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11/30/16

Beberapa Faktor Penuaan dan Usia


Transformator Tegangan Tinggi




Suwarno

Jakarta, 1 Desember 2016

Good Electric Power System


A distributed & integrated industry
w Capacity
w Reliability,
quality
w Safety &
security
w Sustainability
w Prosperity
Human Resources
Key Technologies
Key Facilities
Business Strategy

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Contribution to system failure


and failure due to insulation problems
for main HV equipments

Contribution Failure due to


Equipments to system Insulation
failure (%) Problem (%)

Insulators 35 90

Generators 15 47

Transformers 12 84

GIS & switchgear 15 95

Power Cables 10 89

Penampang transformator tegangan


tinggi

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Bagian-bagian HV Transf
w Core
w Winding
w Tank
w Bushing
w Insulation system
w Cooling system
w Monitoring/protection system

Concept of Life-Limit of Transformer

Tensile strength of the solid insulating materials cannot endure


mechanical stress by short-circuiting current or vibration

Occurrence of cracks or fractures

The life-limit of transformer

Life-limit of transformer
Evaluation item Life-limit value
(reference)
Tensile strength 50-60%
of initial value
The degree of 200-500
polymerization

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Structure of Cellulose (polymer)

(C6H10O5)n

Degree of Polymerization (DP)


DP = MW of cellulose/MW of
units
M/162

SEM untuk kertas dengan DP tinggi


dan DP rendah

Kertas dengan DP Kertas dengan DP


-nggi rendah

w DP kertas baru : 1000-1500


w Kriteria end of life adalah tensile strength
50 % yang setara dengan DP : 250-250

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DEGREE OF POLYMERIZATION
w Isolasi kertas Kraft baru mempunyai nilai DP
antara 1000-2000 ( IEC 60450). Dalam praktek
harga awal dlm trafo diambil nilai kl 1300
w Proses yang melibatkan pemanasan akan
menurunkan nilai DP. Tingkat penurunan nilai DP
mengikuti Hukum Reaksi Thermal Arhenius
w Model penurunan nilai DP dibangun dari data DP
terukur dan histori pemanasan.

Pemodelan Nilai DP
w Nilai DP kertas akan turun dari suatu harga DP
awal (DP0) ke suatu DP pada suatu waktu tertentu
DPt secara eksponensial akibat beban termal
dengan dipengaruhi oleh durasi dan suhu
pemanasan menurut persamaan umum Arhenius.
DPt = DP0 xe k ( A)
= T .t ( luas di bawah kurva T - t)
T= suhu pemanasan (K)
t = waktu
k , A = konstanta

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w Winding-1

w Winding-2

w Winding-3

DP hasil pengukuran dan perhitungan


serta simpangan dari 12 buah trafo
Jumlah DP DP Error
No Trafo
Proses (pengkuran) (perhitungan) %
1 F10 1 971 1049.67 -8.10
2 F12 4 682 654.80 3.99
3 F20 4 666 597.11 10.34
4 F21 4 683 665.52 2.56
5 F22 1 1011 1108.99 -9.69
6 F26 4 740 650.73 12.06
7 F30 1 1234 1156.68 6.27
8 F31 2 1041 956.84 8.08
9 F32 3 705 734.29 -4.15
10 F33 1 1181 1074.80 8.99
11 F34 3 718 749.95 -4.45
12 F35 1 1162 1083.21 6.78

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Estimasi Lifetime Trafo dengan


Menggunakan Model KEMA
w

Typical DP vs life time isolasi trafo


Kraff Paper (Kema 2012)

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Estimasi life time (dalam tahun)

Bagaimana kalau data DP tidak


ada ?

wGunakan data Furan

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Typical values of DP and Furan


(Oil to paper ratio = 20:1)
Furan content (ppm) DP Transformer
condition

< 0,1 700 - 1200 Normal (health)


0,1 - 1 450 - 700 Moderate
deterioration

1-10 250-450 Extensive


deterioration

> 10 < 250 End of life criteria

Model Hubungan DP dan


Furan(ppm) 7100
DP =
8.8 + 2 FAL
Model Chengdong:
log(2 FAL * 0.88) 4.51
Thermally upgraded DP =
Stebbins (*ppb) 0.0035
7100
DP =
Model De Pablo: 8.8 + 2 FAL

800
DP =
Model Pahlavanpor [0.186 * 2 FAL] + 1

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Hubungan Furan dan DP


1200

1000
Chengdong
De Pablo
Degree of Polimerization

800
Pahlavanpour
Stebbins
600

400

200

0
0 2 4 6 8 10

Furan Content (ppm)

Diagnosis Transformator

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TRANSFORMER
CONDITION ASSESSMENT
LEVEL
PARAMETER STANDAR Weighting Factor
9 6 1

Water content
(ppm) <5 5 10 > 10 IEC 60422 & SD Myers dikalikan dengan c = 50

Acidity < 0.1 0.1 - 0.15 > 0.15 IEC 60422 & SD Myers dikalikan dengan c = 30

CO (ppm) < 350 350 - 1400 > 1400 IEEE C57-104-1991 dikalikan dengan c = 5

CO2 (ppm) < 2500 2500 - 10000 > 10000 IEEE C57-104-1991 dikalikan dengan c = 5

Furan (ppm) < 500 500 - 3500 > 3500 IEC 61198 dikalikan dengan c = 5

Color < 1.5 1.5 - 3.5 > 3.5 IEC 60422 & SD Myers dikalikan dengan c = 1

Surface tension
(dyne/cm) > 28 22 28 < 22 IEC 60422 & SD Myers dikalikan dengan c = 1
Breakdown
Voltage (kV) > 60 50 60 < 50 IEC 60422 & SD Myers dikalikan dengan c21
=1

Limit Values
Nilai Batas
Parameter Standar

Kondisi 1 Kondisi 6 Kondisi 9

IEC 60422 & SMyers


Kadar Air (ppm) > 10 5 -10 <5

IEC 60422 & SMyers


Angka Keasaman (mg KOH) > 0,15 0,1-0,15 < 0,1

IEC 60422 & SMyers


Tegangan Tembus (kV) < 50 50-60 > 60

IEC 60422 & SMyers


Tegangan Antar Muka (mN/m) < 22 22-28 > 28

IEC 60422 & SMyers


Tan Delta pada 25o C > 0,3 0,1-0,3 < 0,1

IEC 60422 & SMyers


Warna > 3,5 1,5-3,5 < 1,5

IEC 61198
Furan (ppb) > 3500 500-3500 < 500

IEEE C57-104-1991
TCG (ppm) > 1921 721- 1921 < 721

IEEE C57-104-1991
Kandungan CO2(ppm) > 10000 2500-10000 < 2500

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Weighting Factor
w Using Metode Analytic Hierarchy
Process
w Iteration to determine Eigen vector with
MATLAB

Table of Pairwise Comparison

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Weighting Factors

Rasio Konsistensi
5,18 %

Penilaian Kondisi Isolasi


IBT-2 Fasa T

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GUI Penilaian Kondisi

MISTERI AIR DALAM


ISOLASI TRANSFORMATOR
w Konstanta dielektrik tinggi k.l. 80
w Menaikkan konduktivitas isolasi
w Menaikkan rugi-rugi dielektrik sistem
isolasi
w Menurunkan tegangan tembus isolasi
w Mempromosi penuaan

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Experiment
w Sample : Silicone oil. Chemical structure
of Silicone oil ( dimethylpolysiloxane )
with variable water content

Samples and their water contents


Sample Treatment Water content
(ppm)
SA Heated 12-hour and mixed with silica gel 25,0

SB 24-hour heated and mixed with silica gel 45,0

SC Mixed with silica gel 77,2


SD Heated 6 hours 103,4
SE Factory default 120,7
SF 3 days opened in moist air (RH 90%) 152,2

SG Water added 175,0


SH Water added 190,7
SI Water added 250,0

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Measurement

Water content Standard: ASTM D-1533


App: Karl Fischer KF875

Breakdown voltage Standard: IEC 60156


App: MEGGER OTS 80 AF/2

Viscosiy Standard: ASTM D-445


App: Kinematic Viscosity Bath

Color scale Standard: ASTM D-1500


App: Livobond PFX 195

Breakdown Voltage

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Saturated water content


w Saturated water content in Silicone oil
at 27oC 216 ppm

w Saturated water content in Mineral oil at


27oC = 73.5 ppm

Samples and their water contents


Water Water
Sample Treatment
content Content
(ppm)
SA Heated 12-hour and mixed with silica 25,0 12%

gel
SB 24-hour heated and mixed with si gel 45,0 21%

SC Mixed with silica gel 77,2 36%

SD Heated 6 hours 103,4 48%

SE factory default 120,7 56%

SF 3 days opened in moist air (RH 90%) 152,2 71%

SG Water added 175,0 81%

SH Water added 190,7 88%

SI Water added 250,0 116%

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Breakdown Voltage
Almost constant high

Drastically drop

Almost constant low

IEC standard 836 on Vbd and


Water content

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Dependence of losses factor on


water content

Dependence of resistivity on
water content
2.5
Resistivity (Tm)

2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
Water content (ppm)

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Dependence of oil color


on water content

OK NOT OK

Partial Discharge Characteristics

wInception voltage
wPD magnitude
wPD number
wPD patterns

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PD Inception Voltage
16 14
14
12
12
10
PDIV (kV)

PDIV (kV)
10
8
8
6 6
4 4
2 2
0 0
44.98 120.69 175.08 44.98 120.69 175.08
water content (ppm) water content (ppm)

Positive PD Negative PD

Positive PD IV is higher than negative PD IV


PD IV decrease with water content

Average PD magnitude
at 12 and 14 kV

PD magnitude increase with water content

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PD number at 12 and 14 kV

56 % WC

PD number increase with water content

Partial discharge pattern with different


water content at 12 and 14 kV

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PD Pulse sequence at 12 and 14 kV

Saturated water content


w Mineral oil at 27oC = 73.5 ppm
w Saturated water in Silicone oil at 27oC
216 ppm
w IEC 60814 / ASTM D1533 max water in
mineral oil 20 ppm at RT
w IEC 836 max water in silicone oil 50 ppm
at RT

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Comparison between Silicone


and mineral oil
Silicone Mineral
oil oil

Similar behavior
but with different water (ppm) content scale

Dependence of BDV on Water content (in


%) for Silicone and mineral oils

Almost 80
constant high 70
Breakdown Voltage (kV)

Silicone oil 60
Mineral oil
50

40

30
Almost
Drastica constant low 20
lly drop
10

0
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120%
Water content (%RS)

Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3


%RS < 20% 20% < %RS < 60% %RS > 60%

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