caucasus 
 Development of environmental, sport and other tourism

Development of environmental, sport and other tourism sectorsAzerbaijan is a safe country, no terrorist attacks 
 Improvement of normative legal regulations for tourism

Improvement of normative legal regulations for tourismof environmental, sport and other tourism sectors Advertising the image of Azerbaijan via holding

Advertising the image of Azerbaijan via holding international events such as Eurovision Song Contest 2012, European Games 2015 and etc.Improvement of normative legal regulations for tourism Creation and promotion of new tourism products 24 of

Creation and promotion of new tourism productsEurovision Song Contest 2012, European Games 2015 and etc. 24 of 26 Ineffective promotion and lack

24

of 26

Ineffective promotion and lack of awareness of tourists about Azerbaijanetc. Creation and promotion of new tourism products 24 of 26 High prices exceeding average European

High prices exceeding average European levelpromotion and lack of awareness of tourists about Azerbaijan Lack of tourism infrastructure Economic instability Low

Lack of tourism infrastructureAzerbaijan High prices exceeding average European level Economic instability Low service standards Financial risks

Economic instabilityaverage European level Lack of tourism infrastructure Low service standards Financial risks related to the economy

Low service standardslevel Lack of tourism infrastructure Economic instability Financial risks related to the economy of the country

Financial risks related to the economy of the countryof tourism infrastructure Economic instability Low service standards Geopolitical risks connected to the war with Armenia

Geopolitical risks connected to the war with Armeniaof tourism infrastructure Economic instability Low service standards Financial risks related to the economy of the

Part 5. Recommendations for export support to SME helping them fully benefit from DCFTA

Georgia

Remainders for exporting SMEs:

It is crucial to establish a strong multi-stakeholder partnership with BSOs and SMEs in public-private dialogue (PPD) and constructive communication among key stakeholders for DCFTA and SME policy implementation via helping them in developing the needed skills;benefit from DCFTA Georgia Remainders for exporting SMEs: Identify the most efficient approaches towards cooperation

Identify the most efficient approaches towards cooperation with international financial institutions to promote innovative business development;via helping them in developing the needed skills; Develop communication strategy with potential partners /

Develop communication strategy with potential partners / buyers and share available online resources;institutions to promote innovative business development; Implement the practice of conducting internal audit in the

Implement the practice of conducting internal audit in the enterprises to correctly determine the company's marketing / export strategy / market entry strategy (e.g. from processing the product to its packaging, quality assurance);partners / buyers and share available online resources; It is possible to implement the so-called "Export

It is possible to implement the so-called "Export Ready Test"; Which will be intended for the "beginner" exporters at the first stage;processing the product to its packaging, quality assurance); It is important to develop professional skills of

It is important to develop professional skills of the employees and provide further training, support the national lifelong entrepreneurial learning strategy, building on established progress in promoting the quality of education and entrepreneurial culture on introduction the effectiveness using DCFTA.for the "beginner" exporters at the first stage; Recommendations for the government: Develop a systematic

Recommendations for the government:

Develop a systematic approach to tracking small business skills for a more efficient and responsive training market;using DCFTA. Recommendations for the government: Provide access to markets and internationalization; Provide

Provide access to markets and internationalization;skills for a more efficient and responsive training market; Provide support to development of individual entrepreneurs

Provide support to development of individual entrepreneurs and cooperatives;market; Provide access to markets and internationalization; Storage and processing infrastructure development /

Storage and processing infrastructure development / modernization;to development of individual entrepreneurs and cooperatives; Systematically apply regulatory impact analysis to assess

Systematically apply regulatory impact analysis to assess the positive or negative impact of regulatory changes on the SME sector;and processing infrastructure development / modernization; Adopt a more strategic approach to the development of SMEs

Adopt a more strategic approach to the development of SMEs by identifying strategic directions and objectives for future development taking into consideration specific SME needs in important sectors of the economy, such as agribusiness, light manufacturing and tourism.or negative impact of regulatory changes on the SME sector; SMEs of Moldova hope that: Moldova

SMEs of Moldova hope that:

Moldova

the European path of Moldova will stay determined;and tourism. SMEs of Moldova hope that: Moldova the government actions will be EU-oriented also in

the government actions will be EU-oriented also in future for this, serious and irreversible European, international resonance steps will be bee taken;Moldova the European path of Moldova will stay determined; the European intentions of the Republic of

the European intentions of the Republic of Moldova are not only declarative but seriously taken into consideration.European, international resonance steps will be bee taken; Remainders for exporting SMEs: Export activity can be

Remainders for exporting SMEs:

Export activity can be started when the buyer is known and the contract of intent or even the purchase contract is signed;taken into consideration. Remainders for exporting SMEs: It is necessary to know who, what kind of

It is necessary to know who, what kind of cargo, how much and under what conditions of transportation and time must be done. Example: as a rule, the basic documents requested by the EU customs bodies are:contract of intent or even the purchase contract is signed; Commercial Invoice, Customs Value Declaration,

Commercial Invoice,

Commercial Invoice,

Customs Value Declaration,

Customs Value Declaration,

Freight Documents,

Freight Documents,

Freight Insurance,

Freight Insurance,

Packing List,

Packing List,

Single Administrative Document -SAD;

Single Administrative Document -SAD;

It is necessary to know what is the list of accompanying documents for the product sold and the conditions of payment;Freight Documents, Freight Insurance, Packing List, Single Administrative Document -SAD; 25 of 26

25

of 26

To register as an exporter, it is necessary to present to the customs office the set of 14 necessary documents;It is highly recommendable to consult the MIEPO guidelines, using platform information "Export Help Desk"

It is highly recommendable to consult the MIEPO guidelines, using platform information "Export Help Desk" to consult with specialists in the field. Lack of competence can lead to bankruptcy;to the customs office the set of 14 necessary documents; Good management of quality product and

Good management of quality product and safety will facilitate obtaining of the accompanying certificates;in the field. Lack of competence can lead to bankruptcy; It is good to know the

It is good to know the notions of INCOTERMS (International Commercial Terms) and other terms applied in export;will facilitate obtaining of the accompanying certificates; It is strictly necessary to observe the customs clearance

It is strictly necessary to observe the customs clearance rules, the procedure of placement of goods and means of transport under customs regime and the conclusion of this regime under the conditions stipulated in the Customs Code;Commercial Terms) and other terms applied in export; An important step is knowing the transaction costs.

An important step is knowing the transaction costs. A successful marketing will be in the case of an income that covers all the expenses with the appropriate profit.regime under the conditions stipulated in the Customs Code; It is important to know the competitors

It is important to know the competitors in target market.that covers all the expenses with the appropriate profit. Timely calculation of all spending and revenue

Timely calculation of all spending and revenue is the way forward. This can only be achieved through good information and competence in the field.It is important to know the competitors in target market. Azerbaijan Recommendations for the government to

Azerbaijan

Recommendations for the government to consider for a closer co-operation with EU:

Developing communication and relations with the EU and signing trade agreements, initially beginning with DCFTA;government to consider for a closer co-operation with EU: Establishing the SME policy implementation agency; Reform

Establishing the SME policy implementation agency;signing trade agreements, initially beginning with DCFTA; Reform of the legal framework for both bank and

Reform of the legal framework for both bank and non-bank sources of finance to address the obstacles in SME access to finance;DCFTA; Establishing the SME policy implementation agency; Establishment of a Development Bank for the consolidation of

Establishment of a Development Bank for the consolidation of all existing funds and support to entrepreneurs on a centralised basis;finance to address the obstacles in SME access to finance; Increasing SME competitiveness by improving the

Increasing SME competitiveness by improving the monitoring and assessment of the existing initiatives on innovation, capacity building and export promotion;funds and support to entrepreneurs on a centralised basis; Empower business support organisations (BSOs) to be

Empower business support organisations (BSOs) to be able to represent effectively SMEs in the policy dialogue with the public sector;on innovation, capacity building and export promotion; Encouraging SMEs involvement in anti-corruption mechanisms;

Encouraging SMEs involvement in anti-corruption mechanisms;SMEs in the policy dialogue with the public sector; Develop the offer for vocational training for

Develop the offer for vocational training for SMEs.Encouraging SMEs involvement in anti-corruption mechanisms; Recommendations for SMEs: Use support of BSOs which have

Recommendations for SMEs:

Use support of BSOs which have experience of working with European companies. They can help you avoiding making same mistakes and they can introduce you to potential clients;for vocational training for SMEs. Recommendations for SMEs: Take part in International Trade Fairs. They create

Take part in International Trade Fairs. They create unique opportunity to meet potential clients and show your products. Remember – you can always co-operate with other SMEs and have common stand to reduce costs;mistakes and they can introduce you to potential clients; Manufacture your products according to the technical

Manufacture your products according to the technical rules of EU. Without them you will not be able to export your product no matter how good your product is.show your products. Remember – you can always co-operate with other SMEs and have common stand

rules of EU. Without them you will not be able to export your product no matter

26

of 26