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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

Department of Civil & Building Engineering

LECTURE NOTES

By

OLENG MORRIS

(Course Lecturer)

0703688747 or 0772285215

wotamuko@gmail.com

Table of Contents

Preamble

Brief Description

Bridges the transition from Analysis to design, by explaining how forces used in analysis are

obtained from people and other objects and the materials of the structure.

Explains the properties of materials that make up reinforced concrete.

Reviews analysis using a method that can be used with an electronic calculator and computer

to obtain applied internal actions / forces

Explains the concept of design of all the major components of a reinforced concrete building

where the strength of these components must be greater than the applied forces by a

reasonable margin, and where each component must be checked for each of the possible

modes of failure.

Objectives

By the end of the course the student should be able to:

Calculate the forces applied to the structure arising from its weight, expected usage and

external loads;

Demonstrate understanding of the behaviour of reinforced concrete and its constituent

materials and be able to predict its behaviour under all the expected loading and

environmental conditions;

Analyze; i.e. determine all internal actions (Axial load, shear force, bending and torsion

moments) on each member of the structure using a calculator and computer;

Identify all possible causes and modes of failure;

Design all the major components of a reinforced concrete building to prevent any mode of

failure occurring.

Detailed Course Description

Introduction to Limit State Design (5 hours)

Ultimate limit state: considering Strength, stability and robustness

Serviceability limit state: Deflection, Durability (fire and corrosion resistance), Vibration

Material properties for steel and concrete and partial safety factor for materials.

Design Standards: Historical review, Elastic Analysis; CP114, Limit state Design; CP110 and BS

8110, EC2

Loading: dead, wind , imposed and notional loads , load combinations and Partial safety factors

for loads

Robustness & Design of ties, Importance of robustness in explosions and terrorists attack.

Analysis of framed structures using moment distribution and computer applications

Shear, Bond & Torsion (5 hours)

Shear strength of a reinforced concrete beam without links

Shear resistance of links

Shear resistance of Bent up bars

Shear in slabs

Local bond, Anchorage bond and length

Preamble

Torsion analysis, Torsion shear stress & reinforcement

Design of Beams (15 hours)

Simply supported & continuous beams; (loading, analysis, moment redistribution)

Analysis of beams : Assumptions, parabolic & Rectangular Stress blocks

Singly reinforced beams: Moments of resistance, balanced, under and over reinforced section,

Design of section using analytical & design charts.

Design of Doubly Reinforced beams

Design of Flanged beams; with Neutral axis in the in web or flange

Design of slabs (10 hours)

Classification of slabs based on: Nature of support (simply supported, continuous, flat slabs),

Direction of support (One way and two way supporting), Type of section (solid, hollow blocks,

ribbed slabs),

Design of main and secondary slab reinforcement in one way (solid & ribbed/hollow block) slab,

and two way slab

Checking for Shear control in slabs

Checking for Deflection control in slabs

Checking for Cracking control in slabs

Anchorage and detailing

Introduction to Yield line method

Design of Staircases; A special type of slopping slabs (5 hours)

Classification of stairs into transverse and longitudinal spanning,

Relevant Building regulations ,determination of staircase loading and analysis of staircases,

Design of main and provision of distribution steel, checking for shear, deflection, cracking.

Detailing of and anchorage.

Design of Columns (8 hours)

Classification: (short & slender columns, Braced & unbraced columns)

Section analysis

Design of short Columns subjected to only to axial loads

Design of short column subjected to axial loads & uniaxial bending using charts.

Design of short columns subjected to axial loads & biaxial Bending; (Analytical use of charts)

Design of slender columns

Checking columns for shear strength.

Design of Walls (2 hours)

Functions Types & loads on walls

Design of Reinforced concrete walls

Design of plane concrete walls

Design of foundations (6 hours)

Design of axially loaded pad bases; determination of pad size and depth, Design for moment

steel, checking for Vertical and punching shear.

Discussion of Eccentrically loaded pad bases

Discussion of Design of Raft, strip and combined foundations

Discussion of Pile foundations

Preamble

Earth Pressure and Types of retaining walls

Discussion of design of cantilever walls

Discussion of design of Counterfort retaining walls

Introduction to Prestressed Concrete (8 hours)

Advantages prestressed concrete

Pretensioning and Postensioning

Design of prestressed beams for Serviceability limit state and ultimate limit state.

Stress loss at transfer for beams

Detailing (2 hours)

Bar Bending Schedules

Detailing and curtailment of bars

Evaluation of Concrete (4 hours)

Defects in Concrete

Field evaluation of concrete defects

Repair of defects

Modes of Course Delivery

The course will be taught using lecturers, tutorials; assignments and field visits.

Assessment

The course will be assessed through assignments, tests, practical reports, field visit reports and course

examination. Their relative contribution to the final grade is shown below:

Requirements Contribution

Assignments 15%

Tests 25%

Final course examination 60%

Total 100%

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Preamble .............................................................................................................................................. i

Brief Description ............................................................................................................................. i

Objectives ........................................................................................................................................ i

Detailed Course Description ............................................................................................................ i

Modes of Course Delivery ............................................................................................................. iii

Assessment .................................................................................................................................... iii

Table of Contents ............................................................................................................................... iv

CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................................1

1.0 General ..................................................................................................................................1

Assumptions made in structural design .......................................................................................1

Structural design procedure .........................................................................................................1

1.1 Historical Perspective ...........................................................................................................1

1.1.1 General ...........................................................................................................................1

1.1.2 The Elastic Design. ........................................................................................................2

1.1.2 CP 114 ...........................................................................................................................2

1.3 Introduction to limit state design. .........................................................................................2

1.4 Introduction to Eurocode 2 ...................................................................................................2

1.5 Why change to Euro code II from BS8110 ...........................................................................3

CHAPTER II. PROPERTIES OF REINFORCED CONCRETE........................................................4

2.0 Introduction ...........................................................................................................................4

2.1 Composite action...................................................................................................................4

2.2 Stress strain relations .........................................................................................................5

2.2.1 Stress Strain relationship of concrete .........................................................................5

2.2.2 Stress- Strain relationship of steel .................................................................................7

2.3 Shrinkage and thermal movement.........................................................................................8

2.3.1 Causes of shrinkage .......................................................................................................8

2.3.2 Calculation of stresses induced by shrinkage ................................................................8

2.3.2 Factors affecting shrinkage ..........................................................................................11

2.4 Creep ................................................................................................................................11

2.4.1 General .........................................................................................................................11

2.4.2 Characteristic of Creep ................................................................................................11

2.4.3 Effects of Creep ...........................................................................................................12

CHAPTER III. LIMIT STATE DESIGN ..........................................................................................13

3.0 Introduction .........................................................................................................................13

3.0.1 The permissible stress method. ....................................................................................13

Table of Contents

3.0.3 Limit State Method ......................................................................................................13

3.1 Limit states ..........................................................................................................................13

3.1.1 The Ultimate Limit State. ............................................................................................14

3.1.2 Serviceability Limit State ............................................................................................19

3.2 Characteristic material strength ..........................................................................................22

3.2.1 General .........................................................................................................................22

3.2.2 Concrete (Cl. 3.1, EC 2) ..............................................................................................23

3.2.3 Reinforcement of steel. (Cl. 3.2, EC 2) .......................................................................24

3.3 Partial factors of safety .......................................................................................................26

3.4 Combination of actions .......................................................................................................30

3.4.1 Action (Load) arrangements ........................................................................................30

3.4.2 Combination of actions (Loads) ..................................................................................30

3.4.3 Combination expressions .............................................................................................33

3.5 Wind Loads .........................................................................................................................34

CHAPTER IV. ANALYSIS OF THE STRUCTURE AT THE ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE .........37

4.0 Introduction .........................................................................................................................37

4.1 Actions ................................................................................................................................37

4.1.1 Permanent actions ........................................................................................................37

4.1.2 Variable actions ...........................................................................................................37

4.2 Load combinations and patterns for ultimate limit state .....................................................37

4.3 Analysis of beams ...............................................................................................................38

4.3.1 Non continuous beams ..............................................................................................39

4.3.2 Continuous beams ........................................................................................................40

4.4 Analysis of frames ..............................................................................................................44

4.4.1 Braced frames supporting vertical loads only .............................................................45

4.4.2 Lateral loads on frames ................................................................................................50

4.5 Redistribution of moments ..................................................................................................54

CHAPTER V. ANALYSIS OF THE SECTION ...............................................................................56

5.1 Stress Strain Relations .....................................................................................................56

5.1.1 Concrete .......................................................................................................................56

5.1.2 Reinforcing steel ..........................................................................................................56

5.2 Distribution of strains and stress across a section in bending .............................................57

5.3 Bending and the equivalent rectangular stress block ..........................................................59

5.4 Singly reinforced rectangular section in bending at the ultimate limit state .......................59

5.4.1 Design equations for bending ......................................................................................59

5.4.2 The balanced section....................................................................................................60

Table of Contents

5.5 Rectangular section in bending with compression reinforcement at the ultimate limit state

.63

5.5.1 Derivation of basic equations ......................................................................................63

5.5.2 Numerical Examples ....................................................................................................65

5.6 Flanged section in bending at the ultimate limit state .........................................................66

5.6.1 Flanged section- the depth of the stress block lies within the flange, s h f ..............67

s hf

5.6.2 Flanged section- the depth of the stress block extends below the flange, ........68

5.7 Moment redistribution and the design equations ................................................................72

CHAPTER VI. SHEAR AND BOND ...............................................................................................76

6.1 Shear....................................................................................................................................76

6.1.1 The variable strut inclination method for sections that do require shear reinforcement

..76

6.1.2 Bent-up bars .................................................................................................................79

6.2 Anchorage bond ..................................................................................................................81

6.2.1 General .........................................................................................................................81

6.2.2 Basic anchorage length ................................................................................................81

6.2.3 Design anchorage length..............................................................................................82

CHAPTER VII. DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS .............................................86

7.0 Introduction .........................................................................................................................86

7.1 Preliminary analysis and member sizing ............................................................................86

7.1.1 Overview......................................................................................................................86

7.1.2 Span-effective depth ratios ..........................................................................................90

7.2 Design for bending of a rectangular section with no moment redistribution......................94

7.2.1 Requirements ...............................................................................................................94

7.2.2 Singly reinforced rectangular sections, no moment redistribution ..............................95

7.2.3 Rectangular sections with tension and compression reinforcement, no moment

redistribution ..............................................................................................................................96

7.3 Design for bending of a rectangular section with moment redistribution...........................98

7.3.1 Singly reinforced rectangular sections with moment redistribution ............................98

7.3.2 Rectangular sections with tension and compression reinforcement with moment

redistribution applied (based on the UK Annex to EC2) ...........................................................98

7.4 Flanged beams...................................................................................................................100

7.4.1 Overview....................................................................................................................100

7.4.2 Design procedure for a flanged beam subject to a sagging moment .........................102

7.4.3 Shear between the web and flange of a flanged section ............................................102

7.5 One span beams .............................................................................................................106

7.6 Design for shear ................................................................................................................107

Table of Contents

7.6.2 Vertical stirrups or links ............................................................................................108

7.6.3 Bent-up bars to resist shear ........................................................................................111

7.7 Continuous beams .............................................................................................................111

7.8 Curtailment and anchorage of reinforcing bars.................................................................116

CHAPTER VIII. DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SLABS ...........................................119

8.0 Introduction .......................................................................................................................119

8.0.1 Classification of Slabs ...............................................................................................119

8.0.2 Concrete sections that do not require design shear reinforcement ............................119

8.1 Shear in slabs ....................................................................................................................120

8.1.1 Introduction................................................................................................................120

8.1.2 Punching shear analysis .............................................................................................120

8.1.3 Punching shear reinforcement design ........................................................................122

8.2 Span effective depth ratios .............................................................................................125

8.3 Reinforcement details .......................................................................................................125

8.4 One Way Spanning Solid Slabs .....................................................................................125

8.4.1 Single-span solid slabs ...............................................................................................126

8.4.2 Continuous solid slab spanning in one direction .......................................................128

8.5 Two Way Spanning Solid Slabs.....................................................................................131

8.5.1 Simply supported slab spanning in two directions ....................................................131

8.5.2 Restrained slab spanning in two directions ...............................................................133

8.6 Ribbed and Hollow Block Slabs .......................................................................................136

8.6.1 Classification; ............................................................................................................136

8.6.2 Advantages of Ribbed and hollow block slabs: .........................................................136

8.6.3 Design ........................................................................................................................136

8.7 Stair slabs ..........................................................................................................................144

8.7.1 General .......................................................................................................................144

8.7.2 Stairs spanning horizontally ......................................................................................144

8.7.3 Stair slab spanning longitudinally .............................................................................145

CHAPTER IX. DESIGN OF COLUMNS.......................................................................................147

9.0 Introduction .......................................................................................................................147

9.1 Classification of Columns .................................................................................................147

9.2 Slenderness ratio, Effective height and Limiting slenderness ratio of column .................148

9.2.1 Slenderness ratio of a column ....................................................................................148

l0

9.2.2 Effective height of a column .................................................................................148

9.2.3 Limiting slenderness ratio-short or slender columns .................................................149

9.3 Reinforcement details .......................................................................................................152

Table of Contents

9.3.2 Links ..........................................................................................................................152

9.4 Short columns resisting moments and axial forces ...........................................................152

9.5 Design equations for a non-symmetrical section ..............................................................158

9.6 Design of slender columns ................................................................................................161

CHAPTER X. DESIGN OF FOUNDATIONS ...............................................................................165

10.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................165

10.1.1 General .......................................................................................................................165

10.1.2 Foundation types ........................................................................................................165

10.1.3 Foundation design ......................................................................................................166

10.2 Pad footings ...................................................................................................................167

10.2.1 Overview....................................................................................................................167

10.2.2 Requirements .............................................................................................................168

10.2.3 Design Procedure .......................................................................................................169

Chapter I: Introduction

CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION

1.0 General

A structure is any load bearing construction; in other words it is an organized assembly of connected

parts designed to provide mechanical resistance and stability.

a) Structures are designed by appropriately qualified and experienced personnel.

b) Adequate supervision and quality control is provided in factories, plants and site.

c) Construction is carried out by personnel with appropriate skills and experience.

d) The construction materials and products are used as specified in euro code II or in the relevant

materials or product specifications.

e) The structure will be adequately maintained.

The architect determines arrangement of elements to meet the clients requirements. This is availed

to the structural engineer as architectural plants. The structural engineer determines the best structural

system to fit the architects concept. There are two structural systems are

framed

framed with shear walls

After completing the structure arrangement/ structure lay out, the design process consists of the

following steps.

i) Idealization of the structure into load bearing frames and elements for analysis and design.

ii) Estimation of loads based on materials and use of structure.

iii) Analysis to determine the maximum moments, axial forces, shear and torsional forces, and

deflection for design.

iv) Design of concrete sections and reinforcement areas and layout for slabs, beams, columns,

walls and foundations.

v) Production of detailed drawings and bar bending schedules.

1.1.1 General

The Eurocodes are a family of ten European codes of practice for the design of building and civil

engineering structures in concrete, steel, timber and masonry, amongst other materials. Table 7.1 lists

the reference numbers and titles of the ten Eurocodes. Like the present UK codes of practice,

Eurocodes will come in a number of parts, each containing rules relevant to the design of a range of

structures including buildings, bridges, water retaining structures, silos and tanks. EN 1991 provides

characteristic values of loads (termed actions in Eurocode-speak) needed for design. EN 1990, the

head Eurocode, is the worlds first materialindependent design code and provides guidance on

determining the design value of actions and combination of actions, including partial safety factors

for actions. EN 1997 covers the geotechnical aspect of foundation design. EN 1998 is devoted to

earthquake design and provides guidance on achieving earthquake resistance of buildings, bridges,

towers, geotechnical structures, amongst others.

Uganda being a former British protectorate has followed the British system of design. Upto 1972, the

British system was designing structures using the elastic design/ Modular ratio method of designing.

Chapter I: Introduction

EuroNorm reference Title

EN1990 Eurocode 0: Basis of design

EN1991 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures

EN1992 Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures

EN1993 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures

EN1994 Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures

EN1995 Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures

EN1996 Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures

EN1997 Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design

EN1998 Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance

EN1999 Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium structures

It is based on the assumption that the stress strain behavior of both steel and concrete remain elastic

i.e. stress is proportional to strain.

Force , change in length , and Stress

Stress Strain Modulus of Elasticty

Area original length Strain

Both the concrete and steel have a constant modulus of elasticity; E s Ec , and therefore there is

Es

a fixed ratio of moduli that n .

Ec

It further implies that the stresses are limited to permissible values.

The code of practice in use was CP 114.

1.1.2 CP 114

Multiplies a factor of a third (1 / 3) by the cube stress to obtain the permissible stress of concrete

under bending/flexure.

If divides the yield stress by factor of 1.8 to get the permissible stress in steel.

The permissible stress of steel was limited to 230N / mm 2 whatever the grade of steel. This

limitation aimed at controlling the crack width since at the permissible stress of steel in tension,

the surrounding concrete has cracked.

In 1972, a limit state design code CP110 was introduced but it was not until 1986 that Engineers in

Uganda switched to limit state design. In 1985. CP110 was withdrawn. A new limit state design code

BS 8110 was introduced. This has undergone a series of amendment until it was withdrawn in 2010.

Euro code II was introduced in 2000 and has been working hand in hand with BS8110. Euro code II

applies to normal weight concrete. The design rules of Eurocode II is based only on the f ck of

cylinders at 28days. Cube strength is mentioned only as an alternative to prove compliance.

Eurocode 2 applies to the design of buildings and civil engineering works in concrete. It is based on

limit state principles and comes in four parts as shown in Table 1-2 below.

Part 1.1 of Eurocode 2 gives a general basis for the design of structures in plain, reinforced,

lightweight, pre-cast and prestressed concrete. In addition, it gives some detailing rules which are

Chapter I: Introduction

mainly applicable to ordinary buildings. It is largely similar in scope to BS 8110 which it will replace

by about 2010. Design of building structures cannot wholly be undertaken using Part 1.1 of Eurocode

2, however. Reference will have to be made to a number of other documents, notably EN 1990

(Eurocode 0) and Eurocode 1 to determine the design values of actions (section 8.5), BS 4449 for

mechanical properties of reinforcing steel (section 8.4.1), Part 1.2 of Eurocode 2 for fire design

(section 8.7.1), BS 8500 and EN 206 for durability design (section 8.7.2) and Eurocode 7 for

foundation design (Fig. 8.1).

Part Subject

1.1 General rules and rules for buildings

1.2 Structural fire design

2 Reinforced and prestressed concrete bridges

3 Liquid retaining and containment structures

The main reason cited for structuring the information in this way is to avoid repetition and make the

design guidance in Part 1.1 more concise than BS 8110. Part 1.1 of Eurocode 2, hereafter referred to

as EC 2, was issued as a preliminary standard or ENV in 1992 and in final form as BS EN 1992-1-1

in 2004. The following subjects are covered in EC 2:

Section 1: General

Section 2: Basis of design

Section 3: Materials

Section 4: Durability and cover to reinforcement

Section 5: Structural analysis

Section 6: Ultimate limit states

Section 7: Serviceability limit states

Section 8: Detailing of reinforcement and prestressing tendons General

Section 9: Detailing of members and particular rules

Section 10: Additional rules for precast concrete elements and structures

Section 11: Lightweight aggregate concrete structures

Section 12: Plain and lightly reinforced concrete structures

Also included are ten annexes which provide supplementary information on a range of topics

including creep and shrinkage, reinforcing steel, durability design and analysis of flat slabs and shear

walls.

(a) Euro code II results in more economic structures.

(b) Euro code II is less restrictive than British standards.

(c) Euro code II is extensive and comprehensive.

(d) The new Euro codes are claimed to be the most technically advanced codes in the world.

(e) Europe, all public works must follow Euro codes for structural design, implying that KYU

graduates would be able to work in Europe and probably the whole of Africa.

(f) Euro codes are logical and organized to avoid repetition.

Chapter II: Properties of Reinforced Concrete

2.0 Introduction

Reinforced concrete consists of both concrete and steel. It is a strong durable building material that

can be formed into many varied shapes and ranging from a simple rectangular column, to a slender

curved dome or shell, its utility and versatility are achieved by combining the best features of concrete

and steel.

Table 2-1: properties of steel and concrete

Property concrete steel

Strength in tension Poor Very good

Strength in compression Good Very good but slender bars will

Strength in shear Fair buckle

Durability Good Very good

Fire resistance Good Poor, corrodes if unprotected

Poor-suffers rapid loss of strength at

high temperature

As seen from table 2-1, concrete is poor in tension, good in compression, and fair in shear. On the

other hand, steel is very good in tension, compression and shear. Thus, when they are combined, the

steel is able to provide the tensile strength and probably some of the shear strength while the concrete,

strong in compression, protects the steel to give durability and fire resistance.

i) In beams, slabs, and stair cases, where there is tension, the concrete must be reinforced by steel.

ii) In areas where the compression forces are very high such as columns, concrete must be

reinforced by steel and the steel must be tied and surrounded by concrete in order not to buckle.

Steel is poor in durability and fire resistance while concrete is good, therefore concrete must provide

cover to protect the steel.

The tensile strength of concrete is only about 10 per cent of the compressive strength. Because of

this, nearly all reinforced concrete structures are designed on the assumption that the concrete does

not resist any tensile forces. Reinforcement is designed to carry these tensile forces, which are

transferred from concrete to steel by bond which is achieved by;

i) Using concrete with f ck 20N / mm2

ii) Well compacted concrete around reinforcement bars.

iii) Ribbed and twisted bars to give an extra mechanical grip

If this bond is not adequate, the reinforcing bars will just slip within the concrete and there will not

be a composite action. Composite action is achieved when there is perfect bond such that the strain

in steel equals to that in the adjacent concrete.

The coefficients of thermal expansion for steel and for concrete are nearly the same; therefore

differential expansion does not affect bond over normal temperature ranges.

Coefficients of Thermal Expansion,

for steel 10 106 per C

for concrete (7 ~ 12) 106 per C

Chapter II: Properties of Reinforced Concrete

Figure 2-1 illustrates the behavior of a simply supported beam subject to bending and shows the

position of steel reinforcement to resist the tensile forces, while the compression forces in the top of

the beam are carried by the concrete.

Load A

Compression

Distribution

Cracking

Reinforcement A

Fig.2-1 Composite action

However, this cracking does not detract from the safety of the structure provided there is good

reinforcement bonding to ensure that the cracks are restrained from opening so that the embedded

steel continues to be protected from corrosion.

The loads on a structure cause distortion of its members with resulting stresses and strains in the

concrete and the steel reinforcement. To carry out the analysis and design of a member it is necessary

to have a knowledge of the relationship between these stresses and strains. This knowledge is

particularly important when dealing with reinforced concrete which is a composite material; for in

this case the analysis of the stresses on a cross-section of a member must consider the equilibrium of

the forces in the concrete and steel.

Concrete is a very variable material, having a wide range of strengths and stress-strain curves. A

typical curve for concrete in compression is shown in figure 2.2. As the load is applied, the ratio

between the stresses and strains is approximately linear at first and the concrete behaves almost as

an elastic material with virtually a full recovery of displacement if the load is removed. Eventually,

the curve is no longer linear and the concrete behaves more and more as a plastic material. If the load

were removed during the plastic range the recovery would no longer be complete and a permanent

deformation would remain. The ultimate strain for most structural concretes tends to be a constant

value of approximately 0.0035, irrespective of the strength of the concrete. The precise shape of the

curve is very dependent on the length of time the load is applied. Figure 2.2 is typical for a short-

term loading.

The stress/strain diagram for concrete subject to uniaxial compression is shown in the figure below.

Chapter II: Properties of Reinforced Concrete

c <0

simplification

fc actual

cu fc peak stress

Ec cu ultimate stress

Ecm

c <0

cl cu

Fig.2-2 Stress-strain diagram for uniaxial compression

CL 0.0022 , CU 0.0035 and Ecm mean value of the secant modulus

a) Strength classes of concrete

The design shall be based on the strength classes of concrete which correspond to characteristic

strength values given in table 3.1 of euro code II. Table 3.1 gives the f ck of concrete and the

corresponding tensile strength.

The quality of concrete are described by characteristic cylinder strength/ characteristic cube

strength, e.g. C30/37.

In the U.K and consequently in Uganda, compressive stress has been measured and expressed

in terms of 150mm cube crushing strength at an age of 28days. Most other countries use

150mm diameter cylinders which are 300mm long. For normal strength concrete, the cylinder

strength is equal to 0.8 of the cube strength.

All design calculations to Euro code II are based on the characteristic cylinder strength f ck .

b) Modulus of Elasticity

The modulus of elasticity depends on;

i) Strength class of concrete,

ii) Properties of aggregates used,

iii) The mean value of the secant modulus Ecm for a particular class is obtained from table 3.2 of

the code.

Table 2.2 Values of the secant modulus of elasticity E cm (in kN/mm 2 ) (based on table 3.2 EC II)

Strength

C12/15 C16/20 C20/25 C25/30 C30/37 C35/45 C40/50 C45/55 C50/60

class C

E cm 26 27.5 29 30.5 32 33.5 35 36 37

Ecm 9.5 f ck 8

1// 3

where Ecm is in KN / mm 2

f ck is in N / mm 2 , f ck is strength at 28days

Thus Ecm is also for 28days.

The modulus of elasticity is required.

(i) When investigating deflection of a structure.

(ii) When investigating cracking of a structure.

(iii)When considering both short term and long term effects of creep and shrinkage.

Chapter II: Properties of Reinforced Concrete

c) Poissons Ratio

For design purpose; the Poissons ratio for elastic strain is 0.2

Figure 2.3 shows typical stress strain curves for (a) hot rolled yield steel, and (b) cold-worked high

yield steel. Mild steel behaves as an elastic material, with the strain proportional to the stress up to

the yield, at which point there is a sudden increase in train with no change in stress.

After the yield point, mild steel becomes a plastic material and the strain increases rapidly up to the

ultimate value. High yield steel, which is most commonly used for reinforcement, may behave in a

similar manner or may, on the other hand, not have such a definite yield point but may show a more

gradual change from an elastic to a plastic behaviour and reduced ductility depending on the

manufacturing process.

All materials have a similar slope of the elastic region with elastic modulus E 200kN / mm 2

approximately.

0.2% proof

Yield stress

stress

stress

stress

(a) Hot rolled steel (b) Cold worked steel

Fig.2.3 Stress-strain curves for high yield reinforcing steel

The specified strength used in design is based on either the yield stress or a specified proof stress. A

0.2 per cent proof stress is defined in figure 2.4 by the broken line drawn parallel to the linear part of

the stress-strain curve.

Removal of the load within the plastic range would result in the stress-strain diagram following a line

approximately parallel to the loading portion - see line BC in figure 2.4. The steel will be left with a

permanent strain AC, which is known as slip. If the steel is again loaded, the stress-strain diagram

will follow the unloading curve until it almost reaches the original stress at B and then it will curve

in the direction of the first loading. Thus, the proportional limit for the second loading is higher than

for the initial loading. This action is referred to as strain hardening or work hardening.

B

stress

A C

Fig.2.4 Strain hardening

Chapter II: Properties of Reinforced Concrete

This is the reduction in volume as concrete hardens. This shrinkage is liable to cause cracking of the

concrete, but it also has beneficial effect of strengthening the bond between the concrete and the

steel reinforcement. Shrinkage begins to take place as soon as the concrete is mixed.

It is caused by;

a) Initial absorption of the water by the concrete and the aggregate.

b) Evaporation of the water which rises to the concrete surface.

c) During the hydration of cement, a great deal of heat is generated and as concrete cools, the

thermal contraction results in further shrinkage.

d) The hardened concrete continuous drying resulting in further shrinkage.

Thermal shrinkage may be reduced by restricting temperature rise during hydration, and can be

achieved by;

a) Use a mix design with a low cement content or suitable cement replacement.

b) Avoid rapid hardening and finely ground cement if possible.

c) Keep aggregate and mixing water cool.

d) Use steel shuttering and cool with a water spray.

e) Strike the shuttering early to allow the heat of hydration to dissipate.

A low water-cement ratio will help to reduce drying shrinkage by keeping to a minimum the volume

of moisture that can be lost.

If the change in volume of the concrete is allowed to take place freely and without restraint, there

will be no stress change within the concrete. Restraint of the shrinkage, on the other hand, will cause

tensile strains and stresses. The restraint may be caused externally by fixity with adjoining members

or friction against an earth surface, and internally by the action of the steel reinforcement. For a long

wall or floor slab, the restraint from adjoining concrete may be reduced by constructing successive

bays instead of alternate bays. This allows the free end of every bay to contract before the next bay

is cast.

When tensile stresses caused by shrinkage or thermal movement exceed the strength of concrete,

cracking will occur. To control cracking, steel reinforcement must be provided close to the concrete

surface.

The shrinkage stresses caused by reinforcement in an otherwise unrestrained member may be

calculated quite simply. The member shown in figure 2.5 has a free shrinkage strain of cs if made

of plain concrete, but this overall movement is reduced by the inclusion of reinforcement, giving a

compressive strain sc in the steel and causing an effective tensile strain ct the concrete.

Chapter II: Properties of Reinforced Concrete

Original member -

as cast

cs

Plain concrete -

unrestrained

ct

Reinforced concrete -

unrestrained

sc

ct

Reinforced concrete -

fully restrained

The free shrinkage strain in concrete Ecs is given by;

cs ct sc

where ct tensile strain in concrete.

sc compressive strain in steel.

but we know, strain( ) stress f

Young' s Modulus E

f ct f

cs ct sc sc (1)

Ecm Es

where f ct is the tensile stress in concrete area Ac and f sc is the compressive stress in steel area As .

Equating forces in the concrete and steel for equilibrium gives

Ac f ct As f sc (2)

As

therefore f ct f sc

Ac

Substituting for f ct in equation (1)

As f sc f

cs sc

Ac Ecm Es

A 1

cs f sc s

Ac Ecm Es

E

Thus if n s

Ecm

nA 1

cs f sc s

Ac Es Es

f sc nAs

1

Es Ac

Therefore the steel stress

cs E s

f sc (3)

1 nAs / Ac

Chapter II: Properties of Reinforced Concrete

reinforcement only.

A member contains 1.0 per cent reinforcement, and the free shrinkage strain cs of the concrete is

200 106 . For steel, Es 200KN / mm2 and for concrete Ecm 15KN / mm2 . Determine the stresses in

steel and concrete given that the member is restrained by reinforcement only.

Solution.

As A

1% 100 s 0.01

Ac Ac

From equation (3)

cs E s

stress in reinforcement f sc

1 nAs / Ac

Es 200

where Ecs 200106 , Ecm 15KN / mm2 , Es 200KN / mm2 and n

Ecm 15

200 106 200 103

f sc

1 200 / 15 0.01

f sc 35.3 N / mm2 ( compression)

As

stress in reinforcement f ct f sc

Ac

0.01 35.3

0.35 N / mm 2 (tension)

Note: The stresses produced in members free from external restraint are generally small as example

1.1, and can be easily withstood both by the steel and the concrete.

If the member is fully restrained, then the steel cannot be in compression since sc 0 and hence

f sc 0 (figure 1.7). In this case the tensile strain induced in the concrete ct must be equal to the free

shrinkage strain cs , and the corresponding stress will probably be high enough to cause cracking in

immature concrete.

If the member in example 2.1 above was fully restrained, determine the tensile stress in concrete.

Solution.

If the member in example 1.1 was fully restrained, the stress in the concrete would be given by

f ct ct Ecm ;

where ct cs 200106

then

f ct 200 106 15 103

3.0 N / mm 2

Chapter II: Properties of Reinforced Concrete

Shrinkage of concrete depends on;

a) Ambient humidity.

b) Dimensions of the elements.

c) Compressive of concrete.

Table 2-3 (Table 3.4 of euro code II) gives the final shrinkage strain of a normal weight concrete

subject to a compressive stress not exceeding 0.45 f ck at the time of first loading.

i) For values in table 3.4 variation in temperature between 20C and 40C are acceptable.

ii) Variations in humidity between relative humidity (RH 20% 100%) are acceptable.

iii) Linear interpolation between the values in the table are acceptable.

Table 2.3- Final shrinkage strain cs of normal weight concrete (Table 3.4 of euro code II)

Location of the Relative humidity Notional size 2 Ac / u (mm)

member (%) 150 600

Inside 50 -0.60 -0.50

Outside 80 -0.33 -0.28

where Ac cross-sectional area of concrete

u perimeter of that area

2.4 Creep

2.4.1 General

Creep is the continuous deformation of a member under sustained load. It is a phenomenon associated

with many materials, but it is particularly evident with concrete. It depends on;

i) The aggregates and the mix design (Composition of concrete).

ii) Ambient humidity

iii) Member cross-section.

iv) Age at first loading.

v) Duration of loading.

vi) Magnitude of loading.

a) The final deformation of the member can be three to four times the short-term elastic deformation.

b) The deformation is roughly proportional to the intensity of loading and to the inverse of the

concrete strength.

c) If the load is removed, only the instantaneous elastic deformation will recover; the plastic

deformation will not.

d) There is a redistribution of the load between the concrete and any steel present.

e) The redistribution of load is caused by the changes in compressive strains being transferred to the

reinforcing steel. Thus the compressive stresses in the steel are increased so that the steel takes a

larger proportion of the load.

Chapter II: Properties of Reinforced Concrete

The effects of creep are particularly important in beams, where the increased deflections may cause;

a) Opening of cracks.

b) Damage to finishes.

c) Non-alignment of mechanical equipment.

Redistribution of stress between concrete and steel occurs primarily in the uncracked compressive

areas and has little effect on the tension reinforcement other than reducing shrinkage stresses in some

instances. The provision of reinforcement in the compression zone of a flexural member, however,

often helps to restrain the deflections due to creep.

Values in table 2-4 (Table 3.3 of euro code II) can be considered as the final creep coefficient (, t o )

of a normal weight concrete subjected to a compressive stress not exceeding 0.45 f ck .

Notional size 2 Ac / u (in mm)

Age at 50 150 600 50 150 600

loading to Humid atmospheric conditions

Dry atmospheric conditions (inside)

(days) (outside)

(RH=50%)

(RH=80%)

1 5.5 4.6 3.7 3.6 3.2 2.9

7 3.9 3.1 2.6 2.6 2.3 2.0

28 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.9 1.7 1.5

90 2.4 2.0 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.2

365 1.8 1.5 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.0

Linear interpolation between the values in table is permitted.

Chapter III: Limit State Design

3.0 Introduction

Limit state design of an engineering structure must ensure that under the worst loadings the structure

is safe, and that during normal working conditions the deformation of the members does not detract

from the appearance, durability or performance of the structure. Three methods have been developed

for design of structures.

The ultimate strengths of the materials are divided by a factor of safety to provide permissible design

stresses which are usually within the elastic range (It can also be called Elastic design method or the

modular ratio method).

Limitation;

i) It is not really applicable to a semi-plastic material such as concrete since it is based on an elastic

stress distribution.

ii) It is not suitable when displacement are not proportional to the loads such as in slender columns.

The working loads are multiplied by a factor of safety.

Limitations;

i) It does not apply a factor of safety to material stresses. Therefore it does not consider variability

of materials.

ii) It cannot be used to calculate the deflection and cracking at service loads.

In the load factor method the ultimate strength of the materials should be used in the calculations. As

this method does not apply factors of safety to the material stresses, it cannot directly take account

of the variability of the materials, and also it cannot be used to calculate the deflections or cracking

at working loads. Again, this is a design method that has now been effectively superseded by modern

limit state design methods.

The limit state method of design, now widely adopted across Europe and many other parts of the

world, overcomes many of the disadvantages of the previous two methods. It multiplies the service

loads by partial factor of safety and also divides the materials ultimate strengths by further partial

factors of safety.

A limit state is a situation beyond which the structure becomes unfit for its intended use. The purpose

of design is to achieve acceptable probabilities that a structure will not become unfit for its intended

use that is, that it will not reach a limit state. Thus, any way in which a structure may cease to be

fit for use will constitute a limit state and the design aim is to avoid any condition being reached

during the expected life of the structure. There are two limit states.

i) The ultimate limit state.

ii) The serviceability limit state.

Chapter III: Limit State Design

This requires that the structure must be able to withstand, with an adequate factor of safety against

collapse, the loads for which it is designed to ensure the safety of the building occupants and/or the

safety of the structure itself. The possibility of buckling or overturning must also be taken into

account, as must the possibility of accidental damage as caused, for example, by an internal

explosion. The structure or its elements should not collapse, overturn or buckle, or become unfit for

use due to accidental damage.

The Ultimate Limit State considers;

i) Robustness.

ii) Stability.

iii) Strength.

i) Robustness

To be robust means that the layout of the structure should be such that damage to a small area or

failure of a single element will not lead to progressive collapse.

To achieve robustness;

i) The structure must be able to resist a minimum horizontal load.

ii) The elements of the structure must be provided with ties.

The minimum horizontal load is given by

a) The design horizontal load assumed to act at any floor level should not be less than H min .

Horizontal loads are as a result of wind, earthquake and traffic where H min is given by

H min Vi n

where Vi total design vertical load above the level considered.

notational (assumed) out of plumbed angle in radians given by

1 1

(100 L ) 200

where L is the overall height of the structure in meters.

n is an allowance for causes where n vertically continuous elements act

together.

1 1/ n

n

2

b) In a braced structure, the horizontal elements connecting the vertical elements to the bracing

structure should be designed to carry an additional horizontal load H fd

v

H fd ( N ba N bc )

2

where N ba design vertical load in the vertical elements above the horizontal member

considered.

N bc design vertical load in the vertical elements below the horizontal member

considered.

Details of N ba and N bc are given in figure 2.1 of the code.

Chapter III: Limit State Design

a) c b) c) c

Hc Hc

Vb1 Vbn Vb1 Vb2 Vbn

b Nbc lcol b

Hb H fd Hb

Va1 Van Va1 Va2 Van

l floor a l floor a

v Ha v/2 Nba lcol Ha

v v v

n

H j = Vji v H fd = ( Nbc + Nba ) v/2 H j as in fig. a)

Design of Ties

Detailed design information for ties is not given in Euro code II.

NAD National Application Document recommends that the design method for BS8110 should

be used.

The design of ties is given in clause 3.12.3 of BS8110.

The general stability and robustness of a building structure can be increased by providing

reinforcement acting as ties. These ties should act both vertically between roof and foundations, and

horizontally around and across each floor (figure 3.2), and all external vertical load-bearing members

should be anchored to the floors and beams.

Vertical ties

Vertical ties are not generally necessary in structures of less than five storeys but in higher buildings

should be provided by reinforcement, effectively continuous from roof to foundation by means of

proper laps, running through all vertical load-bearing members. This steel should be capable of

resisting a tensile force equal to the maximum design ultimate load carried by the column or wall

from any one storey or the roof.

Chapter III: Limit State Design

Horizontal ties

Horizontal ties should be provided for all buildings, irrespective of height, in three ways:

1. Peripheral ties.

2. Internal ties.

3. Column and Wall ties.

a) Peripheral ties.

Peripheral tie must be provided by reinforcement at each floor or roof level.

Peripheral tie must be continuous.

This reinforcement must lie within 1.2m from the edge of building or within the perimeter wall.

It should be capable of resisting a force of at least Ft .

Ft (20 4no ) or 60KN whichever is less.

no number of storeys in structure.

b) Internal Ties

Internal ties should be provided at each floor in two perpendicular directions.

They should be continuous throughout their length.

They should be anchored at each end, either to the peripheral tie or to the continuous column or

wall ties.

They may be located as follows;

a) Spread evenly in slabs

b) Grouped in beams

c) Grouped in walls. Where walls are used, the tie reinforcement must be within 0.5m

of the top or bottom of the floor slab.

Internal ties should be able to resist a tensile force T.

F (G Qk ) Lr

T t k or 1.0 Ft whichever is greater.

7.5 5

where (Gk Qk ) the characteristic load per m 2 of the floor considered.

Lr the greatest horizontal distance in the direction of the tie between the centres of

vertical load-bearing members.

If the ties are grouped in walls or beams, their maximum spacing should be limited to 1.5Lr .

Spacing 1.5Lr

Column and Wall Ties must be able to resist a force of 3% of the total vertical ultimate load

carried by columns or walls.

L

The resistance provided must not be less than the smaller of 2 Ft or s Ft kN where L s is the

2 .5

floor to ceiling height in members.

Wall ties are assessed on the basis of the above forces acting per metre length of the wall.

Column ties are concentrated within 1m of either side of the column center line.

Chapter III: Limit State Design

Calculate the stability ties required in an eight-storey building of plan area shown in figure 3.3:

Clear storey height under beams 2.9m

Floor to ceiling height (l s ) 3.4m

Characteristic permanent load ( g k ) 6KN / m 2

Characteristic variable load (qk ) 3KN / m 2

Characteristic steel strength ( f yk ) 500N / mm 2

7m

Transverse beams

4 bays @ 6.5m=26m

Ft (20 4 number of storeys)

20 4 8 52KN 60KN

Force to be resisted Ft 52KN

52 103

Bar area required 104mm 2

500

This could be provided by one H12 bar.

Ft ( g k q k ) l r

Force to be resisted kN per metre

7.5 5

(1) Transverse direction

52(6 3) 7

Force 87.4 KN / m Ft

7.5 5

Force per bay 87.4 6.5 568.1KN

Therefore, bar area required in each transverse interior beam is

568.1 103

1136mm 2

500

This could be provided by 4 H20 bars.

(2) Longitudinal direction

52(6 3) 6.5

Force 81.1KN / m Ft

7.5 5

Chapter III: Limit State Design

Therefore force along length of building 81.1 7 567.7KN , hence bar area required in each

567.7 103

longitudinal beam is 567mm 2

2 500

This could be provided by 2 H20 bars.

Force to be designed for is

ls 3.4

Ft 52 70.7 KN 2 Ft

2.5 2.5

or 3 per cent of ultimate floor load on a column is

3 7

8 (1.35 6 1.5 3) 6.5 69KN at ground floor level

100 2

To allow for 3 per cent of column self-weight, take design force to be 72KN, say, at ground level.

72 103

Area of ties required 144mm 2

500

This would be provided by 1 H20 bar and incorporated with the internal ties. At higher floor levels a

design force of 70.7KN would be used giving a similar practical reinforcement requirement.

Assume quasi-permanent loading with 2 0.6 .

Thus the ultimate design load 1.0 6 0.6 3 7.8KN / m 2 .

Maximum column load from one storey is approximately equal to

7.8 3.5 6.5 177.5KN

Therefore bar area required throughout each column is equal to

177.5 103

355mm 2

500

This would be provided by 4 H12 bars.

ii) Stability

Building structures are classified into two types.

a) Braced, and

b) Unbraced

A braced structure is one that resists lateral loads by means of bracing. Lateral loads include;

wind loads, and

seismic loads (earthquake loads)

Bracing in RC structures include;

Shear walls

RC lift shafts

RC stair wells

The bracing must be able to transmit the horizontal loads down to foundation.

Lateral loads are resisted by action of rigidly connected columns, beams and slabs.

Chapter III: Limit State Design

Non sway structures are those where there is less than 10% increase in the normal design

moment due to the displacement of the structure.

Sway structures are those where the secondary moment due to displacement are greater than

10% of the normal design moment.

iii) Strength

The structure should be adequately strong to carry all applied loads without collapse.

Generally the most important serviceability limit states are:

i) Deflection:

The appearance or efficiency of any part of the structure must not be adversely affected by deflections

nor should the comfort of the building users be adversely affected.

ii) Cracking:

Local damage due to cracking and spalling must not affect the appearance, efficiency or durability

of structure.

iii) Durability:

This must be considered in terms of the proposed life of the structure and its conditions of exposure.

This is the resistance to wear, tear and environmental effects with time. Any reinforced concrete

structure must be designed to protect the embedded steel.

Thus the durability of concrete is influenced by;

a) Exposure conditions

b) Concrete quality and workmanship

c) Cover to reinforcement

d) Width of any crack

If durability is neglected, it will lead to increased expenditures on;

i) Inspection

ii) maintenance

iii) repair

Durability in R.C concerns the selection of the appropriate concrete grade and cover, for the

conditions of;

a) Environmental exposure

b) Protection of reinforcement against a rapid rise in temperature and resultant loss of strength.

Exposure conditions are given in table 4.1 of the code and Minimum cover requirements for exposure

conditions are given in table 4.2.

Chapter III: Limit State Design

Table 3-1 (Table 4.1 of Euro code II) Exposure classes related to environmental conditions

Exposure class Example of environmental conditions

1 interior of buildings for normal habitation or offices a

dry environment

2 a - interior of buildings where humidity is high (e.g. laundries)

without - exterior components

humid frost - components in non-aggressive soil and/or water

environment b - exterior components exposed to frost

With - components in non-aggressive soil and/or water and exposed

frost to frost

- interior components when the humidity is high and exposed

to frost

3

humid environment with frost Interior and exterior components to frost and de-icing agents

and

de-icing salts

4 a - components completely or partially submerged in seawater,

without or in the splash

frost - components in saturated salt air (coastal area)

seawater environment b - components partially submerged in seawater or in the splash

With zone and exposed to frost

frost - components in saturated salt air and exposed to frost

The following classes may occur alone or in combination with the above classes:

5 a - slightly aggressive chemical environment (gas, liquid or

aggressive chemical solid)

b

environment - aggressive industrial atmosphere

b moderately aggressive chemical environment (gas, liquid or

solid)

c highly aggressive chemical environment (gas, liquid or solid)

a

This exposure class is valid only as long as during construction the structure or some of its

components is not exposed to more severe conditions over a prolonged period of time.

b

Chemically aggressive environments are classified in ISO/DP 9690. The following equivalent

exposure conditions may be assumed:

Exposure class 5a: ISO classification A1G,A1L,A1S

Exposure class 5b: ISO classification A2G,A2L,A2S

Exposure class 5c: ISO classification A3G,A3L,A3S

Chapter III: Limit State Design

Table 3-2 (Table 4.2 of Euro code II) Minimum cover requirement for normal weight concrete 1)

Exposure class, according to Table 4.1

1 2a 2b 3 4a 4b 5a 5b 5c

2) Reinforcement 15 20 25 40 40 40 25 30 40

Minimum cover

(mm)

Prestressing 25 30 35 50 50 50 35 40 50

steel

NOTES

1. In order to satisfy the provisions of 4.1.3.3 P(3), these minimum values for cover should be associated

with particular concrete qualities, to be determined from Table 3 in ENV 206.

2. For slab elements, a reduction of 5mm may be made for exposure classes 2-5.

3. A reduction of 5mm may be made where concrete of strength class C40/50 and above is used for

reinforced concrete in exposure classes 2a-5b, and for prestressed concrete in exposure classes 1-5b.

However, the minimum cover should be less than that for Exposure Class 1 in Table 4.2.

4. For exposure class 5c, the use of a protective barrier, to prevent direct contact with the aggressive media,

should be provided.

The concrete cover is the distance between the outer surface of the reinforcement (including links

and stirrups) and the nearest concrete surface.

cover

cover

bundle

i) the safe transmission of bond forces;

ii) that spalling will not occur;

iii) an adequate fire resistance;

iv) the protection of the steel against corrosion;

The protection of reinforcement against corrosion depends upon the continuing presence of a

surrounding alkaline environment provided by an adequate thickness of good quality, well-cured

concrete.

The thickness of cover required depends both upon;

The exposure conditions as shown in table 4.2

The concrete quality.

5mm

i) cover min if d g 32mm

n 5mm

Chapter III: Limit State Design

ii) cover min d 32mm

n g

where the diameter of the bar

n the equivalent diameter for a bundle

d g the largest nominal maximum aggregate size.

The minimum concrete cover to all reinforcement including links and stirrups should not be less than

the appropriate values of given in Table 4.2, for the relevant exposure class defined in Table 4.1.

Nominal Cover

This is the cover used in design and specify on drawing and nominal cover is given by nominal cover

which is equal to minimum cover + h .

where h is Tolerance on cover to reinforcement and given by; 5mm h 10mm .

h depends on;

i) Type and size of structural element/member.

ii) Type of construction.

iii) Standards of workmanship.

iv) Quality control

v) Detailing practice.

iv) Excessive vibration: which may cause discomfort or alarm as well as damage.

v) Fatigue: must be considered if cyclic loading is likely.

vi) Fire resistance: this must be considered in terms of resistance to collapse, flame penetration

and heat transfer.

Fire resistance depends on;

o amount of cover

o member thickness

o type and quality of materials

o workmanship

vii) Special circumstance: any special requirements of the structure which are not covered by

any of the more common limit states, such as earthquake resistance, must be taken into

account.

3.2.1 General

The strengths of materials upon which a design is based, normally, those strengths below which

results are unlikely to fall. These are called characteristic strength. It is assumed that for a given

material, the distribution of strength will be approximately normal, so that a frequency distribution

curve of a large number of sample results would be of the form shown in figure 3-4. The characteristic

strength is taken as that value below which it is unlikely that more than 5 per cent of the results will

fall.

This is given by

f k f m 1.64

Chapter III: Limit State Design

f m mean strength, f m

f

n

f =values of cube strength

n = number of cubes tested.

standard deviation, is a measure of quality control

( f fm )2

1/ 2

n

The relationship between characteristic and mean values accounts for variations in results of test

specimens and will, therefore, reflect the method and control of manufacture, quality of

constructions, and nature of the material.

Mean strength ( fm )

Characteristic

strength ( f k )

number of

test specimens

1.64

strength

Fig.3-4 Normal frequency distribution of strengths

3.2.2 Concrete (Cl. 3.1, EC 2)

a) Compressive strength of concrete

Unlike BS 8110, the design rules in EC 2 are based on the characteristic (5 per cent) compressive

cylinder strength of concrete at 28 days ( f ck ). Equivalent cube strengths ( f ck ,cube ) are included in EC

2 but they are only regarded as an alternative method to prove compliance. Generally, the cylinder

strength is approximately 0.8 the cube strength of concrete i.e. f ck 0.8 f ck ,cube .

b) Tensile strength of concrete

The tensile strength of concrete is the maximum stress the concrete can withstand when subjected to

uniaxial tension (tensile force applies in one axis).

The mean tensile strength f ct .k of concrete may be derived from equations 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3.

f ctm 0.3 f ck( 2 / 3) Nmm 2 (3.1)

f ctk 0.05 0.7 f ctm Nmm 2 (3.2)

f ctk 0.95 1.3 f ctm Nmm 2 (3.3)

where f ck is the characteristic compressive strength.

f ctm is the mean tensile strength.

f ctk 0.05 is the lower characteristic compressive strength at 5% fractile.

f ctk 0.95 is the upper characteristic compressive strength where 95% fractile.

Table 3-3 shows the actual strength classes commonly used in reinforced concrete design.

Chapter III: Limit State Design

Table 3-3 Concrete strength classes, characteristic compressive strength f ck (cylinders), mean tensile

2

strength f ctm , and characteristic tensile strength f ctk of the concrete (in N / mm ) (based on Table 3.1, EC

2)

Strength C12/15 C16/20 C20/25 C25/30 C30/37 C35/45 C40/50 C45/55 C50/60

Class of

Concrete

f ck 12 16 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

f ck ,cube 15 20 25 30 37 45 50 55 60

f ctm 1.6 1.9 2.2 2.6 2.9 3.2 3.5 3.8 4.1

f ctk 0.05 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.5 2.7 2.9

2.0 2.5 2.9 3.3 3.8 4.2 4.6 4.9 5.3

f ctk 0.95

(According to Annex C, the design rules in EC 2 are applicable to steel reinforcement with

characteristic yield strength in the range 400600 N mm2. Details of the actual yield strength of steel

available in the UK for the reinforcement of concrete can be found in BS 4449: 2005. This document

indicates that steel reinforcement will now be manufactured in three grades, all of 500 N mm 2

characteristic yield strength, but with differing ductility (Table 8.3). Plain round bars of characteristic

yield strength 250 N mm2 are not covered in this standard, and this will presumably cease to be

produced in the UK. Present indication would suggest that ductility classes B and C will be the most

widely available and specified steel in the UK. Ductility class A, in sizes 12 mm and below, in coil

form is widely used by reinforcement fabricators for use on automatic link bending machines (see

CARES information sheet on Design, manufacture and supply of reinforcement steel).

a) Grade, denoting the value of the specified characteristic yield stress f yk ( N / mm 2 ) .

b) Class, indicating the ductility characteristics.

c) Size.

d) Surface characteristics.

e) Weld ability.

BS 8110 recommends that design should be based on the characteristic strength of the reinforcement

( f y ) and gives typical values for mild steel and high yield steel reinforcement, the two reinforcement

types available in the UK, of 250Nmm 2 and 500Nmm 2 respectively. High-yield reinforcement is

mostly used in practice nowadays.

In Euro Code II, Grade 500 ( 500N / mm 2 characteristic strength) has replaced Grade 250 and Grade

460 reinforcing steel throughout Europe.

Grade 250 bars are hot-rolled mild-steel bars which usually have a smooth surface so that the bond

with concrete is by adhesion only. This type of bar can be more readily bent, so they have in the past

been used where small radius bends are necessary, such as links in narrow beams or columns, but

plain bars are not now recognized in the European Union and they are no longer available for general

use in the UK.

Chapter III: Limit State Design

High-yield bars are manufactured with a ribbed surface or in the form of a twisted square surface.

Square twisted bars have inferior bond characteristics and have been used in the past, although they

are now obsolete. Deformed bars have a mechanical bond with the concrete. The bending of high-

yield bars through a small radius is liable to cause tension cracking of the steel, and to avoid this the

radius of the bend should not be less than two times the nominal bar size for small bars( 16mm ).

Ribbed high yield bars may be classified as:

Class A- which is normally associated with small diameter ( 12mm ) cold-worked bars used in mesh

and fabric. This is the lowest ductility category and will include limits on moment

redistribution which can be applied and higher quantities for fire resistance.

Class B- which is most commonly used for reinforcing bars.

Class C- high ductility which may be used in earthquake design or similar situation.

Characteristic strength, f y

Grade Reinforcement type

( Nmm 2 )

250 Hot rolled mild steel 250

460 High-yield steel (hot rolled or cold worked) 500

Table 3-5(Table 5, Eurocode II): Differences between current British Standards and EN10080

Property BS4449 and BS4483 EN10080

Specific characteristic yield strength Grade 460N / mm

2

500N / mm 2

Grade 250N / mm

2 Not included

Bond strength for;

i) Ribbed bars/wires Deformed type 2 High bond

ii) Twisted bars Deformed type 1 Not included

iii) Plain bars Round plain bars Not included

Table 3-6

CP110 BS8110 EC2

High yield 460 Ribbed T

High bond 500

410

460 Twisted Y

425 Y

460

485

However in the UK, they still design using EC 2 but use T and Y bars.

Table 3-7 Tensile and other properties of steel for the reinforcement of concrete

Ductility Class

Property

A B C

2

Characteristic yield strength, f yk ( Nmm ) 500

2

Youngs modulus KNmm 200

Characteristic strain at ultimate force, uk (%) 2.5 5.0 7.5

Chapter III: Limit State Design

Other possible variations such as constructional tolerances are allowed for by partial factors of safety

applied to the strength of the materials and to the actions. It should theoretically be possible to derive

values for these from a mathematical assessment of the probability of reaching each state. Lack of

adequate data, however, makes this unrealistic and, in practice, the values adopted are based on

experience and simplified calculation.

characteriatic strength f k

Design strength

partial factor of safety m

Limit State EU 2 BS8110(1985- BS8110(1995-

1995) today)

Ultimate Limit State Flexure/Bend 1.5 1.5 1.5

Shear 1.5 1.25 1.25

Bond 1.5 1.40 1.40

Serviceability Limit 1.00 1.00 1.00

State

Limit State EU 2 BS8110(1985- BS8110(1995-

1995) today)

Ultimate Limit State Flexure 1.15 1.15 1.05

Shear 1.15 1.15 1.05

Serviceability Limit 1.00 1.00 1.00

State

The factors m accounts for;

i) difference between actual and specified strength

ii) uncertainties in the accuracy of the method used to predict behavior of the members

iii) variation in member sizes and building dimensions.

3.3.2 Partial factors of safety for actions ( f )

Action is the Euro code terminology for load. EC 2 defines an action as a set of forces, deformations

(e.g. differential settlement and temperature effects) or accelerations acting on the structure.

Errors and inaccuracies may be due to a number of causes:

i) design assumptions and inaccuracy of calculation;

ii) possible unusual increases in the magnitude of the actions;

iii) unforeseen stress redistributions;

iv) constructional inaccuracies.

These cannot be ignored, and are taken into account by applying a partial factor of safety ( f ) on the

characteristic actions, so that

design value of action = characteristic action partial factor of safety ( f )

Chapter III: Limit State Design

Recommended values of partial factors of safety are given in tables 3-10 and 3-11 according to the

different categorizations of actions shown in the tables.

Actions may be permanent ( Gk ), e.g. self-weight of structure, fittings and fixed equipment, or

variable ( Qk ), e.g. weight of occupants, wind and snow loads.

The characteristic permanent load Gk is computed from the self-weight of the structure,

weight of finishes, ceilings, services and partitions.

The self-weight is estimated from assumed member sizes.

The weight of materials is obtained from BS648 schedule of materials for building

construction.

The characteristic variable load Qk is caused by movable objects such as people, furniture

and equipment. These are given in BS6399 part 1.

The characteristic wind load Wk depends on location, shape and dimensions of the building.

The design of buildings for wind loads can be based on any of the following;

i) CP3 chapter 5 part 2

ii) BS6399 part II

Variable actions are also categorized as leading (the predominant variable action on the structure

such as an imposed crowd load- Qk .1 ) and accompanying (secondary variable action such as the

effect of wind loading, Qk ,i ,where the subscript I indicates the i th action).

Persistent or transient Permanent actions Leading variable action Accompanying variable

design situation Gk Qk .1 actions Qk .i

Unfavourable Favourable Unfavourable Favourable Unfavourable Favourable

(a) For checking the 1.1 0.9 1.5 0 1.5 0

static equilibrium of a

building structure

(b) For the design of 1.35 1.0 1.5 0 1.5 0

structural members

(excluding

geotechnical actions)

(c) As an alternative to 1.35 1.15 1.5 0 1.5 0

(a) and (b) above to

design for both

situations with one set

of calculations

Design situation Permanent actions variable actions

All 1.0 1.0

Determine the cross-sectional area of steel required for a cable which supports a total characteristic

permanent action of 3.0KN and a characteristic variable action of 2.0KN.

Chapter III: Limit State Design

Solution:

The characteristic yield stress of the steel is 500 N / mm 2 . Carry out the calculation using limit state

design with the following factors of safety:

G 1.35 for the permanent action,

Q 1.5 for the variable action,

m 1.15 for the steel strength.

Design value G permanent action Q variable action

1.35 3.0 1.5 2.0

7.05 KN

characteristic yield sress

Design stress

m

500

1.15

434 N / mm 2

designvalue

Required cross sectional area

design stress

7.05 103

434

16.2 mm 2

Figure 3-5 shows a beam supported on foundations at A and B. The loads supported by the beam are

its own uniformly distributed permanent weight of 20 KN / m and a 170KN variable load

concentrated at end C.

170KN variable load

beam

permanent load 20 KN/m

A B C

foundation

(a) 6m 2m

1.1 permanent

0.9 permanent load load

A B C

Chapter III: Limit State Design

(a) By applying a factor of safety of 2.0 to the reaction calculated for the working loads.

(b) By using an ultimate limit state approach with partial factors of safety of G 1.10 or 0.9 for the

permanent action and Q 1.5 for the variable action.

Investigate the effect on these design of a 7 per cent increase in the variable action.

Solution:

Taking moment about B

(170 2 20 8 2)

Uplift R A 3.33 KN

6.0

Weight of foundation required 3.33 safety factor

3.33 2.0 6.7 KN

With a 7 per cent increase in the variable action

(1.07 170 2 20 8 2)

Uplift R A 7.3 KN

6.0

Thus with a slight increase in the variable action there is a significant increase in the uplift and the

structure becomes unsafe.

As this example includes a cantilever and involves the requirement for static equilibrium at A, partial

factors of safety of 1.10 and 0.9 were chosen for the permanent actions as given in the first row of

variable in the table 3.10.

The arrangement of the loads for the maximum uplift at A is shown in figure 3-5b.

Design permanent action over BC G 20 2 1.10 20 2 44 KN

Design permanent action over AB G 20 6 0.9 20 6 108 KN

Design variable action Q 170 1.5 170 255KN

(255 2 44 1 108 3)

Uplift R A 38 KN

6.0

Therefore weight of foundation required 38 KN .

A 7 per cent increase in the variable action will not endanger the structure, since the actual uplift will

only be 7.3 KN as calculated previously. In fact in this case it would require an increase of 61 per

cent in the load before the uplift would exceed the weight of a 38 KN foundation.

Parts (a) and (b) of example 3.3 illustrate how the limit state method of design can ensure a safer

result when the stability or strength of a structure is sensitive to a small numerical difference between

the effects of two opposing action of a similar magnitude.

Chapter III: Limit State Design

3.4.1 Action (Load) arrangements

For building structure, the UK NA to Eurocode 2, part 1-1 allows any of the following sets of load

arrangements to be used for both the ultimate limit state and serviceability limit state:

Load set 1. Alternate or adjacent spans loaded

The design values should be obtained from the more

QQk Qk

Q critical of:

All spans carrying the design variable and

GGk permanent loads with other spans loaded with only the

design permanent load (see Figure 1). The value of

QQ k QQ k G should be the same throughout.

Any two adjacent spans carrying the design

variable and permanent loads with other spans loaded

GGk with only the design permanent load (see Figure 2).

The value of G should be the same throughout.

Figure 1: Alternate spans loaded

Load set 2. All or alternate spans loaded

The design values should be obtained from the more

QQk critical of:

All spans carrying the design variable and

Gk

G permanent loads (see Figure 3).

All spans carrying the design variable and

Q Qk permanent loads with other spans loaded with

only the design permanent load (see Figure 1).

Gk

G The value of G should be the same throughout.

Qk

Generally, load set 2 will be used for beams and slabs

Q

in the UK as it requires three load arrangements to be

considered, while load set 1 will often require more

Gk

G than three arrangements to be assessed. Alternatively,

the UK NA makes the following provision for slabs.

Figure 2: Adjuscent spans loaded

Load set 3. Simplified arrangements for slabs

The load arrangements can be simplified for slabs it is

Qk only necessary to consider the all spans loaded

Q

arrangement (see Figure 3), provided the following

conditions are satisfied.

GGk In a one way spanning slab the area of each bay

2

exceeds 30m (a bay means a strip across the full

width of a structure bounded on the other sides by

lines of support).

Figure 3: All spans loaded

The ratio of the variable actions ( Qk ) to the

permanent actions ( Gk ) does not exceed 1.25.

The magnitude of the variable actions excluding

partitions Figure 3 All spans loaded

2

does not exceed 5 KN / m .

In general, the design value of an action ( Fd ) is obtained by multiplying the representative value

( Frep ) by the appropriate partial safety factor for actions ( f ):

Fd f Frep (3.1)

Chapter III: Limit State Design

Tables 3.13 and 3.14 show the recommended values of partial safety factor for permanent, G , and

variable actions, Q , for the ultimate limit states of equilibrium (EQU) and strength (STR). It can be

seen that the maximum values of G and Q are 1.35 and 1.5 respectively. The comparable values

in BS 8110 are 1.4 and 1.6. It can also be seen that the partial safety factors for actions depend on a

number of other aspects including the category of limit state as well as the effect of the action on the

design situation under consideration. For example, when checking for the limit states of equilibrium

and strength, the maximum values of G are 1.1 and 1.35, respectively. However, when checking

for equilibrium alone, G is taken to be 1.1 if the action increases the risk of instability (unfavourable

action) or 0.9 if the action reduces the risk of instability (favourable action). For a given limit state

several combinations of loading may have to be considered in order to arrive at the value of the design

action on the structure (see Table 3.13).

In equation 3.1, Frep may be the characteristic value of a permanent or leading variable action ( Fk ),

or the accompanying value ( Fk ) of a variable action. In turn, the accompanying value of a variable

action may be the combination value ( o Fk ), the frequent value ( 1 Fk ) or the quasi-permanent

value ( 2 Fk ). The frequent value and the quasi permanent values are used to determine values of

accidental actions, e.g. impact and explosions, and to check serviceability criteria (deflection and

cracking). The combination value is given by

Combination value = o Fk (3.2)

where o is the combination factor obtained from Table 3.12 and is a function of the type of variable

action. The factor o has been introduced to take account of the fact that where a structure is subject

to, say, two independent variable actions, it is unlikely that both will reach their maximum value

simultaneously. Under these circumstances, it is assumed that the leading variable action (i.e. Qk .1 )

is at its maximum value and any accompanying variable actions will attain a reduced value, i.e.

oQk ,i , where i > 1. Leading and accompanying variable actions are assigned by trial and error as

discussed below.

Chapter III: Limit State Design

Action Combination Frequent Quasi-

permanent

0 1 2

Imposed load in building, category

Category A: domestic, residential areas 0.7 0.5 0.3

Category B: office areas 0.7 0.5 0.3

Category C: congregation areas 0.7 0.7 0.6

Category D: shopping areas 0.7 0.7 0.6

Category E: storage areas 1.0 0.9 0.8

Category F: traffic area, vehicle weight 30KN 0.7 0.7 0.6

Category G: traffic area, 30KN vehicle weight 160KN 0.7 0.5 0.3

Category H: roofs 0.7 0 0

For sites located at altitude H 1000m above sea level 0.7 0.5 0.2

0.5 0.2 0

For sites located at altitude H 1000m above sea level

0.5 0.2 0

Wind loads on buildings

Table 3-13 Load combinations and partial safety/combination factors for the ultimate limit state of strength

Limit state Load Type

Permanent, Gk Variable, Qk Wind, W k

Unfavourable Favourable Unfavourable Favourable Unfavourable

Equilibrium 1.10 0.9 1.5 0 1.5 0

Table 3-14 Load combinations and partial safety/combination factors for the ultimate limit state of strength

Limit state/Load combination Load Type

Permanent, Gk Variable, Qk Wind,

Unfavourabl Favourable Unfavourabl Favourable Wk

e e

Strength

1. Permanent and variable 1.35/1.35 1.0 1.5 0 -

2. Permanent and wind 1.35/1.35 1.0 - - 1.5

3. Permanent, imposed and

wind 1.35 1.0 1.5 0,1 1.5 0, 2

(a) 1.35/1.35 1.0 1.5 0 1.5 0

(b) 1.0 1.5 0 0

1.35/1.35 1.5

(c)

For continuous beams with cantilevers, the partial safety factor for the favourable effect of the

permanent action should be taken as 1.0 for the span adjacent to the cantilever.

The partial safety factor for earth pressures should be taken as 1.30 when unfaourable and 0.0 when

faourable.

Chapter III: Limit State Design

Table 3-15 Load Combinations and Partial Safety Factors f at Serviceability Limit State

Load Combination Permanent Load, Gk Variable Load, Qk Wind Load, Wk

Permanent + Variable 1.0 1.0 -

Permanent + Wind 1.0 - 1.0

Permanent + Variable + Wind 1.0 0.9 0.9

The design value of action effects, E d , assuming the structure is subjected to both permanent and

a single variable action (e.g. dead load plus imposed load or dead load plus wind load) can be assessed

using the following expression

E d G , jGk , j Q ,1Qk ,1 (3.3)

j 1

Using the partial safety factors given in Table 3.14, the design value of the action effect is given by

E d 1.35Gk 1.5Qk (load combinations 1 and 2, Table 3.14)

The design value of an action effect due to permanent and two (or more) variable actions, e.g. dead

plus imposed and wind load, is obtained from equation 3.4.

E d G , jGk , j Q ,1Qk ,1 Q ,i 0,i Qk ,i (3.4)

j 1 i 1

Note that this expression yields two (or more) estimates of design actions and the most onerous

should be selected for design. For example, if a structure is subjected to permanent, office and wind

loads of G k , Qk and W k the values of the design actions are:

Ed 1.35Gk , j 1.5Qk 1.5 0.5Wk (load combinations 3(b), Table 3.14)

and

Ed 1.35Gk , j 1.5 0.7Qk 1.5Wk (load combinations 3(c), Table 3.14)

Figure 3.6 illustrates how the factors in table 3-10 and 3-12 can be applied when considering the

stability of the office building shown for overturning about point B. Figure 3-6(a) treats the wind

load ( W k ) as the leading variable action and the live load ( Qk ) on the roof as the accompanying

variable action. Figure 3-6(b) considers the live load as the leading variable action and the wind as

the accompanying variable action.

B B

(a) (b)

Figure 3.6 Wind and imposed load acting on an office building-stability check

Chapter III: Limit State Design

Equations 3.3 and 3.4 are based on expression 6.10 in EN 1990. This document also includes two

alternative expressions, namely 6.10a and 6.10b (reproduced as equations 3.5 and 3.6 respectively)

for calculating the design values of actions, use of which may improve structural efficiency,

particularly for heavier structural materials such as concrete.

E d G , jGk , j Q ,1 0,1Qk ,1 Q ,i 0,i Qk ,i (3.5)

j 1 i 1

j 1 i 1

where

is a reduction factor for unfavourable permanent actions. The value of recommended in the

National Annex to EC 2 is 0.925.

Note that equation 3.5 yields only one estimate of E d (i.e. load combination 3(a) in Table 3.14)

whereas equation 3.6 yields two (i.e. load combinations 3(b) and 3(c) in Table 3.14). For UK building

structures, designers may use the output from either equation 3.3 or 3.4 (depending on the number of

variable actions present) or the more onerous output from equations 3.5 and 3.6.

Use of actions determined via equations 3.3 / 3.4 should lead to designs with comparable levels of

safety to that currently achieved using BS 8110. However, use of equations 3.5 and 3.6 may improve

structural efficiency, as illustrated in example 3.3.

The following factors are considered;

i) The basic wind speed, V which depends on the location in the country.

ii) The design wind speed Vs VS1 S 2 S 3

S1 topography factor normally taken as in UK.

S 2 depends on ground roughness, building size and height above the ground.

S 3 statistical factor normally taken as 1.

Ground roughness is given in four categories e.g. category 3 is the location in the

suburbs of the city.

The building size is in three classes e.g. a, b and c .

The height refers to the height of the building.

The wind load increases with height.

iii) The Dynamic pressure q 0.613Vs2 N / mm2 is the pressure on the surface normal to the

wind. It is modified by the dimensions of the building and openings in the building.

iv) Pressure coefficient

The pressure coefficients are given as;

external pressure coefficients denoted by C pe . This depends on the dimensions and roof

angle.

Internal pressure coefficients which accounts for suctions inside the building, C pi .

v) The wind force on the surface F is given as follow;

F (C pe C pi )qA , where A=area

Wk (C pe C pi )q

Chapter III: Limit State Design

Worked Example 3.4: Design actions for simply supported beam (EN 1990)

A simply supported beam for an office building has a span of 6 m. Calculate the values of the design

bending moments, M E ,d , assuming

(a) the beam supports uniformly distributed permanent and variable actions of 5 kNm 1 and 6

kNm 1 respectively

(b) in addition to the actions described in (a) the beam also supports an independent variable

concentrated load of 20 kN at mid-span.

LOAD CASE A

g k =5KN/m ; q k =6KN/m

L=6m

Since the beam is subjected to only one variable action use equation 3.3 to determine E d where

E d G , jGk , j Q ,1Qk ,1

j 1

94.5 6

FE ,d L

Hence, M E ,d 70.9 KNm

8 8

An alternative estimate of M E ,d can be obtained using equations 3.5 and 3.6, respectively

E d G , jGk , j Q ,1 0,1Qk ,1 Q ,i 0,i Qk ,i

j 1 i 1

E d j G , jGk , j Q ,1Qk ,1 Q ,i 0,i Qk ,i

j 1 i 1

FE ,d L 91.5 6

Hence FE ,d is 91.5 KN and M E ,d 68.6 KNm.

8 8

LOAD CASE B

Qk =20KN

g k =5KN/m ; q k =6KN/m

L=6m

The extra complication here is that it is not clear if q k or Qk is the leading variable action. This can

only be determined by trial and error. This time use equation 3.4 to evaluate E d , since there are two

independent variable actions are present.

Assuming q k is the leading variable action gives

Chapter III: Limit State Design

j 1 i 1

94.5( FE ,d 1 ) 21( FE ,d 2 ) 115.5 KN

FE ,d 1 L FE ,d 2 L 94.5 6 21 6

and M E ,d 102.4 KNm

8 4 8 4

FE ,d 1.35 (5 6) 1.5 20 1.5 0.7 (6 6)

40.5( FE ,d 1 ) 30( FE ,d 2 ) 37.8( FE ,d 3 ) 108.3 KN

( FE ,d 1 FE ,d 3 ) L (40.5 37.8) 6 30 6

FE ,d 2 L

M E ,d 103.7 KNm (maximum moments)

8 4 8 4

Alternatively use equations 3.5 and 3.6 to estimate FE ,d . Assuming q k is the leading variable action

and substituting into 3.5 gives

E d G , jGk , j Q ,1 0,1Qk ,1 Q ,i 0,i Qk ,i

j 1 i 1

FE ,d is unchanged if Qk is taken as the leading variable action and in both cases

M E ,d 90.2 KNm .

Repeating this procedure using equation 3.6 and assuming, first, that q k is the leading variable action

and Qk is the accompanying variable action and, second, Qk is the leading variable action and q k is

the accompanying variable action gives, respectively

E d j G , jGk , j Q ,1Qk ,1 Q ,i 0,i Qk ,i

j 1 i 1

91.5 21 112.5 KN

FE ,d 1 L 91.5 6 21 6

FE ,d 2 L

and M E ,d 100.1 KNm

8 4 8 4

FE ,d 0.925 1.35 (5 6) 1.5 20 1.5 0.7 (6 6)

37.5 30 37.8 105.3 KN

( FE ,d 1 FE ,d 3 ) L (37.5 37.8) 6 30 6

FE ,d 2 L

M E ,d 101.5 KNm (maximum moment)

8 4 8 4

Again, the most structurally economical solution is found via equation 3.6, which will normally be

the case for concrete structures provided that permanent actions are not greater than 4.5 times variable

actions except for storage loads. However, this saving has to be weighed against the additional design

effort required. Moreover, the output from equations 3.5 and 3.6 should not be used to perform

stability calculations and the reader is referred to EN1990 for further information on this aspect. Note

that the value of 1.35 for G is conservative and used throughout.

Chapter IV: Analysis of the Structure at the Ultimate Limit State

4.0 Introduction

A reinforced concrete structure is a combination of beams, columns, slabs and walls, rigidly

connected together to form a monolithic frame. Each individual member must be capable of resisting

the forces acting on it, so that the determination of these forces is an essential part of the design

process. The full analysis of a rigid concrete frame is rarely simple; but simplified calculations of

adequate precision can often be made if the basic action of the structure is understood.

There are several methods, of structural analysis, but the common ones are;

i) Moment distribution for manual methods

ii) Computer plain frame programs based on the matrix stiffness method of analysis

iii) Moment coefficients

Since the design of a reinforced concrete member is generally based on the ultimate limit state, the

analysis is usually performed for loadings corresponding to that state.

4.1 Actions

The actions (loads) on a structure are divided into two types: permanent actions, and variable (or

imposed) actions. Permanent action are those which are normally constant during the structures life.

Variable actions, on the other hand, are transient and not constant in magnitude, as for example those

due to wind or to human occupants.

4.1.1 Permanent actions

Permanent actions include the weight of the structure itself and all architectural components such as

exterior cladding, partitions and ceilings. Equipment and static machinery, when permanent fixtures,

are also often considered as part of the permanent actions.

For most reinforced concretes, a typical value for the self-weight is 25KN per cubic metre, but a

higher density should be taken for heavily reinforced or dense concrete. In the case of a building, the

weights of any permanent partitions should be calculated from the architects drawings. A minimum

partition loading equivalent to 1.0KN per square metre is often specified as a variable action, but this

is only adequate for lightweight partitions.

4.1.2 Variable actions

Variable actions are more difficult to determine accurately. For many of them, it is only possible to

make conservative estimates based on standard codes of practice or past experience. Examples of

variable actions are: the weights of its occupants, furniture, or machinery; the pressures of wind, the

weight of snow, and of retained earth or water; and the forces caused by thermal expansion or

shrinkage of the concrete.

Although the wind load is a variable action, it is kept in a separate category when its partial factors

of safety are specified, and when the load combinations on the structure are being considered.

Various combinations of the characteristic values of permanent Gk , variable actions Qk , wind actions

W k , and their partial factors of safety must be considered for the loading of the structure.

The partial factors of safety specified in the code are discussed in chapter 3, and the ultimate limit

state the following loading combinations from tables 3-10, 3-12 and 3-14 are commonly used.

Chapter IV: Analysis of the Structure at the Ultimate Limit State

2. Permanent and wind actions; 1.35Gk 1.5Wk

The variable load can usually cover all or any part of the structure and, therefore, should be arranged

to cause the most severe stresses. So, for a three-span continuous beam, load combination 1 would

have the loading arrangement shown in figure 4-1, in order to cause the maximum sagging moment

in the outer spans and the minimum possible hogging moment in the centre span.

1.35Gk

A C

Load combination 2, permanent wind load is used to check the stability of a structure. A load

combination of permanent variable wind load could have the arrangement shown in figure 3.6.

Figure 4-2 shows the patterns of vertical loading on a multi-span continuous beam to cause (i)

maximum design moments in alternate spans and maximum possible hogging moments in adjacent

spans, (ii) maximum design hogging moments at support A, and (iii) the design hogging moment at

support A as specified by the EC2 code for simplicity.

1.35G k 1.35G k 1.35G k

1.35G k 1.35G k

A

1.35G k + 1.5Q k

1.35G k 1.35G k

A

To design a structure it is necessary to know the bending moments, torsional moments, shearing

forces and axial forces in each member. An elastic analysis is generally used to determine the

distribution of these forces within the structure. The properties of the materials, such as Youngs

modulus, which are used in the structural analysis should be those associated with their characteristic

strengths. The stiffnesses of the members can be calculated on the basis of any one of the following:

i) The gross concrete cross-section( ignoring the reinforcement);

Chapter IV: Analysis of the Structure at the Ultimate Limit State

ii) The concrete cross-section including the transformed area of reinforcement based on the

modular ratio;

iii) The compression area only of the concrete cross-section, plus the transformed area of

reinforcement based on the modular ratio

A structure should be analysed for each of the critical loading conditions which produce the

maximum stresses at any particular section. This procedure will be illustrated in the examples for a

continuous beam and a building frame. For these structures it is conventional to draw the bending-

moment diagram on the tension side of the members.

Sign Conventions

i) For the moment-distribution analysis anti-clockwise support moments are positive as, for example,

in table 4.1 for the fixed end moments (FEM).

ii) For subsequently calculating the moments along the span of a member, moments causing sagging

are positive, while moments causing hogging are negative, as illustrated in figure 4-4.

One-span, simply supported beams or slabs are statically determinate and the analysis for bending

moments and shearing forces is readily performed manually. For the ultimate limit state we need only

consider the maximum load of 1.35Gk 1.5Qk on the span.

The one-span simply supported beam shown in figure 4-3a carries a distributed permanent action

including self-weight of 25KN/m. a permanent concentrated action of 40KN at mid-span, and a

distributed variable action of 10KN/m.

1.35 40=54 KN

4.0 m

124.5 KN 27

27

124.5 KN

(b) Shearing Force Diagram

151.5 KNm

Figure 4-3 shows the values of ultimate load required in the calculation of the shearing forces and

bending moments.

54 195

Maximum shear force 124.5 KN

2 2

Chapter IV: Analysis of the Structure at the Ultimate Limit State

54 4 195 4

Maximum bending moment 151.5 KNm

4 8

The analysis is completed by drawing the shearing-force and bending-moment diagrams which

would later be used in the design and detailing of the shear and bending reinforcement.

The method of analysis for continuous beams may also be applied to continuous slabs which span in

one direction.

A continuous beam should be analysed for the loading arrangements which give the maximum

stresses at each section. The analysis to calculate the bending moments can be carried out manually

by moment distribution or equivalent methods, but tabulated shear and moment coefficient may be

adequate for continuous beams having approximately equal spans and uniformly distributed loads.

a) Continuous beams the general case

Having determined the moments at the supports by, say, moment distribution, it is necessary to

calculate the moments in the spans and also the shear forces on the beam.

For a uniformly distributed load, the equations for the shears and the maximum span moments can

be derived from the following analysis.

Load = w/metre

A B

VAB S.F.D

VBA

MAB M BA

--

-- B.M.D

+ M max a2

a1

a3

Using the sign convention of figure 4-4 and taking moments about support B;

wL2

V AB L M AB M BA 0

2

wL ( M AB M BA )

Therefore; V AB (4.1)

2 L

And; VBA wL VAB (4.2)

Maximum span moment M max occurs at zero shear, and distance to zero shear

V AB

a3 (4.3)

w

2

V AB

Therefore; M max M AB (4.4)

2w

The points of contraflexure occur at M 0 , that is

wx 2

V AB x M AB 0

2

Chapter IV: Analysis of the Structure at the Ultimate Limit State

where x the distance from support A. Taking the roots of this equation gives

V AB (V AB

2

2wM AB )

x

w

V AB (V AB

2

2wM AB )

so that; a1 (4.5)

w

V AB (V AB

2

2wM AB )

and; a2 L (4.6)

w

The continuous beam shown in figure 4-5 has a constant cross-section and supports a uniformly

distributed permanent action including its self-weight of Gk 25 KN / m and a variable action

Qk 10 KN / m . The critical loading patterns for the ultimate limit state are shown in figure 4-5

where the stars indicate the region of maximum moments, sagging or possible hogging.

G k = 25 KN/m Q k = 10 KN/m

A B C D

6m 4m 6m

(1.35 25 4)

(1) = 292.5 KN = 135 KN 292.5 KN

(1.35 25 6)

(2) = 202.5 KN = 195 KN 202.5 KN

202.5 KN

Table 4.1 is the moment distribution carried out for the first loading arrangement: simpler

calculations would be required for each of the remaining load cases. It should be noted that the

3I

reduced stiffness of has been used for the end spans.

4L

Chapter IV: Analysis of the Structure at the Ultimate Limit State

A B C D

Stiffness (k) 3 I I 3 I

4 L L 4 L

= 3 1 = 0.125 = 1 = 0.125 = 3 1 = 0.125

4 6 4 4 6

Distr. factors 0.125

0.125+0.25

= 1/3 2/3 2/3 1/3

Load (kN) 292 135 292

-292 6 + 135 4 292 6

F.E.M. 0 -- 12 + 0

8 8

0 -219.4 + 45.0 - 45.0 + 219.4 0

Balance +58.1 + 116.3 - 116.3 -58.1

Carry over -19.4 +19.4

Balance +6.5 + 12.9 - 12.9 -6.5

Carry over -6.5 +6.5

Balance +2.2 + 4.3 - 4.3 -2.2

Carry over -2.2 +2.2

Balance +0.7 + 1.5 - 1.5 -0.7

M (KNm) 0 -132.5 + 132.5 - 132.5 + 132.5 0

The shearing forces, the maximum span bending moments, and their positions along the beam, can

be calculated using the formulae previously derived. Thus for the first loading arrangement and span

AB, using the sign convention of figure 4-4:

Load ( M AB M BA )

Shear V AB

2 L

292.5 132.5

124.2 KN

2 6 .0

VBA Load VAB

292.5 124.2 168.3 KN

2

V AB

Maximum moment, span AB M AB

2w

where w 292.5 / 6.0 48.75 KN / m. Therefore:

124.2 2

M max 0 158.2 KNm

2 48.75

V

Distance from A, a3 AB

w

124.2

2.55 m

48.75

The bending-moment diagrams for each of the loading arrangements are shown in figure 4-6, and the

corresponding shearing-force diagrams are shown in figure 4-7. The individual bending-moment

Chapter IV: Analysis of the Structure at the Ultimate Limit State

diagrams are combined in figure 4-8a to give the bending-moment design envelope. Similarly, figure

4-8b is the shearing-force design envelope. Such envelope diagrams are used in the detailed design

of the beams.

In this example, simple supports with no fixity have been assumed for the end supports at A and D.

Even so, the sections at A and D should be designed for a hogging moment due to a partial fixity

equal to 25 per cent of the maximum moment in the span, that is 158 / 4 39.5 KNm .

133 133

(1) 65

158 158

108 108

11

(2)

103 103

151

100

(3)

151 109

151

100

(4)

109

151

124 168

67.5

(1)

67.5

124

168

83 97.5 119

(2)

119 97.5 83

(3)

85 85

171

171

85

85

(4)

Chapter IV: Analysis of the Structure at the Ultimate Limit State

151 151

65

KNm

11

158 158

124 110 171

110 124 KN

171

The ultimate bending moments and shearing forces in continuous beams of three or more

approximately equal spans without cantilevers can be obtained using relevant coefficients provided

that the spans differ by no more than 15 per cent of the longest span, that the loading is uniform, and

that the characteristic variable action does not exceed the characteristic permanent action. The values

of these coefficients are shown in diagrammatic form in figure 4-9 for beams.

End span Interior span

(a)

Bending Moments

0.09 FL 0.07 FL

0.45 F 0.55 F

(b)

Shearing Forces

0.60 F 0.55 F

L Effective span

Fig.4-9 Bending-Moment and Shearing-Force coefficients for beams

The possibility of hogging moments in any of the spans should not be ignored, even if it is not

indicated by these coefficients. For example, a beam of three equal spans may have a hogging

moment in the centre span if Qk exceeds 0.45G k .

In situ reinforced concrete structures behave as rigid frames, and should be analysed as such. They

can be analysed as a complete space frame or be divided into a series of plane frames.

The general procedure for a building is to analyse the slabs as continuous members supported by the

beams or structural walls. The slabs can be either one-way spanning or two-way spanning. The

columns and main beams are considered as a series of rigid plane frames which can be divided into

two types:

(1) Braced frames supporting vertical loads only

(2) Frames supporting vertical and lateral loads.

Chapter IV: Analysis of the Structure at the Ultimate Limit State

Type one frames are in buildings where none of the lateral loads such as wind are transmitted to the

columns and beams but are resisted by much more stiffer elements such as shear walls, lift shafts or

stairwells.

Type two frames are designed to resist the lateral loads, which cause bending, shearing and axial

loads in the beams and columns. For both types frames the axial forces in the columns can be

generally be calculated as if the beams and slabs were simply supported.

A building frame can be analysed as a complete frame, or it can be simplified into a series of

substitute frames for the vertical loading analysis.

The frame shown in figure 4.10, for example, can be divided into any of the subframes shown in

figure 4.11.

H2

(1)

H1

H2

(2)

H1

H2

(3)

H1

The substitute frame 1 in figure 4.11 consists of one complete floor beam with its connecting columns

(which are assumed rigidly fixed at their remote ends). An analysis of this frame wil1 give the

bending moments and shearing forces in the beams and columns for the floor level considered.

Substitute frame 2 is a single span combined with its connecting columns and two adjacent spans, all

fixed at their remote ends. This frame may be used to determine the bending moments and shearing

forces in the central beam. Provided that the central span is greater than the two adjacent spans, the

bending moments in the columns can also be found with this frame.

Substitute frame 3 can be used to find the moments in the columns only. It consists of a single

junction, with the remote ends of the members fixed. This type of subframe would be used when the

beams have been analysed as continuous over simple supports.

In frames 2 and 3, the assumption of fixed ends to the outer beams over-estimates their stiffnesses.

These values are, therefore, halved to allow for the flexibility resulting from continuity.

Chapter IV: Analysis of the Structure at the Ultimate Limit State

The various critical loading arrangements to produce maximum stresses have to be considered. In

general these loading arrangements for the ultimate limit state as specified by the code are:

(1) Alternate spans loaded with total ultimate load ( 1.35Gk 1.5Qk ) and all other spans loaded with

minimum dead load ( 1.35Gk ); this loading will give maximum span moments and maximum column

moments.

(2) All spans loaded with the total ultimate load ( 1.35Gk 1.5Qk ) to provide the design moment at

the supports.

When considering the critical loading arrangements for a column, it is sometimes necessary to

include the case of maximum moment and minimum possible axial load, in order to investigate the

possibility of tension failure caused by the bending.

The substitute frame shown in figure 4.12 is part of t he complete frame in figure 4.10. The

characteristic actions carried by the beams are permanent actions (including self-weight)

Gk 25KN / m , and variable action, Qk 10KN / m , uniformly distributed along the beam. The

analysis of the beam will be carried out by moment distribution: thus the member stiffnesses and

their relevant distribution factors are first required.

J K L M

A B C D 3.5m

4.0m

Beam

600 300

E F G H

350

300

Typical column section

Fig 4.12 Substitute frame

Stiffnesses, k

Beam Columns

0.3 0.6 3 0.3 0.353

I 5.4 10 3 m 4 I 1.07 103 m 4

12 12

Spans AB and CD Upper

5.4 103 1.07 103

k AB k CD 0.9 103 kU 0.31 103

6.0 3.5

Span BC Lower

5.4 103 1.07 103

k BC 1.35 103 kL 0.27 103

4.0 4 .0

kU k L (0.31 0.27)103 0.58103

Chapter IV: Analysis of the Structure at the Ultimate Limit State

Distribution factors

Joints A and D

k 0.9 0.58 1.48

0.9

D.F. AB D.F .DC 0.61

1.48

0.58

D.F. cols 0.39

1.48

Joints B and C

k 0.9 1.35 0.58 2.83

0.9

D.F. BA D.F .CD 0.32

2.83

1.35

D.F. BC D.F .CB 0.48

2.83

0.58

D.F. cols 0.20

2.83

The critical loading arrangements for the ultimate limit state are identical to those for the continuous

beam in example 4.2, and they are illustrated in figure 4.5. The moment distribution for the first

loading arrangement is shown in table 4.2. In the table, the distribution for each upper and lower

column have been combined, since this simplifies the layout for the calculations.

Table 4.2 Moment distribution for the first loading case

A B C D

Cols. AB BA Cols. BC CB Cols. CD DC Cols.

( M) ( M) ( M) ( M)

D.F.s 0.39 0.61 0.32 0.20 0.48 0.48 0.20 0.32 0.61 0.39

Load kN 292 135 292

Bal. 56.9 89.1 32.3 20.2 48.5 48.5 20.2 32.3 89.1 56.9

Bal. 6.3 9.9 22.0 13.8 33.0 33.0 13.5 22.0 9.9 6.3

Bal. 4.3 6.7 6.9 4.3 10.3 10.3 4.3 6.9 6.7 4.3

Bal. 1.3 2.1 2.8 1.7 4.1 4.1 1.7 2.8 2.1 1.3

M (kN m) 68.8 68.8 135.0 40.0 95.0 95.0 40.0 135.0 68.8 68.8

The shearing forces and the maximum span moments can be calculated from the formulae of section

For the first loading arrangement and span AB:

Chapter IV: Analysis of the Structure at the Ultimate Limit State

load ( M AB M BA )

Shear V AB

2 L

292.5 (68.8 135.0)

135KN

2 6.0

VBA load VAB

292.5 135 157KN

2

V AB

Maximum moments, span AB M AB

2w

1352

68.8 118KNm

2 48.75

V 135

Distance from A, a3 AB 2 .8m

w 48.75

Figure 4.13 shows the bending moments in the beams for each loading arrangement; figure 4.14

shows the shearing forces. These diagrams have been combined in figure 4.15 to give the design

envelopes for bending moments and shearing forces.

The moment in each column is given by

k

M col M col col

k col

Thus, for the first loading arrangement and taking M col from table 4.2 gives

0.31

Column moment M AJ 68.8 37 kNm

0.58

0.27

M AE 68.8 32 kNm

0.58

0.31

M BK 40 21kNm

0.58

0.27

M BF 40 19 kNm

0.58

This loading arrangement gives the maximum column moments, as plotted in figure 4.16.

Chapter IV: Analysis of the Structure at the Ultimate Limit State

135 157

135 135

69 95 95 69

67.5

28

(1) (1)

67.5

157

107 107 91 111

88 88 97.5

45 45

(2) (2)

10

97.5 91

77 77

147 133 111

115 102 111

106

67 80

46

(3) (3)

1

79 89 92

114

160 160

147

102 115

80 67 92 89

46

(4) (4)

1

79 106

114 111

133

Fig 4.13 Beam bending moment diagrams (kNm) Fig.4.14 Beam shearing-force diagrams (kN)

147 147

69 115 115 69

28

kN m

10

118 118

37 21 21 37

160 32 32

135 19 19

106

kN

106

135

160

Fig 4.15 Bending-moment and shearing-force envelopes Fig.4.16 Column bending moments (kNm)

The substitute frame for this example, shown in figure 4.17, is taken from the building frame in figure

4.10. The loading to cause maximum column moments is shown in the figure for Gk 25KN / m and

Qk 10KN / m .

Chapter IV: Analysis of the Structure at the Ultimate Limit State

3.5m

1.35G k + 1.5 Q k

1.35G k

= 292.5kN = 135kN

A B C

4.0m

6.0m 4.0m

The stiffnesses of these members are identical to those calculated in example 4.3, except that for this

type of frame the beam stiffnesses are halved. Thus

1

k AB 0.9 103 0.45 103

2

1

k BC 1.35 103 0.675 103

2

Upper column kU 0.31103

Lower column k L 0.27 103

k (0.45 0.675 0.31 0.27) 10 3

1.705103

6

Fixed-end moment M BA 292.5 146 kNm

25

4

Fixed-end moment M BC 135 45 kNm

25 18

16 kNm

Column moments are

0.31

Upper column M U (146 45) 18 kNm

1.705

0.27

Lower column M L (146 45) 16 kNm

1.705

Fig 4.18 Column moments

The column moments are illustrated in figure 4.18. They should be compared with the

corresponding moments for the internal column in figure 4.16.

Lateral loads on a structure may be caused by wind pressures, by retained earth, or by seismic

forces. The vertical loading analysis can be carried out by the method described previously. The

analysis for the lateral loads should be kept separate. The forces may be calculated by an elastic

computer analysis or by a simplified approximate method. A suitable approximate analysis is the

cantilever method. It assumes that:

1. points of contraflexure are located at the mid-points of all columns and beams; and

2. the direct axial loads in the columns are in proportional to their distances from the centre of gravity

of the frame. It is also usual to assume that all the columns in a storey are equal cross-sectional

area.

Chapter IV: Analysis of the Structure at the Ultimate Limit State

Figure 4.19 shows a building frame subjected to a characteristic wind action of 3.0kN per metre

height of the frame. This action is assumed to be transferred to the frame as a concentrated load at

each floor level as indicated in the figure.

By inspection, there is tension in the two columns to the left and compression in the columns to the

right; and by assumption 2 the axial forces in columns are proportional to their distances from the

centre line of the frame.

5.25kN

3.5

10.5kN 4 th

3.5

lateral load= 3.0kN/m

10.5kN 3 rd

3.5

11.25kN 2 nd

4.0

12.0kN 1 st

4.0

6.0kN

CL

5.25

1.75

s

H1= 0.93 H2= 1.70 H3= 1.70 H4= 0.93

N1= 4.0P N2= 1.0P N3= 1.0P N4= 4.0P

= 0.54 = 0.135 = 0.135 = 0.54

(a) Roof

0.93 1.70 1.70 0.93

1.75 1.75

10.5

t t'

2.78 5.1 5.1 2.78

2.70 0.68 0.68 2.70

(b) 4th floor

Fig 4.20 Subframes at the roof and 4th floor

Chapter IV: Analysis of the Structure at the Ultimate Limit State

Thus

Axial force in exterior column: axial force in interior column 4.0P : 1.0P

The analysis of the frame continues by considering a section through the top-storey columns: the

removal of the frame below this section gives the remainder shown in figure 4.20a. The forces in this

subframe are calculated as follows.

(a) Axial Forces in the Columns

Taking moments about point s, M s 0 , therefore

5.251.75 P 6.0 P 10.0 4P 16.0 0

and therefore P 0.135 kN

thus

N1 N 4 4.0P 0.54kN

N 2 N3 1.0P 0.135kN

(b) Vertical Shearing Forces F in the Beams

For each part of the subframe, F 0 , therefore

F1 N1 0.54kN

F2 N1 N 2 0.675kN

Taking moments about the points of contra flexure of each beam, M 0 , therefore

H1 1.75 N1 3.0 0

H1 0.93 kN

( H1 H 2 )1.75 N1 8.0 N 2 2.0 0

and

H 2 1.70 kN

The calculations of the equivalent forces for the fourth floor (figure 4.20 b) follow a similar

procedure, as follows.

(d) Axial Forces in the Columns

For the frame about section tt , M t 0 , therefore

5.25(3 1.75) 10.5 1.75 P 6.0 P 10.0 4P 16.0 0

P 0.675 kN

N1 4.0P 2.70kN

therefore

N 2 1.0P 0.68kN

(e) Beam Shears

F1 2.70 0.54 2.16 kN

F2 2.70 0.68 0.54 0.135 2.705 kN

(f) Column Shears

H1 1.75 0.93 1.75 (2.70 0.54)3.0 0

H1 2.78 kN

1

H2 (10.5 5.25) 2.78 5.1 kN

2

Values calculated for sections taken below the remaining floors are

Chapter IV: Analysis of the Structure at the Ultimate Limit State

F1 4.33 kN F2 5.41kN

H1 4.64 kN H 2 8.49 kN

second floor N1 14.14 kN N 2 3.53 kN

F1 7.11kN F2 8.88 kN

H1 6.61kN H 2 12.14 kN

first floor N1 24.37 kN N 2 6.09 kN

F1 10.23 kN F2 12.79 kN

H1 8.74 kN H 2 16.01kN

The bending moments in the beams and columns at their connections can be calculated from these

results by the following formulae

beams M B F 2 beam span

1

1

1

M B 0.54 6.0 1.6 kN m

2

1

M C 0.93 3.5 1.6 kN m

2

As a check at each joint, M B M C .

The bending moments due to characteristic wind loads in all the columns and beams of this

structure are shown in figure 4.21.

1.6 1.4 1.6

1.6 3.0

1.6 1.4 1.6

6.5 5.4 6.5

1.6 4.9 3.0 8.9

6.5 5.4 6.5

13.0 10.8 13.0

4.9 8.1 8.9 14.9

13.0 10.8 13.0

21.3 21.3

17.8

8.1 13.2 14.9 24.3

21.3 30.7 17.8 21.3 30.7

25.6

13.2 17.5 24.3 32.0

30.7 25.6 30.7

17.5 32.0 32.0

External Internal

Column Beams Column

Fig 4.21 Moments (kN.m) and reactions (kN)

Chapter IV: Analysis of the Structure at the Ultimate Limit State

Some method of elastic analysis is generally used to calculate the forces in a concrete structure,

despite the fact that the structure does not behave elastically near its ultimate load. The assumption

of elastic behaviour is reasonably true for low stress levels; but as a section approaches its ultimate

moment of resistance, plastic deformation will occur. This is recognized in EC2, by allowing

redistribution of the elastic moments subject to certain limitations.

Reinforced concrete behaves in a manner midway between that of steel and concrete. The stress-

strain curves for the two materials (figures 2.3 and 2.2) show the elastoplastic behaviour of steel and

the plastic behaviour of concrete. The latter will fail at a relatively small compressive strain. The

exact behaviour of a reinforced concrete section depends on the relative quantities and the individual

properties of the two materials. However, such a section may be considered virtually elastic until the

steel yields; and then plastic until the concrete fails in compression. Thus the plastic behaviour is

limited by the concrete failure; or more specifically, the concrete failure limits the rotation that may

take place at a section in bending.

Thus, in an indeterminate structure, once a beam section develops its ultimate moment of resistance

M u , it then behaves as a plastic hinge resisting a constant moment of that value. Further loading must

be taken by other parts of the structure, with the changes in moment elsewhere being just the same

as if a real hinge existed. Provided rotation of a hinge does not cause crushing of the concrete, further

hinges will be formed until a mechanism is produced.

In example 4.3, figure 4.13, it is requited to reduce the maximum support moment of M BA 147kNm

as much as possible , but without increasing the span moment above the present maximum value of

118 kN m.

147

115 102

67 80

46

79

114

(a) Original Moments (kNm)

67 80

46

79

118

(b) Redistributed Moments (kNm)

134

105 111

90 92

158.5

(c) Shears (kN)

Chapter IV: Analysis of the Structure at the Ultimate Limit State

Figure 4.22a duplicates the original bending-moment diagram (part 3 of figure 4.13) of example 4.3

while figure 4.22b shows the redistributed moments, with the span moment set at 118 kN m. The

moment at support B can be calculated, using a rearrangement of equations 4.4 and 4.1 . Thus

V AB [( M max M AB )2 w]

and

wL

M BA VAB L M AB

2

For span AB, w 48.75kN/m , therefore

VAB [(118 67) 2 48.75] 134kN

48.75 6.0

M BA 134 6.0 67 140kNm

2

and

VBA 292.5 134 158.5kN

Reduction in M BA 147 140

7 kNm

7 100

4.8 per cent

147

In order to ensure that the moments in the columns at joint B are not changed by the distribution,

moment M BC must also be reduced by 7 kN m. Therefore

M BC 115 7 108kNm hogging

For the revised moments in BC:

(108 80) 195

VBC 105kN

4 2

VCB 195 105 90kN

For span BC:

1052

M max 108 5kNm sagging

2 48.75

Figure 4.22c shows the revised shearing-force diagram to accord with the redistributed moments.

This example illustrates how, with redistribution

1. the moments at a section of beam can be reduced without exceeding the maximum design moments

at other sections;

2. the values of the column moments are not affected ; and

3. the equilibrium between external loads and internal forces is maintained.

Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

5.1 Stress Strain Relations

Short term stress strain curves for concrete and steel are presented in EC2. These curves are in

an idealized form which can be used in the analysis of member sections.

5.1.1 Concrete

The behaviour of structural concrete (figure 5.1) is represented by a parabolic stress-strain

relationship, up to a strain c 2 , from which point the strain increases while the stress remains constant.

The ultimate design is given by

f ck 0.85 f ck

c 1.5

0.567 f ck

where the factor of 0.85 allows for the difference between the bending strength and the cylinder

crushing strength of the concrete, and c 1.5 is the usual partial safety factor for the strength of

concrete. The ultimate strain of cu 2 0.0035 is typical for classes of concrete C50 / 60 . These are

the classes most commonly used in reinforced concrete construction.

Parabolic 0.85f ck

curve

2

Stress N/mm

c2 cu2

0.0020 0.0035

Strain

Fig.5-1 Parabolic-rectangular stress-strain diagram for concrete in compression

5.1.2 Reinforcing steel

The representative short-term design stress-strain curve for reinforcement is given in figure 5.2. the

behaviour of the steel identical in tension and compression, being linear in the elastic range up to the

design yield stress of f yk / s where f yk is the characteristic yield stress and s is the partial factor

of safety.

f yk

S

Tension and

2

compression

Stress N/mm

2

200 KN/mm

Strain

Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

Within the elastic range, the relationship between the stress and strain is

Stress elastic modulus strain

Es s (5-1)

f yk

so that the design yield strain is y / E s

s

at the ultimate limit for f yk 500 N / mm 2

y 500 /(1.15 200 103 )

0.00217

The theory of bending for reinforcement concrete assumes that the concrete will crack in the regions

of tensile strains and that, after cracking, all tension is carried by the reinforcement. It is also assumed

that plane sections of a structural member remain plane after straining, so that across the section there

must be a distribution of strain.

b

cc

d' s=0.8x

A's sc x

neutral

d axis

As

triangular rectangular equivalent

parabolic rectangular

Section Strain Stress blocks

Fig.5-3 Section with strain diagram and stress blocks

Figure 5.3 shows the cross-section of a member subjected to bending, and the resultant strain

diagram, together with three different types of stress distribution in the concrete:

1. The triangular stress distribution applies when the stresses are very nearly proportional to the

strains, which generally occurs at the loading levels encountered under working conditions and is,

therefore, used at the serviceability limit state.

2. The rectangular-parabolic stress block represents the distribution at failure when the compressive

strains are within the plastic range, and it is associated with the design for the ultimate state.

3. The equivalent rectangular stress block is a simplified alternative to the rectangular-parabolic

distribution.

where b beam width

d effective depth of the beam

d depth of the compression steel

As Area of tension steel

As Area of compression steel

Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

sc strain of steel in compression

st strain of steel in tension

x depth of neutral axis

s 0.8x depth of equivalent stress block

As there is compatibility of strains between the reinforcement and the adjacent concrete, the steel

strains st in tension and sc in compression can be determined from the strain diagram. The

relationships between the depth of neutral axis (x) and the maximum concrete strain ( cu 2 ) and the

steel strains are given by

d x

st cu 2 (5-2)

x

and

x d

sc cu 2 (5-3)

x

Having determined the strains, we can evaluate the stresses in the reinforcement from the stress-strain

curve of figure 5-2, together with the equations developed in section reinforcing steel.

For analysis of a section with known steel strains, the depth of the neutral axis can be determined by

rearranging equation 5-2 as

d

x (5-4)

st

1

cu 2

At the ultimate limit state the maximum compressive strain in the concrete is taken as cu 2 0.0035

for concrete class 50 / 60 .

For steel with f yk 500 N / mm 2 the yield strain is y 0.00217 .

Inserting these values for cu 2 and y into equation 5-4:

d d

x 0.617d

st 0.00217

1 1

cu 2 0.0035

Hence, to ensure yielding of the tension steel at the ultimate limit state:

x 0.617d

At the ultimate limit state it is important that member sections in flexure should be ductile and that

failure should occur with the gradual yielding of the tension steel and not by a sudden catastrophic

compression failure of the concrete. Also, yielding of the reinforcement enables the formation of

plastic hinges so that redistribution of maximum moments can occur, resulting in a safer and more

economical structure. To ensure rotation of the plastic hinges with sufficient yielding of the tension

steel and also to allow for other factors such as the strain hardening of the steel, EC2 limits the depth

of neutral axis to

x 0.45d for concrete class 50 / 60 .

This is the limiting maximum value for x given by EC2 with no redistribution applied to the moments

calculated by an elastic analysis of the structure. When moment redistribution is applied these

maximum values of x are reduced.

Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

For most reinforced concrete structures it is usual to commence the design for the conditions at the

ultimate limit state, followed by checks to ensure that the structure is adequate for the serviceability

limit state without excessive deflection or cracking of the concrete. For this reason the analysis will

first consider the simplified rectangular stress block which can be used for the design at the ultimate

limit state.

The rectangular stress block as shown in figure 5-4 may be used in preference to the more rigorous

rectangular-parabolic stress block.

b 0.85fck / =0.567fck

0.0035 C

s/2

x s=0.8x

neutral Fcc

d axis z

As

st Fst

Fig.5-4 Singly reinforced section with rectangular stress block

The design equations derived bellow are for zero redistribution of moments. When moment

redistribution is applied, reference should be made to section 5.7 which describes how to modify the

design equations.

5.4 Singly reinforced rectangular section in bending at the ultimate limit state

5.4.1 Design equations for bending

Bending of the section will induce a resultant tensile force Fst in the reinforcing steel, and a resultant

compressive force in the concrete Fcc which acts through the centroid of the effective area of concrete

in compression, as shown in figure 5-4.

For equilibrium, the ultimate design moment, M, must be balanced by the moment of resistance of

the section so that

M Fcc z Fst z (5.5)

where z the lever arm between the resultant forces Fcc and Fst

Fcc stress area of action

0.567 f ck bs

and

z d s/2 (5.6)

so that substituting in equation 5.5

M 0.567 f ck bs z

and replacing s from equation 5.6 gives

M 1.134 f ck b(d z ) z (5.7)

Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

( z / d ) 2 ( z / d ) K / 1.134 0

Solving this quadratic equation:

z s 0.5 (0.25 K / 1.134) (5.8)

in equation 5.5

Fst ( f y / s ) As with s 1.15

0.87 f yk As

Hence

M

As (5.9)

0.87 f yk z

Equations 5.8 and 5.9 can be used to design the area of tension reinforcement in a singly reinforced

concrete section to resist an ultimate moment, M.

The concrete section with the depth of neutral axis at the specified maximum depth of 0.45d is often

referred to as the balanced section because at the ultimate limit state the concrete and tension steel

reach their ultimate strains at the same time. This occurs at the maximum moment of resistance for a

singly reinforced section, that is a section with no compression steel. So for this section with

xbal 0.45d

the depth of the stress block is

s 0.8 xbal 0.8 0.45d 0.36d

The force in the concrete stress block is

Fcc bal 0.567 f ck bs 0.204 f ck bd

For equilibrium the force in the concrete Fcc bal must be balanced by the force Fst bal in the steel. So

that

Fst bal 0.87 f yk As bal 0.204 f ck bd

Therefore; As bal 0.234 f ck bd / f yk

100As bal f ck

So that; 23.4 per cent

bd f yk

which is the steel percentage for a balanced section which should not be exceeded for a ductile singly

reinforced section.

Thus, for example, with f ck 25N / mm2 and f yk 500N / mm 2

100As bal 25

23.4

1.17 per cent

bd 500

The ultimate moment of resistance of the balanced section is M bal Fcc bal zbal where

z bal d s / 2 0.82d

Substituting for Fcc bal and z:

M bal 0.167 f ck bd 2 (5.10)

Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

Md

And; 0.167 K bal

f ck bd 2

Md

When the design moment M d is such that K bal 0.167 then the section cannot be singly

f ck bd 2

reinforced and compression reinforcing steel is required in the compression zone of the section.

The ultimate design moment to be resisted by the section in figure 5-5 is 185KNm. Determine the

area of tension reinforcement ( As ) required given the characteristic material strength are

f yk 500 N / mm 2 and f ck 25N / mm2 . b=260

M

K

bd 2 f ck

d=440

185 106

0.147 0.167

260 4402 25 As

therefore compression steel is not required.

Lever arm:

K

z d 0.5 0.25 Fig.5-5 Design example-singly

1.134

reinforced section

0.147

4400.5 0.25

1.134

373mm

Area of tension reinforcement:

M

As

0.87 f yk z

185 106

0.87 500 373

1140mm 2

The following equations may be used to calculate the moment of resistance of a given section with

a known area of steel reinforcement. For equilibrium of the compressive force in the concrete and

the tensile force in the steel in figure 5-4:

Fcc Fst

or 0.567 f ck b s 0.87 f yk As

Therefore depth of stress block is

0.87 f yk As

s (5.11)

0.567 f ck b

Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

And; x s / 0.8

Therefore the moment of resistance of the section is

M Fst z

0.87 f yk As (d s / 2)

0.87 f yk As

0.87 f yk As d (5.12)

1.134 f ck b

These equations assume the tension reinforcement has yielded, which will be the case if

x 0.617d .

Determine the ultimate moment of resistance of the cross-section shown in figure 5.6 given that the

characteristic strengths are f yk 500 N / mm 2 for the reinforcement and f ck 25N / mm2 for the

concrete.

b=300 0.567fck

x s

neutral Fcc

d=520

axis z

2

A s =1470mm

Fst

Fig.5-6 Analysis example singly reinforced section

Fcc Fst

therefore

0.567 f ck b s 0.87 f yk As

0.567 25 300 s 0.87 500 1470

therefore

s 150 mm

and

x s / 0.8 150 / 0.8

188mm

This value of x is less than the value of 0.617d derived from section 5.2, and therefore the steel has

yielded and f st 0.87 f yk as assumed.

Moment of resistance of the section is

M Fst z

0.87 f yk As (d s / 2)

0.87 500 1470(520 150 / 2) 10 6 284 KNm

Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

limit state

5.5.1 Derivation of basic equations

It should be noted that the equations in this section have been derived for the case of zero moment

redistribution. When this is not the case, reference should be made to section 5.7 which deals with

the effect of moment redistribution.

b

0.0035 0.567fck

d' Fsc

A's sc x=0.45d s=0.8x

neutral Fcc

d axis

Z bal

As

st Fst

Fig.5-7 Section with compression reinforcement

From the section dealing with the analysis of a singly reinforced section and for concrete class not

greater than C50/60 when M 0.167 f ck bd 2 the design moment exceeds the moment of resistance

of the concrete ( M bal ) and therefore compression reinforcement is required. For this condition the

depth of neutral axis, x 0.45d , the maximum value allowed by the code in order to endure a tension

failure with a ductile section. Therefore

z bal d s bal / 2 d 0.8 x bal / 2

d 0.8 0.45d / 2

0.82d

For equilibrium of the section in figure 5-7

Fst Fcc Fsc

so that with the reinforcement at yield

0.87 f yk As 0.567 f ck bs 0.87 f yk As

or with

s 0.8 0.45d 0.36d

0.87 f yk As 0.204 f ck bd 0.87 f yk As (5.13)

and taking moments about the centroid of the tension steel,

M Fcc zbal Fsc (d d )

0.204 f ck bd 0.82d 0.87 f yk As (d d )

0.167 f ck bd 2 0.87 f yk As (d d ) (5.14)

From equation 5.14

M 0.167 f ck bd 2

As (5.15)

0.87 f yk (d d )

Multiplying both sides of equation 5.13 by z 0.82d and rearranging gives

Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

0.167 f ck bd 2

As As (5.16)

0.87 f yk z bal

with z bal 0.82d .

Hence the areas of compression steel, As , and tension steel, As , can be calculated from equations

5.15 and 5.16.

Substituting K bal 0.167 and K M / bd 2 f ck into these equations would convert them into:

( K K bal ) f ck bd 2

As (5.17)

0.87 f yk (d d )

K bal f ck bd 2

As As (5.18)

0.87 f yk z bal

In this analysis it has been assumed that the compression steel has yielded so that the steel stress

f sc 0.87 f yk . From the proportions of the strain distribution diagram:

sc 0.0035

(5.19)

x d x

so that

x d sc

x 0.0035

or

d sc

1

x 0.0035

At yield with f yk 500 N / mm 2 , the steel strain sc y 0.00217. Therefore for yielding of the

compression steel

d 0.00217

1 0.38 (5.20)

x 0.0035

or with x 0.45d

d

0.171 (5.21)

d

The ratio of d / d for yielding of other grades of steel can be determined by using their yield strain

in equation 5.19, but for values of f yk less than 500 N / mm 2 , the application of equation 5.21 will

provide an adequate safe check.

If d / d 0.171, then it is necessary to calculate the strain sc from equation 5.19 and then determine

f sc E s sc

f sc from

200000 sc

This value of stress for the compressive steel must then be used in the denominator of equation 5.15

in place of 0.87 f yk in order to calculate the area As of compression steel. The area of tension steel

is calculated from a modified equation 5.16 such that

0.167 f ck bd 2 f sc

As As

0.87 f yk z bal 0.87 f yk

The above equations apply for the case where the concrete class is less than or equal to C50/60. The

constants for concretes up to class C50/60 are tabulated in table 5.1.

Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

Concrete class C50 / 60

Limiting x bal / d 0.45

0.82d

Maximum z bal

0.167

K bal limiting K 0.171

Limiting d / d 23.4 f ck / f yk

Maximum percentage steel area 100 Abal / bd

Worked Example 5.3: Design of a rectangular section with compression reinforcement (no

moment redistribution)

The section shown in figure 5-8 is to resist an ultimate design moment of 285KNm . The characteristic

material strengths are f yk 500 N / mm 2 and f ck 25 N / mm 2 . Determine the areas of reinforcement

required.

b=260 M

K

bd 2 f ck

d ' =50 285 106

0.226

A's 260 4402 25

0.167

d=440

d / d 50 / 440 0.11 0.171

As as in equation 5.21 and the compression steel will have yielded.

compression reinforcement,

no moment redistribution

Compression steel:

( K K bal ) f ck bd 2

As

0.87 f yk (d d )

(0.226 0.167)25 260 4402

0.87 500(440 50)

438 mm 2

Tension steel:

K bal f ck bd 2

As As

0.87 f yk z bal

0.167 25 260 4402

438

0.87 500(0.82 440)

1339 438 1777 mm 2

Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

Determine the ultimate moment of resistance of the cross-section shown in figure 5-9 given that the

characteristic strengths are f yk 500 N / mm 2 for the reinforcement and f ck 25N / mm 2 for the

concrete.

b=280

0.567fck

s=0.8x

A's =628 Fcc

d=510

As =2410

Fst

Section Stress block

Fig.5.9 Analysis example, doubly reinforced section

Fst Fcc Fsc

Assuming initially that the steel stresses f st and f sc are the design yield values, then

0.87 f yk As 0.567 f ck bs 0.87 f yk As

therefore

0.87 f yk ( As As )

s

0.567 f ck b

0.87 500(2410 628)

0.567 25 280

195 mm

x s / 0.8 195 / 0.8 244 mm

x / d 244/ 510 0.48 0.617 (see section 5.2)

so the tension steel will have yielded. Also

d / x 50 / 244 0.2 0.38 (see equation 5.20)

so the compression steel will also have yielded, as assumed.

Taking moment about the tension steel

M Fcc (d s / 2) Fsc (d d )

0.567 f ck bs(d s / 2) 0.87 f yk As (d d )

0.567 25 280195(510 195/ 2) 0.87 500 620(510 50)106

319 124 443 KNm

T-section and L-section which have their flanges in compression can be designed or analysed in a

similar manner, and the equations which are derived can be applied to either type of cross-section.

As the flanges generally provide a large compressive area, it is usually unnecessary to consider the

Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

case where compression steel is required; if it should be required, the design would be based on the

principles derived in section Flanged section with compression reinforcement.

For the singly reinforced section it is necessary to consider two conditions:

1.the stress block lies within the compression flange, and

2.the stress block extends below the flange.

5.6.1 Flanged section- the depth of the stress block lies within the flange, s h f

bf 0.567f ck

x s/2

hf neutral axis s=0.8x

Fcc

d z

As

Fst

bw

Section Stress block

For this depth of stress block, the beam can be considered as an equivalent rectangular section of

breadth b f equal to the flange width. This is because the non-rectangular section below the neutral

axis is in tension and is, therefore, considered to be cracked and inactive. Thus K M / b f d 2 f ck can

be calculated and the lever arm determined from equation 5.8. The relation between the lever arm, z,

and depth, x, of the neutral axis is given by

z d s/2

or

s 2(d z )

If s is less than the flange thickness ( h f ), the stress block does lie within the flange as assumed and

the area of reinforcement is given by

M

As

0.87 f yk z

Worked Example 5.5: Analysis of a flanged section

Determine the ultimate moment of resistance of the T-section shown in figure 5-11. The characteristic

material strengths are f yk 500 N / mm 2 and f ck 25 N / mm 2 .

b f =800 0.567f ck

s/2

h f =150 neutral axis

x s

Fcc

d=420

As =1470mm2

Fst

Section Stress block

Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

Assume initially that the stress block depth lies within the flange and the reinforcement is strained to

the yield, so that f st 0.87 f yk .

For equilibrium of the section

Fcc Fst

Therefore; 0.567 f ck b f s 0.87 f yk As

and solving for the depth of stress block

0.87 5001470

s

0.567 25 800

56 mm h f 150mm

x s / 0.8 56 / 0.8 70 mm

Hence the stress block does lie within the flange and with this depth of neutral axis the steel will have

yielded as assumed.

Lever arm:

z d s/2

420 56 / 2

392 mm

Taking moments about the centroid of the reinforcement the moment of resistance is

M Fcc z

0.567 f ck b f sz

0.567 25 800 56 392106

249 KNm

s hf

5.6.2 Flanged section- the depth of the stress block extends below the flange,

For the design of a flanged section, the procedure described in section above (Flanged section- the

depth of the stress block lies within the flange, s h f ) will check if the depth of the stress block

extends below the flange. An alternative procedure is to calculate the moment of resistance, M f , of

the section with s h f , the depth of the flange(see equation 5.22 of example 5.6 following). Hence

if the design moment, M d , is such that

Md M f

then the stress block must extend below the flange, and

s hf

In this case the design can be carried out by either:

(a) using an exact method to determine the depth of the neutral axis, as in example 5.6 or

(b) designing for the conservative condition of x 0.45d , which is the maximum value of x for a

singly reinforced section and concrete class C50 / 60.

Worked Example 5.6: Design of a flanged section with the depth of the stress block below the

flange

The T-section beam shown in figure 5.12 is required to resist an ultimate design moment of 180KNm.

The characteristic material strengths are f yk 500 N / mm 2 and f ck 25 N / mm 2 .

Calculate the area of reinforcement required.

Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

bf =400

0.567fck

Fcf

hf =100 x s

neutral sw

d =350

axis

Fcw z1

z2

As

Fst

bw =200

In figure 5.12

Fcf is the force developed in the flange

Fcw is the force in the area of web in compression

Moment of resistance, M f , of the flange is

M f Fcf z1

or M f 0.567 f ck b f h f (d h f / 2) (5.22)

0.567 25 400100(350 100 / 2) 106

170KNm 180KNm , the design moment

Therefore, the stress block must extend below the flange.

It is now necessary to determine the depth, s w , of the web in compression, where sw s h f .

For equilibrium:

Applied moment

180 Fcf z1 Fcw z 2

170 0.567 f ck bw s w z 2

170 0.567 25 200s w (250 s w / 2) 106

170 2835s w (250 s w / 2) 106

This equation can be rearranged into

sw 500sw 7.05 103 0

2

s w 15 mm

so that the depth of neutral axis

x (h f sw ) / 0.8 (100 15) / 0.8

144mm 0.41d

As x 0.45d compression reinforcement is not required.

For the equilibrium of the section; Fst Fcf Fcw

or 0.87 f yk As 0.567 f ck b f h f 0.567 f ck bw sw

0.87 500 As 0.567 25(400100 20015) 610103

Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

Therefore

610103

As

0.87 500

1402mm 2

Determine the ultimate moment of resistance of the T-beam section shown in figure 5.13 given

f yk 500 N / mm 2 and f ck 25 N / mm 2 .

b f =450

0.567fck

Fcf

hf =150

s=0.8x

neutral

Fcw

d =550

axis

As =2592

Fst

b w=300

Fig.5-13 Analysis example of a T-section, s h f

The compressive force in the flange is

Fcf 0.567 f ck b f h f

0.567 25 450 150 103 957 KN

Then tensile force in the reinforcing steel, assuming it has yielded, is

Fst 0.87 f yk As

0.87 500 2592103

1128kN

Therefore Fst Fcf so that s h f and the force in the web is

Fcw 0.567 f ck bw ( s h f )

0.567 25 300( s 150) 103

4.25( s 150)

For equilibrium

Fcw Fst Fcf

or

4.25( s 150) 1128 957

Hence

s 190 mm

x s / 0.8 190 / 0.8 238mm 0.43d

Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

With this depth of neutral axis the reinforcement has yielded, as assumed, and

Fcw 4.25(190 150) 170 KN

(If Fcf Fst , the stress block would not extend beyond the flange and the section would be analysed

as in example 5.2 for a rectangular section of dimensions b f d .)

Taking moments about the centroid of the reinforcement

M Fcf (d h f / 2) Fcw (d s / 2 h f / 2)

957(550 150 / 2) 170(550 190 / 2 150 / 2) 103

519 KNm

Worked Example 5.8: Design of a flanged section with depth of neutral axis x 0.45d

A safe but conservative design for a flanged section with s h f can be achieved by setting the depth

of neutral axis to x 0.45d , the maximum depth allowed in the code. Design equations can be

derived for this condition as follows.

bf 0.567f ck

Fc2

hf 2 2 s=0.8x

1 x=0.45d

neutral Fc1

axis z1 z2

As

Fst

bw

Section Stress block

Fig.5-14 Flanged section with depth of neutral axis x 0.45d

Divide the flanged section within the depth of the stress block into areas 1 and 2 as shown in figure

5.14, so that

Area 1 bw s 0.36bw d

Area 2 (b f bw ) h f

and the compression forces developed by these areas are

Fc1 0.567 f ck 0.36bw d 0.2 f ck bw d

Fc 2 0.567 f ck h f (b f bw )

Taking moments about Fc 2 at the centroid of the flange

M Fst (d h f / 2) Fc1 ( s / 2 h f / 2)

0.87 f yk As (d h f / 2) 0.2 f ck bw d (0.36d h f ) / 2

Therefore

M 0.1 f ck bw d (0.36d h f )

As (5.23)

0.87 f yk (d 0.5h f )

Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

Appling this equation to example 5.6:

180 106 0.1 25 200 350(0.36 350 100)

As

0.87 500(350 100 / 2)

1414mm 2 (compared with 1407mm 2 in example 5.6)

Before using equation 5.23 for calculating As , it is necessary to confirm that compression

reinforcement is not required. This is achieved by using equation 5.24 to check that the moment of

resistance of the concrete, M bal , is greater than the design moment, M.

With x 0.45d in figure 5-14 and taking moments about As , the maximum resistance moment of

the concrete is

M bal Fc1 z1 Fc 2 z 2

0.167 f ck bw d 2 0.567 f ck (b f bw )(d h f / 2)

(Note that the value of 0.167 was derived in equation 5.10 for the rectangular section.)

Dividing through by f ck b f d 2

M bal b bw h f

hf

1 1

0.167 w 0.567 (5.25)

2 b 2d

f ck b f d bf d f

If the applied design moment, M M bal , compression reinforcement is required. In this case the area

of compression steel can be calculated from

M M bal

As (5.26)

0.87 f yk (d d )

and considering the equilibrium of forces on the section

Fst Fc1 Fc 2 Fsc

so that the area of tension steel is

0.2 f ck bw d 0.567 f ck h f (b f bw )

As As (5.27)

0.87 f yk

Again, d / x 0.38 , otherwise the design compressive steel stress is less than 0.87 f yk .

The plastic behaviour of reinforced concrete at the ultimate limit state affects the distribution of

moments in a structure. To allow for this, the moments derived from an elastic analysis may be

redistributed based on the assumption that plastic hinges have formed at the sections with the largest

moments. The formation of plastic hinges requires relatively large rotations with yielding of the

tension reinforcement. To ensure large strains in the tension steel, the code of practice restricts the

depth of the neutral axis according to the magnitude of the moment redistribution carried out.

The equations for this, given by EC2 for concrete class less than or equal to C50/60 is

x

k1 k 2 bal

d

or

Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

x bal

( k1 ) / k 2 (5.28)

d

where

moment at section after redistribution

1.0

moment at section before redistribution

k1 and k 2 are constants from the EC2 code

x bal is the maximum value of the depth of the neutral axis which will take the limiting value of the

equality of equation 5.28 but should be less than 0.45d for class C50 / 60.

The depth of the stress block is

s bal 0.8 x bal

and the lever arm is

z bal d s bal / 2 (5.29)

The moment of resistance of the concrete in compression is

M bal Fcc z bal 0.567 f ck bsbal z bal

and

K bal M bal / bd 2 f ck 0.567sbal z bal / d 2

This equation for K bal and the previous equations from 5.28to 5.29 can be arranged to give

K bal 0.454( k1 ) / k 2 0.182( k1 ) / k 2

2

(5.30)

or alternatively

x z

K bal 0.454 bal bal

d d

From the EC2 the constants k1 and k 2 are given as: k1 0.44 and k 2 1.25 .

The relevant values of x bal , z bal and K bal for varying percentages of moment redistribution and

concrete class C50 / 60 are shown in table 5-2.

Redistribution x bal / d z bal / d K bal d/ d

(%)

According to EC2, k1 0.44 and k 2 1.25

0 1.0 0.448 0.821 0.167 0.171

10 0.90 0.368 0.853 0.142 0.140

15 0.85 0.328 0.869 0.129 0.125

20 0.80 0.288 0.885 0.116 0.109

25 0.75 0.248 0.900 0.101 0.094

30 0.70 0.206 0.917 0.087 0.079

M K bal bd 2 f ck

or K K bal

then compression steel is required such that

Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

( K K bal ) f ck bd 2

As (5.31)

0.87 f yk (d d )

K bal f ck bd 2

And; As As (5.32)

0.87 f yk z bal

M bal

where K (5.33)

bd 2 f ck

If the value of d / d for the section exceeds that shown in table 5.2, the compression steel will not

have yielded and the compressive stress will be less than 0.87 f yk . In such cases, the compressive

stress f sc will be E s sc where the strain sc is obtained from the proportions of the strain diagram.

This value of f sc should replace 0.87 f yk in equation 5.31, and equation 5.32 becomes

K bal f ck bd 2 f sc

As As

0.87 f yk z bal 0.87 f yk

It should be noted that for a singly reinforced section ( K K bal ), the lever arm is calculated from

equation 5.8.

For a section requiring compression steel, the lever arm can be calculated from equation 5.29 or by

using the equation

z d 0.5 (0.25 K bal / 1.134) (5.34)

which is similar to equation 5.8 but with K bal replacing K .

Worked Example 5.9: Design of a section with moment redistribution applied and 0.8

The section shown in figure 5.15 is subject to an ultimate design moment of 230 KNm after a 20%

reduction due to moment redistribution. The characteristic material strengths are f yk 500 N / mm 2

and f ck 25 N / mm 2 . Determine the areas of reinforcement required using the constants k1 and k 2 .

b=260

Limiting neutral axis depth, x bal ( k1 )d / k 2

d ' =50

From EC2 k1 0.44 and k 2 1.25 , A's

d=490

Stress block depth s bal 0.8 x bal 0.8 141 113 mm As

Lever arm z bal d s bal / 2 490 113/ 2 434 mm

Moment of resistance of the concrete

M bal Fcc z bal 0.567 f ck bsbal z bal Fig.5-15 Design example

6

0.567 25 260113 43410

181 KNm

230 KNm , the applied moment

therefore compression steel is required.

d / x bal 50 / 141 0.35 0.38 (see equation 5.20)

therefore compression steel has yielded.

Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

Compression steel:

M M bal

As

0.87 f yk (d d )

(230 181) 106

0.87 500(490 50)

256 mm 2

Tension steel:

M bal

As As

0.87 f yk z bal

181 106

256

0.87 500 434

959 256 1215 mm 2

From equations 5.30 to 5.34

K bal 0.454( k1 ) / k 2 0.182( k1 ) / k 2

2

2

which agrees with the value given in table 5.2.

M

K 2

bd f ck

230 106

260 4902 25

0.147 K bal 0.116

Therefore compression steel required.

Compression steel:

( K K bal ) f ck bd 2

As

0.87 f yk (d d )

(0.147 0.116)25 260 4902

0.87 500(490 50)

244 mm 2

Tension steel:

z bal d 0.5 (0.25 K bal / 1.134)

d 0.5

(0.25 0.116 / 1.134) 0.89d

2

K bal f ck bd

As As

0.87 f yk z bal

0.116 25 260 4902

244

0.87 500 0.89 490

954 244 1198 mm 2

Chapter VII: Shear and Bond

6.1 Shear

6.1.1 The variable strut inclination method for sections that do require shear reinforcement

In order to derive the design equations the action of a reinforced concrete beam in shear is represented

by an analogous truss as shown in figure 6.2. The concrete acts as the top compression member and

as the diagonal compression members inclined at an angle to the horizontal. The bottom chord is

the horizontal tension steel and the vertical links are the transverse tension members. It should be

noted that in this method of shear behaviour all shear will be resisted by the provision of links with

no direct contribution from the shear capacity of the concrete itself.

X Y

b

z

zco

s

compression Fc

n n

sio sio

tension

VEd

z = 0.9d

e s e s

d pr mp

r

om

tension

tension

c co VEd / sin

tension Fs

zcot Section

X Y

VEd

Fig.6-2 Assumed truss for the variable strut inclination method

The analysis of the truss to derive the design equation will be carried out in the following order:

1. Consideration of the compressive strength of the diagonal concrete strut and its angle ;

2. Calculation of the required shear reinforcement Asw / s for the vertical ties;

3. Calculation of the additional tension steel As1 required in the bottom chord member.

The following notation is used in the equations for the shear design

Asw the cross-sectional area of the two legs of the link

s the spacing of the links

z the lever arm between the upper and lower chord members of the analogous truss

f ywd the design yield strength of the link reinforcement

f yk the characteristic strength of the link reinforcement

V Ed the shear force due to the actions at the ultimate limit state

VEf the ultimate shear force at the face of the support

Vwd the shear force in the link

VRd ,s the shear resistance of the links

VRd ,max the maximum design value of the shear which can be resisted by the concrete strut

The shear force applied to the section must be limited so that excessive compressive stresses do not

occur in the diagonal compressive struts, leading to compressive failure of the concrete. Thus the

Chapter VII: Shear and Bond

maximum design shear force VRd ,max is limited by the ultimate crushing strength of the diagonal

concrete member in the analogous truss and its vertical component.

With reference to figure 6.2, the effective cross sectional area of concrete acting as the diagonal strut

is taken as bw z cos and the design concrete stress f cd f ck / 1.5 .

The ultimate strength of the strut ultimate design stress cross-sectional area

( f ck / 1.5) (bw z cos )

and its vertical component [( f ck / 1.5) (bw z cos )] sin

so that VRd ,max f ck bw z cos sin / 1.5

which by conversion of the trigometrical functions can be expressed as

f ck bw z

VRd ,max

1.5(cot tan )

In EC2 this equation is modified by the inclusion of a strength reduction factor ( v1 ) for concrete

cracked in shear.

f ck bw zv1

VRd ,max (6.3)

1.5(cot tan )

where the strength reduction factor takes the value of v1 0.6(1 f ck / 250) and, putting z 0.9d ,

equation 6.3 becomes

0.9d bw 0.6(1 f ck / 250) f ck

VRd ,max

1.5(cot tan )

0.36bw d (1 f ck / 250) f ck

(6.4)

(cot tan )

and to ensure that there is no crushing of the diagonal compressive strut:

VRd ,max VEd (6.5)

This must be checked for the maximum value of shear on the beam, which is usually taken as the

shear force, VEf , at face of the beams supports so that

VRd ,max VEf

EC2 limits to a value between 22 and 45 degrees.

The angle increases with the magnitude of the maximum shear force on the beam and hence the

compressive forces in the diagonal concrete members. It is set by EC2 to have a value 22 and 45

degrees. For most cases of predominately uniformly distributed loading the angle will be 22

degrees but for heavy and concentrated loads it can be higher in order to resist crushing of the

concrete diagonal members.

(i) With 22 degrees (this is the usual case for uniformly distributed loads)

From equation 6.4:

VRd ,max(22) 0.124bw d (1 f ck / 250) f ck (6.6)

If VRd ,max(22) VEf then a larger value of the angle must be used so that the diagonal concrete strut

has a larger vertical component to balance V Ed .

(ii) With 45 degrees (the maximum value of as allowed by EC2)

From equation 6.4:

Chapter VII: Shear and Bond

which is the upper limit on the compressive strength of the concrete diagonal member in the

analogous truss. When VEf VRd ,max(45) , from equation 6.7 the diagonal strut will be over stressed and

the beams dimensions must be increased or a higher class of concrete be used.

(iii) With between 22 degrees and 45 degrees

The required value for can be obtained by equating V Ed to VRd ,max and solving for in equation

6.4 as follows:

0.36bw d (1 f ck / 250) f ck

VED VRd ,max

(cot tan )

1 /(cot tan ) sin cos

And;

0.5 sin 2

therefore by substitution

VEd

0.5 sin 1 45 (6.8a)

0.18bw d (1 f ck / 250) f ck

which alternatively can be expressed as:

VEd

0.5 sin 1 45 (6.8b)

VRd ,max(45)

where VEf is the shear force at the face of the support and the calculated value of the angle can

then be used to determine cot and calculate the shear reinforcement Asw / s from equation 6.9

below (when 22 45 ).

As previously noted, all shear will be resisted by the provision of links with no direct contribution

from the shear capacity of the concrete itself. Using the method of section it can be seen that, at

section X-X in figure 6.2, the force in the vertical link member ( V wd ) must equal the shear force

( V Ed ), that is

Vwd V Ed f ywd Asw

f yk Asw

1.15

0.87 f yk Asw

If the links are spaced at a distance s apart, then the force in each link is reduced proportionately and

is given by

s

Vwd 0.87 f yk Asw

z cot

or

Vwd VEd

Asw

0.87 zf yk cot

s

A

0.87 sw 0.9df yk cot

s

Chapter VII: Shear and Bond

thus rearranging

Asw VEd

(6.9)

s 0.78df yk cot

EC2 specifies a minimum value for Asw / s such that

Asw,min 0.08 f ck0.5bw

(6.10)

s f yk

Equation 6.9 can be used to determine the amount and spacing of the shear links and will depend on

the value of used in the design. For most cases of beams with predominately uniformly distributed

loads the angle will be 22 degrees with cot 2.5 . Otherwise the value for can be calculated

from equation 6.8.

EC2 also specifies that, for beams with predominately uniformly distributed loads, the design shear

force VEd need not be checked at a distance d from the face of the support but the shear reinforcement

calculated must be continued to the support.

Equation 6.9 can be rearranged to give the shear resistance VRd ,s of a given arrangement of links

Asw / s .

Thus:

Asw

VRd ,s 0.78df yk cot (6.11)

s

When using this method of shear design it is necessary to allow for the additional longitudinal force

in the tension steel caused by the shear V Ed . This longitudinal tensile force Ftd is caused by the

horizontal component required to balance the compressive force in the inclined concrete strut.

Resolving forces horizontally in the Y-Y shown in figure 6-2, the longitudinal component of the

force in the compressive strut is given by

Longitudinal force (VEd / sin ) cos

VEd cot

If it is assumed that half of this force is carried by the reinforcement in the tension zone of the beam

then the additional tensile force to be provided in the tensile zone is given by

Ftd 0.5VEd cot (6.12)

To provide for this longitudinal force, at any section it is necessary to provide longitudinal

reinforcement additional to that required at that section to resist bending. In practice, increasing the

curtailment lengths of the bottom-face tension reinforcement can usually provide the required force.

To resist shearing forces, longitudinal tension bars may be bent up near to the supports as shown in

figure 6.3. The bent-up bars and the concrete in compression are considered to act as an analogous

lattice girder and the shear resistance of the bars is determined by taking a section X-X through the

girder.

Chapter VII: Shear and Bond

Anchorage

length

X

0.9d

com

p

X

s

s=0.9d(cot + cot )

Fig.6.3 Bent up bars

From the geometry of part (a) of figure 6.3, the spacing of the bent-up bars is:

s 0.9d (cot cot )

and at the section X-X the shear resistance of a single bent-up bar ( V wd ) must equal the shear force

( V Ed ).

f yk

Vwd VEd f ywd Asw sin Asw sin 0.87 f yk Asw sin

1.15

where Asw is the cross-sectional area of the bent-up bar.

For a multiple system of bent-up bars, as in part (b) of figure 6.3, the shear resistance is increased

proportionately to the spacing, s. Hence:

0.9d (cot cot )

VEd 0.87 f yk Asw sin

s

0.9d (cot cot )

= number of bars crossing the crack

s

or

Asw VEd

(6.13)

s 0.78df yk (cot cot ) sin

This equation is analogous to equation (6.9) for the resistance of shear links. In a similar way it can

be shown that, based on crushing of the concrete in the compressive struts, the analogous equation

to (6.4) is given by:

(cot cot )

VRd ,max 0.36bw d (1 f ck / 250) f ck (6.14)

(1 cot2 )

and the additional tensile force to be provided by the provision of additional tension steel is given by

a modified version of equation 6.12:

Ftd 0.5VEd (cot cot ) (6.15)

EC2 also requires that

i) the maximum longitudinal spacing of bent-up bars limited to 0.6(1 cot ) ;

ii) at least 50 per cent of the required shear reinforcement should be in the form of shear links.

Chapter VII: Shear and Bond

6.2.1 General

Anchorage is the embedment of the bar into the concrete so that it can carry the load through bond

between the steel and the concrete.

The reinforcing bar subject to direct tension shown in figure 6.4 must be firmly anchored if it is not

to be pulled out of the concrete. Bars subject to forces induced by flexure must be similarly anchored

to develop their design stresses. The anchorage depends on the bond between the bar and the concrete,

the area of contact and whether or not the bar is located in a region where good bond conditions can

be expected. Let:

lb basic required anchorage length to prevent pull out

bar size or nominal diameter

f bd ultimate anchorage bond stress

f s the direct tensile or compressive stress in the bar

Considering the forces on the bar

Tensile pull-out force cross-sectional area of bar direct stress

2

fs

4

Anchorage force contact area anchorage bond stress

(lb) f bd

Hence

f s

lb

4 f bd

and when f s f yd , the design yield strength of the reinforcement ( f yk /1.15 ) the anchorage length

is given by

lb ( / 4)([ f yk /1.15] / f bd )

f yk

lb (6.19)

4.6 f bd

6.2.2 Basic anchorage length

Equation 6.19 may be used to determine the basic anchorage length of bars which are either in tension

or compression. For the calculation of anchorage lengths, design values of ultimate anchorage bond

stresses are specified according to whether the bond conditions are good or otherwise.

Chapter VII: Shear and Bond

Good bond conditions are considered to be when (a) bars are inclined at an angle of between 45 and

90 to the horizontal or (b) zero to 45 provided that in this second case additional requirements are

met. These additional conditions are that bars are

1. either placed in members whose depth in the direction of concreting does not exceed 250mm or

2. embedded in members with a depth greater than 250mm and are either in the lower 250mm of the

member or at least 300mm from the top surface when the depth exceeds 600mm.

These conditions are illustrated in figure 6.5. When bond conditions are poor then the specified

ultimate bond stresses should be reduced by a factor 0.7.

The design value of the ultimate bond stress is also dependent on the bar size. For all bar size ( )

greater than 32mm the bond stress should additionally be multiplied by a factor (132 ) / 100 .

Table 6.1 gives the design values of ultimate bond stresses for good conditions. These depend on

the class of concrete and are obtained from the equation f bd 1.5 f ctk where f ctk is the characteristic

tensile strength of the concrete.

f ck N / mm 2 12 16 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60

Plain bars 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7

Bars 32mm diameter and 1.6 2.0 2.3 2.7 3.0 3.4 3.7 4.0 4.3 4.5 4.7

good bond conditions

Bars 32mm diameter and 1.1 1.4 1.6 1.9 2.1 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.1 3.3

poor bond conditions

The required minimum anchorage length ( lbd ) is given by

lbd 1 2lb As,req / As, prov (6.20)

Chapter VII: Shear and Bond

where As ,req , As. prov area of reinforcement required and provided at that section

1 , 2 coefficients as given in Table 6.2

In Table 6.2:

c d concrete cover coefficients as shown in figure 6.6.

c1 a c a

c c

cd min (a / 2, c1 , c) cd min (a / 2, c1 ) cd c

Fig.6.6 values of c d for beams and slabs

Value allows for the Type of Reinforcement in

of effect of: anchorage Tension Compression

1 The shape of the bars Straight 1.0 1.0

Other than 0.7 if cd 3.0 or 1.0 if not 1.0

Straight

2 Concrete cover to the Straight 1 0.15(cd ) / 1.0

reinforcement But 0.7 and 1.0

Other than 1 0.15(cd 3 ) / 1.0

Straight

But 0.7 and 1.0

for tension bars: 0.3lb

for compression bars: 0.6lb

In both cases the minimum value must also exceed both 10 bar diameters and 100mm.

The beam in figure 6.7 spans 8.0 meters on 300mm wide supports. It is required to support a

uniformly distributed ultimate load, wu of 200KN / m . The characteristic material strengths are

f ck 30N / mm2 for the concrete and f yk 500N / mm 2 for the steel. Check if the shear

reinforcement in the form of the vertical links shown can support, in shear, the given ultimate load.

Chapter VII: Shear and Bond

b=350

d=650

H12

Section

2

2H25: As =982mm

Fig.6.7 Beam with stirrups

Support reaction 1600/ 2 800KN

Shear, VEf at face of support 800 200 0.3 / 2 770KN

Shear, V Ed distance d from face of support 770 200 0.65 640KN

1. Check the crushing strength VRd ,max of the concrete diagonal strut at the face of the beams support.

From equation 6.6 with 22

VRd ,max(22) 0.124bw d (1 f ck / 250) f ck

0.124 350 650(1 30 / 250)30

745KN ( VEf 770KN )

From equation 6.7 with 45

VRd ,max(45) 0.18bw d (1 f ck / 250) f ck

0.18 350 650(1 30 / 250)30

1081KN ( VEf 770KN )

Therefore: 22 45 .

2. Determine angle

From equation 6.8(a)

VEf

0.5 sin 1 45

0.18bw d (1 f ck / 250) f ck

or alternatively from equation 6.8(b)

VEf 1 770

0.5 sin 1 0.5 sin 22.7

VRd ,max(45) 1081

From which cot 2.39 and tan 0.42 .

The cross-sectional area Asw of a 12mm bar 113mm 2 . Thus for the two legs of the link and a spacing

of 175mm

Chapter VII: Shear and Bond

Asw 2 113

1.29

s 175

From equation 6.11 the shear resistance, VRd ,s of the links is given by

Asw

VRd ,s 0.78df yk cot

s

1.29 0.78 650 500 2.39 103 781KN

Therefore shear resistance of links 781KN .

Design shear, V Ed distance d from the face of the support 640KN ( 781KN ) . Therefore, the beam

can support, in shear, the ultimate load of 200KN / m .

It is necessary to check that the bottom tension steel has a sufficient length of curtailment, and

anchorage to resist the additional horizontal tension Ftd caused by the design shear. These

additional tension forces are calculated from equation 6.12. Therefore

Ftd 0.5VEd cot

0.5 640 2.39 765KN

Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

7.0 Introduction

Reinforced concrete beam design consists primarily of producing member details which will

adequately resist the ultimate bending moments, shear forces and torsional moments. At the same

time serviceability requirements must be considered to ensure that the member will behave

satisfactorily under working loads.

The design procedure consists of three basic design stages:

1. preliminary analysis and member sizing;

2. detailed analysis and design of reinforcement;

3. serviceability calculations.

7.1.1 Overview

The preliminary analysis need only provide the maximum moments and shears in order to ascertain

reasonable dimensions. Beam dimensions required are

1. cover to the reinforcement

2. breadth (b)

3. effective depth (d)

4. overall depth (h)

Adequate concrete cover is required to ensure adequate bond and to protect the reinforcement from

corrosion and damage. The necessary cover depends on the class of concrete, the exposure of the

beam, and the required fire resistance. Table 7.2 gives the nominal cover that should be provided to

all reinforcement, including links. This cover may need to be increased to meet the fire resistance

requirement of the Code of Practice.

Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

Class Description Examples of environmental conditions

designatio

n

XO No risk of corrosion Unreinforced concrete ( no freeze/thaw,

- Very dry abrasion or chemical attack)

Reinforced concrete buildings with very

low humidity

XC Carbonation-induced corrosion risk Reinforced and prestressed concrete:

-1 - Dry or permanently wet - inside structures (except high humidity)

-2 or permanently submerged (non-

-3 - Wet- rarely dry aggressive water)

-4 - Moderate humidity - completely buried in non-aggressive soil

- Cyclic wet and dry - external surfaces (including exposed to

rain)

- exposed to alternate wetting and drying

XD Chloride-induced corrosion risk (not due to Reinforced and prestressed concrete:

-1 seawater) - exposed to airborne chlorides, bridge

- Moderate humidity parts away from direct spray containing

de-icing agents, occasional/slight chloride

-2 exposure

- Wet, rarely dry - totally immersed in water containing

-3 chlorides (swimming pools, industrial

- Cyclic wet and dry waters)

-exposed to de-icing salts and spray

(bridges and adjacent structures,

pavements, car parks)

XS Chloride-induced corrosion risk (sea water) Reinforced and prestressed concrete:

-1 - Exposed to airborne salt but not in direct - external in coastal areas

-2 water contact - remaining saturated (e.g. below mid-tide

-3 - Permanently submerged level)

- Tidal, splash and spray zones - in upper tidal, splash and spray zones

XF Freeze/thaw attack whilst wet Concrete surfaces exposed to freezing:

-1 - Moderate water saturation-without de-icing - vertical exposed to rain

-2 agent - vertical (road structures) exposed to de-

- Moderate water saturation-with de-icing icing agents as spray or run-off

-3 agent - horizontal exposed to rain or water

-4 accumulation

- High water saturation-without de-icing agent - horizontal exposed to de-icing agents

- High water saturation-with de-icing agent or directly or as spray or run-off. Others

sea water subject to frequent splashing

XA Chemical attack

-1 - Slightly aggressive

-2 - Moderately aggressive - Defined in specialist literature

-3 - Highly aggressive

Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

Expose class Nominal Cover(mm)

XO Not recommended for reinforced concrete

XC1 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25

XC2 - 35 35 35 35 35 35 35

XC3/4 - 45 40 35 35 30 30 30

1 1

XD1 - - 45 40 40 35 1 35 35

XD2 - - 50 2 45 2 45 1 40 2 40 40

XD3 - - - - 60 2 55 2 50 1 50

XS1 - - - - 50 1 45 1 45 40

2 2 1 2

XS2 - - 50 45 45 40 40 40

XS3 - - - - - 60 2 55 1 55

Maximum free 0.70 0.65 0.60 0.55 0.50 0.45 0.35

0.35

water/cement

ratio

Minimum cement 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380

3

(kg/m )

Lowest concrete C20/25 C25/30 C28/35 C32/40 C35/45 C40/50 C45/55 C50/60

Notes:

1. Cement content should be increased by 20 kg/m 3 above the values shown in the table.

2. Cement content should be increased by 40 kg/m 3 AND water-cement ratio reduced by 0.05 compared

with the values shown in the table.

General Notes

These values may be reduced by 5mm if an approved quality control system is specified.

Cover should not be less than the bar diameter 10mm to ensure adequate bond performance.

freeze/thaw (Exposure Class XF) 20mm aggregates

Class Strength Class (maximum water/cement ratio)

No air-entrainment 3.5% air-entrainment

XF1 C25/30 (0.6) 28/35 (0.6)

XF2 C25/30 (0.6) 32/40(0.55)

1

XF3 C25/30 (0.6) 40/50(0.45)

XF4 1 C28/35 (0.55) 40/50 (0.45)

Note:

1. Freeze-thaw resisting aggregates to be specified.

Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

Table 7.4 Minimum dimensions and axis distance for RC beams for fire resistance

Standard fire Minimum dimensions (mm)

resistance Possible combinations of a and bmin where a is the average axis distance

and bmin is the width of the beam

Simply supported Continuous

A B C D E F G H

R60 bmin 120 160 200 300 120 200

a 40 35 30 25 25 12

R90 bmin 150 200 300 400 150 250

a 55 45 40 35 35 25

R120 bmin 200 240 300 500 200 300 450 500

a 65 60 55 50 45 35 35 30

R240 bmin 280 350 500 700 280 500 650 700

a 90 80 75 70 75 60 60 50

Note: The axis distance a sd from the side of a beam to the corner bar should be a 10mm except

where bmin is greater than the values in columns C and F

The strength of a beam is affected considerably more by its depth than its breadth. The span-depth

ratios usually vary between say 14 and 30 but for larger spans the ratios can be greater. A suitable

breadth may be one-third to one-half of the depth; but it may be much less for a deep beam. At other

times wide shallow beams are used to conserve headroom. The beam should not be too narrow; if it

is much less than 200mm wide there may be difficulty in providing adequate side cover and space

for the reinforcing bars.

Suitable dimensions for b and d can be decided by a few trial calculations as follow:

K M / bd 2 f ck K bal

where

K bal 0.167 for f ck 50

With compression reinforcement it can be shown that

M / bd 2 f ck 8 / f ck

approximately, if the area of bending reinforcement is not to be excessive.

2. The maximum design shear force VEd ,max should not be greater than

VRd ,max 0.18bw d (1 f ck / 250) f ck . To avoid congested shear reinforcement, VEd ,max should

preferably be somewhat closer to half ( or less) of the maximum allowed.

3. The span-effective depth ratio for spans not exceeding 7m should be within the basic values given

in table 7.5. For spans greater than 7m the basic ratios are multiplied by 7/span.

4. The overall depth of the beam is given by

h d cover t

Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

b where t estimated distance from the outside of the link to the centre

of the tension bars ( see figure 7.1). For example, with nominal sized

12mm links and one layer of 32mm tension bars, t 28 , mm

h d approximately. It will, in fact, be slightly larger than this with

deformed bars as they have a larger overall dimension than the

t cover

nominal bar size.

The appearance and function of a reinforced concrete beam or slab may be impaired if the deflection

under serviceability loading is excessive. Deflections can be calculated but it is more usual to control

deflections by placing a limit on the ratio of the span to the effective depth of the beam or slab. EC2

specifies equations to calculate basic span-effective depth ratios, to control deflections to a maximum

of span/250. Some typical values are given in the table 7.5 for rectangular sections of class C30/35

concrete and for grade 500 steel. The ratios can also be used for flanged sections except where the

ratio of the width of flange to the width of web exceeds 3 when the basic values should be multiplied

by 0.8. For two-way spanning slabs, the check for the basic span-effective depth ratio should be based

on the shorter span whereas for flat slabs calculations should be based on the longer span.

The two columns given in the table 7.5 correspond to levels of concrete stress under serviceability

conditions: highly stressed when the steel ratio exceeds 1.5 per cent and lightly stressed when

equals 0.5 per cent. is given by 100As ,req / bd where As ,req is the area of tension reinforcement

required in the section. Interpolation between the values of indicated is permissible. In the case of

slabs it is reasonable to assume that they are lightly stressed.

Since the value of allowable span-effective depth ratio is affected by both reinforcement ratio and

concrete strength it may be more convenient to use the chart in figure 7.2 which is for a simply

supported span with no compression steel together with a modification factor K (as shown in table

7.5) according to member type.

Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

(a) For spans loner than 7m (except flat slabs) and where it is necessary to limit deflections to ensure

that finishes, such as partitions, are not damaged, the basic values should be multiplied by 7/span.

(b) For flat slabs with spans in excess of 8.5m, similarly multiply the basic ratios by 8.5/span.

(c) For characteristic steel strength other than 500 N / mm 2 , multiply the basic ratios by 500 / f yk .

(d) Where more tension reinforcement is provided ( As, prov ) than that calculated ( As ,req ) at the

ultimate limit state, multiply the basic ratios by A s, prov / A s , req (upper limit 1.5 ).

These basic ratios assume a steel working stress of f s 310N / mm2 where f yk 500N / mm 2 .

Structural system Factor for Basic span-effective depth ratio

structural Concrete highly Concrete

system K stressed lightly

( 1 .5 % ) stressed

( 0 .5 % )

1. Simply supported beams and slabs 1.0 14 20

2. End span of continuous beams and slabs 1.3 18 26

3. Interior spans of continuous beams and 1.5 20 30

slabs

4. Cantilever beams and slabs 0.4 6 8

Table 7.5 shows basic span/depth ratio for commonly occurring reinforced concrete members and

support conditions. They have been obtained using equations 7.1 and 7.2.

Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

l 0 0

3/ 2

d

l 0 1

1/ 2

K 11 1.5 f ck f ck if 0 (7.2)

d 12 0

where

l / d is the limiting span/depth ratio

K is the factor to take into account the different structural systems, given in Table 7.5

0 f ck 103

is the required tension reinforcement ratio

is the required compression reinforcement ratio

The values in Table 7.5 assume the steel stress at the critical section, s , is 310 N mm 2 ,

corresponding roughly to the stress under characteristic load when f yk 500 Nmm 2 . Where other

steel stresses are used, the values in the table can be multiplied by 310 / s . It will normally be

conservative to assume that

310 f yk As ,req

s (7.3)

500As , prov

where

As ,req is the area of steel required

As, prov is the area of steels provided

A rectangular continuous beam of class C25/30 concrete spans 10m. If the breadth is 300mm, check

the acceptability of an effective depth of 600mm when high yield reinforcement, f yk 500N / mm 2 ,

is used. At the ultimate limit state it is determined that 1250mm 2 of tension steel is needed and 3 No.

25mm diameter reinforcing bars ( As , prov 1470mm 2 ) are actually provided in an interior span.

100As ,req / bd

(100 1250) /(300 600)

0.7% (0.007)

f ck 25N / mm 2 0 f ck 103 25 103 5 103

From the table 7.5, for interior span K 1.5

Since 0 , use equation 7.2

l 0 1

1/ 2

0.005 1 0

1/ 2

K 11 1.5 f ck f ck

1.511 1.5 25 25

d 12 0

0.007 0 12 0.005

1.5 16.357 24.5

To avoid damage to finishes for span greater than 7m:

7

Modified ratio 24.5 17.15

10

Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

1470

Modified ratio 17.15 20.17

1250

10 103

Span-effective depth ratio provided 16.7

600

which is less than the allowable upper limit, thus deflection requirements are likely to be satisfied.

A concrete lintel with an effective span of 4.0m supports a 230mm brick wall as shown in figure 7.3.

The loads on the lintel are G k 100KN and Qk 40KN . Determine suitable dimensions for the

lintel if class C25/30 concrete is used.

b 230mm

Allowing, say, 14KN for the weight of the beam, Assumed load

gives the ultimate load distribution

F 1.35 114 1.5 40 4m effective span

214KN

Therefore maximum design shear force

VEd 107KN Fig.7.3 Beam dimensions

Assuming a triangular load distribution for the preliminary analysis, we have

F span 214 4.0

M 143KNm

6 6

For such a relatively minor beam the case with no compression steel should be considered

M

K 2 K bal 0.167

bd f ck

143 106

Therefore; 0.167

230 d 2 25

Rearranging, d 386mm .

Assume a concrete cover of 25mm to the reinforcing steel. So for 10mm links and, say, 32mm bars

Overall beam depth h d 25 10 32 / 2

d 51

Therefore make h 525mm as an integer number of brick courses. So that

d 525 51 474mm

Maximum shear resistance is

VRd ,max 0.18bw d (1 f ck / 250) f ck

0.18 230 474 (1 25 / 250) 25 103

446KN VEd 107KN

4000

Basic span-effective depth 8.44 20 (for a lightly stressed beam in C25 concrete- table 7.5)

474

A beam size of 230mm by 525mm deep would be suitable.

Weight of beam 0.23 0.525 4.0 25 12.1KN which is sufficiently close to the assumed value.

Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

7.2.1 Requirements

Table 7.6 Minimum areas of reinforcement

Tension reinforcement in beams and slabs Concrete class ( f yk 500N / mm 2 )

C25/30 C30/35 C40/50 C50/60

As ,min f ctm 0.0013 0.0015 0.0018 0.0021

0.26 ( 0.0013)

bt d f yk

Secondary reinforcement 20% main reinforcement

Longitudinal reinforcement in columns

As ,min 0.10N sd / 0.87 f yk 0.002Ac where N sd is the axial compression force

Vertical reinforcement in walls

As,min 0.002Ac where Ac is the area of concrete b h for a rectangular section

Note: bt is the mean width of the beams tension zone.

f ctm is the concretes mean axial tensile strength 0.3 f ck2 / 3 for f ck C 50

These are determined largely from the practical need to achieve adequate compaction of the concrete

around the reinforcement. The limits specified are as follows

(a) For a slab or beam, tension or compression reinforcement

100As / Ac 4 per cent other than at laps

(b) For a column

100As / Ac 4 per cent other than at laps and 8 per cent at laps

(c) For a wall, vertical reinforcement

100As / Ac 4 per cent

c) Bar areas

Table 7.7 Sectional areas of groups of bars ( mm 2 )

Bar size Number of bars

(mm) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

6 28.3 56.6 84.9 113 142 170 198 226 255 283

8 50.3 101 151 201 252 302 352 402 453 503

10 78.5 157 236 314 393 471 550 628 707 785

12 113 226 339 452 566 679 792 905 1020 1130

16 201 402 603 804 1010 1210 1410 1610 1810 2010

20 314 628 943 1260 1570 1890 2200 2510 2830 3140

25 491 982 1470 1960 2450 2950 3440 3930 4420 4910

32 804 1610 2410 3220 4020 4830 5630 6430 7240 8040

40 1260 2510 3770 5030 6280 7540 8800 10100 11300 12600

Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

A beam section needs reinforcement only in the tensile zone when

M

K 2 K bal 0.167

bd f ck

The singly reinforced section considered is shown in figure 7.4 and it is subjected to a sagging design

moment M at the ultimate limit state. The design calculations for the longitudinal steel can be

summarized as follows:

b 0.85fck / =0.567fck

0.0035 C

s/2

x s=0.8x

neutral Fcc

d axis z

As

st Fst

Fig.7-4 Singly reinforced section with rectangular stress block

M

1. Check that K 2 K bal 0.167

bd f ck

2. Determine the lever-arm, z, from the equation

z d 0.5 (0.25 K / 1.134) (7.4)

3. Calculate the area of tension steel required from

M

As (7.5)

0.87 f yk z

4. Select suitable bar sizes.

5. Check that the area of steel actually provided is within the limits required by the code, that is

As ,max

100 4.0 %

bh

A f

And; 100 s ,min 26 ctm % and not less than 0.13%

bd f yk

where f ctm 0.3 f ck2 / 3 for C50

Worked Example 7.3: Design of tension reinforcement for a rectangular sections, no moment

redistribution

The beam section shown in figure 7.5 has characteristic material strengths of f ck 25N / mm 2 for the

concrete and f yk 500N / mm 2 for the steel. The design moment at the ultimate limit state is

165KNm which causes sagging of the beam.

Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

b=230

M 165 10 6

1. K 0.12

bd f ck 230 4902 25

2

This is less than K bal 0.167 therefore compression steel is not required.

d=490

h=550

2. From the lever-arm equation

z d 0.5 (0.25 K / 1.134)

490 0.5 (0.25 0.12 / 1.134) 431mm As 3-H20

M 165 106

3. As 880mm 2 Fig.7.5 Singly reinforced beam

0.87 f yk z 0.87 500 431

4. Provide three H20 bars, area 943mm 2 .

100As 100 943

5. For the steel provided 0.84 ( 0.13%)

bd 230 490

100As 100 943

And; 0.75 ( 4.0%)

bh 230 550

therefore the steel percentage is within the limits specified by the code.

redistribution

Compression steel is required whenever the concrete in compression, by itself, is unable to develop

the necessary moment of resistance. The simplified equations based on the equivalent rectangular

stress block are quick to apply. The arrangement of the reinforcement to resist a sagging moment is

shown in figure 7.6.

b

0.0035 0.567fck

d' s=0.8x

A's sc x

neutral

d axis

As

st Fst

Equivalent

rectangular

Section Strain Stress block

Fig. 7.6 Beam doubly reinforced to resist a sagging moment

In order to have a ductile section so avoiding a sudden compressive failure of the concrete it is

generally required that the maximum depth of the neutral axis is xbal 0.45d and this is the value

used in the design of a section with compression steel.

M

1. Calculate K

f ck bd 2

If K K bal 0.167 compression reinforcement is required and x x bal 0.45d .

Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

( M K bal f ck bd 2 )

As (7.6)

f sc (d d )

where f sc is the compressive stress in the steel

If d / x 0.38 the compression steel has yielded and f sc 0.87 f yk

If d / x 0.38 then the strain sc in the compressive steel must be calculated from the proportions

of the strain diagram and f sc Es sc 200103 sc .

3. Calculate the area of tension steel required from

K f bd 2 f sc

As bal ck As (7.7)

0.87 f yk z 0.87 f yk

With lever arm z 0.82d .

4. Check for the areas of steel required and the areas provided that

( As, prov As,req ) ( As, prov As ,req ) (7.8)

This is to ensure that the depth of the neutral axis has not exceeded the maximum value of 0.45d

by providing an over-excess of tensile reinforcement.

5. Check that the area of steel actually provided is within the limits required by the Code of practice.

redistribution

The beam section shown in figure 7.7 has characteristic material strengths of f ck 25N / mm 2 and

f yk 500N / mm 2 . The ultimate design moment is 165KNm, causing hogging of the beam:

165 106

1. K 0.26 K bal 0.167 b=230

25 230 3302

so that compression steel is required.

2. x 0.45d 0.45 330 148mm

d / x 50 / 148 0.34 0.38 As

h=390

d=330

f sc 0.87 f yk

From equation 7.6 A's

( M K bal f ck bd )

2

d ' =50

Compression steel As

f sc (d d )

( M 0.167 f ck bd 2 )

Fig.7.7 Beam doubly reinforced

0.87 f yk (d d )

(165 106 0.167 25 230 3302 )

496mm 2

0.87 500(330 50)

Provide two H20 bars for As , area 628mm 2 , bottom steel.

3. From equation 7.7

K bal f ck bd 2 f sc

Tension steel As As

0.87 f yk z 0.87 f yk

Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

0.167 f ck bd 2

As

0.87 f yk z

0.167 25 230 3302

496

0.87 500 0.82 330

888 496 1384mm 2

Provide three H25 bars for As , area 1470mm 2 , top steel.

4. Check equation 7.8 for the areas of steel required and provided for the compression and tension

reinforcement to ensure ductility of the section

( As, prov As,req ) ( As, prov As ,req )

That is

628 496( 132) 1470 1384( 86)mm 2

5. The bar areas provided are within the upper and lower limits specified by the code. To restrain the

compression steel, at least 8mm links at 300mm centres should be provided.

7.3.1 Singly reinforced rectangular sections with moment redistribution

The design procedure using the equations based on the UK Annex to EC2 is

1. Calculate K M / bd 2 f ck

2. Take K bal from table 5.2 or alternatively calculate

K bal 0.454( 0.4) 0.182( 0.4) 2 for C50

where moment after redistribution/moment before redistribution

and check that K K bal . Therefore compression steel is not required.

3. Calculate z d 0.5 (0.25 K / 1.134)

M

4. Calculate As

0.87 f yk z

5. Check that the area of steel provided is within the maximum and minimum limits required.

7.3.2 Rectangular sections with tension and compression reinforcement with moment

redistribution applied (based on the UK Annex to EC2)

The steps in the design are:

1. Calculate x bal ( 0.4)d

2. Calculate K M / bd 2 f ck

3. Take K bal from table 5.2 or alternatively calculate

K bal 0.454( 0.4) 0.182( 0.4) 2 for C50

If K K bal , compression steel is required.

4. Calculate the area of compression steel from

( K K bal ) f ck bd 2

As

f sc (d d )

where f sc is the stress in the compression steel

Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

If d / x 0.38 then the strain sc in the compressive steel must be calculated from the proportions

of the strain diagram and f sc Es sc 200103 sc .

5. Calculate the area of tension steel required from

K f bd 2 f sc

As bal ck As (7.9)

0.87 f yk z 0.87 f yk

where lever arm z d 0.8 x bal / 2 .

6. Check equation 7.8 for the areas of steel required and the areas provided that

( As, prov As,req ) ( As, prov As ,req )

This is to ensure that the depth of the neutral axis has not exceeded the maximum value of x bal by

providing an over-excess of tensile reinforcement.

7. Check that the area of steel actually provided is within the maximum and minimum limits required.

Worked Example 7.5: Design of tension and compression reinforcement, with 20 per cent

moment redistribution, 0.8 (based on the UK Annex to EC2)

The beam section shown in figure 7.8 has characteristic material strengths of f ck 25N / mm 2 and

f yk 500N / mm 2 . The ultimate moment is 370KNm, causing hogging of the beam.

b=300

st

As sc

d=540

neutral

A's axis

x=216

d '=100

0.0035

Section Strain

Fig.7.8 Beam doubly reinforced to resist a hogging moment

1. As the moment reduction factor 0.8 , the limiting depth of the neutral axis is

x ( 0.4)d

(0.8 0.4) 540 216mm

2. K M / bd 2 f ck 370106 /(300 5402 25) 0.169

3. K bal 0.454( 0.4) 0.182( 0.4) 2

0.454(0.8 0.4) 0.182(0.8 0.4) 2 0.152

K K bal therefore compression steel is required.

4. d / x 100/ 216 0.46 0.38

therefore f sc 0.87 f yk

From the proportions of the strain diagram

Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

0.0035( x d )

Steel compressive strain sc

x

0.0035(216 100)

0.00188

216

Steel compressive stress E s sc

200000 0.00188 376N / mm 2

( K K bal ) f ck bd 2

Compression steel As

f sc (d d )

(0.169 0.152)25 300 5402

224 mm 2

376(540 100)

Provide two H20 bars for As , area 628mm 2 , bottom steel.

5. Tension steel

K f bd 2 f sc

As bal ck As

0.87 f yk z 0.87 f yk

where

z d 0.8x / 2 540 0.8 216/ 2 454mm

therefore

0.152 25 300 5402 376

As 224

0.87 500 454 0.87 500

1683 194 1877mm 2

6. Check equation 7.8 for the areas of steel required and provided for the compression, and tension

reinforcement to ensure ductility of the section

( As, prov As,req ) ( As, prov As ,req )

That is

628 224( 404) 1960 1877( 83) mm 2

7. These areas lie within the maximum and minimum limits specified by the code. To restrain the

compression steel, at least 8mm links at 300mm centres should be provided.

7.4.1 Overview

Figure 7.9 shows sections through a T-beam and an L-beam which may form part of a concrete beam

and slab floor. When the beams are resisting sagging moments, part of the slab acts as a compression

flange and the members may be designed as T- or L-beams. With hogging moments the slab will be

in tension and assumed to be cracked, therefore the beam must then be designed as a rectangular

section of width b w and overall depth h.

Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

beff beff

As As

hf

d h

Transverse steel in flange

beff 1 bw beff 2 bw

Section Section

Fig 7.9 T-beam and L-beam

At intermediate supports of continuous beams where hogging moments occur the total area of tension

reinforcement should be spread over the effective width of the flange as shown in figure 7.9.

The effective flange width beff is specified by the following equation:

beff bw beff, i

where

beff, i 0.2bi 0.1l0 0.2l0 and also beff, i bi

2bi is the clear distance between the webs of adjacent beams

l0 is the distance between the points of contraflexure along the beam as shown in figure 7.10.

So that for the interior span of a symmetrical T-beam with b1 b2 b and l0 0.7l

beff bw 2[0.2b 0.07l ] bw 2[0.14l ]

For sagging moments the flanges act as a large compressive area. Therefore the stress block for the

flanged beam section usually falls within the flange thickness. For this position of the stress block,

the section may be designed as an equivalent rectangular section of breadth bf ( beff ) .

Transverse reinforcement should be placed across the full width of the flange to resist the shear

developed between the web and the flange.

l1 l2 l3

Note: (i) the length of the cantilever should be less than half the length of the adjacent span

(ii) the ratio of adjacent span lengths should be between 0.67 and 1.50

Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

eff

beff 1 beff 2

b1 b1 b2 b2

bw

b

Fig.7.11 Effective flange width parameters

M

1. Calculate and determine the lever arm z from the equation

b f d 2 f ck

z d 0.5 (0.25 K / 1.134)

and

s 2( d z )

2. If s h f the stress block falls within the flange depth, and the design may proceed as for a

rectangular section, breadth b f .

3. Design transverse steel in the top of the flange to resist the longitudinal shear stresses at the

flange-web interface.

It is assumed that the web carries all of the vertical shear and that the web width, b w , is used as the

minimum width of the section in the relevant calculations.

Longitudinal shear stresses also occur in a flanged section along the interface between the web and

flange. This is allowed for by providing transverse reinforcement over the width of the flange on the

assumption that this reinforcement acts as ties combined with compressive struts in the concrete.

The design is divided into the following stages:

The longitudinal shear stresses are at a maximum in the regions of the maximum changes in bending

stresses that, in turn, occur at the steepest parts of the bending moment diagram. These occur at the

lengths up to the maximum hogging moment over the supports and at the lengths away from the zero

sagging moments in the span of the beam.

The change in the longitudinal force Fd in the flange outstand at a section is obtained from

M b

Fd fo

(d h f / 2) b f

where b f the effective breadth of the flange

bfo the breadth of the outstand of the flange (b f bw ) / 2

bw the breadth of the web

Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

and M the change in moment over the distance x

Therefore

M (b f bw ) / 2

Fd

(d h f / 2) bf

The longitudinal shear stress, v Ed , at the vertical section between the outstand of the flange and the

web is caused by the change in the longitudinal force, Fd , which occurs over the distance x , so

that

Fd

v Ed (7.10)

(h f x)

The maximum value allowed for x is half the distance between the section with zero moment and

that where maximum moment occurs. Where point loads occur x should not exceed the distance

between the loads.

If v Ed is less than or equal to 40 per cent of the design tensile cracking strength of the concrete, f ctd ,

i.e. v Ed 0.4 f ctk / 1.5 0.27 f ctk , then no shear reinforcement is required and proceed directly to step 4.

2. Check the shear stresses in the inclined strut

The angle for the inclination of the concrete strut is restricted to a lower and upper value and EC2

recommends that, in this case:

26.5 f 45 i.e 2.0 cot f 1.0 for flanges in compression

38.6 f 45 i.e 1.25 cot f 1.0 for flanges in tension.

To prevent crushing of the concrete in the compressive struts the longitudinal shear stress is limited

to:

v1 f ck

v Ed (7.11)

1.5(cot f tan f )

where the strength reduction factor v1 0.6(1 f ck / 250) .

The lower value of the angle is first tried and if the shear stresses are too high the angle is

calculated from the following equation:

v Ed

f 0.5 sin 1 45

0.2(1 f ck / 250) f ck

3. Calculate the transverse shear reinforcement required

The required transverse reinforcement per unit length, Asf / s f , may be calculated from the

equation:

Asf v Ed h f

(7.12)

sf 0.87 f yk cot f

4. The requirements of transverse steel.

EC2 requires that the area of transverse steel should be the greater of (a) that given by equation

7.12 or (b) half that given by equation 7.12 plus the area of steel required by transverse bending of

the flange.

The minimum amount of transverse steel required in the flange is

As ,min 0.26bd f xfctm / f yk ( 0.0012bd f ) mm 2 m , where b 1000mm (see table 7.6).

Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

Worked Example 7.6: Design of bending and transverse reinforcement for a T-section

A simply supported beam has a span L 6.0m and has the flanged cross-section shown in figure

7.12. the characteristic material strengths are f ck 25N / mm2 and f yk 500N / mm 2 and the

ultimate design uniformly distributed load wu is 44kN per metre.

600

H10 at 300

150

d=530

h=580

As 2-H25

250

44 6 2

Maximum bending moment at mid-span is M 198kNm

8

(1) Longitudinal reinforcement

M 198106

0.047

b f d 2 f ck 600 5302 25

z d 0.5 (0.25 K / 1.134) d [0.5 (0.25 0.047 / 1.134) ] 0.956d 0.95d

Therefore z 0.95d 0.95 530 503mm

Depth of stress block s 2(d z) 2(530 503) 54mm ( h f 150mm)

Thus the stress block lies within the flange

M 198106

As 905mm 2

0.87 f yk z 0.87 500 503

Provide two H25 bars, area 982 mm 2 . For these bars

100As 100 982

0.74 per cent 0.13

bw d 250 530

Thus the steel percentage is greater than the minimum specified by the Code of practice.

(i) Calculate the design longitudinal shear v Ed at the web-flange interface

For a sagging moment the longitudinal shear stresses are the greatest over a distance of x measured

from the point of zero moment and x is taken as half the distance to the maximum moment at mid-

span, or

x 0.5 L / 2 L / 4 6000/ 4 1500mm .

Therefore the change in moment M over distance x L / 4 from the zero moment is

wu L L wu L L 3wu L2 3 44 6 2

M 149kNm

2 4 4 8 32 32

The change in longitudinal force F at the flange-web interface is

Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

M b

Fd fo

(d h f / 2) b f

where bfo is the breadth of flange outstanding from the web.

Thus

M (b f bw ) / 2

Fd

(d h f / 2) bf

149 103 (600 250 / 2)

96 kN

(530 150 / 2) 600

The longitudinal shear stress v Ed induced is

Fd 96 103

v Ed 0.43N / mm 2

(h f x) 150 1500

(ii) Check the strength of the concrete strut

From equation 7.11, to prevent crushing of the compressive strut in the flange

0.6(1 f ck / 250) f ck

v Ed

1.5(cot f tan f )

The moments are sagging so the flange is in compression and the limits for f are

26.5 f 45

with f the minimum value of 26.5

0.6(1 25 / 250) 25

v Ed (max) 3.6 ( 0.43N / mm 2 )

1.5(2.0 0.5)

and the concrete strut has sufficient strength with 26.5 ( for a flange in tension the limits on

are 38.6 45 or 1.0 cot 1.25 .)

Transverse shear reinforcement is required if v Ed 0.27 f ctk where f ctk is the characteristic axial

tensile strength of concrete ( 1.8 N / mm 2 for class 25 concrete).

The maximum allowable value of vEd 0.27 f ctk 0.27 1.8 0.49N / mm2 ( 0.43) and transverse

shear reinforcement is therefore not required.

A minimum area of 0.13% of transverse steel should be provided as given in table 7.6.

Hence

Asf 0.13bh f / 100 0.131000150 / 100 195 mm 2 / m

Provide H10 bars at 300mm centres 262mm 2 / m (see table below)

Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

Longitudinal reinforcement should also be provided in the flange as shown in figure 7.12.

Sectional areas per metre width for various bar spacings ( mm 2 )

Bar Spacing of bars

size 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 250 300

(mm)

6 566 377 283 226 189 162 142 113 94

8 1010 671 503 402 335 287 252 201 168

10 1570 1050 785 628 523 446 393 314 262

12 2260 1510 1130 905 754 646 566 452 377

16 4020 2680 2010 1610 1340 1150 1010 804 670

20 6280 4190 3140 2510 2090 1800 1570 1260 1050

25 9820 6550 4910 3930 3270 2810 2450 1960 1640

32 16100 10700 8040 6430 5360 4600 4020 3220 2680

40 25100 16800 12600 10100 8380 7180 6280 5030 4190

The following example describes the calculations for designing the bending reinforcement for a

simply supported beam. The shear reinforcement for this beam is designed later in example 7.8.

The beam shown in figure 7.9 supports the following uniformly distributed loads

permanent load g k 60KN / m , including self-weight

variable load q k 18KN / m

The characteristic strengths of the concrete and steel are f ck 30N / mm 2 and f yk 500N / mm 2 .

Effective depth, d 540mm and breadth, b 300mm .

480

50

2H16

540

2H32+2H25

6.0m

(a) Ultimate loading and maximum moment

Ultimate load wu (1.35g k 1.5q k ) KN / m

(1.35 60 1.5 18) 108KN / m

wu L2 108 6.0 2

therefore maximum design moment M 486KNm

8 8

(b) Bending reinforcement

M 486 106

K 0.185 K bal 0.167

bd 2 f ck 300 5402 30

Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

d / d 50 / 540 0.092 0.171 in table 5.2, therefore f sc 0.87 f yk

( K K bal ) f ck bd 2

Compression steel As

f sc (d d )

(0.185 0.167) 30 300 5402

222 mm 2

0.87 500(540 50)

Provide two H16 bars, As 402mm 2

0.167 f ck bd 2

Tension steel, As As

0.87 f yk z

where

z 0.82d 0.82 540 442.8mm

therefore

0.167 30 300 5402

As 222

0.87 500 442.8

2275 222 2497mm 2

Provide two H32 bars and two H25 bars, for As , area 2592mm 2 , 100As / bd 1.6 0.15 .

(c) Curtailment at support

The tension reinforcement should be anchored over the supports with a bend as shown in figure 7.11

which is based on past UK practice. Two bars may be curtailed near to the supports.

0.08L 0.08L

L

(d) Span-effective depth ratio

100As,req / bd (100 2497) /(300 540) 1.54 per cent.

From table 7.5 basic span-effective depth ratio 14

2592

Modified ratio 14.0 14.5

2497

6000

Span-effective depth ratio provided 11.1

540

which is less than the allowable upper limit, thus deflection requirements are likely to be satisfied.

7.6.1 General Overview

The shear reinforcement will usually take the form of vertical links or a combination of links and

bent-up bars. Shear reinforcement may not be required in very minor beams such as door or window

lintels with short spans of less than say 1.5 metres and light loads.

Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

The following notation is used in the equations for the shear design

Asw the cross-sectional area of the two legs of the link

s the spacing of the stirrups

z the lever arm between the upper and lower chord members of the analogous truss

f ywd the design yield strength of the stirrup reinforcement

f yk the characteristic strength of the stirrup reinforcement

V Ed the shear force due to the actions at the ultimate limit state

VEf the ultimate shear force at the face of the support

Vwd the shear force in the stirrup

VRd ,s the shear resistance of the stirrups

VRd ,max the maximum design value of the shear which can be resisted by the concrete strut

The procedure for designing the shear links is as follows

1. Calculate the ultimate design shear forced V Ed along the beams span.

2. Check the crushing strength VRd ,max of the concrete diagonal strut at the section of maximum shear,

usually at the face of the beam support.

For most cases the angle of inclination of the strut is 22 , with cot 2.5 and tan 0.4 so

that from equation 6.6:

VRd ,max 0.124bw d (1 f ck / 250) f ck (7.10)

and if VRd ,max VEd then go to step (3) with 22 and cot 2.5

but if VRd ,max VEd then 22 and must be calculated from equation 7.11 as

VEd

0.5 sin 1 45 (7.11)

0.18bw d (1 f ck / 250) f ck

3. The shear links required can be calculated from equation 7.12

Asw VEd

(7.12)

s 0.78df yk cot

where Asw is the cross-sectional area of the legs of the stirrups ( 2 2 / 4 for single stirrups)

For a predominately uniformly distributed load the shear V Ed should be taken at a distance d from

the face of the support and the shear reinforcement should continue to the face of the support.

Asw,min 0.08 f ck0.5bw

(7.13)

s f yk

and the shear resistance for the links actually specified

A

Vmin sw 0.78df yk cot (7.14)

s

This value should be marked on the shear force envelop to show the extent of these links as shown

in figure 7.11 of example 7.8.

Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

5. Calculate the additional longitudinal tensile force caused by the shear force

Ftd 0.5VEd cot (7.15)

The minimum spacing of the links is governed by the requirements of placing and compacting the

concrete and should not normally be less than about 80mm. EC2 gives the following guidance on the

maximum link spacing:

(a) Maximum longitudinal spacing between shear links in a series of links

s1,max 0.75d (1 cot )

where is the inclination of the shear reinforcement to the longitudinal axis of the beam.

(b) Maximum transverse spacing between legs in a series of shear links

sb,max 0.75d ( 600mm)

Stirrup Stirrup spacing (mm)

diameter

85 90 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300

(mm)

8 1.183 1.118 1.006 0.805 0.671 0.575 0.503 0.447 0.402 0.366 0.335

10 1.847 1.744 1.57 1.256 1.047 0.897 0.785 0.698 0.628 0.571 0.523

12 2.659 2.511 2.26 1.808 1.507 1.291 1.13 1.004 0.904 0.822 0.753

16 4.729 4.467 4.02 3.216 2.68 2.297 2.01 1.787 1.608 1.462 1.34

Shear reinforcement is to be designed for the one-span beam of example 7.7 as shown in figure 7.9

and 7.12. The total ultimate load is 108KN/metre and the characteristic strengths of the concrete and

steel are f ck 30N / mm 2 and f yk 500N / mm 2 .

1.45 m

308KN

SR nominal links

151KN

151KN

308KN

S.F diagram

300

540

300

6.0m

Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

Maximum shear at face of support VEd 324 108 0.15 308KN

Crushing strength VRd ,max of diagonal strut, assuming angle 22, cot 2.5 is

VRd ,max 0.124bw d (1 f ck / 250) f ck

0.124 300 540(1 30 / 250) 30 103

530KN ( VEd 308KN )

Therefore angle 22 and cot 2.5 as assumed.

(b) Shear links

At distance d from face of support the design shear is VEd 308 wu d 308 108 0.54 250KN

Asw VEd

s 0.78df yk cot

250 103

0.475

0.78 540 500 2.5

Using table 7.8

Provide 8mm links at 200mm centres, Asw / s 0.503 .

(c) Minimum links

Asw,min 0.08 f ck0.5bw

s f yk

0.08 300.5 300

0.26

500

Provide 8mm links at 350mm centres, Asw / s 0.287 .

The shear resistance of the links actually specified is

A

Vmin sw 0.78df yk cot

s

0.287 0.78 540 500 2.5 103 151KN

(d) Extent of shear links

Shear links are required at each of the beam from the face of the support to the point where the design

shear force is Vmin 151KN as shown on the shear force diagram of figure 7.12.

From the face of the support

V Vmin 308 151

distance x Ed 1.45 metres

wu 108

Therefore the number of H8 links at 200mm centres required at each end of the beam is

1 ( x / s ) 1 (1450/ 200) 9

Spaced over a distance of (9 1)200 1600mm .

(e) Additional longitudinal tensile force

Ftd 0.5VEd cot

0.5 308 2.5

385KN

This additional longitudinal tensile force is provided for by extending the curtailment point of the

mid-span longitudinal reinforcement as discussed in section 7.8.

Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

In regions of high forces it may be found that the use of links to carry the full force will cause steel

congestion and lead to constructional problems. In these situations, consideration should be given to

bending-up main reinforcement which is no longer required to resist bending forces but can be so

used to resist part of the shear.

The equations for designing this type of shear reinforcement and the additional longitudinal tension

force are given below

Asw VEd

s 0.78df yk (cot cot ) sin

Ftd 0.5VEd (cot cot )

where is the angle of inclination with the horizontal of the bent-up bar.

Bent-up bars must be fully anchored past the point at which they are acting as tension members.

EC2 also requires that the maximum longitudinal spacing of bent-up bars is limited to 0.6d (1 cot )

and at least 50 per cent of the required shear reinforcement should be in the form of shear links.

The bending-moment envelope is generally a series of sagging moments in the spans and hogging

moments at the supports, but occasionally the hogging moments may extend completely over the

span. Where the sagging moments occur the beam and slab act together, and the beam can be designed

as a T-section. At the supports, the beam must be designed as a rectangular section because the

hogging moments cause tension in the slab.

The beam has a width, bw 300mm and an overall depth, h 660mm with three equal spans,

L 5.0m . In the transverse direction the beams spacings are B 4.0m centres with a slab thickness,

h f 180mm , as shown in figure 7.13 and 7.14. The supports have a width of 300mm.

The uniformly distributed ultimate design load, wu 190KN / m . The ultimate design moments and

shears near mid-span and the supports are shown in figure 7.13.

The characteristic strengths of the concrete and steel are f ck 30N / mm 2 and f yk 500N / mm 2 .

0 -523 -523 0

Moment M (kNm) =

428 333 428

A B C D

F=1.35Gk +1.5Qk

Fig.7.13 Continuous beam with ultimate design bending moments and shear forces shown

F 190 5.0 950KN

Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

(a) Mid-span of 1st and 3rd end spans-design as a T-section

Moment 428KNm sagging

Effective width of flange

beff bw 2[0.2b 0.1 0.85L] ( bw 2[0.2 0.85L])

300 2[( 0.2 (2000 300 / 2)) (0.085 5000)] 1890mm

bw 2[0.2 0.85L] 300 2[0.2 0.85 5000] 2000mm

Therefore b f beff 1890mm .

M 428 106

0.021

b f d 2 f ck 1890 6002 30

Lever arm z d [0.5 (0.25 K / 1.134) ] d [0.5 (0.25 0.021/ 1.134) ] 0.98d 0.95d

therefore z 0.95d 0.95 600 570mm

and d z 600 570 30 ( h f / 2)

so that the stress block must lie within the 180mm thick flange and the section is designed as a

rectangular section with b b f .

M 428 106

As 1726mm 2

0.87 f yk z 0.87 500 570

Provide three H25 bars and two H16 bars, area 1872mm 2 (bottom steel).

Moment 523KNm hogging

M 523 106

0.173 0.167

bd 2 f ck 300 5802 30

Therefore, compression steel is required.

( K K bal ) f ck bd 2

As

0.87 f yk (d d )

(0.173 0.167) 30 300 5802

79 mm 2

0.87 500(580 50)

This small area of reinforcement can be provided by extending the bottom span bars beyond the

internal supports.

From the lever arm equation

z d [0.5 (0.25 K / 1.134) ] d [0.5 (0.25 0.173/ 1.134) ] 0.812d 0.82d

therefore z 0.82d 0.82 580 475.6mm

0.167 f ck bd 2

Tension steel, As As

0.87 f yk z

0.167 30 300 5802

79 2444 79 2523mm 2

0.87 500 475.6

Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

Provide four H25 bars plus two H20 bars, area 2588mm 2 (top steel). The arrangement of the

reinforcement is shown in figure 7.14. At end support A two H25 bars have been provided as top

continuity steel to meet the requirement.

H8 @ 200 H8 @ 300 H10 @ 200

2-H20

4-H25

2-H25

A B

3-H25

300 2-H16 300

L= 5.0m

25 20 25

180

H8 H10

h=660

16 16 16 16

25 25 25 25 25 25

b w=300

(c) Mid-span of interior 2 span BC design as a T-section

nd

Effective flange width

beff bw 2[0.2b 0.1 0.70L] ( bw 2[0.2 0.70L])

300 2[( 0.2 (2000 300 / 2)) (0.07 5000)] 1740mm

bw 2[0.2 0.7 L] 300 2[0.2 0.7 5000] 1700mm

Therefore b f beff 1700mm .

Calculate K

M 333 106

0.018

b f d 2 f ck 1700 6002 30

Lever arm z d [0.5 (0.25 K / 1.134) ] d [0.5 (0.25 0.018 / 1.134) ] 0.98d 0.95d

therefore z 0.95d 0.95 600 570mm

M 333 106

As 1343mm 2

0.87 f yk z 0.87 500 570

Provide three H25 bars, area 1470mm 2 (bottom steel).

(a) Check for crushing of the concrete strut at the maximum shear force

Maximum shear is in spans AB and CD at supports B and C.

Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

VEd 570 wu support width / 2

570 190 0.15 542KN

Crushing strength VRd ,max of diagonal strut, assuming angle 22, cot 2.5 is

VRd ,max 0.124bw d (1 f ck / 250) f ck

0.124 300 600(1 30 / 250) 30 103

589KN ( VEd 542KN )

Therefore angle 22 and cot 2.5 for all the shear calculations.

(b) Design of shear links

(i) Shear links in end spans at supports A and D

Shear distance d from face of support is VEd 427 wu d 427 190 (0.15 0.6) 285KN

Asw V Ed

s 0.78df yk cot

285 103

0.49

0.78 600 500 2.5

Using table 7.8

Provide H8 links at 200mm centres, Asw / s 0.50 .

Additional longitudinal tensile force is

Ftd 0.5V Ed cot

0.5 285 2.5

356KN

This additional longitudinal tensile force is provided for by extending the curtailment point of the

mid-span longitudinal reinforcement as discussed in section 7.8.

Shear distance d from face of support is VEd 570 wu d 570 190 (0.15 0.58) 431KN

Therefore:

Asw VEd

s 0.78df yk cot

431 103

0.762

0.78 580 500 2.5

Using table 7.8

Provide H10 links at 200mm centres, Asw / s 0.762 .

Additional longitudinal tensile force is

Ftd 0.5V Ed cot

0.5 431 2.5

539KN

This additional longitudinal tensile force is provided for by extending the curtailment point of

longitudinal reinforcement as discussed in section 7.8.

Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

Shear distance d from face of support is VEd 522 wu d 522 190 (0.15 0.6) 380KN

Therefore:

Asw V Ed

s 0.78df yk cot

380 103

0.65

0.78 600 500 2.5

Using table 7.8

Provide 10mm links at 225mm centres, Asw / s 0.65 .

Additional longitudinal tensile force is

Ftd 0.5VEd cot

0.5 380 2.5

475KN

Asw,min 0.08 f ck0.5 bw

s f yk

0.08 300.5 300

0.263

500

Provide H8 links at 300mm spacing, Asw / s 0.335.

The shear resistance of the links actually specified is

A

Vmin sw 0.78df yk cot

s

0.335 0.78 600 500 2.5 10 3 196KN

(v) Extent of shear links

Links to resist shear are required over a distance x i from the face of the supports to the point on the

shear force diagram where the shear can be resisted by Vmin 196KN , as provided by the minimum

links.

For the face of the end supports A and D the distance x1 is

VEd Vmin 427 196

x1 0.15 0.15 1.07 m

wu 190

For the interior supports B and C of the 1st and 3rd spans

570 196

x2 0.15 1.82 m

190

For the links at supports B and C in the middle span

522 196

x3 0.15 1.57 m

190

Based on these dimensions the links are arranged as shown in figure 7.13.

Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

As the magnitude of the bending moment on a beam decreases along its length, so may the area of

bending reinforcement be reduced by curtailing bars since they are no longer required, as shown in

figure 7.15. Figure 7.15 illustrates the curtailment of bars in the span and at an internal support of a

continuous beam.

Each curtailed bar should extend a full anchorage length beyond the point at which it is no longer

needed so that it is well anchored into the concrete.

The equation for the design anchorage length, lbd , is

f yk

lbd n

4.6 f bd

where

n is a series of coefficients depending on the anchorage conditions

is the bar diameter

f bd is the design bond strength which, for a beam, depends on the concrete strength and the bar

size and whether the bar is in the top or bottom of the beam.

6

Curtailment anchorage

5 M Ed / z envelope diagram

Ftd (hogging region)

4 a1

M Ed / z

4 5 6

Beam

2,3

1 1 2 3

M Ed / z M Ed / z envelope diagram

a1

3

(sagging region)

Ftd

2

1

For a straight bar with 32mm , the order of anchorage lengths are lbd 52 for a top bar and

lbd 36 for a bottom bar with class C30 concrete.

The curtailment of the tension reinforcement is based upon the envelope of tensile forces, Fs , derived

from the bending moment envelope as shown in figure 7.15 such that at any location along the span

Fs M Ed / z Ftd

where

Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

z is the lever arm

Ftd is the additional tensile force obtained from the design for shear

Ftd is a maximum where the shear force is a maximum at section of zero moment, and Ftd is zero

at the maximum moment near to mid-span and the interior support.

For members where shear reinforcement is not required the tensile force envelope may be estimated

by simply shifting the bending moment envelope diagram horizontally by a distance a1 ( d ) as

shown in figure 7.15.

To determine the curtailment positions of each reinforcing bar the tensile force envelope is divided

into sections as shown, in proportional to the area of each bar.

When considering the curtailment the following rules must also be applied:

1. At least one-quarter of the bottom reinforcement should extend to the supports

2. The bottom reinforcement at an end support should be anchored into the supports as shown

in figure 7.16.

3. At an end support where there is little or no fixity the bottom steel should be designed to resist

a tensile force of 0.5VEd to allow for the tension induced by the shear with a minimum

requirement of 25% of the reinforcement provided in the span.

4. At an end support where is fixity but it has been analysed as a simply support, top steel should

be designed and anchored to resist at least 25 per cent of the maximum span moment.

5. At internal supports the bottom steel should extend at least 10 bar diameters beyond the

face of the support. To achieve continuity and resistance to such factors as accidental damage

or seismic forces, splice bars should be provided across the support with a full anchorage lap

on each side as shown in figure 7.17.

6. Where the loads on a beam are substantially uniformly distributed, simplified rules for

curtailment may be used. These rules only apply to continuous beams if the characteristic

variable load does not exceed the characteristic permanent load and the spans are

approximately equal. Figure 7,18 shows the rules in diagrammatic form.

l bd l bd l bd l bd

10

on wall or column another supporting beam

Reinforcement at end supports

Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

0.08L 0.08L

L

Simply supported

C=0.25L

C=0.15L

C 45

30% 100% 30%

0.15L

0.1L

L

Continuous beam

Fig 7.18 Simplified rules for curtailment of bars in beams

Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

8.0 Introduction

Reinforced concrete slabs are used in floors, roofs and walls of buildings and as the deck of bridges.

i) By support conditions

Slabs supported on beams

Slabs supported on columns (Flat slabs)

Slabs supported on walls or steel beams

Solid slabs

Ribbed slabs

One way spanning slabs

Two way spanning slabs

iv) By Fixing

Simply supported slabs

Continuous slabs

The Concrete sections that do not require design shear reinforcement are mainly lightly loaded floor

slabs and pad foundations. Beams are generally more heavily loaded and have a smaller cross-section

so that they nearly always require shear reinforcement.

Where shear forces are small the concrete section on its own may have sufficient shear capacity

( VRd ,c ) to resist the ultimate shear force ( V Ed ) resulting from the worst combination of actions on the

structure.

In those sections where VEd VRd ,c then no calculated shear reinforcement is required.

The shear capacity of the concrete, VRd ,c , in such situations is given by an empirical expression:

VRd ,c 0.12k (1001 f ck )1 / 3 bw d (8.1)

with a minimum value of:

VRd ,c 0.035k 3 / 2 f ck

1/ 2

b d

w (8.2)

where

VRd ,c the design shear resistance of the section without shear reinforcement

200

k 1 2.0 with d expressed in mm

d

A

1 s1 0.02

bw d

Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

As1 the area of tensile reinforcement that extends beyond the section being considered by

at least a full anchorage length plus one effective depth (d)

bw the smallest width of the section in the tensile area (mm)

Slabs are designed in the same way as beams except:

i) the breadth of the slab is already fixed and a unit breadth of 1m is used in the calculations;

ii) the shear stresses are usually low in a slab except when there are heavy concentrated loads;

iii) compression reinforcement is seldom required.

8.1.1 Introduction

The shear resistance of a solid slab may be calculated by the procedures given in chapter 6.

Calculations are usually based on a strip of slab 1m wide.

Since shear forces in slabs subject to uniformly distributed loads are generally small, shear

reinforcement will seldom be required and it would be usual to design the slab such that the design

ultimate shear force, V Ed , is less than the shear strength of the unreinforced section, VRd ,c . In this case

it is not necessary to provide any shear reinforcement. This can conveniently be checked using Table

8.1 which has been derived from Equations 8.1 and 8.2 for class C30 concrete on the basis that the

allowable shear stress in the unreinforced slab is given by

V Rd ,c

v Rd ,c

bd

In this case, the applied ultimate shear stress

V

vEd Ed vRd ,c

bd

2

Table 8.1 Shear resistance of slabs without shear reinforcement v Rd ,c N / mm (Class C30/35 concrete)

Effective depth, d (mm)

1 As / bd

200 225 250 300 350 400 500 600 750

0.25% 0.54 0.52 0.50 0.47 0.45 0.43 0.40 0.38 0.36

0.50% 0.59 0.57 0.56 0.54 0.52 0.51 0.48 0.47 0.45

0.75% 0.68 0.66 0.64 0.62 0.59 0.58 0.55 0.53 0.51

1.00% 0.75 0.72 0.71 0.68 0.65 0.64 0.61 0.59 0.57

1.25% 0.80 0.78 0.76 0.73 0.71 0.69 0.66 0.63 0.61

1.50% 0.85 0.83 0.81 0.78 0.75 0.73 0.70 0.67 0.65

2.00% 0.94 0.91 0.89 0.85 0.82 0.80 0.77 0.74 0.71

Where different concrete strengths are used, the values in table 8.1 may be modified by the factors

in table 8.2 provided 1 0.4% .

Table 8.2 Concrete strength modification factor

f ck ( N / mm 2 ) 25 30 35 40 45 50

Modification factor 0.94 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.14 1.19

Localized punching actions due to heavy concentrated loads may cause more critical conditions.

A concentrated load on a slab causes shearing stresses on a section around the load; this effect is

Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

referred to as punching shear. The critical surface for checking punching shear is shown as the

perimeter in figure 8.1 which is located at 2.0d from the loaded area.

2.0d

a

Critical

Section Loaded

b area

Plan

Load

d h

Elevation

Fig.8.1 Punching shear

The maximum force that can be carried by the slab without shear reinforcement ( VRd ,c ) can be

obtained using the values of v Rd ,c given in table 8.1 based on equations 8.1 and 8.2 for normal shear

in beams and slabs, where 1 ( y z ) where y and z are the reinforcement ratios, As / bd in

the two mutually perpendicular directions then

VRd ,c v Rd ,c du (8.3)

Where; d effective depth of section [average of the two steel layers in perpendicular directions

dy dz

]

2

u length of the punching shear perimeter.

Checks must be undertaken to ensure that the maximum permissible shear force ( VRd ,max ) is not

exceeded at the face of the loaded area.

The maximum permissible shear force is given by VRd ,max 0.5v1 f cd ud 0.5v1 ( f ck / 1.5)ud

Where; u is the perimeter of the loaded area

v1 is the strength reduction factor given by v1 0.6(1 f ck / 250) .

A slab, 175mm thick, average effective depth 145mm is constructed with C25/30 concrete and

reinforcement with 12mm bars at 150mm centers one way ( 754mm 2 / m ) and 10mm bars at 200mm

centres in the other direction ( 393mm 2 / m ). Determine the maximum ultimate load that can be

carried on an area 300 400mm .

For the unreinforced section, the first critical perimeter

u1 (2a 2b 2 2d )

2(a b) 4d

2(300 400) 4 145

3222 mm

Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

VRd ,c vRd ,c du vRd ,c 3222145 467190vRd ,c

Average steel ratio

1 ( y z )

where

y 754/(1000145) 0.0052

z 393/(1000145) 0.0027

hence

1 (0.0052 0.0027) 0.0038 0.38%

Thus from table 8.1, for a 175mm slab, vRd ,c 0.56N / mm 2 for a class C30 concrete and from table

8.2 for class C25 concrete, as used here, modification factor 0.94 .

Hence, maximum ultimate load

VRd ,c 467190vRd ,c (467190103 ) (0.94 0.56) 246KN

The maximum permissible shear force based on the face of the loaded area is given by the maximum

shear resistance

f f

VRd ,max 0.5ud 0.61 ck ck

250 1.5

25 25

0.5 2(300 400) 145 0.61 103

250 1.5

914KN

which clearly exceeds the value VRd ,c based on the first critical perimeter. Hence the maximum load

that the slab can carry is 246KN .

If reinforcement is required to resist shear around the control perimeter indicated in Figure 8.1, it

should be placed between not more than 0.5d from the loaded area and a distance 1.5d inside the

outer control perimeter at which shear reinforcement is no longer required. The length of this is given

by uout,ef VEd /(vRd ,c d ) from which the necessary distance from the loaded area can be calculated.

If this is less than 3d from the face of the loaded area, then reinforcement should be placed in the

zone between 0.3d and 1.5d from this face.

Vertical links will normally be used and provided around at least two perimeters not more than 0.75d

apart. Link spacing around a perimeter within 2d of the face of the loaded area should not be greater

than 1.5d.

Provide that the slab is greater than 200mm thick overall then the amount of reinforcement:

v Rd ,cs 0.75v Rd ,c

Asw sin

d f ywd ,ef

1.5

s r u1 d

where

Asw is the total area of shear reinforcement in one perimeter ( mm 2 )

s r is the radial spacing of perimeters of shear reinforcement

Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

f ywd ,ef is the effective design strength of the reinforcement and is given by

f ywd ,ef 250 0.25d f ywd .

v Rd ,cs is the punching shear resistance of the reinforced slab

is the angle between shear reinforcement and the plane of the slab, so that sin 1 for critical

reinforcement.

This expression effectively allows for a 75 per cent contribution from the unreinforced concrete slab,

and for vertical kinks can be expressed as:

v Rd ,cs 0.75v Rd ,c

Asw

f ywd ,ef

1.5

s r u1

V

Where the required v Rd ,cs would be given by Ed .

u1 d

A check must also be made that the calculated reinforcement satisfies the minimum requirement that:

0.08 f ck ( s r st ) 0.053 f ck ( s r st )

Asw,min

1.5 f yk f yk

where s t is the spacing of links around the perimeter

Asw,min is the area of an individual link leg.

A 260mm thick slab of class C25/30 concrete is reinforced by 12mm high yield bars at 125mm

centres in each direction. The slab is subject to a dry environment and must be able to carry a localized

concentrated ultimate load of 650KN over a square area of 300mm side. Determine the shear

reinforcement required for f yk 500 N / mm 2 .

For exposure class XC-1, cover required for a C25/30 concrete is 25mm, thus average effective depth

for the two layers of steel and allowing for 8mm links is equal to 260 (25 8 12) 215mm .

(i) Check maximum permissible force at face of loaded area

Maximum shear resistance:

f f

VRd ,max 0.5ud 0.61 ck ck

250 1.5

25 25

0.5(4 300) 215 0.61 10 3

250 1.5

1161KN ( VEd 650KN )

(ii) Check control perimeter 2d from loaded face

Perimeter u1 2(a b) 4d 2(300 300) 4 215 3902mm

hence for concrete without shear reinforcement the shear capacity is given by:

VRd ,c vRd ,c 3902 215 83890vRd ,c

bending steel ratio

A 905

1 s 0.0042( 0.40 per cent)

bd 1000 215

Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

hence from table 8.1, v Rd ,c 0.56 for class C30 concrete and, from table 8.2, modification factor for

class C25 concrete 0.94 then

VRd ,c 83890 0.56 0.94 103

442KN ( VEd 650KN )

and punching shear reinforcement is required.

(iii) Check outer perimeter at which reinforcement is not required.

V 650 103

u out,ef Ed 5743mm

v Rd ,c d 0.56 0.94 215

This will occur at a distance xd from the face of the loaded area, such that

5743 2(300 300) 2 215 x

and x 3.36 ( 3.0)

(iv) Provision of reinforcement

Shear reinforcement should thus be provided within the zone extending from a distance not greater

than 0.5d and less than (3.36 1.5)d 1.86d from the loaded face.

For perimeters 0.75d apart, 3 perimeters of steel will thus be adequate loaded area (i.e.

sr 0.75d 160mm apart).

Since all perimeters lie within 2d ( 430mm) of the loaded and maximum link spacing, ( st ) , is

limited to 1.5d ( 323mm) .

The minimum link leg area is therefore given by:

0.053 f ck ( s r st ) 0.053 25(160 323)

Asw,min

f yk 500

27.3mm 2 which is satisfied by a 6mm diameter bar ( 28.3mm 2 )

Hence the assumed 8mm links will be adequate.

The area of steel required/perimeter is thus given by:

v Rd ,cs 0.75v Rd ,c

Asw

f ywd ,ef

1.5

s r u1

where, for the outer perimeter

VEd 650 103

VRd ,cs 0.775 N / mm 2

u1d 3902 215

v Rd ,c 0.94 0.56 0.526 N / mm 2 (as above)

f ywd ,ef 250 0.25 215 303 N / mm 2 ( 500)

and sr 160mm

(0.775 0.75 0.526) 160 3902

thus Asw

1.5 303

523mm 2

The area of one leg of an 8mm link is 50.3mm 2 . Hence the number of link-legs required

523/ 50.3 11 on the outer perimeter. The same number of links can conveniently be provided

Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

around each of the 3 proposed perimeters as summarized in the table below. The table indicates the

number of single-leg 8mm diameter links (area 50.3mm 2 ) proposed for each of the three

reinforcement perimeters taking account of the maximum required spacing and practical fixing

considerations. Bending reinforcement is spaced at 125mm centres in both directions; hence link

spacing is set at multiples of this values.

load face perimeter spacing (mm) spacing (mm) number of

(mm) (mm) links

85 1734 158 125 14

245 2739 249 250 11

400 3713 323 250 15

Excessive deflections of slabs will cause damage to the ceiling, floor finishes or other architectural

finishes. To avoid this, limits are set on the span-depth ratios. These limits are exactly the same as

those beams. In terms of the span-effective depth ratio, the depth of slab is given by

span

minimum effective depth

basic ratio correctionfactors

To resist cracking of the concrete, codes of practice specify details such as

the minimum area of reinforcement required in a section

limits to the maximum and minimum spacing of bars.

(a) Minimum areas of reinforcement

minimum area 0.26 f ctm bt d / f yk 0.0013bt d

in both directions, where bt is the mean width of the tensile zone of section. The minimum

reinforcement provision for crack control, as specified in table 7.6 may also have to be considered

where the slab depth exceeds 200mm. Secondary transverse reinforcement should not be less

than 20 per cent of the minimum main reinforcement requirement in one way slabs.

(b) Maximum areas of longitudinal and transverse reinforcement

maximum area 0.04 Ac

where Ac is the gross cross-sectional area. This limit applies to sections away from areas of bar

lapping.

(c) Maximum spacing of bars

For slabs not exceeding 200mm thickness, bar spacing should not exceed three times the overall

depth of slab or 400mm whichever is the lesser for main reinforcement, and 3.5h or 450mm for

secondary reinforcement.

The slabs are designed as if they consist of a series of beams of 1m breadth. The main steel is in the

direction of the span and secondary or distribution steel is required in the transverse direction. The

main steel should from the outer layer of reinforcement to give it the maximum lever arm.

Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

The calculations for bending reinforcement follow a similar procedure to that used in beam design.

The area of tension reinforcement is given by

M

As

0.87 f yk z

8.4.1 Single-span solid slabs

The basic span-effective depth ratio for this type of slab is 20:1 on the basis that it is lightly stressed

and that grade 500 steel is used in the design. For a start-point in design a value above this can usually

be estimated (unless the slab is known to be heavily loaded).

The effective span of the slab may be taken as the clear distance between the face of the supports

plus a distance at both ends taken as the lesser of (a) the distance from the face of the support to its

centerline and (b) one-half of the overall depth of the slab.

The slab shown in figure 8.2 is to be designed to carry a variable load of 3.0 KN / mm 2 plus floor

finishes and ceiling loads of 1.0 KN / mm 2 . The characteristic material strengths are f ck 25 N / mm 2

and f yk 500 N / mm 2 . Basic span-effective depth ratio 19 for a lightly stressed slab from Figure

7.2 for class C25/30 concrete and 0.5% .

For simplicity, take the effective span to be 4.5m between centrelines of supports.

H10-300

H10-150

300

4.5m

(a) Estimate of slab depth

Try a basic span-depth ratio of 27 (approx. 40% above value from figure 7.2):

span

Minimum effective depth

27 correctionfactors(c.f)

4500 167

27 c.f. c.f.

As high yield steel is being used and the span is less than 7m the correction factors can be taken as

unity. Try an effective depth of 170mm. For a class XC-1 exposure the cover 25mm . Allowing,

say, 5mm as half the bar diameter of the reinforcing bar:

Overall depth of slab 170 25 5 200mm

(b) Slab loading

Self-weight of slab 200 25 10 3 5.0 KN / m 2

Total permanent load 1.0 5.0 6.0 KN / m 2

For a 1m width of slab:

Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

(1.35 6.0 1.5 3.0)4.5 56.7 KN

M 56.7 4.5 / 8 31.9KNm

(c) Bending reinforcement

M 31.9 106

0.044

bd 2 f ck 1000 1702 25

From the lever arm equation

z d [0.5 (0.25 K / 1.134) ] d [0.5 (0.25 0.044 / 1.134) ] 0.96d 0.95d

Therefore adopt upper limit of 0.95d and lever arm z 0.95d 0.95 170 161mm :

M 31.9 106

As 455mm 2 / m

0.87 f yk z 0.87 500 161

Provide H10 bars at 150mm centres, As 523mm 2 / m (as shown in table 8.3).

Table 8.3 Sectional areas per metre width for various bar spacings ( mm 2 )

Bar Spacing of bars

size

50 75 100 125 150 175 200 250 300

(mm)

6 566 377 283 226 189 162 142 113 94

8 1010 671 503 402 335 287 252 201 168

10 1570 1050 785 628 523 446 393 314 262

12 2260 1510 1130 905 754 646 566 452 377

16 4020 2680 2010 1610 1340 1150 1010 804 670

20 6280 4190 3140 2510 2090 1800 1570 1260 1050

25 9820 6550 4910 3930 3270 2810 2450 1960 1640

32 16100 10700 8040 6430 5360 4600 4020 3220 2680

40 25100 16800 12600 10100 8380 7180 6280 5030 4190

100As ,req 100 455

0.268% ( 0.13% minimum requirement)

bd 1000 170

From figure 7.2, this corresponds to a basic span-effective depth ratio of 32. The actual ratio

4500/ 170 26.5 ; hence the chosen effective depth is acceptable.

(e) Shear

At the face of the support

55.5 2.25 0.5 0.3

Shear VEd 25.9KN

2 2.25

100 523

1 0.31

1000 170

VRd ,c vRd ,c bd where vRd ,c from table 8.1 0.55 (note: no concrete strength adjustment since

1 0.4% ). Thus:

VRd ,c 0.55 1000170 93.5KN

as V Ed is less than VRd ,c then no shear reinforcement is required.

Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

From the table 8.4 the tension anchorage length 40 40 10 400mm

f yk 500 10

or lb 402mm

4.6 f bd 4.6 2.7

Table 8.4 Anchorage and lap length coefficients (length L K A bar size) for good bond conditions

K A for concrete strength, f ck ( N / mm 2 )

20 25 30 35 40 45 50

Straight bars

Anchorage in tension and compression 47 40 36 32 29 27 25

Curved bars

Anchorage in tension 33 28 25 22 20 19 18

Anchorage in compression 47 40 36 32 29 27 25

% of bars lapped

at section

Compression and tension 25% 47 40 36 32 29 27 25

laps 33% 54 46 42 37 33 31 29

50% 66 56 51 45 41 38 35

50% 71 60 54 48 44 41 38

Notes:

1. For poor bond conditions divide the coefficients by 0.7.

2. For bars greater than 32mm divide the coefficients by [(132 )100] where is the bar

size.

Provide minimum 0.0012bd 0.0013 1000 170 221mm 2 / m .

Provide H10 at 300mm centres ( 262mm 2 / m ) which satisfies maximum bar spacing limits.

Continuous slabs should in principle be designed to withstand the most unfavourable arrangements

of loads, in the same manner as beams. For a continuous slab, bottom reinforcement is required within

the span and top reinforcement over the supports. The effective span is the distance between the

centerline of the supports and basic-effective depth ratio of an interior span is 30 for lightly stressed

where grade 500 steel and class C30/35 concrete are used. The corresponding limit for an end span

is 26.

The bending moment and shear force coefficients given in table 8.5 may be used for one-way

spanning slabs if the following conditions are met.

i) the reinforcement must be of ductility class B and C

ii) neutral axis depth, x, should be no greater than 0.25 of the effective depth

iii) there are at least three spans that do not differ in length by more than 15 per cent

iv) Qk should be less than or equal to 1.25Gk and also less than 5 KN / m 2

Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

Table 8.5 Ultimate bending moment and shear force coefficients in one-way spanning slabs

End support condition

At

Pinned Continuous At first

middle of At interior

Near interior

Outer End interior supports

middle of End span support

support support spans

end span

Moment 0 0.086Fl 0.04Fl 0.075Fl 0.086Fl 0.063Fl 0.063Fl

Shear 0.40F 0.46F 0.60F 0.50F

Notes:

1. F is the total design ultimate load, F (1.35Gk 1.5Qk ) L

2. L is the span length

The four-span slab shown in figure 8.3 supports a variable load of 3.0 KN / m 2 plus floor finishes and

a ceiling load of 1.0 KN / m 2 . The characteristic material strengths are f ck 25 N / mm 2 and

f yk 500 N / mm 2 .

Beam

Beam

Beam

Beam

Beam

Span Span Span Span

7m

Plan

Elevation

(a) Estimate of slab depth

As the end span is more critical than interior spans, try a basic span-effective depth ratio 30 per cent

above the end-span limit of 26.0 (i.e. 33.0):

span

Minimum effective depth

33 correctionfactors(c.f)

4500 136

33 c.f. c.f.

As high yield steel is being used and the span is less than 7m the correction factors can be taken as

unity. Try an effective depth of 140mm. For a class XC-1 exposure the cover 25mm . Allowing,

say, 5mm as half the bar diameter of the reinforcing bar:

Overall depth of slab 140 25 5 170mm

Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

Self-weight of slab 170 25 10 3 4.25KN / m 2

Total permanent load 1.0 4.25 5.25KN / m 2

For a 1m width of slab:

Ultimate load F (1.35g k 1.5q k )4.5

(1.35 5.25 1.5 3.0)4.5 52.14KN

Using the coefficients of table 8.5, assuming the end support is pinned, the moment at the middle of

the end span is given by

M 0.086Fl 0.086 52.14 4.5 20.18KNm

(c) Bending reinforcement

M 20.18 106

0.0412

bd 2 f ck 1000 1402 25

From the lever arm equation

z d [0.5 (0.25 K / 1.134) ] d [0.5 (0.25 0.0412/ 1.134) ] 0.96d 0.95d

Therefore adopt upper limit of 0.95d and lever arm z 0.95d 0.95 140 133mm :

M 20.18 106

As 349mm 2 / m

0.87 f yk z 0.87 500 133

Provide H10 bars at 200mm centres, As 393mm 2 / m (as shown in table 8.3).

(d) Check span-effective depth ratio

100As ,req 100 349

0.249% ( 0.13% minimum requirement)

bd 1000 140

From figure 7.2, this corresponds to a basic span-effective depth ratio in excess of 321.3 (for an

end span) 41 . The actual ratio 4500/ 140 32.1 ; hence the chosen effective depth is acceptable.

Similar calculations for the supports and the interior span give the steel areas shown in figure 8.4.

At the end supports there is a monolithic connection between the slab and the beam, therefore top

steel should be provided to resist any negative moment. The moment to be designed for is a minimum

of 25 per cent of the span moment, this is 5.1KNm . In fact, to provide a minimum of 0.13 per cent

of steel, H10 bars at 400mm centres have been specified.

Transverse reinforcement 0.0013bd

0.0013 1000 140

182mm 2 / m

Provide H10 at 400mm centres top and bottom, wherever there is main reinforcement

( 196mm 2 / m ).

Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

When a slab is supported on all four of its sides it spans in both directions. A solid slab is two way

spanning if Ly / Lx 2.0 ( Ly Lx ) . The amount of bending in each direction will depend on the ratio

of the two spans and the conditions of restraint at each support. Moments in each direction of span

are generally calculated using tabulated coefficients. Areas of reinforcement to resist the moments

are determined independently for each direction of span.

The span-effective depth ratios are based on the shorter span and the percentage of reinforcement in

that direction. With a uniformly distributed load the loads on the supporting beams may generally be

apportioned as shown in figure 8.5.

There are two types of two way spanning solid slabs.

i) Simply supported slab spanning in two directions

ii) Restrained slab spanning in two directions

Beam A

Load on beam A

Beam D

Beam C

Load on Load on

beam C beam D

Load on beam B

Beam B

Fig.8.5 loads carried by supporting beams

A slab simply supported on its four sides will deflect about both axes under load and the corners will

tend to lift and curl up from the supports, causing torsional moments. When no provision has been

made to prevent this lifting or to resist the torsion then the moment coefficients of table 8.6 may be

used and the maximum moments are given by

M sx asx nlx2 in direction of span l x

And M sy a sy nl x2 in direction of span l y

where M sx and M sy are the moments at mid-span on strips of unit width with spans l x and l y

respectively

n (1.35g k 1.5q k ) , that is the total ultimate load per unit area

l x is the length of the shorter side

l y is the length of the longer side

a sx and a sy are the moment coefficients from table 8.6.

The area of reinforcement in directions l x and l y respectively are

M sx

Asx per metre width

0.87 f yk z

M sy

And; Asy per metre width

0.87 f yk z

Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

The slab should be reinforced uniformly across the full width, in each direction.

The effective depth d used in calculating Asy should be less than that for Asx because of the different

depths of the two layers of reinforcement.

At least 40 per cent of the mid-span reinforcement should extend to the supports and the remaining

60 per cent should extend to within 0.1l x or 0.1l y of the appropriate support.

Table 8.6 Bending-moment coefficients for slabs spanning in two directions

at right angles, simply supported on four sides

l y / lx 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.75 2.0

a sx 0.062 0.074 0.084 0.093 0.099 0.104 0.113 0.118

a sy 0.062 0.061 0.059 0.055 0.051 0.046 0.037 0.029

Worked Example 8.5: Design the reinforcement for a simply supported slab

The slab is 220mm thick and spans in two directions. The effective span in each direction is 4.5m

and 6.3m and the slab supports a variable load of 10KN / m 2 . The characteristic material strengths are

f ck 25N / mm 2 and f yk 500N / mm 2 .

l y / l x 6.3 / 4.5 1.4

From table 8.6, a sx 0.099 and asy 0.051.

Self-weight of slab 220 25 10 3 5.5 KN / m 2

Ultimate load 1.35g k 1.5q k

1.35 5.5 1.5 10.0 22.43KN / m 2

Bending-short span

With class XC-1 exposure conditions take d 185mm .

M sx asx nlx2 0.099 22.43 4.52 45.0KNm

M sx 45.0 106

0.053

bd 2 f ck 1000 1852 25

From the lever arm equation

z d [0.5 (0.25 K / 1.134) ] d [0.5 (0.25 0.053/ 1.134) ] 0.951d 0.95d

Therefore adopt upper limit of 0.95d and lever arm z 0.95d 0.95 185 176mm

and

M sx 45.0 106

Asx 588mm 2 / m

0.87 f yk z 0.87 500 176

Provide H12 at 175mm centres, Asx 646mm 2 / m .

100As ,req 100 588

1 0.318%

bd 1000 185

From figure 7.2, this corresponds to a basic span-effective depth ratio of 28.0:

Actual span-effective depth ratio 4500/ 185 24.3

Thus d 185mm is adequate.

Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

Bending-long span

M sy a sy nlx2 0.051 22.43 4.5 2 23.16KNm

Since the reinforcement for this span will have a reduced effective depth, take z 176 12 164mm .

Therefore

M sy 23.16 106

Asy 325mm 2 / m

0.87 f yk z 0.87 500 164

Provide H10 at 200mm centres, Asy 393mm 2 / m .

100As ,req100 393

2 0.24%

bd 1000 164

which is greater than 0.13, the minimum for transverse steel, with class C25/30 concrete.

The arrangement of the reinforcement is shown in figure 8.6.

H10-200

H12-175

4.5m

When the slabs have fixity at the supports and reinforcement is added to resist torsion and to

prevent the corners of the slab from lifting then the maximum moments per unit width are given by

M sx sx nlx2 in direction of span l x

and

M sy sy nlx2 in direction of span l y

where sx and sy are the moment coefficients given in table 8.7.

The slab is divided into middle and edge strips as shown in figure 8.7 and reinforcement is required

in the middle strips to resist M sx and M sy . In the edge strips only nominal reinforcement is necessary,

such that As / bd 0.26 f ctm / f yk 0.0013 for high yield steel.

Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

Table 8.7 Bending moment coefficients for two-way spanning rectangular slabs supported by beams

Short span coefficients, sx for values of l y / l x Long-span

Type of panel and coefficients, sy for

moments considered 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.75 2.0

all value of l y / l x

Interior panels

Negative moment at continuous edge 0.031 0.037 0.042 0.046 0.050 0.053 0.059 0.063 0.032

Positive moment at mid-span 0.024 0.028 0.032 0.035 0.037 0.040 0.044 0.048 0.024

One short edge discontinuous

Negative moment at continuous edge 0.039 0.044 0.048 0.052 0.055 0.058 0.063 0.067 0.037

Positive moment at mid-span 0.029 0.033 0.036 0.039 0.041 0.043 0.047 0.050 0.028

One long edge discontinuous

Negative moment at continuous edge 0.039 0.049 0.056 0.062 0.068 0.073 0.082 0.089 0.037

Positive moment at mid-span 0.030 0.036 0.042 0.047 0.051 0.055 0.062 0.067 0.028

Two adjacent edges discontinuous

Negative moment at continuous edge 0.047 0.056 0.063 0.069 0.074 0.078 0.087 0.093 0.045

Positive moment at mid-span 0.036 0.042 0.047 0.051 0.055 0.059 0.065 0.070 0.034

Two short edges discontinuous

Negative moment at continuous edge 0.046 0.050 0.054 0.057 0.060 0.062 0.067 0.070 -

Positive moment at mid-span 0.034 0.038 0.040 0.043 0.045 0.047 0.050 0.053 0.034

Two long edges discontinuous

Negative moment at continuous edge - - - - - - - - 0.045

Positive moment at mid-span 0.034 0.046 0.056 0.065 0.072 0.078 0.091 0.100 0.034

Three edges discontinuous (one

long edge continuous)

Negative moment at continuous edge 0.057 0.065 0.071 0.076 0.081 0.084 0.092 0.098 -

Positive moment at mid-span 0.043 0.048 0.053 0.057 0.060 0.063 0.069 0.074 0.044

Three edges discontinuous (one

short edge continuous)

Negative moment at continuous edge - - - - - - - - 0.058

Positive moment at mid-span 0.042 0.054 0.063 0.071 0.078 0.084 0.096 0.105 0.044

Four edges discontinuous

Positive moment at mid-span 0.055 0.065 0.074 0.081 0.087 0.092 0.103 0.111 0.056

ly ly

lx

8

Edge strip

Middle strip

Edge strip

Edge strip

lx

4

Edge strip

ly 3ly ly lx

8 4 8 8

Fig.8.7 Division of slab into middle and edge strips

Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

1. consists of top and bottom mats, each having bars in both directions of span;

2. extend from the edges a minimum distance l x / 5 ;

3. at a corner where the slab is discontinuous in both directions have an area of steel in each of the

four layers equal to three-quarters of the area required for the maximum mid-span moment

4. at a corner where the slab is discontinuous in one direction only, have an area of torsion

reinforcement only half of that specified in rule 3.

Torsion reinforcement is not, however, necessary at any corner where the slab is continuous in both

directions.

Where l y / l x 2 , the slabs should be designed as spanning in one direction only.

It should be noted that the coefficients for both shear and moments can only be used if class B or C

ductility reinforcement is specified and the ratio x / d is limited to 0.25.

The panel considered is an edge panel, as shown in figure 8.8 and the uniformly distributed load,

n (1.35g k 1.5qk ) 10KN / m 2 .

l x =5m

support

Discontinuous

a b supported edge

l y =6.25m

support

d c

support

l y 6.25

1.25

lx 5.0

Positive moments at mid-span

M sx sx nlx2 0.04510 52 11.25KNm in direction of span l x

M sy sy nlx2 0.028 10 5 2 7.0 KNm in direction of span l y

Negative moments

Support ad, M x 0.05910 52 14.75KNm

Support ab and dc, M y 0.037 10 5 2 9.25KNm

The moments calculated are for a metre width of slab.

The design of reinforcement to resist these moments would follow the usual procedure. Torsion

reinforcement, according to rule 4 is required at corners b and c. A check would be required on the

span-effective depth ratio of the slab.

Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

8.6.1 Classification;

i) Ribbed with hollow blocks, i.e. maxpans

ii) Rebbed without hollow blocks

Rebbed without hollow blocks are divided into:

a) Ribs running in one direction

b) Ribs running in both directions (waffle slab)

Cross-sections through a ribbed and hollow block floor slabs are shown in figure 8.9.

i) These floors are lighter

ii) These floors are economical for buildings where there are long spans, over about 5m, and

light or moderate live loads, such as in hospital wards or apartment buildings.

They would not be suitable for structures having a heavy loading, such as Warehouses and garages.

8.6.3 Design

The slab is designed as a T-section with the effective flange breadths. Near the supports the slab

is made solid at about 0.5 ~ 1.0m from the support to increase shear strength.

The slabs are usually made solid under partitions and concentrated loads.

During construction the hollow tiles should be well soaked in water prior to placing the concrete,

otherwise shrinkage cracking of the top concrete flange is liable to occur.

The thickness of the concrete flange should not be less than:

1. 40mm or one-tenth of the clear distance between ribs, whichever is the greater, for slabs with

permanent blocks;

2. 50mm or one-tenth tenth of the clear distance between ribs, whichever is the greater, for slabs

without permanent blocks.

The rib width will be governed by

1. cover

2. bar-spacing

3. fire resistance requirements

The ribs should be spaced no further apart 1.5m and their depth below the flange should not be

greater than four times their width.

Transverse ribs should be provided at spacing no greater than ten times the overall slab depth.

Span-effective depth ratios will be based on the shorter span with the basic values given in figure

7.2 multiplied by 0.8 where the ratio of the flange width to the rib width exceeds 3.

At least 50 per cent of the tensile reinforcement in the span should continue to the supports and be

anchored.

A light reinforcement mesh in the topping flange is provided:

1. to control cracking due to shrinkage or thermal movement;

2. to distribute concentrated or moving loads;

3. to give added strength and durability to the slab;

4. to serve as distribution bars for tension bars over supports

The minimum area of reinforcement mesh should not be less than 0.13% of the topping flange.

Waffle slabs are designed as ribbed slabs and their design moments each way are obtained from

the moment coefficients tabulated in table 8.7 for two-way spanning slabs.

Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

Supporting beam

Supporting beam

light mesh

Fig.8.9 Sections through ribbed and hollow block floors, and waffle slab

The ribbed floor is constructed with permanent fiberglass moulds; it is continuous over several spans

of 5.0m. The characteristic material strengths are f ck 25N / mm 2 and f yk 500N / mm 2 .

An effective section, as shown in figure 8.10, which satisfies requirements for a 60 minute resistance

(see table 8.8) is to be tried. The characteristic permanent load including self-weight and finishes is

4.5 KN / m 2 and the characteristic variable load is 2.5 KN / m 2 .

600

solid 2-H10 above each rib

slab

span = 5.0m

d =160 h =200

60

125 400

Cross-section at mid-span

Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

Table 8.8 Minimum dimensions and axis distance for RC slabs for fire resistance

Minimum dimensions (mm)

Standard fire Two-way spanning

One-way Ribs in two-way spanning

resistance

spanning l y / l x 1.5 1.5 l y / l x 2.0 ribbed slab

100 120

hs 80 80 80 bmin

200

REI 60

25 15

a 20 10 15

a 10

120 160

hs 100 100 100 bmin

250

REI 90

35 25

a 30 15 20

a 15

160 190

hs 120 120 120 bmin

REI 300

120 45 40

a 40 20 25

a 30

450 700

hs 175 175 175 bmin

REI -

240 70 60

a 65 40 50

a -

The calculations are for an end span (which will be most critical) for which the moments and shears

can be determined from the coefficients in table 8.5.

Considering a 0.4m width of floor as supported by each rib:

Ultimate load 0.4(0.35g k 1.5q k )

0.4(0.35 4.5 1.5 2.5)

3.93KN / m

Ultimate load on the span, F 3.93 5.0 19.65KN

Bending

1. At mid-span design as a T-section:

M 0.086Fl 0.08619.65 5.0 8.45KNm

The effective breadth of flange bw beff 1 beff 2 where

beff 1 beff 2 0.2b1 0.1l0 0.2l0 b1

with b1 (400 125) / 2 137mm and l 0 0.85 5000 4250mm

thus

bw beff 1 beff 2 125 2(0.2 137 0.1 4250) 1030mm

or 0.2 4250) 850mm

which both exceed the rib spacing of 400mm, which governs

M 8.45 106

0.033

bd 2 f ck 400 1602 25

From the lever arm equation

Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

z d [0.5 (0.25 K / 1.134) ] d [0.5 (0.25 0.033/ 1.134) ] 0.97d 0.95d . Thus

the neutral axis depth lies within the flange.

Therefore adopt upper limit of 0.95d and lever arm z 0.95d 0.95160 152mm

and

M 8.45 106

As 127.8mm 2

0.87 f yk z 0.87 500 152

Provide two H10 bars in the ribs, As 157mm 2 .

2. At the end interior support design as a rectangular section for the solid slab:

M 0.086Fl 0.08619.65 5.0 8.45KNm as in 1.

and As 128mm 2 as at mid-span

Provide two H10 bars in each 0.4m width of slab, As 157mm 2 .

3. At the section where the ribs terminate: this occurs 0.6m from the centerline of the support and the

moment may be hogging so that 125mm ribs must provide the concrete area in compression to resist

the design moment. The maximum moment of resistance of the concrete is

M 0.167 f ck bd 2 0.167 25 1251602 106 13.36KNm

which must be greater than the moment at this section, therefore compression steel is not required.

At the centre of the span

100As ,req 100 128

0.20%

bd 400 160

From figure 7.2 and table 7.5 the limiting basic-effective depth ratio ( 0.3% ) for an end span is

32 1.3 41.6 .

For a T-section with a flange width greater than three times the web width this should be multiplied

by 0.8 to give a limiting ratio of 0.8 41.6 33.2 .

actual span-effective depth ratio 5000/ 160 31.3

Thus d 160mm is adequate.

Shear

Maximum shear in the rib 0.6m from the support centerline (end span)

VEd 0.6 F 0.6 3.93 0.6 19.65 0.6 3.93 9.43KN

As 157

1 0.0079

bd 125 160

From table 8.1, the shear resistance without reinforcement VRd ,c vRd ,c bd where

v Rd ,c 0.68N / mm 2 and, from table 8.2, the strength modification factor 0.94 . Hence:

VRd ,c vRd ,c bd 0.94 0.68 125160 12.78KN

As VRd ,c is greater than V Ed then no shear reinforcement is required provided that the bars in the ribs

are securely located during construction.

Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

Design a waffle slab for an internal panel of a floor system, each panel spanning 6.0m in each

direction. The characteristic material strengths are f ck 25N / mm 2 and f yk 500N / mm 2 . The

section as used in example 8.7, figure 8.10 is to be tried with characteristic permanent load including

self-weight of 6.0 KN / m 2 and characteristic variable load of 2.5 KN / m 2 .

(1.35 6.0) (1.5 2.5) 11.85KN / m 2

As the slab has the same span in each direction the moment coefficients, sx , sy are taken from table

8.7 with l y / l x 1.0 . Calculations are given for a single 0.4m wide beam section and in both

directions of span.

Bending

1. At mid-span: design as a T-section.

Positive moment at mid-span msx sx nlx2 0.02411.85 6 2 10.24KNm / m

Moment carried by each rib 0.4 10.24 4.10KNm

M 4.1 106

0.016

bd 2 f ck 400 1602 25

where the effective breadth is 400mm as in the previous example.

From the lever arm equation

z d [0.5 (0.25 K / 1.134) ] d [0.5 (0.25 0.016 / 1.134) ] 0.98d 0.95d . Thus the

neutral axis depth lies within the flange and

M 4.1 106

As 62 mm 2

0.87 f yk z 0.87 500 0.95 160

Provide two H10 bars in each rib at the bottom of the beam, As 157mm 2 to satisfy minimum

requirement of 0.13bd % 0.0013 400 160 83mm 2 / rib . Note that since the service stress in the

steel will be reduced, this lead to a higher span-effective depth ratio thus ensuring that the span-

effective depth ratio of the slab is kept within acceptable limits.

Negative moment at support msx sx nlx2 0.03111.85 6 2 13.22KNm / m

Moment carried by each 0.4m width 0.4 13.22 5.29KNm

M 5.29 106

0.021

bd 2 f ck 400 1602 25

From the lever arm equation

z d [0.5 (0.25 K / 1.134) ] d [0.5 (0.25 0.021/ 1.134) ] 0.98d 0.95d .

M 5.29 106

As 80 mm 2

0.87 f yk z 0.87 500 0.95 160

Provide two H10 bars in each 0.4m width of slab, As 157mm 2 .

Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

3. At the section where the ribs terminate: the maximum hogging moment of resistance of the

concrete ribs is 13.36KNm as in the previous example. This is greater than the moment at this section,

therefore compression steel is not required.

100As ,req 100 62

At the mid span 0.096%

bd 400 160

Hence from figure 7.2, limiting basic sapn depth ratio 321.5 (for interior span) 0.8 ( for flange

3 web thickness) when 0.3% .

Thus allowable ratio 32 1.5 0.8 38.4

actual span-effective depth ratio 6000/ 160 37.5

Thus d 160mm is just adequate. It has not been necessary here to allow for the increased

span/effective depth resulting from providing an increased steel area, thus consideration could be

given to reducing the rib reinforcement to two H8 bars ( 101mm 2 ) which still satisfies nominal

requirements.

Shear

From the table 8.9 the shear force coefficient for a continuous edge support is 0.33. Hence, for one

rib, the shear at the support

Vsx vx nl x b 0.33 11.85 6 0.4 9.38KN

Maximum shear in the rib 0.6m from the centerline is

VEd 9.38 0.6 11.85 0.4 6.54KN

At this position, VRd ,c vRd ,c 125 160 and

100As 100 157

1 0.79%

bd 125 160

Hence from table 8.1, v Rd ,c 0.68N / mm 2 and, from table 8.2, the strength modification factor

0.94 . Hence:

VRd ,c vRd ,c bd 0.94 0.68 125160 12.8KN

Therefore the unreinforced section is adequate in shear, and no links are required provided that the

bars in the ribs are securely located during construction.

Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

Table 8.9 Shear force coefficients for uniformly loaded rectangular panels supported

on four sides with provision for torsion at corners

vx for values of l y / l x

vy

Type of panel and location 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.75 2.0

Four edges continuous

continuous 0.33 0.36 0.39 0.41 0.43 0.45 0.48 0.50 0.33

One short edge discontinuous

Continuous edge 0.36 0.39 0.42 0.44 0.45 0.47 0.50 0.52 0.36

Discontinuous edge - - - - - - - - 0.24

One long edge discontinuous

Continuous edge 0.36 0.40 0.44 0.47 0.49 0.51 0.55 0.59 0.36

Discontinuous edge 0.24 0.27 0.29 0.31 0.32 0.34 0.36 0.38 -

Two adjacent edges

discontinuous

0.40 0.44 0.47 0.50 0.52 0.54 0.57 0.60 0.40

Continuous edge

0.26 0.29 0.31 0.33 0.34 0.35 0.38 0.40 0.26

Discontinuous edge

Two short edges discontinuous

Continuous edge 0.40 0.43 0.45 0.47 0.48 0.49 0.52 0.54 -

Discontinuous edge - - - - - - - - 0.26

Two long edges discontinuous

Continuous edge - - - - - - - - 0.40

Discontinuous edge 0.26 0.30 0.33 0.36 0.38 0.40 0.44 0.47 -

Three edges discontinuous

(one long edge discontinuous)

Continuous edge 0.45 0.48 0.51 0.53 0.55 0.57 0.60 0.63 -

Discontinuous edge 0.30 0.32 0.34 0.35 0.36 0.37 0.39 0.41 0.29

Three edges discontinuous

(one short edge discontinuous)

Continuous edge - - - - - - - - 0.45

Discontinuous edge 0.29 0.33 0.36 0.38 0.40 0.42 0.45 0.48 0.30

Four edges discontinuous

Discontinuous edge 0.33 0.36 0.39 0.41 0.43 0.45 0.48 0.50 0.33

Light reinforcing mesh should be provided in the top of the flange.

Area required 0.13 b h / 100 0.13 1000 60 / 100 78mm 2 / mm

Provide D98 mesh (see table 8.10), As 98mm 2 / m .

Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

Longitudinal wires Cross wires

Fabric reference Wire size Pitch Area Wire size Pitch Area

2

(mm) (mm) ( mm / m ) (mm) (mm) ( mm 2 / m )

Square mesh

200

A393 10 200 393 10 393

200

A252 8 200 252 8 252

200

A193 7 200 193 7 193

200

A142 6 200 142 6 142

200

A98 5 200 98 5 98

Structural mesh

B1131 12 100 1131 8 200 252

B785 10 100 785 8 200 252

B503 8 100 503 8 200 252

B385 7 100 385 7 200 193

B283 6 100 283 7 200 193

B196 5 100 196 7 200 193

Long mesh

C785 10 100 785 6 400 70.8

C636 9 100 636 6 400 70.8

C503 8 100 503 5 400 49

C385 7 100 385 5 400 49

C283 6 100 283 5 400 49

Wrapping mesh

D98 5 200 98 5 200 98

D49 2.5 100 49 2.5 100 49

Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

8.7.1 General

The usual form of stairs can be classified into two types:

a) those spanning horizontally in the transverse direction

b) those spanning longitudinally

private Common b

Riser, R 220mm 190mm

Distribution steel

Pitch, 42 38

No of steps

16 Main steel

in a flight Riser

if 700mm G 2R 550mm - Pitch

Assume G 300mm and R 150mm

Tread should be uniform

Riser should be uniform Waist

Fig. 8.11 Section of transverse stair

8.7.2 Stairs spanning horizontally

Stairs of this type may be supported on both sides (e.g. between walls, a wall and a stringer beam,

between two stringer beams) or they may be cantilevered from a supporting wall. Transverse

spanning stair slabs are designed as a series of beams consisting of one step with breadth, b and an

effective depth of d D / 2 as shown in the figure 8.11.

Distribution steel in the longitudinal direction is placed above the main reinforcement. The main steel

must not be spaced at more than one bar per rib.

In the case of the cantilever stairs, the effective depth of the member is taken as the mean effective

depth of the section and the main reinforcement must be placed in the top of the stairs and anchored

into the support. A light mesh of reinforcement is placed in the bottom face to resist shrinkage

cracking.

CL

Light mesh

Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

The stair slab may span into landings which span at right angles to the stairs as in figure 8.13 or it

may span between supporting beams as in figure 8.14.

Landing Landing

H12-400

H1

Open well 0-

400

1.5m

H12-300

H12-400

Span 3.0m

Span

The permanent load is calculated along the slope length of the stairs but the variable load is based on

the plan area. If the total design load on the stair is F and the staircase is cast monolithically with the

floor slab, then positive moment at mid span, M Fl / 10 , and negative moment at supports,

M Fl / 10 . If the staircase is precast, the positive design moment, M Fl / 8 . The shear force in

both cases, SF F / 2 .

When the staircase is built monolithically at its ends into a structural member spanning at right angles

to its span, the effective span is given by

Leff Ln a1 a 2

where Ln is the clear horizontal distance between supporting members

a1 is half the breadth of supporting member at one end

a 2 is half the breadth of supporting member at other end

The thickness of the waist is taken as the slab thickness.

The design procedure is the same as that of slabs.

The stairs are of the type shown in figure 8.14 spanning longitudinally and set into pockets in the two

supporting beams. The effective span is 3m and the rise of the stairs is 1.5m with 260mm treads and

150mm risers. The variable load is 3.0 KN / m 2 and the characteristic material strengths are

f ck 30N / mm 2 and f yk 500N / mm 2 .

Try a 140mm thick waist, effective depth, d 115mm . This would give an initial estimate of the

span-effective ratio of 26.1 (3000/115) which, from 7.2, lies a little above the basic value for a lightly

stressed simply supported slab.

Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

Consider a 1m width of stairs:

Weight of waist plus steps (0.14 3.35 0.26 1.5 / 2)25 16.6 KN

Variable load 3.0 3 9.0KN

Ultimate load, F 1.35 16.6 1.5 9.0 35.91KN

With no effective end restraint:

Fl 13.91 3.0

M 13.46KNm

8 8

Bending reinforcement

M 13.16 106

0.034

bd 2 f ck 1000 1152 30

From the lever arm equation

z d [0.5 (0.25 K / 1.134) ] d [0.5 (0.25 0.034 / 1.134) ] 0.97d 0.95d .

M 13.46 106

As 283mm 2 / m

0.87 f yk z 0.87 500 0.95 115

Maximum allowable spacing is 3h 3 140 420mm with an upper limit of 400mm.

Provide H12 bars at 300mm centres, As 377mm 2 / m .

100As ,req100 377

At the centre of the span 0.33

bd 1000 115

which is greater than the minimum requirement of 0.15 for class C30 concrete (see table 7.6).

From table 7.5 the basic span-effective depth ratio for a simply supported span with req 0.5% is

20. Allowing for the actual steel area provided:

limiting span-effective depth ratio 20 As, prov / As.req 20 377 / 283 26.6

actual span-effective depth ratio 3000/ 115 26.09

Hence the slab effective depth is acceptable. (Note that the allowable ratio will actually be greater

than estimated above since the required steel ratio is less than the 0.5% used with table 7.5)

Secondary reinforcement

Transverse distribution steel 0.2 As ,min 0.2 377 75.4mm 2 / m

This is very small, and adequately covered by H10 bars at the maximum allowable spacing of 400mm

centres, area 174mm 2 / m .

Continuity bars at the top and bottom of the span should be provided and, whereas about 50per cent

of the main steel would be reasonable, the maximum spacing is limited to 400mm. Hence provide,

say, H12 bars at 400mm centres as continuity steel.

Chapter IX: Design of COLUMNS

9.0 Introduction

The columns in a structure carry the loads from the beams and slabs down to the foundations, and

therefore they are primarily compression members, although they may also have to resist bending

forces due to the continuity of the structure.

Columns carrying only axial forces can be designed based on the equations.

Columns carrying axial forces plus bending moments are designed with the aid of design charts.

Columns may be square, rectangular, circular, elliptical, and cruciform or of other shapes.

Initial dimensions are normally determined by taking into account requirements for durability and

fire resistance (table 9.1).

Table 9.1 Minimum dimensions and axis distance for RC columns and walls for fire resistance

Standard fire Minimum dimensions (mm)

resistance Column width bmin /axis distance, a, of Wall thickness/axis distance, a, of the

the main bars main bars

Columns exposed Columns exposed Wall exposed on Wall exposed on

on more than one on one side one side two sides

side

R60 250/46 155/25 130/10 140/10

350/40

R90 350/53 155/25 140/25 170/25

450/40

R120 350/57 175/35 160/35 220/35

450/51

R240 600/70 295/70 270/60 350/60

i) Braced and unbraced columns

A braced column is one where the lateral loads are resisted by shear walls or other forms of

bracing capable of transmitting all horizontal loading to the foundations.

With a braced structure the axial forces and moments in the columns are caused by the vertical

permanent and variable actions only.

An unbraced column is one where horizontal loads are resisted by the frame action of rigidly

connected columns, beams and slabs.

With an unbraced structure the loading arrangements which include the effects of the lateral loads

must be considered.

ii) Sway and Non sway structures

Both braced and unbraced structures can be further classified as sway or non-sway.

Frames may be classified as non-sway if the first order displacement of the connections do not

increase the bending moments by more than 10%, otherwise they are classified as sway.

iii) Isolated columns

These may be:

Chapter IX: Design of COLUMNS

individual isolated columns (figure 9.1 a)

columns with articulation in a non-sway structure (figure 9.1 b)

b) compression members which are integral parts of a structure but which are considered to be

isolated for design purposes.

slender bracing element considered as isolated column (figure 9.1 c)

columns with restrained ends in a non-sway structure (figure 9.1 d)

In this chapter only the design of the most common types of columns found in building structures,

namely braced columns, will be described. A column may be considered to be braced in a given plane

if the bracing element or system (e.g. core or shear walls) is sufficiently stiff to resist all the lateral

forces in that plane. Thus braced columns

are assumed to not contribute to the overall horizontal stability of a structure and as such are only

designed to resist axial load and bending due to vertical loading.

9.2 Slenderness ratio, Effective height and Limiting slenderness ratio of column

9.2.1 Slenderness ratio of a column

The slenderness ratio of a column bent about an axis is given by

l l0

0 (9.1)

i ( I / A)

where

l 0 is the effective height of the column

i is the radius of gyration about the axis considered

I is the second moment of area of the section about the axis

A is the cross-section area of the column

l

9.2.2 Effective height 0 of a column

The effective height of a column, l 0 , is the height of a theoretical column of equivalent section but

pinned at both ends. This depends on the degree of fixity at each end of the column, which itself

depends on the relative stiffness of the columns and beam connected to either end of the column

under consideration.

EC2 gives two formulae for calculating the effective height:

For braced members:

Chapter IX: Design of COLUMNS

k1 k2

l0 0.5l 1 1 (9.2)

0.45 k1 0.45 k 2

For unbraced members the larger of:

k k

l0 l 1 10 1 2 (9.3.a)

k1 k 2

and

k k

l 0 l 1 1 1 2 (9.3.b)

1 k1 1 k 2

In the above formulae, k1 and k2 are the relative flexibilities of the rotational restraints at ends 1

and 2 of the column respectively. At each end k1 and k2 can be taken as:

k

beam stiffness 2( EI / l ) beam 2( I / l ) beam

It is assumed that any column above or below the column under consideration does not contribute

anything to the rotational restraint of the joint and that the stiffness of each connecting beam is taken

as 2EI / l to allow for cracking effects in the beam.

Once k1 and k2 have been calculated, the effective length factor, F , can be established from table

9.2 for braced columns. The effective length is then l 0 Fl .

k2 k1

0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.70 1.00 2.00 5.00 9.00 Pinned

0.10 0.59 0.62 0.64 0.66 0.67 0.69 0.71 0.73 0.75 0.76 0.77

0.20 0.62 0.65 0.68 0.69 0.71 0.73 0.74 0.77 0.79 0.80 0.81

0.30 0.64 0.68 0.70 0.72 0.73 0.75 0.77 0.80 0.82 0.83 0.84

0.40 0.66 0.69 0.72 0.74 0.75 0.77 0.79 0.82 0.84 0.85 0.86

0.50 0.67 0.71 0.73 0.75 0.76 0.78 0.80 0.83 0.86 0.86 0.87

0.70 0.69 0.73 0.75 0.77 0.78 0.80 0.82 0.85 0.88 0.89 0.90

1.00 0.71 0.74 0.77 0.79 0.80 0.82 0.84 0.88 0.90 0.91 0.92

2.00 0.73 0.77 0.80 0.82 0.83 0.85 0.88 0.91 0.93 0.94 0.95

5.00 0.75 0.79 0.82 0.84 0.86 0.88 0.90 0.93 0.96 0.97 0.98

9.00 0.76 0.80 0.83 0.85 0.86 0.89 0.91 0.94 0.97 0.98 0.99

Pinned 0.77 0.81 0.84 0.86 0.87 0.90 0.92 0.95 0.98 0.99 1.00

EC2 places an upper limit on the slenderness ratio of a single member below which second order

effects may be ignored. This limit is given by:

min 20 A B C / n (9.4)

where

Chapter IX: Design of COLUMNS

A 1/(1 0.2ef )

B 1 2w

C 1.7 rm

ef effective creep ratio (if not known A can be taken as 0.7)

w As f yd /( Ac f cd ) (if not known B can be taken as 1.1)

f yd the design yield strength of the reinforcement

f cd the design compressive strength of the concrete

As the total area of longitudinal reinforcement

n N Ed /( Ac f cd )

N Ed the design ultimate axial load in the column

rm M 01 / M 02 (if rm not known then C can be taken as 0.7)

M 01 , M 02 are first order moments at the end of the column with M 02 M 01

(a) If the end moments, M 01 and M 02 , give rise to tension on the same side of the column rm

should be taken as positive from which it follows that C 1.7 .

(b) If the converse to (a) is true, i.e. the column is in a state of double curvature, then rm should be

taken as negative from which it follows that C 1.7 .

(c) For braced members in which the first order moments arise only from transverse loads or

imperfections; C can be taken as 0.7.

(d) For unbraced members; C can be taken as 0.7.

For an unbraced column an approximation to the limiting value of will be given by:

min 20 A B C / n 20 0.7 1.1 2.7 / N Ed /( Ac f cd )

41.6 / N Ed /( Ac f cd )

For a braced column the minimum limiting value of will be given by taking C 1.7 :

min 20 A B C / n 20 0.7 1.11.7 / N Ed /( Ac f cd )

26.2 / N Ed /( Ac f cd )

The limiting value of for a braced column will depend on the relative value of the columns end

moments that will normally act in the same clockwise or anti-clockwise direction as in case (b)

above. If these moments are of approximately equal value then rm 1, C 1.7 1 2.7 and a

typical, approximate limit on will be given by:

min 20 A B C / n 20 0.7 1.1 1.7 / N Ed /( Ac f cd )

26.2 / N Ed /( Ac f cd )

If the actual slenderness ratio is less than the calculated value of min then the column can be treated

as short. Otherwise the column must be treated as slender and second order effects must be accounted

for in the design of the column.

Chapter IX: Design of COLUMNS

Determine if the column in the braced frame shown in figure 9.2 is short or slender. The concrete

strength f ck 25N / mm 2 , and ultimate axial load 1280KN .

300

300

Length=4.0m each side

500

700

Beam

Length=6.0m Length=4.0m

h col =3.0m

400

Z

300

Y Y

Beam

in both direction

Fig.9.2 Column end support details

It can be seen that the column will have the highest slenderness ratio for bending about YY where

h 300mm and also the end restraints are the less stiff 300 500 beams.

I col 400 3003 / 12 900 106 mm 4

I beam 300 5003 / 12 3125 106 mm 4

I col / l col 900 106 / 3.0 103

k1 k 2 0.096 0.1

(2I beam / lbeam ) 2(2 3125 106 / 4.0 103 )

From table 9.2 effective column height l 0 Fl 0.59 3.0 1.77m

Slenderness ratio

I bh3 / 12 h 300

Radius of gyration, i col 86.6mm

Acol bh 3.464 3.464

Slenderness ratio l0 / i 1.77 103 / 86.6 20.4

For a braced column the minimum limiting value of will be given by

min 26.2 / N Ed /( Ac f cd )

where

N Ed /( Ac f cd ) 1280103 /(400 300 25 / 1.5) 0.64

thus

Chapter IX: Design of COLUMNS

Hence, compared with the minimum limiting value of the column is short and second order

moment effects would not have to be taken into account.

The rules governing the minimum and maximum amounts of reinforcement in a load bearing column

are as follows.

1. A minimum of four bars is required in a rectangular column (one bar in each corner) and six

bars in a circular column. Bar diameter should not be less than 12mm.

2. The minimum area of steel is given by

0.10N Ed

As 0.002Ac

0.87 f yk

3. The maximum area of steel, at laps is given by

As ,max

0.08

Ac

where As is the total area of longitudinal steel and Ac is the cross-sectional area of the column.

As ,max

Otherwise, in regions away from laps: 0.04 .

Ac

9.3.2 Links

1

1. Minimum size size of the compression bar but not less than 6mm.

4

2. Maximum spacing should not exceed the lesser of 20 size of the smallest compression bar or

the least lateral dimension of the column or 400mm. This spacing should be reduced by a factor

of 0.60.

(a) for a distance equal to the larger lateral dimension of the column above and below a beam or

slab, and

(b) at lapped joints of longitudinal bars 14mm diameter.

3. Where the direction of the longitudinal reinforcement changes, the spacing of the links should

be calculated, while taking account of the lateral forces involved. If the change in direction is

less than or equal to 1 in 12 no calculation is necessary.

4. Every longitudinal bar placed in a corner should be held by transverse reinforcement.

5. No compression bar should be further than 150mm from a restrained bar.

The area of longitudinal steel for these columns is determined by:

1. using design charts

2. a solution of the design equations

3. an approximate method

Design charts are usually used for columns having a rectangular or circular cross-section and a

symmetrical arrangement of reinforcement.

Chapter IX: Design of COLUMNS

The basic equations or the approximate method can be used when an unsymmetrical arrangement of

reinforcement is required, or when the cross-section is non-rectangular.

Whichever design method is used, a column should not be designed for a moment less than

N Ed emin , where emin has the greater value of h / 30 or 20mm. This is to allow for tolerance in

construction. The dimension h is overall size of the column cross-section in the plane of bending.

The basic equations derived for a rectangular section as shown in figure 9.3 and with a rectangular

stress block are:

N Ed Fcc Fsc Fs

(9.5)

0.567 f ck bs f sc As f s As

h s h h

M Ed Fcc Fsc d Fs d (9.6)

2 2 2 2

N Ed design ultimate axial load

M Ed design ultimate moment

s the depth of the stress block 0.8x

As the area of longitudinal reinforcement in the more highly compressed face

As the area of reinforcement in the other face

f sc the stress in reinforcement As

f s the stress in reinforcement As , negative when tensile.

b

0.0035 0.567fck

d'

Fsc

s/2

A's x s=0.8x

d sc Fcc

h neutral

As axis

s Fs

Fig.9.3 Column section

These equations are not suitable for direct solution and the design of a column with symmetrical

reinforcement in each face is best carried out using design chart as illustrated in figure 9.4.

Chapter IX: Design of COLUMNS

Figure 9.5 shows a frame of a heavily loaded industrial structure for which the centre columns along

line PQ are to be designed in this example. The frames at 4m centres, are braced against lateral forces,

and support the following floor loads:

Permanent action g k 10KN / m 2

Variable action qk 15KN / m 2

Characteristic material strengths are f ck 25N / mm 2 for the concrete and f yk 500N / mm 2 for the

steel.

Chapter IX: Design of COLUMNS

4.0m

Plan

P

3rd floor

3.0m

2nd floor

3.0m

1st floor

3.0m

400

ground

floor 300 400 columns

Q

6.0m 4.0m

Fig.9.5 Columns in an industrial structure

Chapter IX: Design of COLUMNS

1.35G k + 1.5 Q k

1.35G k + 1.5 Q k

Floor

A B C

k column

+432 -432 +72 -72

A C A C

B kNm B

kAB kBC

2 k column 2

Maximum ultimate load at each floor 4.0(1.35g k 1.5q k ) per meter length of beam

4(1.35 10 1.5 15)

144KN / m

Minimum ultimate load at each floor 4.0 1.35g k per meter length of beam

4.0 1.35 10

54KN / m per metrelength of beam

Consider first the design of the centre column at the underside (u.s.) of the first floor. The critical

arrangement of load that will cause the maximum moment in the column is shown in figure 9.6a.

Column loads

Second and third floors 2 144 10 / 2 1440KN

First floor 144 6 / 2 54 4 / 2 540KN

Column self-weight, say 2 14 28KN

N Ed 2008KN

Similar arrangement of load will give the axial load in the column at the underside (u.s.) and top side

(t.s.) of each floor level and these values of N Ed are shown in table 9.3.

Chapter IX: Design of COLUMNS

Table 9.3

Floor N Ed M Ed N Ed M Ed As f yk As (mm 2 )

(KN ) (KNm ) bhfck bh 2 f ck bhfck

3rd u.s. 540 82.6 0.18 0.07 0 240

2nd t.s. 734 68.4 0.24 0.06 0 240

+ 540

2nd u.s. 1274 68.4 0.42 0.06 0 240

1st t.s. 1468 68.4 0.49 0.06 0.10 600

+ 540

1st u.s. 2008 68.4 0.67 0.06 0.30 1800

Column moments

The loading arrangement and the substitute frame for determining the column moments at the first

and second floors are shown in figure 9.6c.

Member stiffness are

k AB 1 bh3 1 0.3 0.7 3

0.71 10 3

2 2 12L AB 2 12 6

k BC 1 bh3 1 0.3 0.7 3

1.07 103

2 2 12LBC 2 12 4

0.3 0.4 3

k col 0.53 10 3

12 3.0

therefore

k (0.71 1.07 2 0.53)10 3

2.84 103

and

k col 0.53

distribution factor for the column 0.19

k 2.84

Fixed end moments at B are

144 6 2

F.E. M . BA 432KNm

12

54 4 2

F.E. M . BC 72KNm

12

Thus

Column moment M Ed 0.19(432 72) 68.4 KNm

At the 3rd floor

k (0.71 1.07 0.53)10 3

2.31 103

and

0.53

Column moment M Ed (432 72) 82.6 KNm

2.31

The areas of reinforcement in table 9.3 are determined by using the design chart of figure 9.4.

Sections through the column are shown figure 9.7.

Chapter IX: Design of COLUMNS

400

4H25 4H16

(a) Ground to 1st Floor (b) 1st to 3rd Floor

Cover for the reinforcement is taken as 50mm and d 2 / h 80 / 400 0.2 . The minimum area of

reinforcement allowed in the section is given by:

As 0.002bh 0.002 300 400 240mm 2

and the maximum area is

As 0.08bh 0.008 300 400 9600mm 2

and the reinforcement provided is within these limits.

Some members are required to resist axial forces combined with large moments. In these cases the

usual design charts cannot be applied. A rigorous design for a rectangular section as shown in figure

9.8 involves the following iterative procedure:

NEd : Normal to the section

0.567fck

d' fsc A's

e

A's x s

h/2 d neutral 0.567f ck bs

axis

h/2 As

d2 fs As

b

1. Select a depth of neutral axis, x (for this design method where the moments are relatively large,

x would generally be less than h).

2. Determine the steel strains sc and s from the strain distribution.

3. Determine the steel stresses f sc and f s from the equations relating to the stress-strain curve for

the reinforcing bars.

Chapter IX: Design of COLUMNS

h

N Ed e d 2 0.567 f ck bs(d s / 2) f sc As (d d ) (9.7)

2

where s 0.8x

This equation can be solved to give a value for As

5. As is then determined from the equilibrium of the axial forces, that is

N Ed 0.567 f ck bs f sc As f s As (9.8)

6. Further values of x may be selected and steps (1) to (5) repeated until a minimum value for

As As is obtained.

The term f sc in the equations may be modified to ( f sc 0.567 f ck ) to allow for the area of concrete

displaced by the reinforcement As . Stress f s has a negative sign whenever it is tensile.

The column section shown in figure 9.9 resists an axial load of 1100kN and a moment of 230kNm at

the ultimate limit state. Determine the areas of reinforcement required if the characteristic material

strengths are f yk 500N / mm 2 and f ck 25N / mm2 .

300

0.0035

d '=80

A's x

400

340

neutral

axis sc

As

d 2=60

s

Section Strains

Fig.9.9 Unsymmetrical column design example

1. Select a depth of neutral axis, x 190mm .

2. From the strain diagram

0.0035 0.0035

steel strain sc ( x d ) (190 80) 0.00203

x 190

and

0.0035 0.0035

steel strain s (d x) (340 190) 0.00276

x 190

3. From the stress-strain curve and the relevant equations of section 5.1 yield strain, y 0.00217

for grade 500 steel

s 0.00217; therefore f s 500/ 1.15 435N / mm 2

and

sc 0.00217; therefore f sc Es sc 200103 0.00203 406N / mm2 , compression.

4. In equation 9.7

h

N Ed e d 2 0.567 f ck bs(d s / 2) f sc As (d d )

2

Chapter IX: Design of COLUMNS

M Ed 230 106

e 209mm

N Ed 1100 103

s 0.8 x 0.8 190 152mm

To allow for the area of concrete displaced

f sc becomes 406 0.567 f ck 406 0.567 25 392N / mm2

and from equation 9.7

1100103 (209 140) 0.567 25 300152(340 152 / 2)

As

392(340 80)

2093mm 2

5. From equation 9.8

N Ed 0.567 f ck bs f sc As f s As

(0.567 25 300 152) (392 2093) (1100 103 )

As

435

843mm 2

Thus

As As 2093 843 2936mm 2 for x 190mm

6. Values of As As calculated for other depths of neutral axis, x, are plotted in figure 9.10. From

this figure the minimum area of reinforcement required occurs with x 210mm . Using this

depth of neutral axis, step 2 to 5 are repeated giving

sc 0.00217, s 0.00217

f sc f yk / m 435N / mm 2 and f s 435N / mm 2 tension

so that

As 1837mm2 and As 891mm2

(Alternatively separate values of As and As as calculated for each value of x could have also

have been plotted against x and their values read from the graph at x 210mm .) This area would

be provided with

As three H25 plus two H20 bars

2098mm2

and

As one H25 plus two H20 bars

2098mm2

A's +As

3000

2900

2800

2700

180 190 200 210 220 230

Depth of neutral axis, x

Fig.9.10 Design chart for unsymmetrical column example

Chapter IX: Design of COLUMNS

A column is classified as slender if the slenderness ratio about either axis exceeds the value of min .

If min then the column may be classified as short and the slenderness effect may be neglected.

A slender column with min must be designed for an additional moment caused by its curvature

at ultimate conditions.

The nominal curvature method in EC2

The expressions given in EC2 for the additional moments were derived by studying the

moments/curvature behaviour for a member subject to bending plus axial load. The equations for

calculating the design moments are only applicable to columns of a rectangular or circular section

with symmetrical reinforcement.

A slender column should be designed for an ultimate axial load ( N Ed ) plus an increased moment

given by

M t N Ed etot

where

etot e0 ea e2

e0 is an equivalent first-order eccentricity

ea is an accidental eccentricity which accounts for geometric imperfections in the column

e2 is the second-order eccentricity.

0.6e02 0.4e01 or 0.4e02

where e01 and e02 are the first-order eccentricities at the two ends of the column as described above,

and e02 is greater than e01 .

The accidental eccentricity ea is given by the equation

l0

ea v

2

where l0 is the effective column height about the axis considered and

1 1

v

100 l 200

where l is the height of the column in meter. A conservative estimate of ea can be given by:

l0 1 l0 l

ea v 0

2 200 2 400

The second-order eccentricity e2 is an estimate of the deflection of the column at failure and is

given by the equation

K1 K 2 l02 f yk

e2 2

103500d

where

f yk

K1 1 0.35 ef 1

200 150

Chapter IX: Design of COLUMNS

slenderness ratio

ef effective creep ratio

N ud N Ed

K2 1.0 (9.9)

N ud N bal

where N ud is the ultimate axial load such that

N ud 0.567 f ck Ac 0.87 f yk Asc

and N bal is the axial load at balanced failure and may be taken as approximately N bal 0.29 f ck Ac

for symmetrical reinforcement.

In order to calculate K 2 , the area As of the column reinforcement must be known and hence a trial-

and-error approach is necessary, taking an initial conservative value of K 2 1.0 . Values of K 2 are

marked on the column design charts as shown in figure 9.4.

A non-sway (braced) column of 300 450 cross-section resists, at the ultimate limit state, an axial

load of 1700kN and end moments of 70 kN.m and 10 kN m causing double curvature about the minor

axis YY as shown in figure 9.11. The column's effective heights are ley 6.75m and lez 8.0m and

the characteristic material strengths f ck 25N / mm2 and f yk 500N / mm 2 . The effective creep

ratio ef 0.87 .

Eccentricities are

M 1 10 103

e01 5.9mm

N Ed 1700

M 2 70 103

e02 41.2mm

N Ed 1700

where e02 is negative since the column is bent in double curvature.

Z

M 2 =70kNm

M

'

d=60

d=240

h=300

Y Y

M 1 =10kNm

Z

The limiting slenderness ratio can be calculated from equation 9.4 where:

A 1/(1 0.2ef ) 1/(1 (0.2 0.87)) 0.85

Chapter IX: Design of COLUMNS

C 1.7 M 01 / M 02 1.7 (10 / 70) 1.84

34.41

min 20 A B C / n 20 0.85 1.1 1.84 / n

n

N Ed 1700 103

n 0.89

Ac f cd (300 450) 0.567 25

34.41

min 36.47

0.89

Actual slenderness ratios are

l 6.75

y ey 3.46 77.85 36.47

iy 0.3

lez 8.0

z 3.46 61.55 36.47

i z 0.45

Therefore the column is slender, and y is critical.

Equivalent eccentricity 0.6e02 0.4e01 0.4e02

0.6e02 0.4e01 0.6 41.2 0.4 (5.9) 22.35mm

0.4e02 0.4 41.2 16.47mm

Therefore equivalent eccentricity e0 22.35mm .

Taking v as 1/ 200 the accidental eccentricity is

ley 1 6750

ea v 16.88mm

2 200 2

The second-order eccentricity is

K1 K 2 l02 f yk

e2 2

103500d

where

ef 1 0.35

f yk 25 77.85

K1 1 0.35 0.87

200 150 200 150

0.96 ( 1)

K1 K 2 l02 f yk 11 67502 500

e2 92.92mm

2 103500d 2 103500 240

with K 2 1.0 for the initial value.

For the first iteration the total eccentricity is

etot e0 ea e2 22.35 16.88 92.92 132.15mm

and the total moment is

M t N Ed etot 1700132.15103 225kNm

N Ed 1700 103

0.504

bhfck 450 300 25

Mt 225 106

0.222

bh 2 f ck 450 3002 25

Chapter IX: Design of COLUMNS

As f yk

0.80 and K 2 0.78

bhfck

This new value of K 2 is used to calculate e2 and hence M t for the second iteration. The design

chart is again used to determine As f yk / bhfck and a new value of K 2 as shown in table 9.4.

Table 9.4

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

Mt As f yk

K2 Mt bh 2 f ck bhfck K2

1.0 225 0.222 0.80 0.78

0.78 190 0.187 0.6 0.73

The iterations are continued until the value of K 2 in columns (1) and (5) of the table are in reasonable

agreement, which in this design occurs after two iterations. So that the steel area required is

0.6bhfck 0.6 450 300 25

As 4050mm 2

f yk 500

and K 2 0.74 .

As a check on the final value of K 2 interpolated from the design chart:

N bal 0.29 f ck Ac

0.29 25 300 450103

978kN

N Ed 0.567 f ck Ac 0.87 f yk As

(0.567 25 300 450 0.87 500 4050)103

3675kN

N ud N Ed 3675 1700

K2 0.73 ( 1.0)

N ud N bal 3675 978

which agrees with the final value in column 5 of table 9.4.

Chapter X: Design of FOUNDATIONS

10.1 Introduction

10.1.1 General

A building is generally composed of a superstructure above the ground and a substructure which

forms the foundations below ground.

The foundations transfer and spread the loads from a structures columns and walls into the ground.

The safe bearing capacity of the soil must not be exceeded otherwise excessive settlement may occur,

resulting in damage to the building and its service facilities. Foundation failure can also affect the

overall stability of a structure so that it is liable to slide, to lift vertically or even overturn.

(a) (b)

Fig.10.1 Foundation failures: (a) sliding failure; (b) overturning failure

10.1.2 Foundation types

There are many types of foundations which are commonly used, namely strip, pad and raft. The

foundations may bear directly on the ground or be supported on piles. The choice of foundation type

will largely depend upon (1) ground conditions (i.e. strength and type of soil) and (2) type of structure

(i.e. layout and level of loading).

Pad footings are usually square or rectangular slabs and used to support a single column (Fig. 10.2).

The pad may be constructed using mass concrete or reinforced concrete depending on the relative

size of the loading. Continuous strip footings are used to support loadbearing walls or under a line of

closely spaced columns (Fig. 10.3). Strip footings are designed as pad footings in the transverse

direction and in the longitudinal direction as an inverted continuous beam subject to the ground

bearing pressure.

N N N N

= = =

A B C D

Elevation

Plan

(a) plan; (b) elevation (a) footing supporting columns;

(b) footing supporting wall

Where the ground conditions are relatively poor, a raft foundation may be necessary in order to

distribute the loads from the walls and columns over a large area. In its simplest form this may consist

of a flat slab, possibly strengthened by upstand or downstand beams for the more heavily loaded

structures (Fig. 10.4).

Chapter X: Design of FOUNDATIONS

(a) flat slab; (b) flat slab and downstand; (c) flat slab and upstand

Where the ground conditions are so poor that it is not practical to use strip or pad footings but better

quality soil is present at lower depths, the use of pile foundations should be considered (Fig. 10.5).

Soft strata

Hard strata

The piles may be made of precast reinforced concrete, prestressed concrete or in-situ reinforced

concrete. Loads are transmitted from the piles to the surrounding strata by end bearing and/or friction.

End bearing piles derive most of their carrying capacity from the penetration resistance of the soil at

the toe of the pile, while friction piles rely on the adhesion or friction between the sides of the pile

and the soil.

10.1.3 Foundation design

Foundation failure may arise as a result of (a) allowable bearing capacity of the soil being exceeded,

or (b) bending and/or shear failure of the base.

The first condition allows the plan-area of the base to be calculated, being equal to the design load

divided by the bearing capacity of the soil, i.e.

design load

Ground pressure bearing capacity of soil

plan area

Since the settlement of the structure occurs during its working life, the design loadings to be

considered when calculating the size of the base should be taken as those for the serviceability limit

state (i.e. 1.0Gk 1.0Qk ). The calculations to determine the thickness of the base and the bending

and shear reinforcement should, however, be based on ultimate loads (i.e. 1.35Gk 1.5Qk ).

Chapter X: Design of FOUNDATIONS

10.2.1 Overview

The footing for a single column may be made square in plan, but where there is a large moment acting

about one axis it may be more economical to have a rectangular base.

Assuming there is a linear distribution the bearing pressures across the base will take one of the three

forms shown in figure 10.6, according to the relative magnitudes of the axial load N and moment M

acting on the base.

N

p (10.1)

BD

2. With a moment M acting as shown, the pressures are given by the equation for axial load plus

bending. This is provided there is positive contact between the base and the ground along the

complete length D of the footing, as shown 10.6(b) so that

N My

p

BD I

where I is the second moment area of the base about the axis of bending and y is the distance from

the axis to where the pressure is being calculated.

N N N

M M

D D Y/3 e

Centroid

p2

p p1 p

Y

e0 e D/6 e D/6

N N 6M 2N

p p p

B D B D B D2 B Y

D

where: Y 3 e

2

(a) (b) (c)

Fig.10.6 Pad-footing- pressure distributions

N 6M

p1 (10.2)

BD BD 2

Chapter X: Design of FOUNDATIONS

N 6M

p2 (10.3)

BD BD 2

There is positive contact along the base if p 2 from equation 10.3 is positive.

When pressure p 2 just equals zero

N 6M

0

BD BD 2

M D

Or;

N 6

So that for p 2 always to be positive, M / N or the effective eccentricity, e must never be greater

than D / 6 . In these cases the eccentricity of loading is said to be within the middle third of the base.

3. When the eccentricity, e is greater than D / 6 there is no longer a positive pressure along the length

D and the pressure diagram is triangular as shown in figure 10.6(c). Balancing the downward load

and the upward pressures

1

pBY N

2

therefore

2N

maximum pressure p

BY

where Y is the length of positive contact. The centroid of the pressure diagram must coincide with

the eccentricity of loading in order for the load and reaction to be equal and opposite. Thus

Y D

e

3 2

or

D

Y 3 e

2

therefore in the case of e D / 6

2N

maximum pressure p (10.4)

3 B ( D / 2 e)

10.2.2 Requirements

A typical arrangement of the reinforcement in a pad footing is shown in figure 10.7. With a square

base the reinforcement to resist bending should be distributed uniformly across the full width of the

footing. For a rectangular base the reinforcement in the short direction should be distributed with a

closer spacing in the region under and near the column, to allow for the fact that the transverse

moments must be greater nearer the column. It is recommended that at least teo-thirds of the

reinforcement in the short direction should be concentrated in a band width of (c 3d ) where c is

the column dimension in the long direction and d is the effective depth. If the footing should be

subjected to a large overturning moment so that there is only partial bearing, or if there is a resultant

uplift force, then reinforcement may also be required in the top face.

Dowels or slarter bars should extend from the footing into the column in order to provide continuity

to the reinforcement. These dowels should be embedded into the footing and extend into the columns

a full lap length. Sometimes a 75mm length of the column is constructed in the same concrete pour

Chapter X: Design of FOUNDATIONS

as the footing so as to form a 'kicker' or support for the columns shutters. In these cases the dowels

lap length should be measured from the top of the kicker.

The critical sections through the base for checking shear, punching shear and bending are shown in

figurc 10.8. The shearing force and bending moments are caused by the ultimate loads from the

column and the weight of the base should not be included in these calculations.

The thickness of the base is often goverened by the requirements for shear resistance.

Dowels

lap length

d h

h

D

Maximum

shear 2.0d Punching shear perimeter

= column perimeter +4pd

B As Shear

Bending 1.0d

Fig.10.7 Pad footing reinforcement details Fig.10.8 Critical sections for design

The principal steps in the design calculations are as follows:

1. Calculate the plan size of the footing using the permissible bearing pressure and the critical loading

arrangement for the serviceability limit state.

2. Calculate the bearing pressures associated with the critical loading arrangement at the ultimate

limit state.

3. Assume a suitable value for the thickness (h) and effective depth (d). Check that the shear force at

the column face is less than 0.5v1 f cd ud 0.5v1 ( f ck / 1.5)ud where u is the perimeter of the column

and v1 is the strength reduction factor, v1 0.6(1 f ck / 250) .

4. Carry out a preliminary check for punching shear to ensure that the footing thickness gives a

pundhing shear which is within the likely range of acceptable performance.

5. Detennine the reinforcement required to resist bending.

6. Make a final check for the punching shear

7. Check the shear force at the critical sections.

8. Where applicable, both foundations and the structure should be checked for overall stability at the

ultimate limit state.

9. Reinforcement to resist bending in the bottom of the base should extend at least a full tension

anchorage length beyond the critical section for bending.

Chapter X: Design of FOUNDATIONS

The footing (figure 10.9) is required to resist characteristic axial loads of 1000 kN permanent and

350kN variable from a 400mm square column. The safe bearing pressure on the soil is 200KN / m 2

and the characteristic material strengths are f ck 30N / mm2 and f yk 500N / mm 2 .

Assume a footing weight of 150kN so that the total permanent load is 1150kN.

400 sq

d=520

h=600

12H16@225 e.w.

2.8m. sq

1. For the serviceability limit state

Total design axial load 1.0Gk 1.0Qk 1150 350 1500KN

1500

Required base area 7.5m 2

200

Provide a base 2.8m square 7.8m 2

2. For the ultimate limit state

Column design axial load, N Ed 1.35Gk 1.5Qk

1.351000 1.5 350 1875KN

1875

Earth pressure 2

239KN / m 2

2.8

3. Assume a 600mm thick footing and with the footing constructed on a blinding layer of concrete

the minimum cover is taken as 50mm. Therefore, take mean effective depth d 520mm .

At the column face

f f

Maximum shear resistance, VRd ,max 0.5ud 0.61 ck ck

250 1.5

30 30

0.5(4 400) 520 0.61 103

250 1.5

4393KN ( N Ed 1875KN )

4. Punching shear

The critical section for checking punching shear is at a distance 2d as shown in figure 10.8.

Critical perimeter column perimeter 4d

4 400 4 520 8134mm

Area within perimeter (400 4d ) 2 (4 )(2.0d ) 2

(400 4 520) 2 (4 )(2. 520) 2

5.22 106 mm 2

Chapter X: Design of FOUNDATIONS

Therefore

Punching shear force VEd 239(2.82 5.22) 626KN

VEd

Punching shear stress v Ed

perimeter d

626 103

0.15N / mm 2

8134 520

This ultimate shear stress is not excessive, (see table 8.1) therefore h 600mm will be a suitable

estimate.

5. Bending reinforcement-see figure 10.10(a).

At the column face which is the critical section

1.2

M Ed (239 2.8 1.2) 482KNm

2

1.2 m 0.68 m 1.0d=0.52 m

2.8 m

For the concrete

M bal 0.167 f ck bd 2

0.167 30 2800 5202 106 3793KNm ( 482)

M Ed

As

0.87 f yk z

M Ed 482106

0.021

bd 2 f ck 2800 5202 30

From the lever arm equation

z d [0.5 (0.25 K / 1.134) ] d [0.5 (0.25 0.021/ 1.134) ] 0.98d 0.95d

Therefore adopt upper limit of 0.95d and lever arm z 0.95d 0.95 520 494mm :

M Ed 482106

As 2243mm 2

0.87 f yk z 0.87 500 494

Provide twelve H16 bars at 225mm centres, As 2412mm 2 . Therefore

100As 100 2412

0.165( 0.15 - see table 7.6)

bd 2800 520

That is, the minimum steel area requirement is satisfied.

Maximum bar size

Chapter X: Design of FOUNDATIONS

The steel stress should be calculated under the action of the quasi-permanent loading which can be

estimated fron the equation,

f yk (Gk 0.3Qk )

fs

1.15(1.35Gk 1.5Qk )

500(1000 0.3 350)

256N / mm 2

1.15(1.35 1000 1.5 350)

Therefore from table below the maximum allowable bar size is 16mm. hence, minimum area and

bar size requirements as specified by the code for the pueposes of crack control are met.

Steel stress ( N / mm 2 ) Maximum bar size

(mm)

160 32

200 25

240 16

280 12

320 10

360 8

400 6

450 5

The shear resistance of the concrete without shear reinforcement can be obtained from table 8.1

where 1 can be taken as the average of the steel ratios in both directions;

As 2412

1 0.0017 ( 0.17% 0.25%)

bd 2800 520

hence from table 8.1 v Rd ,c 0.4 N / mm 2 .

2

Table 8.1 Shear resistance of slabs without shear reinforcement v Rd ,c N / mm (Class C30/35 concrete)

1 As / bd Effective depth, d (mm)

200 225 250 300 350 400 500 600 750

0.25% 0.54 0.52 0.50 0.47 0.45 0.43 0.40 0.38 0.36

0.50% 0.59 0.57 0.56 0.54 0.52 0.51 0.48 0.47 0.45

0.75% 0.68 0.66 0.64 0.62 0.59 0.58 0.55 0.53 0.51

1.00% 0.75 0.72 0.71 0.68 0.65 0.64 0.61 0.59 0.57

1.25% 0.80 0.78 0.76 0.73 0.71 0.69 0.66 0.63 0.61

1.50% 0.85 0.83 0.81 0.78 0.75 0.73 0.70 0.67 0.65

2.00% 0.94 0.91 0.89 0.85 0.82 0.80 0.77 0.74 0.71

VRd ,c vRd ,c ud 0.40 8134 520103 1691KN ( VEd 626 KN )

7. Maximum Shear Force see figure 10.10 (b)

At the critical section for shear, 1.0d from the column face:

Chapter X: Design of FOUNDATIONS

As before, v Rd ,c 0.40N / mm 2

VRd ,c v Rd ,c bd

0.40 2800 520 103 582 KN ( VEd 455 KN )

Therefore no shear reinforcement is required.

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