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KYAMBOGO UNIVERSITY

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil & Building Engineering

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING IN CIVIL AND BUILDING ENGINEERING

YEAR III, SEMESTER I

LECTURE NOTES

TCBE 3101: STRUCTURAL DESIGN I

By

OLENG MORRIS
(Course Lecturer)
0703688747 or 0772285215
wotamuko@gmail.com

Edition, August 2016


Table of Contents

Preamble

Brief Description
Bridges the transition from Analysis to design, by explaining how forces used in analysis are
obtained from people and other objects and the materials of the structure.
Explains the properties of materials that make up reinforced concrete.
Reviews analysis using a method that can be used with an electronic calculator and computer
to obtain applied internal actions / forces
Explains the concept of design of all the major components of a reinforced concrete building
where the strength of these components must be greater than the applied forces by a
reasonable margin, and where each component must be checked for each of the possible
modes of failure.
Objectives
By the end of the course the student should be able to:
Calculate the forces applied to the structure arising from its weight, expected usage and
external loads;
Demonstrate understanding of the behaviour of reinforced concrete and its constituent
materials and be able to predict its behaviour under all the expected loading and
environmental conditions;
Analyze; i.e. determine all internal actions (Axial load, shear force, bending and torsion
moments) on each member of the structure using a calculator and computer;
Identify all possible causes and modes of failure;
Design all the major components of a reinforced concrete building to prevent any mode of
failure occurring.
Detailed Course Description
Introduction to Limit State Design (5 hours)
Ultimate limit state: considering Strength, stability and robustness
Serviceability limit state: Deflection, Durability (fire and corrosion resistance), Vibration
Material properties for steel and concrete and partial safety factor for materials.
Design Standards: Historical review, Elastic Analysis; CP114, Limit state Design; CP110 and BS
8110, EC2
Loading: dead, wind , imposed and notional loads , load combinations and Partial safety factors
for loads
Robustness & Design of ties, Importance of robustness in explosions and terrorists attack.
Analysis of framed structures using moment distribution and computer applications
Shear, Bond & Torsion (5 hours)
Shear strength of a reinforced concrete beam without links
Shear resistance of links
Shear resistance of Bent up bars
Shear in slabs
Local bond, Anchorage bond and length

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Preamble

Hooks, bends, laps, joints


Torsion analysis, Torsion shear stress & reinforcement
Design of Beams (15 hours)
Simply supported & continuous beams; (loading, analysis, moment redistribution)
Analysis of beams : Assumptions, parabolic & Rectangular Stress blocks
Singly reinforced beams: Moments of resistance, balanced, under and over reinforced section,
Design of section using analytical & design charts.
Design of Doubly Reinforced beams
Design of Flanged beams; with Neutral axis in the in web or flange
Design of slabs (10 hours)
Classification of slabs based on: Nature of support (simply supported, continuous, flat slabs),
Direction of support (One way and two way supporting), Type of section (solid, hollow blocks,
ribbed slabs),
Design of main and secondary slab reinforcement in one way (solid & ribbed/hollow block) slab,
and two way slab
Checking for Shear control in slabs
Checking for Deflection control in slabs
Checking for Cracking control in slabs
Anchorage and detailing
Introduction to Yield line method
Design of Staircases; A special type of slopping slabs (5 hours)
Classification of stairs into transverse and longitudinal spanning,
Relevant Building regulations ,determination of staircase loading and analysis of staircases,
Design of main and provision of distribution steel, checking for shear, deflection, cracking.
Detailing of and anchorage.
Design of Columns (8 hours)
Classification: (short & slender columns, Braced & unbraced columns)
Section analysis
Design of short Columns subjected to only to axial loads
Design of short column subjected to axial loads & uniaxial bending using charts.
Design of short columns subjected to axial loads & biaxial Bending; (Analytical use of charts)
Design of slender columns
Checking columns for shear strength.
Design of Walls (2 hours)
Functions Types & loads on walls
Design of Reinforced concrete walls
Design of plane concrete walls
Design of foundations (6 hours)
Design of axially loaded pad bases; determination of pad size and depth, Design for moment
steel, checking for Vertical and punching shear.
Discussion of Eccentrically loaded pad bases
Discussion of Design of Raft, strip and combined foundations
Discussion of Pile foundations

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Preamble

Retaining wall structures (5 hours)


Earth Pressure and Types of retaining walls
Discussion of design of cantilever walls
Discussion of design of Counterfort retaining walls
Introduction to Prestressed Concrete (8 hours)
Advantages prestressed concrete
Pretensioning and Postensioning
Design of prestressed beams for Serviceability limit state and ultimate limit state.
Stress loss at transfer for beams
Detailing (2 hours)
Bar Bending Schedules
Detailing and curtailment of bars
Evaluation of Concrete (4 hours)
Defects in Concrete
Field evaluation of concrete defects
Repair of defects
Modes of Course Delivery
The course will be taught using lecturers, tutorials; assignments and field visits.
Assessment
The course will be assessed through assignments, tests, practical reports, field visit reports and course
examination. Their relative contribution to the final grade is shown below:
Requirements Contribution
Assignments 15%
Tests 25%
Final course examination 60%
Total 100%

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Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Preamble .............................................................................................................................................. i
Brief Description ............................................................................................................................. i
Objectives ........................................................................................................................................ i
Detailed Course Description ............................................................................................................ i
Modes of Course Delivery ............................................................................................................. iii
Assessment .................................................................................................................................... iii
Table of Contents ............................................................................................................................... iv
CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................................1
1.0 General ..................................................................................................................................1
Assumptions made in structural design .......................................................................................1
Structural design procedure .........................................................................................................1
1.1 Historical Perspective ...........................................................................................................1
1.1.1 General ...........................................................................................................................1
1.1.2 The Elastic Design. ........................................................................................................2
1.1.2 CP 114 ...........................................................................................................................2
1.3 Introduction to limit state design. .........................................................................................2
1.4 Introduction to Eurocode 2 ...................................................................................................2
1.5 Why change to Euro code II from BS8110 ...........................................................................3
CHAPTER II. PROPERTIES OF REINFORCED CONCRETE........................................................4
2.0 Introduction ...........................................................................................................................4
2.1 Composite action...................................................................................................................4
2.2 Stress strain relations .........................................................................................................5
2.2.1 Stress Strain relationship of concrete .........................................................................5
2.2.2 Stress- Strain relationship of steel .................................................................................7
2.3 Shrinkage and thermal movement.........................................................................................8
2.3.1 Causes of shrinkage .......................................................................................................8
2.3.2 Calculation of stresses induced by shrinkage ................................................................8
2.3.2 Factors affecting shrinkage ..........................................................................................11
2.4 Creep ................................................................................................................................11
2.4.1 General .........................................................................................................................11
2.4.2 Characteristic of Creep ................................................................................................11
2.4.3 Effects of Creep ...........................................................................................................12
CHAPTER III. LIMIT STATE DESIGN ..........................................................................................13
3.0 Introduction .........................................................................................................................13
3.0.1 The permissible stress method. ....................................................................................13

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3.0.2 The Load factor Method. .............................................................................................13


3.0.3 Limit State Method ......................................................................................................13
3.1 Limit states ..........................................................................................................................13
3.1.1 The Ultimate Limit State. ............................................................................................14
3.1.2 Serviceability Limit State ............................................................................................19
3.2 Characteristic material strength ..........................................................................................22
3.2.1 General .........................................................................................................................22
3.2.2 Concrete (Cl. 3.1, EC 2) ..............................................................................................23
3.2.3 Reinforcement of steel. (Cl. 3.2, EC 2) .......................................................................24
3.3 Partial factors of safety .......................................................................................................26
3.4 Combination of actions .......................................................................................................30
3.4.1 Action (Load) arrangements ........................................................................................30
3.4.2 Combination of actions (Loads) ..................................................................................30
3.4.3 Combination expressions .............................................................................................33
3.5 Wind Loads .........................................................................................................................34
CHAPTER IV. ANALYSIS OF THE STRUCTURE AT THE ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE .........37
4.0 Introduction .........................................................................................................................37
4.1 Actions ................................................................................................................................37
4.1.1 Permanent actions ........................................................................................................37
4.1.2 Variable actions ...........................................................................................................37
4.2 Load combinations and patterns for ultimate limit state .....................................................37
4.3 Analysis of beams ...............................................................................................................38
4.3.1 Non continuous beams ..............................................................................................39
4.3.2 Continuous beams ........................................................................................................40
4.4 Analysis of frames ..............................................................................................................44
4.4.1 Braced frames supporting vertical loads only .............................................................45
4.4.2 Lateral loads on frames ................................................................................................50
4.5 Redistribution of moments ..................................................................................................54
CHAPTER V. ANALYSIS OF THE SECTION ...............................................................................56
5.1 Stress Strain Relations .....................................................................................................56
5.1.1 Concrete .......................................................................................................................56
5.1.2 Reinforcing steel ..........................................................................................................56
5.2 Distribution of strains and stress across a section in bending .............................................57
5.3 Bending and the equivalent rectangular stress block ..........................................................59
5.4 Singly reinforced rectangular section in bending at the ultimate limit state .......................59
5.4.1 Design equations for bending ......................................................................................59
5.4.2 The balanced section....................................................................................................60

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5.4.3 Analysis equation for a singly reinforced section ........................................................61


5.5 Rectangular section in bending with compression reinforcement at the ultimate limit state
.63
5.5.1 Derivation of basic equations ......................................................................................63
5.5.2 Numerical Examples ....................................................................................................65
5.6 Flanged section in bending at the ultimate limit state .........................................................66
5.6.1 Flanged section- the depth of the stress block lies within the flange, s h f ..............67
s hf
5.6.2 Flanged section- the depth of the stress block extends below the flange, ........68
5.7 Moment redistribution and the design equations ................................................................72
CHAPTER VI. SHEAR AND BOND ...............................................................................................76
6.1 Shear....................................................................................................................................76
6.1.1 The variable strut inclination method for sections that do require shear reinforcement
..76
6.1.2 Bent-up bars .................................................................................................................79
6.2 Anchorage bond ..................................................................................................................81
6.2.1 General .........................................................................................................................81
6.2.2 Basic anchorage length ................................................................................................81
6.2.3 Design anchorage length..............................................................................................82
CHAPTER VII. DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS .............................................86
7.0 Introduction .........................................................................................................................86
7.1 Preliminary analysis and member sizing ............................................................................86
7.1.1 Overview......................................................................................................................86
7.1.2 Span-effective depth ratios ..........................................................................................90
7.2 Design for bending of a rectangular section with no moment redistribution......................94
7.2.1 Requirements ...............................................................................................................94
7.2.2 Singly reinforced rectangular sections, no moment redistribution ..............................95
7.2.3 Rectangular sections with tension and compression reinforcement, no moment
redistribution ..............................................................................................................................96
7.3 Design for bending of a rectangular section with moment redistribution...........................98
7.3.1 Singly reinforced rectangular sections with moment redistribution ............................98
7.3.2 Rectangular sections with tension and compression reinforcement with moment
redistribution applied (based on the UK Annex to EC2) ...........................................................98
7.4 Flanged beams...................................................................................................................100
7.4.1 Overview....................................................................................................................100
7.4.2 Design procedure for a flanged beam subject to a sagging moment .........................102
7.4.3 Shear between the web and flange of a flanged section ............................................102
7.5 One span beams .............................................................................................................106
7.6 Design for shear ................................................................................................................107

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7.6.1 General Overview ......................................................................................................107


7.6.2 Vertical stirrups or links ............................................................................................108
7.6.3 Bent-up bars to resist shear ........................................................................................111
7.7 Continuous beams .............................................................................................................111
7.8 Curtailment and anchorage of reinforcing bars.................................................................116
CHAPTER VIII. DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SLABS ...........................................119
8.0 Introduction .......................................................................................................................119
8.0.1 Classification of Slabs ...............................................................................................119
8.0.2 Concrete sections that do not require design shear reinforcement ............................119
8.1 Shear in slabs ....................................................................................................................120
8.1.1 Introduction................................................................................................................120
8.1.2 Punching shear analysis .............................................................................................120
8.1.3 Punching shear reinforcement design ........................................................................122
8.2 Span effective depth ratios .............................................................................................125
8.3 Reinforcement details .......................................................................................................125
8.4 One Way Spanning Solid Slabs .....................................................................................125
8.4.1 Single-span solid slabs ...............................................................................................126
8.4.2 Continuous solid slab spanning in one direction .......................................................128
8.5 Two Way Spanning Solid Slabs.....................................................................................131
8.5.1 Simply supported slab spanning in two directions ....................................................131
8.5.2 Restrained slab spanning in two directions ...............................................................133
8.6 Ribbed and Hollow Block Slabs .......................................................................................136
8.6.1 Classification; ............................................................................................................136
8.6.2 Advantages of Ribbed and hollow block slabs: .........................................................136
8.6.3 Design ........................................................................................................................136
8.7 Stair slabs ..........................................................................................................................144
8.7.1 General .......................................................................................................................144
8.7.2 Stairs spanning horizontally ......................................................................................144
8.7.3 Stair slab spanning longitudinally .............................................................................145
CHAPTER IX. DESIGN OF COLUMNS.......................................................................................147
9.0 Introduction .......................................................................................................................147
9.1 Classification of Columns .................................................................................................147
9.2 Slenderness ratio, Effective height and Limiting slenderness ratio of column .................148
9.2.1 Slenderness ratio of a column ....................................................................................148
l0
9.2.2 Effective height of a column .................................................................................148
9.2.3 Limiting slenderness ratio-short or slender columns .................................................149
9.3 Reinforcement details .......................................................................................................152

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9.3.1 Longitudinal steel ......................................................................................................152


9.3.2 Links ..........................................................................................................................152
9.4 Short columns resisting moments and axial forces ...........................................................152
9.5 Design equations for a non-symmetrical section ..............................................................158
9.6 Design of slender columns ................................................................................................161
CHAPTER X. DESIGN OF FOUNDATIONS ...............................................................................165
10.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................165
10.1.1 General .......................................................................................................................165
10.1.2 Foundation types ........................................................................................................165
10.1.3 Foundation design ......................................................................................................166
10.2 Pad footings ...................................................................................................................167
10.2.1 Overview....................................................................................................................167
10.2.2 Requirements .............................................................................................................168
10.2.3 Design Procedure .......................................................................................................169

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Chapter I: Introduction

CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION
1.0 General
A structure is any load bearing construction; in other words it is an organized assembly of connected
parts designed to provide mechanical resistance and stability.

Assumptions made in structural design


a) Structures are designed by appropriately qualified and experienced personnel.
b) Adequate supervision and quality control is provided in factories, plants and site.
c) Construction is carried out by personnel with appropriate skills and experience.
d) The construction materials and products are used as specified in euro code II or in the relevant
materials or product specifications.
e) The structure will be adequately maintained.

Structural design procedure


The architect determines arrangement of elements to meet the clients requirements. This is availed
to the structural engineer as architectural plants. The structural engineer determines the best structural
system to fit the architects concept. There are two structural systems are
framed
framed with shear walls
After completing the structure arrangement/ structure lay out, the design process consists of the
following steps.
i) Idealization of the structure into load bearing frames and elements for analysis and design.
ii) Estimation of loads based on materials and use of structure.
iii) Analysis to determine the maximum moments, axial forces, shear and torsional forces, and
deflection for design.
iv) Design of concrete sections and reinforcement areas and layout for slabs, beams, columns,
walls and foundations.
v) Production of detailed drawings and bar bending schedules.

1.1 Historical Perspective


1.1.1 General
The Eurocodes are a family of ten European codes of practice for the design of building and civil
engineering structures in concrete, steel, timber and masonry, amongst other materials. Table 7.1 lists
the reference numbers and titles of the ten Eurocodes. Like the present UK codes of practice,
Eurocodes will come in a number of parts, each containing rules relevant to the design of a range of
structures including buildings, bridges, water retaining structures, silos and tanks. EN 1991 provides
characteristic values of loads (termed actions in Eurocode-speak) needed for design. EN 1990, the
head Eurocode, is the worlds first materialindependent design code and provides guidance on
determining the design value of actions and combination of actions, including partial safety factors
for actions. EN 1997 covers the geotechnical aspect of foundation design. EN 1998 is devoted to
earthquake design and provides guidance on achieving earthquake resistance of buildings, bridges,
towers, geotechnical structures, amongst others.

Uganda being a former British protectorate has followed the British system of design. Upto 1972, the
British system was designing structures using the elastic design/ Modular ratio method of designing.

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Chapter I: Introduction

Table 1-1 The Structural Eurocodes


EuroNorm reference Title
EN1990 Eurocode 0: Basis of design
EN1991 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures
EN1992 Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures
EN1993 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures
EN1994 Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures
EN1995 Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures
EN1996 Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures
EN1997 Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design
EN1998 Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance
EN1999 Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium structures

1.1.2 The Elastic Design.


It is based on the assumption that the stress strain behavior of both steel and concrete remain elastic
i.e. stress is proportional to strain.
Force , change in length , and Stress
Stress Strain Modulus of Elasticty
Area original length Strain
Both the concrete and steel have a constant modulus of elasticity; E s Ec , and therefore there is
Es
a fixed ratio of moduli that n .
Ec
It further implies that the stresses are limited to permissible values.
The code of practice in use was CP 114.
1.1.2 CP 114
Multiplies a factor of a third (1 / 3) by the cube stress to obtain the permissible stress of concrete
under bending/flexure.
If divides the yield stress by factor of 1.8 to get the permissible stress in steel.
The permissible stress of steel was limited to 230N / mm 2 whatever the grade of steel. This
limitation aimed at controlling the crack width since at the permissible stress of steel in tension,
the surrounding concrete has cracked.

1.3 Introduction to limit state design.


In 1972, a limit state design code CP110 was introduced but it was not until 1986 that Engineers in
Uganda switched to limit state design. In 1985. CP110 was withdrawn. A new limit state design code
BS 8110 was introduced. This has undergone a series of amendment until it was withdrawn in 2010.
Euro code II was introduced in 2000 and has been working hand in hand with BS8110. Euro code II
applies to normal weight concrete. The design rules of Eurocode II is based only on the f ck of
cylinders at 28days. Cube strength is mentioned only as an alternative to prove compliance.

1.4 Introduction to Eurocode 2


Eurocode 2 applies to the design of buildings and civil engineering works in concrete. It is based on
limit state principles and comes in four parts as shown in Table 1-2 below.
Part 1.1 of Eurocode 2 gives a general basis for the design of structures in plain, reinforced,
lightweight, pre-cast and prestressed concrete. In addition, it gives some detailing rules which are

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Chapter I: Introduction

mainly applicable to ordinary buildings. It is largely similar in scope to BS 8110 which it will replace
by about 2010. Design of building structures cannot wholly be undertaken using Part 1.1 of Eurocode
2, however. Reference will have to be made to a number of other documents, notably EN 1990
(Eurocode 0) and Eurocode 1 to determine the design values of actions (section 8.5), BS 4449 for
mechanical properties of reinforcing steel (section 8.4.1), Part 1.2 of Eurocode 2 for fire design
(section 8.7.1), BS 8500 and EN 206 for durability design (section 8.7.2) and Eurocode 7 for
foundation design (Fig. 8.1).

Table 1-2 Scope of Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures


Part Subject
1.1 General rules and rules for buildings
1.2 Structural fire design
2 Reinforced and prestressed concrete bridges
3 Liquid retaining and containment structures

The main reason cited for structuring the information in this way is to avoid repetition and make the
design guidance in Part 1.1 more concise than BS 8110. Part 1.1 of Eurocode 2, hereafter referred to
as EC 2, was issued as a preliminary standard or ENV in 1992 and in final form as BS EN 1992-1-1
in 2004. The following subjects are covered in EC 2:

Section 1: General
Section 2: Basis of design
Section 3: Materials
Section 4: Durability and cover to reinforcement
Section 5: Structural analysis
Section 6: Ultimate limit states
Section 7: Serviceability limit states
Section 8: Detailing of reinforcement and prestressing tendons General
Section 9: Detailing of members and particular rules
Section 10: Additional rules for precast concrete elements and structures
Section 11: Lightweight aggregate concrete structures
Section 12: Plain and lightly reinforced concrete structures

Also included are ten annexes which provide supplementary information on a range of topics
including creep and shrinkage, reinforcing steel, durability design and analysis of flat slabs and shear
walls.

1.5 Why change to Euro code II from BS8110


(a) Euro code II results in more economic structures.
(b) Euro code II is less restrictive than British standards.
(c) Euro code II is extensive and comprehensive.
(d) The new Euro codes are claimed to be the most technically advanced codes in the world.
(e) Europe, all public works must follow Euro codes for structural design, implying that KYU
graduates would be able to work in Europe and probably the whole of Africa.
(f) Euro codes are logical and organized to avoid repetition.

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Chapter II: Properties of Reinforced Concrete

CHAPTER II. PROPERTIES OF REINFORCED CONCRETE


2.0 Introduction
Reinforced concrete consists of both concrete and steel. It is a strong durable building material that
can be formed into many varied shapes and ranging from a simple rectangular column, to a slender
curved dome or shell, its utility and versatility are achieved by combining the best features of concrete
and steel.
Table 2-1: properties of steel and concrete
Property concrete steel
Strength in tension Poor Very good
Strength in compression Good Very good but slender bars will
Strength in shear Fair buckle
Durability Good Very good
Fire resistance Good Poor, corrodes if unprotected
Poor-suffers rapid loss of strength at
high temperature

As seen from table 2-1, concrete is poor in tension, good in compression, and fair in shear. On the
other hand, steel is very good in tension, compression and shear. Thus, when they are combined, the
steel is able to provide the tensile strength and probably some of the shear strength while the concrete,
strong in compression, protects the steel to give durability and fire resistance.
i) In beams, slabs, and stair cases, where there is tension, the concrete must be reinforced by steel.
ii) In areas where the compression forces are very high such as columns, concrete must be
reinforced by steel and the steel must be tied and surrounded by concrete in order not to buckle.
Steel is poor in durability and fire resistance while concrete is good, therefore concrete must provide
cover to protect the steel.

2.1 Composite action


The tensile strength of concrete is only about 10 per cent of the compressive strength. Because of
this, nearly all reinforced concrete structures are designed on the assumption that the concrete does
not resist any tensile forces. Reinforcement is designed to carry these tensile forces, which are
transferred from concrete to steel by bond which is achieved by;
i) Using concrete with f ck 20N / mm2
ii) Well compacted concrete around reinforcement bars.
iii) Ribbed and twisted bars to give an extra mechanical grip
If this bond is not adequate, the reinforcing bars will just slip within the concrete and there will not
be a composite action. Composite action is achieved when there is perfect bond such that the strain
in steel equals to that in the adjacent concrete.
The coefficients of thermal expansion for steel and for concrete are nearly the same; therefore
differential expansion does not affect bond over normal temperature ranges.
Coefficients of Thermal Expansion,
for steel 10 106 per C
for concrete (7 ~ 12) 106 per C

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Chapter II: Properties of Reinforced Concrete

Figure 2-1 illustrates the behavior of a simply supported beam subject to bending and shows the
position of steel reinforcement to resist the tensile forces, while the compression forces in the top of
the beam are carried by the concrete.
Load A

Compression

Tension Strain Section A-A


Distribution
Cracking
Reinforcement A
Fig.2-1 Composite action

Since concrete is poor in tension, the bottom concrete will crack.


However, this cracking does not detract from the safety of the structure provided there is good
reinforcement bonding to ensure that the cracks are restrained from opening so that the embedded
steel continues to be protected from corrosion.

2.2 Stress strain relations


The loads on a structure cause distortion of its members with resulting stresses and strains in the
concrete and the steel reinforcement. To carry out the analysis and design of a member it is necessary
to have a knowledge of the relationship between these stresses and strains. This knowledge is
particularly important when dealing with reinforced concrete which is a composite material; for in
this case the analysis of the stresses on a cross-section of a member must consider the equilibrium of
the forces in the concrete and steel.

2.2.1 Stress Strain relationship of concrete


Concrete is a very variable material, having a wide range of strengths and stress-strain curves. A
typical curve for concrete in compression is shown in figure 2.2. As the load is applied, the ratio
between the stresses and strains is approximately linear at first and the concrete behaves almost as
an elastic material with virtually a full recovery of displacement if the load is removed. Eventually,
the curve is no longer linear and the concrete behaves more and more as a plastic material. If the load
were removed during the plastic range the recovery would no longer be complete and a permanent
deformation would remain. The ultimate strain for most structural concretes tends to be a constant
value of approximately 0.0035, irrespective of the strength of the concrete. The precise shape of the
curve is very dependent on the length of time the load is applied. Figure 2.2 is typical for a short-
term loading.
The stress/strain diagram for concrete subject to uniaxial compression is shown in the figure below.

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Chapter II: Properties of Reinforced Concrete

c <0
simplification
fc actual
cu fc peak stress

0.4f c cl strain at the peak stress fc


Ec cu ultimate stress
Ecm
c <0
cl cu
Fig.2-2 Stress-strain diagram for uniaxial compression
CL 0.0022 , CU 0.0035 and Ecm mean value of the secant modulus
a) Strength classes of concrete
The design shall be based on the strength classes of concrete which correspond to characteristic
strength values given in table 3.1 of euro code II. Table 3.1 gives the f ck of concrete and the
corresponding tensile strength.
The quality of concrete are described by characteristic cylinder strength/ characteristic cube
strength, e.g. C30/37.
In the U.K and consequently in Uganda, compressive stress has been measured and expressed
in terms of 150mm cube crushing strength at an age of 28days. Most other countries use
150mm diameter cylinders which are 300mm long. For normal strength concrete, the cylinder
strength is equal to 0.8 of the cube strength.
All design calculations to Euro code II are based on the characteristic cylinder strength f ck .
b) Modulus of Elasticity
The modulus of elasticity depends on;
i) Strength class of concrete,
ii) Properties of aggregates used,
iii) The mean value of the secant modulus Ecm for a particular class is obtained from table 3.2 of
the code.
Table 2.2 Values of the secant modulus of elasticity E cm (in kN/mm 2 ) (based on table 3.2 EC II)
Strength
C12/15 C16/20 C20/25 C25/30 C30/37 C35/45 C40/50 C45/55 C50/60
class C
E cm 26 27.5 29 30.5 32 33.5 35 36 37

The values in table 3.2 are based on the equation.


Ecm 9.5 f ck 8
1// 3

where Ecm is in KN / mm 2
f ck is in N / mm 2 , f ck is strength at 28days
Thus Ecm is also for 28days.
The modulus of elasticity is required.
(i) When investigating deflection of a structure.
(ii) When investigating cracking of a structure.
(iii)When considering both short term and long term effects of creep and shrinkage.

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Chapter II: Properties of Reinforced Concrete

c) Poissons Ratio
For design purpose; the Poissons ratio for elastic strain is 0.2

2.2.2 Stress- Strain relationship of steel


Figure 2.3 shows typical stress strain curves for (a) hot rolled yield steel, and (b) cold-worked high
yield steel. Mild steel behaves as an elastic material, with the strain proportional to the stress up to
the yield, at which point there is a sudden increase in train with no change in stress.
After the yield point, mild steel becomes a plastic material and the strain increases rapidly up to the
ultimate value. High yield steel, which is most commonly used for reinforcement, may behave in a
similar manner or may, on the other hand, not have such a definite yield point but may show a more
gradual change from an elastic to a plastic behaviour and reduced ductility depending on the
manufacturing process.
All materials have a similar slope of the elastic region with elastic modulus E 200kN / mm 2
approximately.

0.2% proof
Yield stress
stress
stress

stress

Strain 0.002 Strain


(a) Hot rolled steel (b) Cold worked steel
Fig.2.3 Stress-strain curves for high yield reinforcing steel

The specified strength used in design is based on either the yield stress or a specified proof stress. A
0.2 per cent proof stress is defined in figure 2.4 by the broken line drawn parallel to the linear part of
the stress-strain curve.

Removal of the load within the plastic range would result in the stress-strain diagram following a line
approximately parallel to the loading portion - see line BC in figure 2.4. The steel will be left with a
permanent strain AC, which is known as slip. If the steel is again loaded, the stress-strain diagram
will follow the unloading curve until it almost reaches the original stress at B and then it will curve
in the direction of the first loading. Thus, the proportional limit for the second loading is higher than
for the initial loading. This action is referred to as strain hardening or work hardening.

B
stress

A C
Fig.2.4 Strain hardening

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Chapter II: Properties of Reinforced Concrete

2.3 Shrinkage and thermal movement


This is the reduction in volume as concrete hardens. This shrinkage is liable to cause cracking of the
concrete, but it also has beneficial effect of strengthening the bond between the concrete and the
steel reinforcement. Shrinkage begins to take place as soon as the concrete is mixed.

2.3.1 Causes of shrinkage


It is caused by;
a) Initial absorption of the water by the concrete and the aggregate.
b) Evaporation of the water which rises to the concrete surface.
c) During the hydration of cement, a great deal of heat is generated and as concrete cools, the
thermal contraction results in further shrinkage.
d) The hardened concrete continuous drying resulting in further shrinkage.

How it can be controlled;


Thermal shrinkage may be reduced by restricting temperature rise during hydration, and can be
achieved by;
a) Use a mix design with a low cement content or suitable cement replacement.
b) Avoid rapid hardening and finely ground cement if possible.
c) Keep aggregate and mixing water cool.
d) Use steel shuttering and cool with a water spray.
e) Strike the shuttering early to allow the heat of hydration to dissipate.

A low water-cement ratio will help to reduce drying shrinkage by keeping to a minimum the volume
of moisture that can be lost.
If the change in volume of the concrete is allowed to take place freely and without restraint, there
will be no stress change within the concrete. Restraint of the shrinkage, on the other hand, will cause
tensile strains and stresses. The restraint may be caused externally by fixity with adjoining members
or friction against an earth surface, and internally by the action of the steel reinforcement. For a long
wall or floor slab, the restraint from adjoining concrete may be reduced by constructing successive
bays instead of alternate bays. This allows the free end of every bay to contract before the next bay
is cast.

When tensile stresses caused by shrinkage or thermal movement exceed the strength of concrete,
cracking will occur. To control cracking, steel reinforcement must be provided close to the concrete
surface.

2.3.2 Calculation of stresses induced by shrinkage

(a) Shrinkage restrained by the reinforcement


The shrinkage stresses caused by reinforcement in an otherwise unrestrained member may be
calculated quite simply. The member shown in figure 2.5 has a free shrinkage strain of cs if made
of plain concrete, but this overall movement is reduced by the inclusion of reinforcement, giving a
compressive strain sc in the steel and causing an effective tensile strain ct the concrete.

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Chapter II: Properties of Reinforced Concrete

Original member -
as cast
cs
Plain concrete -
unrestrained
ct
Reinforced concrete -
unrestrained
sc
ct

Reinforced concrete -
fully restrained

Fig.2.5 Shrinkage strains


The free shrinkage strain in concrete Ecs is given by;
cs ct sc
where ct tensile strain in concrete.
sc compressive strain in steel.
but we know, strain( ) stress f

Young' s Modulus E
f ct f
cs ct sc sc (1)
Ecm Es
where f ct is the tensile stress in concrete area Ac and f sc is the compressive stress in steel area As .
Equating forces in the concrete and steel for equilibrium gives
Ac f ct As f sc (2)
As
therefore f ct f sc
Ac
Substituting for f ct in equation (1)
As f sc f
cs sc
Ac Ecm Es
A 1
cs f sc s
Ac Ecm Es
E
Thus if n s
Ecm
nA 1
cs f sc s
Ac Es Es
f sc nAs
1
Es Ac
Therefore the steel stress
cs E s
f sc (3)
1 nAs / Ac

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Chapter II: Properties of Reinforced Concrete

Worked Example 2.1: Calculation of shrinkage stresses in concrete that is restrained by


reinforcement only.
A member contains 1.0 per cent reinforcement, and the free shrinkage strain cs of the concrete is
200 106 . For steel, Es 200KN / mm2 and for concrete Ecm 15KN / mm2 . Determine the stresses in
steel and concrete given that the member is restrained by reinforcement only.

Solution.
As A
1% 100 s 0.01
Ac Ac
From equation (3)
cs E s
stress in reinforcement f sc
1 nAs / Ac
Es 200
where Ecs 200106 , Ecm 15KN / mm2 , Es 200KN / mm2 and n
Ecm 15
200 106 200 103
f sc
1 200 / 15 0.01
f sc 35.3 N / mm2 ( compression)
As
stress in reinforcement f ct f sc
Ac
0.01 35.3
0.35 N / mm 2 (tension)
Note: The stresses produced in members free from external restraint are generally small as example
1.1, and can be easily withstood both by the steel and the concrete.

(b) Shrinkage fully restrained


If the member is fully restrained, then the steel cannot be in compression since sc 0 and hence
f sc 0 (figure 1.7). In this case the tensile strain induced in the concrete ct must be equal to the free
shrinkage strain cs , and the corresponding stress will probably be high enough to cause cracking in
immature concrete.

Worked Example 2.2: Calculation of fully restrained shrinkage stresses


If the member in example 2.1 above was fully restrained, determine the tensile stress in concrete.

Solution.
If the member in example 1.1 was fully restrained, the stress in the concrete would be given by
f ct ct Ecm ;
where ct cs 200106
then
f ct 200 106 15 103
3.0 N / mm 2

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Chapter II: Properties of Reinforced Concrete

2.3.2 Factors affecting shrinkage


Shrinkage of concrete depends on;
a) Ambient humidity.
b) Dimensions of the elements.
c) Compressive of concrete.

Table 2-3 (Table 3.4 of euro code II) gives the final shrinkage strain of a normal weight concrete
subject to a compressive stress not exceeding 0.45 f ck at the time of first loading.
i) For values in table 3.4 variation in temperature between 20C and 40C are acceptable.
ii) Variations in humidity between relative humidity (RH 20% 100%) are acceptable.
iii) Linear interpolation between the values in the table are acceptable.

Table 2.3- Final shrinkage strain cs of normal weight concrete (Table 3.4 of euro code II)
Location of the Relative humidity Notional size 2 Ac / u (mm)
member (%) 150 600
Inside 50 -0.60 -0.50
Outside 80 -0.33 -0.28
where Ac cross-sectional area of concrete
u perimeter of that area

2.4 Creep
2.4.1 General
Creep is the continuous deformation of a member under sustained load. It is a phenomenon associated
with many materials, but it is particularly evident with concrete. It depends on;
i) The aggregates and the mix design (Composition of concrete).
ii) Ambient humidity
iii) Member cross-section.
iv) Age at first loading.
v) Duration of loading.
vi) Magnitude of loading.

2.4.2 Characteristic of Creep


a) The final deformation of the member can be three to four times the short-term elastic deformation.
b) The deformation is roughly proportional to the intensity of loading and to the inverse of the
concrete strength.
c) If the load is removed, only the instantaneous elastic deformation will recover; the plastic
deformation will not.
d) There is a redistribution of the load between the concrete and any steel present.
e) The redistribution of load is caused by the changes in compressive strains being transferred to the
reinforcing steel. Thus the compressive stresses in the steel are increased so that the steel takes a
larger proportion of the load.

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Chapter II: Properties of Reinforced Concrete

2.4.3 Effects of Creep


The effects of creep are particularly important in beams, where the increased deflections may cause;
a) Opening of cracks.
b) Damage to finishes.
c) Non-alignment of mechanical equipment.
Redistribution of stress between concrete and steel occurs primarily in the uncracked compressive
areas and has little effect on the tension reinforcement other than reducing shrinkage stresses in some
instances. The provision of reinforcement in the compression zone of a flexural member, however,
often helps to restrain the deflections due to creep.

Values in table 2-4 (Table 3.3 of euro code II) can be considered as the final creep coefficient (, t o )
of a normal weight concrete subjected to a compressive stress not exceeding 0.45 f ck .

Table 2.4- Final creep coefficient (, t o ) of normal weight concrete


Notional size 2 Ac / u (in mm)
Age at 50 150 600 50 150 600
loading to Humid atmospheric conditions
Dry atmospheric conditions (inside)
(days) (outside)
(RH=50%)
(RH=80%)
1 5.5 4.6 3.7 3.6 3.2 2.9
7 3.9 3.1 2.6 2.6 2.3 2.0
28 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.9 1.7 1.5
90 2.4 2.0 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.2
365 1.8 1.5 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.0
Linear interpolation between the values in table is permitted.

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Chapter III: Limit State Design

CHAPTER III. LIMIT STATE DESIGN


3.0 Introduction
Limit state design of an engineering structure must ensure that under the worst loadings the structure
is safe, and that during normal working conditions the deformation of the members does not detract
from the appearance, durability or performance of the structure. Three methods have been developed
for design of structures.

3.0.1 The permissible stress method.


The ultimate strengths of the materials are divided by a factor of safety to provide permissible design
stresses which are usually within the elastic range (It can also be called Elastic design method or the
modular ratio method).
Limitation;
i) It is not really applicable to a semi-plastic material such as concrete since it is based on an elastic
stress distribution.
ii) It is not suitable when displacement are not proportional to the loads such as in slender columns.

3.0.2 The Load factor Method.


The working loads are multiplied by a factor of safety.
Limitations;
i) It does not apply a factor of safety to material stresses. Therefore it does not consider variability
of materials.
ii) It cannot be used to calculate the deflection and cracking at service loads.

In the load factor method the ultimate strength of the materials should be used in the calculations. As
this method does not apply factors of safety to the material stresses, it cannot directly take account
of the variability of the materials, and also it cannot be used to calculate the deflections or cracking
at working loads. Again, this is a design method that has now been effectively superseded by modern
limit state design methods.

3.0.3 Limit State Method


The limit state method of design, now widely adopted across Europe and many other parts of the
world, overcomes many of the disadvantages of the previous two methods. It multiplies the service
loads by partial factor of safety and also divides the materials ultimate strengths by further partial
factors of safety.

3.1 Limit states


A limit state is a situation beyond which the structure becomes unfit for its intended use. The purpose
of design is to achieve acceptable probabilities that a structure will not become unfit for its intended
use that is, that it will not reach a limit state. Thus, any way in which a structure may cease to be
fit for use will constitute a limit state and the design aim is to avoid any condition being reached
during the expected life of the structure. There are two limit states.
i) The ultimate limit state.
ii) The serviceability limit state.

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Chapter III: Limit State Design

3.1.1 The Ultimate Limit State.


This requires that the structure must be able to withstand, with an adequate factor of safety against
collapse, the loads for which it is designed to ensure the safety of the building occupants and/or the
safety of the structure itself. The possibility of buckling or overturning must also be taken into
account, as must the possibility of accidental damage as caused, for example, by an internal
explosion. The structure or its elements should not collapse, overturn or buckle, or become unfit for
use due to accidental damage.
The Ultimate Limit State considers;
i) Robustness.
ii) Stability.
iii) Strength.

i) Robustness
To be robust means that the layout of the structure should be such that damage to a small area or
failure of a single element will not lead to progressive collapse.
To achieve robustness;
i) The structure must be able to resist a minimum horizontal load.
ii) The elements of the structure must be provided with ties.

Minimum Horizontal Load: (Clause 2.5.1.3) and figure 3.1


The minimum horizontal load is given by
a) The design horizontal load assumed to act at any floor level should not be less than H min .
Horizontal loads are as a result of wind, earthquake and traffic where H min is given by
H min Vi n
where Vi total design vertical load above the level considered.
notational (assumed) out of plumbed angle in radians given by
1 1

(100 L ) 200
where L is the overall height of the structure in meters.
n is an allowance for causes where n vertically continuous elements act
together.
1 1/ n
n
2
b) In a braced structure, the horizontal elements connecting the vertical elements to the bracing
structure should be designed to carry an additional horizontal load H fd
v
H fd ( N ba N bc )
2
where N ba design vertical load in the vertical elements above the horizontal member
considered.
N bc design vertical load in the vertical elements below the horizontal member
considered.
Details of N ba and N bc are given in figure 2.1 of the code.

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Chapter III: Limit State Design

Vc1 Vc2 Vcn Vc1 Vc2 Vcn


a) c b) c) c
Hc Hc
Vb1 Vbn Vb1 Vb2 Vbn
b Nbc lcol b
Hb H fd Hb
Va1 Van Va1 Va2 Van
l floor a l floor a
v Ha v/2 Nba lcol Ha
v v v

n
H j = Vji v H fd = ( Nbc + Nba ) v/2 H j as in fig. a)

Fig.3.1 Application of the effective geometrical imperfections


Design of Ties
Detailed design information for ties is not given in Euro code II.
NAD National Application Document recommends that the design method for BS8110 should
be used.
The design of ties is given in clause 3.12.3 of BS8110.

The general stability and robustness of a building structure can be increased by providing
reinforcement acting as ties. These ties should act both vertically between roof and foundations, and
horizontally around and across each floor (figure 3.2), and all external vertical load-bearing members
should be anchored to the floors and beams.

The types of ties

Fig.3.2 Tie forces


Vertical ties
Vertical ties are not generally necessary in structures of less than five storeys but in higher buildings
should be provided by reinforcement, effectively continuous from roof to foundation by means of
proper laps, running through all vertical load-bearing members. This steel should be capable of
resisting a tensile force equal to the maximum design ultimate load carried by the column or wall
from any one storey or the roof.

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Chapter III: Limit State Design

Horizontal ties
Horizontal ties should be provided for all buildings, irrespective of height, in three ways:
1. Peripheral ties.
2. Internal ties.
3. Column and Wall ties.

a) Peripheral ties.
Peripheral tie must be provided by reinforcement at each floor or roof level.
Peripheral tie must be continuous.
This reinforcement must lie within 1.2m from the edge of building or within the perimeter wall.
It should be capable of resisting a force of at least Ft .
Ft (20 4no ) or 60KN whichever is less.
no number of storeys in structure.
b) Internal Ties
Internal ties should be provided at each floor in two perpendicular directions.
They should be continuous throughout their length.
They should be anchored at each end, either to the peripheral tie or to the continuous column or
wall ties.
They may be located as follows;
a) Spread evenly in slabs
b) Grouped in beams
c) Grouped in walls. Where walls are used, the tie reinforcement must be within 0.5m
of the top or bottom of the floor slab.
Internal ties should be able to resist a tensile force T.
F (G Qk ) Lr
T t k or 1.0 Ft whichever is greater.
7.5 5
where (Gk Qk ) the characteristic load per m 2 of the floor considered.
Lr the greatest horizontal distance in the direction of the tie between the centres of
vertical load-bearing members.

If the ties are grouped in walls or beams, their maximum spacing should be limited to 1.5Lr .
Spacing 1.5Lr

c) Column and Wall Ties


Column and Wall Ties must be able to resist a force of 3% of the total vertical ultimate load
carried by columns or walls.
L
The resistance provided must not be less than the smaller of 2 Ft or s Ft kN where L s is the
2 .5
floor to ceiling height in members.
Wall ties are assessed on the basis of the above forces acting per metre length of the wall.
Column ties are concentrated within 1m of either side of the column center line.

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Chapter III: Limit State Design

Worked Example 3.1: Stability ties


Calculate the stability ties required in an eight-storey building of plan area shown in figure 3.3:
Clear storey height under beams 2.9m
Floor to ceiling height (l s ) 3.4m
Characteristic permanent load ( g k ) 6KN / m 2
Characteristic variable load (qk ) 3KN / m 2
Characteristic steel strength ( f yk ) 500N / mm 2

Precast floor slab Longitudinal beam

7m
Transverse beams

4 bays @ 6.5m=26m

Fig.3.3 Structure layout


Ft (20 4 number of storeys)
20 4 8 52KN 60KN

(a) Peripheral ties


Force to be resisted Ft 52KN
52 103
Bar area required 104mm 2
500
This could be provided by one H12 bar.

(b) Internal ties


Ft ( g k q k ) l r
Force to be resisted kN per metre
7.5 5
(1) Transverse direction
52(6 3) 7
Force 87.4 KN / m Ft
7.5 5
Force per bay 87.4 6.5 568.1KN
Therefore, bar area required in each transverse interior beam is
568.1 103
1136mm 2
500
This could be provided by 4 H20 bars.
(2) Longitudinal direction
52(6 3) 6.5
Force 81.1KN / m Ft
7.5 5

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Chapter III: Limit State Design

Therefore force along length of building 81.1 7 567.7KN , hence bar area required in each
567.7 103
longitudinal beam is 567mm 2
2 500
This could be provided by 2 H20 bars.

(3) Column ties


Force to be designed for is
ls 3.4
Ft 52 70.7 KN 2 Ft
2.5 2.5
or 3 per cent of ultimate floor load on a column is
3 7
8 (1.35 6 1.5 3) 6.5 69KN at ground floor level
100 2
To allow for 3 per cent of column self-weight, take design force to be 72KN, say, at ground level.
72 103
Area of ties required 144mm 2
500
This would be provided by 1 H20 bar and incorporated with the internal ties. At higher floor levels a
design force of 70.7KN would be used giving a similar practical reinforcement requirement.

(c) Vertical ties


Assume quasi-permanent loading with 2 0.6 .
Thus the ultimate design load 1.0 6 0.6 3 7.8KN / m 2 .
Maximum column load from one storey is approximately equal to
7.8 3.5 6.5 177.5KN
Therefore bar area required throughout each column is equal to
177.5 103
355mm 2
500
This would be provided by 4 H12 bars.

ii) Stability
Building structures are classified into two types.
a) Braced, and
b) Unbraced
A braced structure is one that resists lateral loads by means of bracing. Lateral loads include;
wind loads, and
seismic loads (earthquake loads)
Bracing in RC structures include;
Shear walls
RC lift shafts
RC stair wells
The bracing must be able to transmit the horizontal loads down to foundation.

* Unbraced structures dont have bracing elements.


Lateral loads are resisted by action of rigidly connected columns, beams and slabs.

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Chapter III: Limit State Design

Structures can also be describes as sway or non sway structures.


Non sway structures are those where there is less than 10% increase in the normal design
moment due to the displacement of the structure.
Sway structures are those where the secondary moment due to displacement are greater than
10% of the normal design moment.

iii) Strength
The structure should be adequately strong to carry all applied loads without collapse.

3.1.2 Serviceability Limit State


Generally the most important serviceability limit states are:
i) Deflection:
The appearance or efficiency of any part of the structure must not be adversely affected by deflections
nor should the comfort of the building users be adversely affected.
ii) Cracking:
Local damage due to cracking and spalling must not affect the appearance, efficiency or durability
of structure.
iii) Durability:
This must be considered in terms of the proposed life of the structure and its conditions of exposure.
This is the resistance to wear, tear and environmental effects with time. Any reinforced concrete
structure must be designed to protect the embedded steel.
Thus the durability of concrete is influenced by;
a) Exposure conditions
b) Concrete quality and workmanship
c) Cover to reinforcement
d) Width of any crack
If durability is neglected, it will lead to increased expenditures on;
i) Inspection
ii) maintenance
iii) repair
Durability in R.C concerns the selection of the appropriate concrete grade and cover, for the
conditions of;
a) Environmental exposure
b) Protection of reinforcement against a rapid rise in temperature and resultant loss of strength.

Exposure conditions are given in table 4.1 of the code and Minimum cover requirements for exposure
conditions are given in table 4.2.

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Chapter III: Limit State Design

Table 3-1 (Table 4.1 of Euro code II) Exposure classes related to environmental conditions
Exposure class Example of environmental conditions
1 interior of buildings for normal habitation or offices a
dry environment
2 a - interior of buildings where humidity is high (e.g. laundries)
without - exterior components
humid frost - components in non-aggressive soil and/or water
environment b - exterior components exposed to frost
With - components in non-aggressive soil and/or water and exposed
frost to frost
- interior components when the humidity is high and exposed
to frost
3
humid environment with frost Interior and exterior components to frost and de-icing agents
and
de-icing salts
4 a - components completely or partially submerged in seawater,
without or in the splash
frost - components in saturated salt air (coastal area)
seawater environment b - components partially submerged in seawater or in the splash
With zone and exposed to frost
frost - components in saturated salt air and exposed to frost
The following classes may occur alone or in combination with the above classes:
5 a - slightly aggressive chemical environment (gas, liquid or
aggressive chemical solid)
b
environment - aggressive industrial atmosphere
b moderately aggressive chemical environment (gas, liquid or
solid)
c highly aggressive chemical environment (gas, liquid or solid)
a
This exposure class is valid only as long as during construction the structure or some of its
components is not exposed to more severe conditions over a prolonged period of time.
b
Chemically aggressive environments are classified in ISO/DP 9690. The following equivalent
exposure conditions may be assumed:
Exposure class 5a: ISO classification A1G,A1L,A1S
Exposure class 5b: ISO classification A2G,A2L,A2S
Exposure class 5c: ISO classification A3G,A3L,A3S

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Chapter III: Limit State Design

Table 3-2 (Table 4.2 of Euro code II) Minimum cover requirement for normal weight concrete 1)
Exposure class, according to Table 4.1
1 2a 2b 3 4a 4b 5a 5b 5c
2) Reinforcement 15 20 25 40 40 40 25 30 40
Minimum cover
(mm)
Prestressing 25 30 35 50 50 50 35 40 50
steel
NOTES
1. In order to satisfy the provisions of 4.1.3.3 P(3), these minimum values for cover should be associated
with particular concrete qualities, to be determined from Table 3 in ENV 206.
2. For slab elements, a reduction of 5mm may be made for exposure classes 2-5.
3. A reduction of 5mm may be made where concrete of strength class C40/50 and above is used for
reinforced concrete in exposure classes 2a-5b, and for prestressed concrete in exposure classes 1-5b.
However, the minimum cover should be less than that for Exposure Class 1 in Table 4.2.
4. For exposure class 5c, the use of a protective barrier, to prevent direct contact with the aggressive media,
should be provided.

Concrete cover (clause 4.1.3.3)


The concrete cover is the distance between the outer surface of the reinforcement (including links
and stirrups) and the nearest concrete surface.
cover

cover

bundle

A minimum concrete cover shall be provided in order to ensure;


i) the safe transmission of bond forces;
ii) that spalling will not occur;
iii) an adequate fire resistance;
iv) the protection of the steel against corrosion;
The protection of reinforcement against corrosion depends upon the continuing presence of a
surrounding alkaline environment provided by an adequate thickness of good quality, well-cured
concrete.
The thickness of cover required depends both upon;
The exposure conditions as shown in table 4.2
The concrete quality.

Minimum Concrete Cover


5mm
i) cover min if d g 32mm
n 5mm

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Chapter III: Limit State Design


ii) cover min d 32mm
n g
where the diameter of the bar
n the equivalent diameter for a bundle
d g the largest nominal maximum aggregate size.
The minimum concrete cover to all reinforcement including links and stirrups should not be less than
the appropriate values of given in Table 4.2, for the relevant exposure class defined in Table 4.1.

Nominal Cover
This is the cover used in design and specify on drawing and nominal cover is given by nominal cover
which is equal to minimum cover + h .
where h is Tolerance on cover to reinforcement and given by; 5mm h 10mm .
h depends on;
i) Type and size of structural element/member.
ii) Type of construction.
iii) Standards of workmanship.
iv) Quality control
v) Detailing practice.

Other limit states that may be reached include:


iv) Excessive vibration: which may cause discomfort or alarm as well as damage.
v) Fatigue: must be considered if cyclic loading is likely.
vi) Fire resistance: this must be considered in terms of resistance to collapse, flame penetration
and heat transfer.
Fire resistance depends on;
o amount of cover
o member thickness
o type and quality of materials
o workmanship
vii) Special circumstance: any special requirements of the structure which are not covered by
any of the more common limit states, such as earthquake resistance, must be taken into
account.

3.2 Characteristic material strength


3.2.1 General
The strengths of materials upon which a design is based, normally, those strengths below which
results are unlikely to fall. These are called characteristic strength. It is assumed that for a given
material, the distribution of strength will be approximately normal, so that a frequency distribution
curve of a large number of sample results would be of the form shown in figure 3-4. The characteristic
strength is taken as that value below which it is unlikely that more than 5 per cent of the results will
fall.
This is given by
f k f m 1.64

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Chapter III: Limit State Design

where f k characteristic strength

f m mean strength, f m
f
n
f =values of cube strength
n = number of cubes tested.
standard deviation, is a measure of quality control
( f fm )2
1/ 2


n
The relationship between characteristic and mean values accounts for variations in results of test
specimens and will, therefore, reflect the method and control of manufacture, quality of
constructions, and nature of the material.
Mean strength ( fm )
Characteristic
strength ( f k )
number of
test specimens

1.64

strength
Fig.3-4 Normal frequency distribution of strengths
3.2.2 Concrete (Cl. 3.1, EC 2)
a) Compressive strength of concrete
Unlike BS 8110, the design rules in EC 2 are based on the characteristic (5 per cent) compressive
cylinder strength of concrete at 28 days ( f ck ). Equivalent cube strengths ( f ck ,cube ) are included in EC
2 but they are only regarded as an alternative method to prove compliance. Generally, the cylinder
strength is approximately 0.8 the cube strength of concrete i.e. f ck 0.8 f ck ,cube .
b) Tensile strength of concrete
The tensile strength of concrete is the maximum stress the concrete can withstand when subjected to
uniaxial tension (tensile force applies in one axis).
The mean tensile strength f ct .k of concrete may be derived from equations 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3.
f ctm 0.3 f ck( 2 / 3) Nmm 2 (3.1)
f ctk 0.05 0.7 f ctm Nmm 2 (3.2)
f ctk 0.95 1.3 f ctm Nmm 2 (3.3)
where f ck is the characteristic compressive strength.
f ctm is the mean tensile strength.
f ctk 0.05 is the lower characteristic compressive strength at 5% fractile.
f ctk 0.95 is the upper characteristic compressive strength where 95% fractile.
Table 3-3 shows the actual strength classes commonly used in reinforced concrete design.

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Chapter III: Limit State Design

Table 3-3 Concrete strength classes, characteristic compressive strength f ck (cylinders), mean tensile
2
strength f ctm , and characteristic tensile strength f ctk of the concrete (in N / mm ) (based on Table 3.1, EC
2)
Strength C12/15 C16/20 C20/25 C25/30 C30/37 C35/45 C40/50 C45/55 C50/60
Class of
Concrete
f ck 12 16 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
f ck ,cube 15 20 25 30 37 45 50 55 60
f ctm 1.6 1.9 2.2 2.6 2.9 3.2 3.5 3.8 4.1
f ctk 0.05 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.5 2.7 2.9
2.0 2.5 2.9 3.3 3.8 4.2 4.6 4.9 5.3
f ctk 0.95

3.2.3 Reinforcement of steel. (Cl. 3.2, EC 2)


(According to Annex C, the design rules in EC 2 are applicable to steel reinforcement with
characteristic yield strength in the range 400600 N mm2. Details of the actual yield strength of steel
available in the UK for the reinforcement of concrete can be found in BS 4449: 2005. This document
indicates that steel reinforcement will now be manufactured in three grades, all of 500 N mm 2
characteristic yield strength, but with differing ductility (Table 8.3). Plain round bars of characteristic
yield strength 250 N mm2 are not covered in this standard, and this will presumably cease to be
produced in the UK. Present indication would suggest that ductility classes B and C will be the most
widely available and specified steel in the UK. Ductility class A, in sizes 12 mm and below, in coil
form is widely used by reinforcement fabricators for use on automatic link bending machines (see
CARES information sheet on Design, manufacture and supply of reinforcement steel).

It is classified according to;


a) Grade, denoting the value of the specified characteristic yield stress f yk ( N / mm 2 ) .
b) Class, indicating the ductility characteristics.
c) Size.
d) Surface characteristics.
e) Weld ability.
BS 8110 recommends that design should be based on the characteristic strength of the reinforcement
( f y ) and gives typical values for mild steel and high yield steel reinforcement, the two reinforcement
types available in the UK, of 250Nmm 2 and 500Nmm 2 respectively. High-yield reinforcement is
mostly used in practice nowadays.
In Euro Code II, Grade 500 ( 500N / mm 2 characteristic strength) has replaced Grade 250 and Grade
460 reinforcing steel throughout Europe.
Grade 250 bars are hot-rolled mild-steel bars which usually have a smooth surface so that the bond
with concrete is by adhesion only. This type of bar can be more readily bent, so they have in the past
been used where small radius bends are necessary, such as links in narrow beams or columns, but
plain bars are not now recognized in the European Union and they are no longer available for general
use in the UK.

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Chapter III: Limit State Design

High-yield bars are manufactured with a ribbed surface or in the form of a twisted square surface.
Square twisted bars have inferior bond characteristics and have been used in the past, although they
are now obsolete. Deformed bars have a mechanical bond with the concrete. The bending of high-
yield bars through a small radius is liable to cause tension cracking of the steel, and to avoid this the
radius of the bend should not be less than two times the nominal bar size for small bars( 16mm ).
Ribbed high yield bars may be classified as:
Class A- which is normally associated with small diameter ( 12mm ) cold-worked bars used in mesh
and fabric. This is the lowest ductility category and will include limits on moment
redistribution which can be applied and higher quantities for fire resistance.
Class B- which is most commonly used for reinforcing bars.
Class C- high ductility which may be used in earthquake design or similar situation.

Table 3-4 Strength of reinforcement(Table 3.1, BS 8110)


Characteristic strength, f y
Grade Reinforcement type
( Nmm 2 )
250 Hot rolled mild steel 250
460 High-yield steel (hot rolled or cold worked) 500

Table 3-5(Table 5, Eurocode II): Differences between current British Standards and EN10080
Property BS4449 and BS4483 EN10080
Specific characteristic yield strength Grade 460N / mm
2
500N / mm 2
Grade 250N / mm
2 Not included
Bond strength for;
i) Ribbed bars/wires Deformed type 2 High bond
ii) Twisted bars Deformed type 1 Not included
iii) Plain bars Round plain bars Not included

Table 3-6
CP110 BS8110 EC2
High yield 460 Ribbed T
High bond 500
410
460 Twisted Y
425 Y

460
485

Mild steel 460-R 250-R N/A


However in the UK, they still design using EC 2 but use T and Y bars.

Table 3-7 Tensile and other properties of steel for the reinforcement of concrete
Ductility Class
Property
A B C
2
Characteristic yield strength, f yk ( Nmm ) 500
2
Youngs modulus KNmm 200
Characteristic strain at ultimate force, uk (%) 2.5 5.0 7.5

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Chapter III: Limit State Design

3.3 Partial factors of safety


Other possible variations such as constructional tolerances are allowed for by partial factors of safety
applied to the strength of the materials and to the actions. It should theoretically be possible to derive
values for these from a mathematical assessment of the probability of reaching each state. Lack of
adequate data, however, makes this unrealistic and, in practice, the values adopted are based on
experience and simplified calculation.

3.3.1 Partial factors of safety for materials ( m )


characteriatic strength f k
Design strength
partial factor of safety m

Table 3-8 Partial factor of Safety applied to materials; m for concrete


Limit State EU 2 BS8110(1985- BS8110(1995-
1995) today)
Ultimate Limit State Flexure/Bend 1.5 1.5 1.5
Shear 1.5 1.25 1.25
Bond 1.5 1.40 1.40
Serviceability Limit 1.00 1.00 1.00
State

Table 3-9 Partial factor of Safety applied to materials; m for steel


Limit State EU 2 BS8110(1985- BS8110(1995-
1995) today)
Ultimate Limit State Flexure 1.15 1.15 1.05
Shear 1.15 1.15 1.05
Serviceability Limit 1.00 1.00 1.00
State
The factors m accounts for;
i) difference between actual and specified strength
ii) uncertainties in the accuracy of the method used to predict behavior of the members
iii) variation in member sizes and building dimensions.


3.3.2 Partial factors of safety for actions ( f )
Action is the Euro code terminology for load. EC 2 defines an action as a set of forces, deformations
(e.g. differential settlement and temperature effects) or accelerations acting on the structure.
Errors and inaccuracies may be due to a number of causes:
i) design assumptions and inaccuracy of calculation;
ii) possible unusual increases in the magnitude of the actions;
iii) unforeseen stress redistributions;
iv) constructional inaccuracies.
These cannot be ignored, and are taken into account by applying a partial factor of safety ( f ) on the
characteristic actions, so that
design value of action = characteristic action partial factor of safety ( f )

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Chapter III: Limit State Design

Recommended values of partial factors of safety are given in tables 3-10 and 3-11 according to the
different categorizations of actions shown in the tables.
Actions may be permanent ( Gk ), e.g. self-weight of structure, fittings and fixed equipment, or
variable ( Qk ), e.g. weight of occupants, wind and snow loads.
The characteristic permanent load Gk is computed from the self-weight of the structure,
weight of finishes, ceilings, services and partitions.
The self-weight is estimated from assumed member sizes.
The weight of materials is obtained from BS648 schedule of materials for building
construction.
The characteristic variable load Qk is caused by movable objects such as people, furniture
and equipment. These are given in BS6399 part 1.
The characteristic wind load Wk depends on location, shape and dimensions of the building.
The design of buildings for wind loads can be based on any of the following;
i) CP3 chapter 5 part 2
ii) BS6399 part II
Variable actions are also categorized as leading (the predominant variable action on the structure
such as an imposed crowd load- Qk .1 ) and accompanying (secondary variable action such as the
effect of wind loading, Qk ,i ,where the subscript I indicates the i th action).

Table 3-10 Partial safety factors at the ultimate limit states


Persistent or transient Permanent actions Leading variable action Accompanying variable
design situation Gk Qk .1 actions Qk .i
Unfavourable Favourable Unfavourable Favourable Unfavourable Favourable
(a) For checking the 1.1 0.9 1.5 0 1.5 0
static equilibrium of a
building structure
(b) For the design of 1.35 1.0 1.5 0 1.5 0
structural members
(excluding
geotechnical actions)
(c) As an alternative to 1.35 1.15 1.5 0 1.5 0
(a) and (b) above to
design for both
situations with one set
of calculations

Table 3-11 Partial safety factors at the serviceability limit states


Design situation Permanent actions variable actions
All 1.0 1.0

Worked Example 3.2: Simple design of a cable at ultimate limit state


Determine the cross-sectional area of steel required for a cable which supports a total characteristic
permanent action of 3.0KN and a characteristic variable action of 2.0KN.

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Chapter III: Limit State Design

Solution:
The characteristic yield stress of the steel is 500 N / mm 2 . Carry out the calculation using limit state
design with the following factors of safety:
G 1.35 for the permanent action,
Q 1.5 for the variable action,
m 1.15 for the steel strength.
Design value G permanent action Q variable action
1.35 3.0 1.5 2.0
7.05 KN
characteristic yield sress
Design stress
m
500

1.15
434 N / mm 2
designvalue
Required cross sectional area
design stress
7.05 103

434
16.2 mm 2

Worked Example 3.3: Design of a foundation to resist uplift


Figure 3-5 shows a beam supported on foundations at A and B. The loads supported by the beam are
its own uniformly distributed permanent weight of 20 KN / m and a 170KN variable load
concentrated at end C.
170KN variable load

beam
permanent load 20 KN/m
A B C

foundation
(a) 6m 2m

1.5 variable load

1.1 permanent
0.9 permanent load load
A B C

(b) Loading arrangement for uplift at A at the ultimate limit state

Fig.3-5 Uplift calculation example

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Chapter III: Limit State Design

Determine the weight of foundation required at A in order to resist uplift:


(a) By applying a factor of safety of 2.0 to the reaction calculated for the working loads.
(b) By using an ultimate limit state approach with partial factors of safety of G 1.10 or 0.9 for the
permanent action and Q 1.5 for the variable action.
Investigate the effect on these design of a 7 per cent increase in the variable action.

Solution:

(a) When factor of safety on uplift 2.0


Taking moment about B
(170 2 20 8 2)
Uplift R A 3.33 KN
6.0
Weight of foundation required 3.33 safety factor
3.33 2.0 6.7 KN
With a 7 per cent increase in the variable action
(1.07 170 2 20 8 2)
Uplift R A 7.3 KN
6.0
Thus with a slight increase in the variable action there is a significant increase in the uplift and the
structure becomes unsafe.

(b) Limit state method-ultimate load pattern


As this example includes a cantilever and involves the requirement for static equilibrium at A, partial
factors of safety of 1.10 and 0.9 were chosen for the permanent actions as given in the first row of
variable in the table 3.10.
The arrangement of the loads for the maximum uplift at A is shown in figure 3-5b.
Design permanent action over BC G 20 2 1.10 20 2 44 KN
Design permanent action over AB G 20 6 0.9 20 6 108 KN
Design variable action Q 170 1.5 170 255KN

Taking moment about B for the ultimate actions


(255 2 44 1 108 3)
Uplift R A 38 KN
6.0
Therefore weight of foundation required 38 KN .

A 7 per cent increase in the variable action will not endanger the structure, since the actual uplift will
only be 7.3 KN as calculated previously. In fact in this case it would require an increase of 61 per
cent in the load before the uplift would exceed the weight of a 38 KN foundation.

Parts (a) and (b) of example 3.3 illustrate how the limit state method of design can ensure a safer
result when the stability or strength of a structure is sensitive to a small numerical difference between
the effects of two opposing action of a similar magnitude.

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Chapter III: Limit State Design

3.4 Combination of actions


3.4.1 Action (Load) arrangements
For building structure, the UK NA to Eurocode 2, part 1-1 allows any of the following sets of load
arrangements to be used for both the ultimate limit state and serviceability limit state:
Load set 1. Alternate or adjacent spans loaded
The design values should be obtained from the more
QQk Qk
Q critical of:
All spans carrying the design variable and
GGk permanent loads with other spans loaded with only the
design permanent load (see Figure 1). The value of
QQ k QQ k G should be the same throughout.
Any two adjacent spans carrying the design
variable and permanent loads with other spans loaded
GGk with only the design permanent load (see Figure 2).
The value of G should be the same throughout.
Figure 1: Alternate spans loaded
Load set 2. All or alternate spans loaded
The design values should be obtained from the more
QQk critical of:
All spans carrying the design variable and
Gk
G permanent loads (see Figure 3).
All spans carrying the design variable and
Q Qk permanent loads with other spans loaded with
only the design permanent load (see Figure 1).
Gk
G The value of G should be the same throughout.
Qk
Generally, load set 2 will be used for beams and slabs
Q
in the UK as it requires three load arrangements to be
considered, while load set 1 will often require more
Gk
G than three arrangements to be assessed. Alternatively,
the UK NA makes the following provision for slabs.
Figure 2: Adjuscent spans loaded
Load set 3. Simplified arrangements for slabs
The load arrangements can be simplified for slabs it is
Qk only necessary to consider the all spans loaded
Q
arrangement (see Figure 3), provided the following
conditions are satisfied.
GGk In a one way spanning slab the area of each bay
2
exceeds 30m (a bay means a strip across the full
width of a structure bounded on the other sides by
lines of support).
Figure 3: All spans loaded
The ratio of the variable actions ( Qk ) to the
permanent actions ( Gk ) does not exceed 1.25.
The magnitude of the variable actions excluding
partitions Figure 3 All spans loaded
2
does not exceed 5 KN / m .

3.4.2 Combination of actions (Loads)


In general, the design value of an action ( Fd ) is obtained by multiplying the representative value
( Frep ) by the appropriate partial safety factor for actions ( f ):
Fd f Frep (3.1)

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Chapter III: Limit State Design

Tables 3.13 and 3.14 show the recommended values of partial safety factor for permanent, G , and
variable actions, Q , for the ultimate limit states of equilibrium (EQU) and strength (STR). It can be
seen that the maximum values of G and Q are 1.35 and 1.5 respectively. The comparable values
in BS 8110 are 1.4 and 1.6. It can also be seen that the partial safety factors for actions depend on a
number of other aspects including the category of limit state as well as the effect of the action on the
design situation under consideration. For example, when checking for the limit states of equilibrium
and strength, the maximum values of G are 1.1 and 1.35, respectively. However, when checking
for equilibrium alone, G is taken to be 1.1 if the action increases the risk of instability (unfavourable
action) or 0.9 if the action reduces the risk of instability (favourable action). For a given limit state
several combinations of loading may have to be considered in order to arrive at the value of the design
action on the structure (see Table 3.13).
In equation 3.1, Frep may be the characteristic value of a permanent or leading variable action ( Fk ),
or the accompanying value ( Fk ) of a variable action. In turn, the accompanying value of a variable
action may be the combination value ( o Fk ), the frequent value ( 1 Fk ) or the quasi-permanent
value ( 2 Fk ). The frequent value and the quasi permanent values are used to determine values of
accidental actions, e.g. impact and explosions, and to check serviceability criteria (deflection and
cracking). The combination value is given by
Combination value = o Fk (3.2)
where o is the combination factor obtained from Table 3.12 and is a function of the type of variable
action. The factor o has been introduced to take account of the fact that where a structure is subject
to, say, two independent variable actions, it is unlikely that both will reach their maximum value
simultaneously. Under these circumstances, it is assumed that the leading variable action (i.e. Qk .1 )
is at its maximum value and any accompanying variable actions will attain a reduced value, i.e.
oQk ,i , where i > 1. Leading and accompanying variable actions are assigned by trial and error as
discussed below.

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Chapter III: Limit State Design

Table 3-12 Values of for different load combinations


Action Combination Frequent Quasi-
permanent
0 1 2
Imposed load in building, category
Category A: domestic, residential areas 0.7 0.5 0.3
Category B: office areas 0.7 0.5 0.3
Category C: congregation areas 0.7 0.7 0.6
Category D: shopping areas 0.7 0.7 0.6
Category E: storage areas 1.0 0.9 0.8
Category F: traffic area, vehicle weight 30KN 0.7 0.7 0.6
Category G: traffic area, 30KN vehicle weight 160KN 0.7 0.5 0.3
Category H: roofs 0.7 0 0

Snow loads on buildings


For sites located at altitude H 1000m above sea level 0.7 0.5 0.2
0.5 0.2 0
For sites located at altitude H 1000m above sea level
0.5 0.2 0
Wind loads on buildings

Table 3-13 Load combinations and partial safety/combination factors for the ultimate limit state of strength
Limit state Load Type
Permanent, Gk Variable, Qk Wind, W k
Unfavourable Favourable Unfavourable Favourable Unfavourable
Equilibrium 1.10 0.9 1.5 0 1.5 0

Table 3-14 Load combinations and partial safety/combination factors for the ultimate limit state of strength
Limit state/Load combination Load Type
Permanent, Gk Variable, Qk Wind,
Unfavourabl Favourable Unfavourabl Favourable Wk
e e
Strength
1. Permanent and variable 1.35/1.35 1.0 1.5 0 -
2. Permanent and wind 1.35/1.35 1.0 - - 1.5
3. Permanent, imposed and
wind 1.35 1.0 1.5 0,1 1.5 0, 2
(a) 1.35/1.35 1.0 1.5 0 1.5 0
(b) 1.0 1.5 0 0
1.35/1.35 1.5
(c)
For continuous beams with cantilevers, the partial safety factor for the favourable effect of the
permanent action should be taken as 1.0 for the span adjacent to the cantilever.
The partial safety factor for earth pressures should be taken as 1.30 when unfaourable and 0.0 when
faourable.

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Chapter III: Limit State Design

Table 3-15 Load Combinations and Partial Safety Factors f at Serviceability Limit State
Load Combination Permanent Load, Gk Variable Load, Qk Wind Load, Wk
Permanent + Variable 1.0 1.0 -
Permanent + Wind 1.0 - 1.0
Permanent + Variable + Wind 1.0 0.9 0.9

3.4.3 Combination expressions


The design value of action effects, E d , assuming the structure is subjected to both permanent and
a single variable action (e.g. dead load plus imposed load or dead load plus wind load) can be assessed
using the following expression
E d G , jGk , j Q ,1Qk ,1 (3.3)
j 1

Using the partial safety factors given in Table 3.14, the design value of the action effect is given by
E d 1.35Gk 1.5Qk (load combinations 1 and 2, Table 3.14)
The design value of an action effect due to permanent and two (or more) variable actions, e.g. dead
plus imposed and wind load, is obtained from equation 3.4.
E d G , jGk , j Q ,1Qk ,1 Q ,i 0,i Qk ,i (3.4)
j 1 i 1

Note that this expression yields two (or more) estimates of design actions and the most onerous
should be selected for design. For example, if a structure is subjected to permanent, office and wind
loads of G k , Qk and W k the values of the design actions are:
Ed 1.35Gk , j 1.5Qk 1.5 0.5Wk (load combinations 3(b), Table 3.14)
and
Ed 1.35Gk , j 1.5 0.7Qk 1.5Wk (load combinations 3(c), Table 3.14)
Figure 3.6 illustrates how the factors in table 3-10 and 3-12 can be applied when considering the
stability of the office building shown for overturning about point B. Figure 3-6(a) treats the wind
load ( W k ) as the leading variable action and the live load ( Qk ) on the roof as the accompanying
variable action. Figure 3-6(b) considers the live load as the leading variable action and the wind as
the accompanying variable action.

0.7 1.5Qk 1.5 Qk

1.5 Wk 0.5 1.5Wk

0.9 Gk 1.1 Gk 0.9 Gk 1.1 Gk

B B

(a) (b)

Figure 3.6 Wind and imposed load acting on an office building-stability check

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Chapter III: Limit State Design

Equations 3.3 and 3.4 are based on expression 6.10 in EN 1990. This document also includes two
alternative expressions, namely 6.10a and 6.10b (reproduced as equations 3.5 and 3.6 respectively)
for calculating the design values of actions, use of which may improve structural efficiency,
particularly for heavier structural materials such as concrete.
E d G , jGk , j Q ,1 0,1Qk ,1 Q ,i 0,i Qk ,i (3.5)
j 1 i 1

E d j G , jGk , j Q ,1Qk ,1 Q ,i 0,i Qk ,i (3.6)


j 1 i 1

where
is a reduction factor for unfavourable permanent actions. The value of recommended in the
National Annex to EC 2 is 0.925.
Note that equation 3.5 yields only one estimate of E d (i.e. load combination 3(a) in Table 3.14)
whereas equation 3.6 yields two (i.e. load combinations 3(b) and 3(c) in Table 3.14). For UK building
structures, designers may use the output from either equation 3.3 or 3.4 (depending on the number of
variable actions present) or the more onerous output from equations 3.5 and 3.6.
Use of actions determined via equations 3.3 / 3.4 should lead to designs with comparable levels of
safety to that currently achieved using BS 8110. However, use of equations 3.5 and 3.6 may improve
structural efficiency, as illustrated in example 3.3.

3.5 Wind Loads


The following factors are considered;
i) The basic wind speed, V which depends on the location in the country.
ii) The design wind speed Vs VS1 S 2 S 3
S1 topography factor normally taken as in UK.
S 2 depends on ground roughness, building size and height above the ground.
S 3 statistical factor normally taken as 1.
Ground roughness is given in four categories e.g. category 3 is the location in the
suburbs of the city.
The building size is in three classes e.g. a, b and c .
The height refers to the height of the building.
The wind load increases with height.
iii) The Dynamic pressure q 0.613Vs2 N / mm2 is the pressure on the surface normal to the
wind. It is modified by the dimensions of the building and openings in the building.
iv) Pressure coefficient
The pressure coefficients are given as;
external pressure coefficients denoted by C pe . This depends on the dimensions and roof
angle.
Internal pressure coefficients which accounts for suctions inside the building, C pi .
v) The wind force on the surface F is given as follow;
F (C pe C pi )qA , where A=area
Wk (C pe C pi )q

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Chapter III: Limit State Design

Worked Example 3.4: Design actions for simply supported beam (EN 1990)
A simply supported beam for an office building has a span of 6 m. Calculate the values of the design
bending moments, M E ,d , assuming
(a) the beam supports uniformly distributed permanent and variable actions of 5 kNm 1 and 6
kNm 1 respectively
(b) in addition to the actions described in (a) the beam also supports an independent variable
concentrated load of 20 kN at mid-span.

LOAD CASE A
g k =5KN/m ; q k =6KN/m

L=6m

Since the beam is subjected to only one variable action use equation 3.3 to determine E d where
E d G , jGk , j Q ,1Qk ,1
j 1

FE ,d 1.35 (5 6) 1.5 (6) 94.5 KN


94.5 6
FE ,d L
Hence, M E ,d 70.9 KNm
8 8
An alternative estimate of M E ,d can be obtained using equations 3.5 and 3.6, respectively
E d G , jGk , j Q ,1 0,1Qk ,1 Q ,i 0,i Qk ,i
j 1 i 1

FE ,d 1.35 (5 6) 1.5 0.7 (6 6) 0 78.3 KN


E d j G , jGk , j Q ,1Qk ,1 Q ,i 0,i Qk ,i
j 1 i 1

FE ,d 0.9251.35 (5 6) 1.5 (6 6) 0 91.5 KN (critical)


FE ,d L 91.5 6
Hence FE ,d is 91.5 KN and M E ,d 68.6 KNm.
8 8

LOAD CASE B
Qk =20KN
g k =5KN/m ; q k =6KN/m

L=6m

The extra complication here is that it is not clear if q k or Qk is the leading variable action. This can
only be determined by trial and error. This time use equation 3.4 to evaluate E d , since there are two
independent variable actions are present.
Assuming q k is the leading variable action gives

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Chapter III: Limit State Design

E d G , jGk , j Q ,1Qk ,1 Q ,i 0,i Qk ,i


j 1 i 1

FE ,d [1.35 (5 6) 1.5 (6 6)] 1.5 0.7 20


94.5( FE ,d 1 ) 21( FE ,d 2 ) 115.5 KN
FE ,d 1 L FE ,d 2 L 94.5 6 21 6
and M E ,d 102.4 KNm
8 4 8 4

Assuming Qk is the leading variable action gives


FE ,d 1.35 (5 6) 1.5 20 1.5 0.7 (6 6)
40.5( FE ,d 1 ) 30( FE ,d 2 ) 37.8( FE ,d 3 ) 108.3 KN
( FE ,d 1 FE ,d 3 ) L (40.5 37.8) 6 30 6
FE ,d 2 L
M E ,d 103.7 KNm (maximum moments)
8 4 8 4
Alternatively use equations 3.5 and 3.6 to estimate FE ,d . Assuming q k is the leading variable action
and substituting into 3.5 gives
E d G , jGk , j Q ,1 0,1Qk ,1 Q ,i 0,i Qk ,i
j 1 i 1

FE ,d 1.35 (5 6) 1.5 0.7 (6 6) 1.5 0.7 20 99.3 KN


FE ,d is unchanged if Qk is taken as the leading variable action and in both cases
M E ,d 90.2 KNm .
Repeating this procedure using equation 3.6 and assuming, first, that q k is the leading variable action
and Qk is the accompanying variable action and, second, Qk is the leading variable action and q k is
the accompanying variable action gives, respectively
E d j G , jGk , j Q ,1Qk ,1 Q ,i 0,i Qk ,i
j 1 i 1

FE ,d [0.925 1.35 (5 6) 1.5 (6 6)] [1.5 0.7 20]


91.5 21 112.5 KN
FE ,d 1 L 91.5 6 21 6
FE ,d 2 L
and M E ,d 100.1 KNm
8 4 8 4
FE ,d 0.925 1.35 (5 6) 1.5 20 1.5 0.7 (6 6)
37.5 30 37.8 105.3 KN
( FE ,d 1 FE ,d 3 ) L (37.5 37.8) 6 30 6
FE ,d 2 L
M E ,d 101.5 KNm (maximum moment)
8 4 8 4
Again, the most structurally economical solution is found via equation 3.6, which will normally be
the case for concrete structures provided that permanent actions are not greater than 4.5 times variable
actions except for storage loads. However, this saving has to be weighed against the additional design
effort required. Moreover, the output from equations 3.5 and 3.6 should not be used to perform
stability calculations and the reader is referred to EN1990 for further information on this aspect. Note
that the value of 1.35 for G is conservative and used throughout.

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Chapter IV: Analysis of the Structure at the Ultimate Limit State

CHAPTER IV. ANALYSIS OF THE STRUCTURE AT THE ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE

4.0 Introduction
A reinforced concrete structure is a combination of beams, columns, slabs and walls, rigidly
connected together to form a monolithic frame. Each individual member must be capable of resisting
the forces acting on it, so that the determination of these forces is an essential part of the design
process. The full analysis of a rigid concrete frame is rarely simple; but simplified calculations of
adequate precision can often be made if the basic action of the structure is understood.
There are several methods, of structural analysis, but the common ones are;
i) Moment distribution for manual methods
ii) Computer plain frame programs based on the matrix stiffness method of analysis
iii) Moment coefficients
Since the design of a reinforced concrete member is generally based on the ultimate limit state, the
analysis is usually performed for loadings corresponding to that state.

4.1 Actions
The actions (loads) on a structure are divided into two types: permanent actions, and variable (or
imposed) actions. Permanent action are those which are normally constant during the structures life.
Variable actions, on the other hand, are transient and not constant in magnitude, as for example those
due to wind or to human occupants.
4.1.1 Permanent actions
Permanent actions include the weight of the structure itself and all architectural components such as
exterior cladding, partitions and ceilings. Equipment and static machinery, when permanent fixtures,
are also often considered as part of the permanent actions.
For most reinforced concretes, a typical value for the self-weight is 25KN per cubic metre, but a
higher density should be taken for heavily reinforced or dense concrete. In the case of a building, the
weights of any permanent partitions should be calculated from the architects drawings. A minimum
partition loading equivalent to 1.0KN per square metre is often specified as a variable action, but this
is only adequate for lightweight partitions.
4.1.2 Variable actions
Variable actions are more difficult to determine accurately. For many of them, it is only possible to
make conservative estimates based on standard codes of practice or past experience. Examples of
variable actions are: the weights of its occupants, furniture, or machinery; the pressures of wind, the
weight of snow, and of retained earth or water; and the forces caused by thermal expansion or
shrinkage of the concrete.
Although the wind load is a variable action, it is kept in a separate category when its partial factors
of safety are specified, and when the load combinations on the structure are being considered.

4.2 Load combinations and patterns for ultimate limit state


Various combinations of the characteristic values of permanent Gk , variable actions Qk , wind actions
W k , and their partial factors of safety must be considered for the loading of the structure.
The partial factors of safety specified in the code are discussed in chapter 3, and the ultimate limit
state the following loading combinations from tables 3-10, 3-12 and 3-14 are commonly used.

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Chapter IV: Analysis of the Structure at the Ultimate Limit State

1. Permanent and variable actions; 1.35Gk 1.5Qk


2. Permanent and wind actions; 1.35Gk 1.5Wk
The variable load can usually cover all or any part of the structure and, therefore, should be arranged
to cause the most severe stresses. So, for a three-span continuous beam, load combination 1 would
have the loading arrangement shown in figure 4-1, in order to cause the maximum sagging moment
in the outer spans and the minimum possible hogging moment in the centre span.

1.35Gk + 1.5Q k 1.35Gk + 1.5Q k


1.35Gk

A C

Fig.4-1 Loading arrangement for maximum sagging moment at A and C

Load combination 2, permanent wind load is used to check the stability of a structure. A load
combination of permanent variable wind load could have the arrangement shown in figure 3.6.
Figure 4-2 shows the patterns of vertical loading on a multi-span continuous beam to cause (i)
maximum design moments in alternate spans and maximum possible hogging moments in adjacent
spans, (ii) maximum design hogging moments at support A, and (iii) the design hogging moment at
support A as specified by the EC2 code for simplicity.

1.35G k + 1.5Q k 1.35G k + 1.5Q k 1.35G k + 1.5Q k 1.35G k + 1.5Q k


1.35G k 1.35G k 1.35G k

(i) Loading arrangements for maximum moments in the spans

1.35G k + 1.5Q k 1.35G k + 1.5Q k 1.35G k + 1.5Q k


1.35G k 1.35G k
A

(ii) Loading arrangements for maximum support moment at A

1.35G k + 1.5Q k
1.35G k 1.35G k
A

(iii) Loading for design moments at the supports according to Ec2

Figure 4-2 Multi-span beam loading patterns

4.3 Analysis of beams


To design a structure it is necessary to know the bending moments, torsional moments, shearing
forces and axial forces in each member. An elastic analysis is generally used to determine the
distribution of these forces within the structure. The properties of the materials, such as Youngs
modulus, which are used in the structural analysis should be those associated with their characteristic
strengths. The stiffnesses of the members can be calculated on the basis of any one of the following:
i) The gross concrete cross-section( ignoring the reinforcement);

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Chapter IV: Analysis of the Structure at the Ultimate Limit State

ii) The concrete cross-section including the transformed area of reinforcement based on the
modular ratio;
iii) The compression area only of the concrete cross-section, plus the transformed area of
reinforcement based on the modular ratio
A structure should be analysed for each of the critical loading conditions which produce the
maximum stresses at any particular section. This procedure will be illustrated in the examples for a
continuous beam and a building frame. For these structures it is conventional to draw the bending-
moment diagram on the tension side of the members.
Sign Conventions
i) For the moment-distribution analysis anti-clockwise support moments are positive as, for example,
in table 4.1 for the fixed end moments (FEM).
ii) For subsequently calculating the moments along the span of a member, moments causing sagging
are positive, while moments causing hogging are negative, as illustrated in figure 4-4.

4.3.1 Non continuous beams


One-span, simply supported beams or slabs are statically determinate and the analysis for bending
moments and shearing forces is readily performed manually. For the ultimate limit state we need only
consider the maximum load of 1.35Gk 1.5Qk on the span.

Worked Example 4.1: Analysis of a non-continuous beam


The one-span simply supported beam shown in figure 4-3a carries a distributed permanent action
including self-weight of 25KN/m. a permanent concentrated action of 40KN at mid-span, and a
distributed variable action of 10KN/m.
1.35 40=54 KN

(1.35 25+1.5 10)4=195 KN

4.0 m

(a) Ultimate load

124.5 KN 27

27
124.5 KN
(b) Shearing Force Diagram

151.5 KNm

(c) Bending Moment Diagram

Fig.4-3 Analysis of one-span beam


Figure 4-3 shows the values of ultimate load required in the calculation of the shearing forces and
bending moments.
54 195
Maximum shear force 124.5 KN
2 2

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Chapter IV: Analysis of the Structure at the Ultimate Limit State

54 4 195 4
Maximum bending moment 151.5 KNm
4 8
The analysis is completed by drawing the shearing-force and bending-moment diagrams which
would later be used in the design and detailing of the shear and bending reinforcement.

4.3.2 Continuous beams


The method of analysis for continuous beams may also be applied to continuous slabs which span in
one direction.
A continuous beam should be analysed for the loading arrangements which give the maximum
stresses at each section. The analysis to calculate the bending moments can be carried out manually
by moment distribution or equivalent methods, but tabulated shear and moment coefficient may be
adequate for continuous beams having approximately equal spans and uniformly distributed loads.
a) Continuous beams the general case
Having determined the moments at the supports by, say, moment distribution, it is necessary to
calculate the moments in the spans and also the shear forces on the beam.
For a uniformly distributed load, the equations for the shears and the maximum span moments can
be derived from the following analysis.
Load = w/metre
A B

VAB S.F.D
VBA

MAB M BA
--
-- B.M.D
+ M max a2
a1

a3

Fig.4-4 Shears and moments in a beam


Using the sign convention of figure 4-4 and taking moments about support B;
wL2
V AB L M AB M BA 0
2
wL ( M AB M BA )
Therefore; V AB (4.1)
2 L
And; VBA wL VAB (4.2)
Maximum span moment M max occurs at zero shear, and distance to zero shear
V AB
a3 (4.3)
w
2
V AB
Therefore; M max M AB (4.4)
2w
The points of contraflexure occur at M 0 , that is
wx 2
V AB x M AB 0
2

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Chapter IV: Analysis of the Structure at the Ultimate Limit State

where x the distance from support A. Taking the roots of this equation gives
V AB (V AB
2
2wM AB )
x
w
V AB (V AB
2
2wM AB )
so that; a1 (4.5)
w
V AB (V AB
2
2wM AB )
and; a2 L (4.6)
w

Worked Example 4.2: Analysis of a continuous beam


The continuous beam shown in figure 4-5 has a constant cross-section and supports a uniformly
distributed permanent action including its self-weight of Gk 25 KN / m and a variable action
Qk 10 KN / m . The critical loading patterns for the ultimate limit state are shown in figure 4-5
where the stars indicate the region of maximum moments, sagging or possible hogging.

G k = 25 KN/m Q k = 10 KN/m

A B C D
6m 4m 6m

(1.35 25 + 1.5 10) 6


(1.35 25 4)
(1) = 292.5 KN = 135 KN 292.5 KN

(1.35 25 + 1.5 10) 4


(1.35 25 6)
(2) = 202.5 KN = 195 KN 202.5 KN

(3) 292.5 KN 195 KN 202.5 KN

(4) 195 KN 292.5 KN


202.5 KN

Fig.4-5 Continuous beam loading patterns

Table 4.1 is the moment distribution carried out for the first loading arrangement: simpler
calculations would be required for each of the remaining load cases. It should be noted that the
3I
reduced stiffness of has been used for the end spans.
4L

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Chapter IV: Analysis of the Structure at the Ultimate Limit State

Table 4-1 Moment distribution for the first loading case

A B C D
Stiffness (k) 3 I I 3 I
4 L L 4 L
= 3 1 = 0.125 = 1 = 0.125 = 3 1 = 0.125
4 6 4 4 6
Distr. factors 0.125
0.125+0.25
= 1/3 2/3 2/3 1/3
Load (kN) 292 135 292
-292 6 + 135 4 292 6
F.E.M. 0 -- 12 + 0
8 8
0 -219.4 + 45.0 - 45.0 + 219.4 0
Balance +58.1 + 116.3 - 116.3 -58.1

Carry over -58.1 +58.1

Balance +19.4 + 38.7 - 38.7 -19.4


Carry over -19.4 +19.4
Balance +6.5 + 12.9 - 12.9 -6.5
Carry over -6.5 +6.5
Balance +2.2 + 4.3 - 4.3 -2.2
Carry over -2.2 +2.2
Balance +0.7 + 1.5 - 1.5 -0.7
M (KNm) 0 -132.5 + 132.5 - 132.5 + 132.5 0

The shearing forces, the maximum span bending moments, and their positions along the beam, can
be calculated using the formulae previously derived. Thus for the first loading arrangement and span
AB, using the sign convention of figure 4-4:
Load ( M AB M BA )
Shear V AB
2 L
292.5 132.5
124.2 KN
2 6 .0
VBA Load VAB
292.5 124.2 168.3 KN
2
V AB
Maximum moment, span AB M AB
2w
where w 292.5 / 6.0 48.75 KN / m. Therefore:
124.2 2
M max 0 158.2 KNm
2 48.75
V
Distance from A, a3 AB
w
124.2
2.55 m
48.75
The bending-moment diagrams for each of the loading arrangements are shown in figure 4-6, and the
corresponding shearing-force diagrams are shown in figure 4-7. The individual bending-moment

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Chapter IV: Analysis of the Structure at the Ultimate Limit State

diagrams are combined in figure 4-8a to give the bending-moment design envelope. Similarly, figure
4-8b is the shearing-force design envelope. Such envelope diagrams are used in the detailed design
of the beams.
In this example, simple supports with no fixity have been assumed for the end supports at A and D.
Even so, the sections at A and D should be designed for a hogging moment due to a partial fixity
equal to 25 per cent of the maximum moment in the span, that is 158 / 4 39.5 KNm .
133 133

(1) 65

158 158
108 108
11
(2)

103 103
151
100
(3)

151 109
151
100

(4)

109
151

Fig.4-6 Bending-moment diagrams (KNm)

124 168
67.5

(1)
67.5
124
168

83 97.5 119

(2)

119 97.5 83

121 110 118

(3)
85 85
171
171
85
85
(4)

118 110 121

Fig.4-7 Shearing-force diagrams (KN)

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Chapter IV: Analysis of the Structure at the Ultimate Limit State

151 151
65
KNm
11

158 158
124 110 171

110 124 KN
171

Fig.4-8 Bending-moment and shearing-force envelops

b) Continuous beams with approximately equal spans and uniform loading


The ultimate bending moments and shearing forces in continuous beams of three or more
approximately equal spans without cantilevers can be obtained using relevant coefficients provided
that the spans differ by no more than 15 per cent of the longest span, that the loading is uniform, and
that the characteristic variable action does not exceed the characteristic permanent action. The values
of these coefficients are shown in diagrammatic form in figure 4-9 for beams.
End span Interior span

0.11 FL 0.10 FL 0.10 FL


(a)
Bending Moments
0.09 FL 0.07 FL

0.45 F 0.55 F
(b)
Shearing Forces
0.60 F 0.55 F

F Total ultimate load on span (1.35Gk 1.5Qk ) KN


L Effective span
Fig.4-9 Bending-Moment and Shearing-Force coefficients for beams
The possibility of hogging moments in any of the spans should not be ignored, even if it is not
indicated by these coefficients. For example, a beam of three equal spans may have a hogging
moment in the centre span if Qk exceeds 0.45G k .

4.4 Analysis of frames


In situ reinforced concrete structures behave as rigid frames, and should be analysed as such. They
can be analysed as a complete space frame or be divided into a series of plane frames.
The general procedure for a building is to analyse the slabs as continuous members supported by the
beams or structural walls. The slabs can be either one-way spanning or two-way spanning. The
columns and main beams are considered as a series of rigid plane frames which can be divided into
two types:
(1) Braced frames supporting vertical loads only
(2) Frames supporting vertical and lateral loads.

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Chapter IV: Analysis of the Structure at the Ultimate Limit State

Type one frames are in buildings where none of the lateral loads such as wind are transmitted to the
columns and beams but are resisted by much more stiffer elements such as shear walls, lift shafts or
stairwells.
Type two frames are designed to resist the lateral loads, which cause bending, shearing and axial
loads in the beams and columns. For both types frames the axial forces in the columns can be
generally be calculated as if the beams and slabs were simply supported.

4.4.1 Braced frames supporting vertical loads only


A building frame can be analysed as a complete frame, or it can be simplified into a series of
substitute frames for the vertical loading analysis.
The frame shown in figure 4.10, for example, can be divided into any of the subframes shown in
figure 4.11.

H2
(1)
H1

Half stiffness Half stiffness

H2
(2)
H1

Half stiffness Half stiffness

H2
(3)
H1

H1, H2 =Storey Heights

Fig 4.10 Building frame Fig 4.11 Substitute frames

The substitute frame 1 in figure 4.11 consists of one complete floor beam with its connecting columns
(which are assumed rigidly fixed at their remote ends). An analysis of this frame wil1 give the
bending moments and shearing forces in the beams and columns for the floor level considered.
Substitute frame 2 is a single span combined with its connecting columns and two adjacent spans, all
fixed at their remote ends. This frame may be used to determine the bending moments and shearing
forces in the central beam. Provided that the central span is greater than the two adjacent spans, the
bending moments in the columns can also be found with this frame.
Substitute frame 3 can be used to find the moments in the columns only. It consists of a single
junction, with the remote ends of the members fixed. This type of subframe would be used when the
beams have been analysed as continuous over simple supports.
In frames 2 and 3, the assumption of fixed ends to the outer beams over-estimates their stiffnesses.
These values are, therefore, halved to allow for the flexibility resulting from continuity.

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Chapter IV: Analysis of the Structure at the Ultimate Limit State

The various critical loading arrangements to produce maximum stresses have to be considered. In
general these loading arrangements for the ultimate limit state as specified by the code are:
(1) Alternate spans loaded with total ultimate load ( 1.35Gk 1.5Qk ) and all other spans loaded with
minimum dead load ( 1.35Gk ); this loading will give maximum span moments and maximum column
moments.
(2) All spans loaded with the total ultimate load ( 1.35Gk 1.5Qk ) to provide the design moment at
the supports.
When considering the critical loading arrangements for a column, it is sometimes necessary to
include the case of maximum moment and minimum possible axial load, in order to investigate the
possibility of tension failure caused by the bending.

Worked Example 4.3: Analysis of a substitute frame


The substitute frame shown in figure 4.12 is part of t he complete frame in figure 4.10. The
characteristic actions carried by the beams are permanent actions (including self-weight)
Gk 25KN / m , and variable action, Qk 10KN / m , uniformly distributed along the beam. The
analysis of the beam will be carried out by moment distribution: thus the member stiffnesses and
their relevant distribution factors are first required.

J K L M

A B C D 3.5m
4.0m
Beam
600 300
E F G H

6.0m 4.0m 6.0m

350
300
Typical column section
Fig 4.12 Substitute frame
Stiffnesses, k

Beam Columns
0.3 0.6 3 0.3 0.353
I 5.4 10 3 m 4 I 1.07 103 m 4
12 12
Spans AB and CD Upper
5.4 103 1.07 103
k AB k CD 0.9 103 kU 0.31 103
6.0 3.5
Span BC Lower
5.4 103 1.07 103
k BC 1.35 103 kL 0.27 103
4.0 4 .0
kU k L (0.31 0.27)103 0.58103

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Chapter IV: Analysis of the Structure at the Ultimate Limit State

Distribution factors

Joints A and D
k 0.9 0.58 1.48
0.9
D.F. AB D.F .DC 0.61
1.48
0.58
D.F. cols 0.39
1.48

Joints B and C
k 0.9 1.35 0.58 2.83
0.9
D.F. BA D.F .CD 0.32
2.83
1.35
D.F. BC D.F .CB 0.48
2.83
0.58
D.F. cols 0.20
2.83

The critical loading arrangements for the ultimate limit state are identical to those for the continuous
beam in example 4.2, and they are illustrated in figure 4.5. The moment distribution for the first
loading arrangement is shown in table 4.2. In the table, the distribution for each upper and lower
column have been combined, since this simplifies the layout for the calculations.
Table 4.2 Moment distribution for the first loading case
A B C D
Cols. AB BA Cols. BC CB Cols. CD DC Cols.
( M) ( M) ( M) ( M)
D.F.s 0.39 0.61 0.32 0.20 0.48 0.48 0.20 0.32 0.61 0.39
Load kN 292 135 292

F.E.M. 146 146 45.0 45.0 146 146

Bal. 56.9 89.1 32.3 20.2 48.5 48.5 20.2 32.3 89.1 56.9

C.O. 16.2 44.6 24.2 24.2 44.6 16.2

Bal. 6.3 9.9 22.0 13.8 33.0 33.0 13.5 22.0 9.9 6.3

C.O. 11.0 5.0 16.5 16.5 5.0 11.0

Bal. 4.3 6.7 6.9 4.3 10.3 10.3 4.3 6.9 6.7 4.3

C.O. 3.4 3.4 5.2 5.2 3.4 3.4

Bal. 1.3 2.1 2.8 1.7 4.1 4.1 1.7 2.8 2.1 1.3

M (kN m) 68.8 68.8 135.0 40.0 95.0 95.0 40.0 135.0 68.8 68.8

The shearing forces and the maximum span moments can be calculated from the formulae of section
For the first loading arrangement and span AB:

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Chapter IV: Analysis of the Structure at the Ultimate Limit State

load ( M AB M BA )
Shear V AB
2 L
292.5 (68.8 135.0)
135KN
2 6.0
VBA load VAB
292.5 135 157KN
2
V AB
Maximum moments, span AB M AB
2w
1352
68.8 118KNm
2 48.75
V 135
Distance from A, a3 AB 2 .8m
w 48.75
Figure 4.13 shows the bending moments in the beams for each loading arrangement; figure 4.14
shows the shearing forces. These diagrams have been combined in figure 4.15 to give the design
envelopes for bending moments and shearing forces.
The moment in each column is given by
k
M col M col col
k col
Thus, for the first loading arrangement and taking M col from table 4.2 gives
0.31
Column moment M AJ 68.8 37 kNm
0.58
0.27
M AE 68.8 32 kNm
0.58

0.31
M BK 40 21kNm
0.58
0.27
M BF 40 19 kNm
0.58

This loading arrangement gives the maximum column moments, as plotted in figure 4.16.

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Chapter IV: Analysis of the Structure at the Ultimate Limit State

135 157
135 135
69 95 95 69
67.5
28
(1) (1)

67.5

118 118 135


157
107 107 91 111
88 88 97.5
45 45

(2) (2)
10
97.5 91
77 77
147 133 111
115 102 111
106
67 80
46

(3) (3)
1

79 89 92
114
160 160
147
102 115
80 67 92 89
46

(4) (4)
1

79 106
114 111
133

Fig 4.13 Beam bending moment diagrams (kNm) Fig.4.14 Beam shearing-force diagrams (kN)

147 147
69 115 115 69
28
kN m
10

118 118

37 21 21 37
160 32 32
135 19 19

106

kN

106
135
160

Fig 4.15 Bending-moment and shearing-force envelopes Fig.4.16 Column bending moments (kNm)

Worked Example 4.4: Analysis of a substitute frame for a column


The substitute frame for this example, shown in figure 4.17, is taken from the building frame in figure
4.10. The loading to cause maximum column moments is shown in the figure for Gk 25KN / m and
Qk 10KN / m .

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Chapter IV: Analysis of the Structure at the Ultimate Limit State

3.5m
1.35G k + 1.5 Q k
1.35G k
= 292.5kN = 135kN
A B C

4.0m
6.0m 4.0m

Fig 4.17 Substitute frame


The stiffnesses of these members are identical to those calculated in example 4.3, except that for this
type of frame the beam stiffnesses are halved. Thus
1
k AB 0.9 103 0.45 103
2
1
k BC 1.35 103 0.675 103
2
Upper column kU 0.31103
Lower column k L 0.27 103
k (0.45 0.675 0.31 0.27) 10 3
1.705103

6
Fixed-end moment M BA 292.5 146 kNm
25
4
Fixed-end moment M BC 135 45 kNm
25 18
16 kNm
Column moments are
0.31
Upper column M U (146 45) 18 kNm
1.705
0.27
Lower column M L (146 45) 16 kNm
1.705
Fig 4.18 Column moments
The column moments are illustrated in figure 4.18. They should be compared with the
corresponding moments for the internal column in figure 4.16.

4.4.2 Lateral loads on frames


Lateral loads on a structure may be caused by wind pressures, by retained earth, or by seismic
forces. The vertical loading analysis can be carried out by the method described previously. The
analysis for the lateral loads should be kept separate. The forces may be calculated by an elastic
computer analysis or by a simplified approximate method. A suitable approximate analysis is the
cantilever method. It assumes that:
1. points of contraflexure are located at the mid-points of all columns and beams; and
2. the direct axial loads in the columns are in proportional to their distances from the centre of gravity
of the frame. It is also usual to assume that all the columns in a storey are equal cross-sectional
area.

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Chapter IV: Analysis of the Structure at the Ultimate Limit State

Worked Example 4.5: Simplified analysis for lateral loads-cantilever method


Figure 4.19 shows a building frame subjected to a characteristic wind action of 3.0kN per metre
height of the frame. This action is assumed to be transferred to the frame as a concentrated load at
each floor level as indicated in the figure.
By inspection, there is tension in the two columns to the left and compression in the columns to the
right; and by assumption 2 the axial forces in columns are proportional to their distances from the
centre line of the frame.
5.25kN

3.5
10.5kN 4 th

3.5
lateral load= 3.0kN/m

10.5kN 3 rd

3.5
11.25kN 2 nd

4.0
12.0kN 1 st

4.0
6.0kN

6.0 4.0 6.0

Fig 4.19 Frame with lateral load

CL

F1= 0.54 F2= 0.675 F3= 0.54


5.25
1.75

s
H1= 0.93 H2= 1.70 H3= 1.70 H4= 0.93
N1= 4.0P N2= 1.0P N3= 1.0P N4= 4.0P
= 0.54 = 0.135 = 0.135 = 0.54
(a) Roof

0.54 0.135 0.135 0.54


0.93 1.70 1.70 0.93
1.75 1.75

2.16 2.705 2.16


10.5

t t'
2.78 5.1 5.1 2.78
2.70 0.68 0.68 2.70
(b) 4th floor
Fig 4.20 Subframes at the roof and 4th floor

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Chapter IV: Analysis of the Structure at the Ultimate Limit State

Thus
Axial force in exterior column: axial force in interior column 4.0P : 1.0P
The analysis of the frame continues by considering a section through the top-storey columns: the
removal of the frame below this section gives the remainder shown in figure 4.20a. The forces in this
subframe are calculated as follows.
(a) Axial Forces in the Columns
Taking moments about point s, M s 0 , therefore
5.251.75 P 6.0 P 10.0 4P 16.0 0
and therefore P 0.135 kN
thus
N1 N 4 4.0P 0.54kN
N 2 N3 1.0P 0.135kN
(b) Vertical Shearing Forces F in the Beams
For each part of the subframe, F 0 , therefore
F1 N1 0.54kN
F2 N1 N 2 0.675kN

(c) Horizontal Shearing Forces H in the Columns


Taking moments about the points of contra flexure of each beam, M 0 , therefore
H1 1.75 N1 3.0 0
H1 0.93 kN
( H1 H 2 )1.75 N1 8.0 N 2 2.0 0
and
H 2 1.70 kN
The calculations of the equivalent forces for the fourth floor (figure 4.20 b) follow a similar
procedure, as follows.
(d) Axial Forces in the Columns
For the frame about section tt , M t 0 , therefore
5.25(3 1.75) 10.5 1.75 P 6.0 P 10.0 4P 16.0 0
P 0.675 kN
N1 4.0P 2.70kN
therefore
N 2 1.0P 0.68kN
(e) Beam Shears
F1 2.70 0.54 2.16 kN
F2 2.70 0.68 0.54 0.135 2.705 kN
(f) Column Shears
H1 1.75 0.93 1.75 (2.70 0.54)3.0 0
H1 2.78 kN
1
H2 (10.5 5.25) 2.78 5.1 kN
2
Values calculated for sections taken below the remaining floors are

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Chapter IV: Analysis of the Structure at the Ultimate Limit State

third floor N1 7.03 kN N 2 1.76 kN


F1 4.33 kN F2 5.41kN
H1 4.64 kN H 2 8.49 kN
second floor N1 14.14 kN N 2 3.53 kN
F1 7.11kN F2 8.88 kN
H1 6.61kN H 2 12.14 kN
first floor N1 24.37 kN N 2 6.09 kN
F1 10.23 kN F2 12.79 kN
H1 8.74 kN H 2 16.01kN
The bending moments in the beams and columns at their connections can be calculated from these
results by the following formulae
beams M B F 2 beam span
1

columns M C H 2 storey height


1

so that the roofs external connection


1
M B 0.54 6.0 1.6 kN m
2
1
M C 0.93 3.5 1.6 kN m
2
As a check at each joint, M B M C .
The bending moments due to characteristic wind loads in all the columns and beams of this
structure are shown in figure 4.21.
1.6 1.4 1.6
1.6 3.0
1.6 1.4 1.6
6.5 5.4 6.5
1.6 4.9 3.0 8.9
6.5 5.4 6.5
13.0 10.8 13.0
4.9 8.1 8.9 14.9
13.0 10.8 13.0
21.3 21.3
17.8
8.1 13.2 14.9 24.3
21.3 30.7 17.8 21.3 30.7
25.6
13.2 17.5 24.3 32.0
30.7 25.6 30.7
17.5 32.0 32.0

24.4 6.1 6.1 24.4


External Internal
Column Beams Column
Fig 4.21 Moments (kN.m) and reactions (kN)

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Chapter IV: Analysis of the Structure at the Ultimate Limit State

4.5 Redistribution of moments


Some method of elastic analysis is generally used to calculate the forces in a concrete structure,
despite the fact that the structure does not behave elastically near its ultimate load. The assumption
of elastic behaviour is reasonably true for low stress levels; but as a section approaches its ultimate
moment of resistance, plastic deformation will occur. This is recognized in EC2, by allowing
redistribution of the elastic moments subject to certain limitations.
Reinforced concrete behaves in a manner midway between that of steel and concrete. The stress-
strain curves for the two materials (figures 2.3 and 2.2) show the elastoplastic behaviour of steel and
the plastic behaviour of concrete. The latter will fail at a relatively small compressive strain. The
exact behaviour of a reinforced concrete section depends on the relative quantities and the individual
properties of the two materials. However, such a section may be considered virtually elastic until the
steel yields; and then plastic until the concrete fails in compression. Thus the plastic behaviour is
limited by the concrete failure; or more specifically, the concrete failure limits the rotation that may
take place at a section in bending.
Thus, in an indeterminate structure, once a beam section develops its ultimate moment of resistance
M u , it then behaves as a plastic hinge resisting a constant moment of that value. Further loading must
be taken by other parts of the structure, with the changes in moment elsewhere being just the same
as if a real hinge existed. Provided rotation of a hinge does not cause crushing of the concrete, further
hinges will be formed until a mechanism is produced.

Worked Example 4.6: Moment redistribution


In example 4.3, figure 4.13, it is requited to reduce the maximum support moment of M BA 147kNm
as much as possible , but without increasing the span moment above the present maximum value of
118 kN m.
147
115 102
67 80
46

79
114
(a) Original Moments (kNm)

140 108 102


67 80
46

79
118
(b) Redistributed Moments (kNm)

134
105 111

90 92
158.5
(c) Shears (kN)

Fig 4.22 Moments and shears after redistribution

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Chapter IV: Analysis of the Structure at the Ultimate Limit State

Figure 4.22a duplicates the original bending-moment diagram (part 3 of figure 4.13) of example 4.3
while figure 4.22b shows the redistributed moments, with the span moment set at 118 kN m. The
moment at support B can be calculated, using a rearrangement of equations 4.4 and 4.1 . Thus
V AB [( M max M AB )2 w]
and
wL
M BA VAB L M AB
2
For span AB, w 48.75kN/m , therefore
VAB [(118 67) 2 48.75] 134kN
48.75 6.0
M BA 134 6.0 67 140kNm
2
and
VBA 292.5 134 158.5kN
Reduction in M BA 147 140
7 kNm
7 100
4.8 per cent
147
In order to ensure that the moments in the columns at joint B are not changed by the distribution,
moment M BC must also be reduced by 7 kN m. Therefore
M BC 115 7 108kNm hogging
For the revised moments in BC:
(108 80) 195
VBC 105kN
4 2
VCB 195 105 90kN
For span BC:
1052
M max 108 5kNm sagging
2 48.75
Figure 4.22c shows the revised shearing-force diagram to accord with the redistributed moments.
This example illustrates how, with redistribution
1. the moments at a section of beam can be reduced without exceeding the maximum design moments
at other sections;
2. the values of the column moments are not affected ; and
3. the equilibrium between external loads and internal forces is maintained.

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Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

CHAPTER V. ANALYSIS OF THE SECTION


5.1 Stress Strain Relations
Short term stress strain curves for concrete and steel are presented in EC2. These curves are in
an idealized form which can be used in the analysis of member sections.
5.1.1 Concrete
The behaviour of structural concrete (figure 5.1) is represented by a parabolic stress-strain
relationship, up to a strain c 2 , from which point the strain increases while the stress remains constant.
The ultimate design is given by
f ck 0.85 f ck

c 1.5
0.567 f ck
where the factor of 0.85 allows for the difference between the bending strength and the cylinder
crushing strength of the concrete, and c 1.5 is the usual partial safety factor for the strength of
concrete. The ultimate strain of cu 2 0.0035 is typical for classes of concrete C50 / 60 . These are
the classes most commonly used in reinforced concrete construction.
Parabolic 0.85f ck
curve
2
Stress N/mm

c2 cu2

0.0020 0.0035
Strain
Fig.5-1 Parabolic-rectangular stress-strain diagram for concrete in compression
5.1.2 Reinforcing steel
The representative short-term design stress-strain curve for reinforcement is given in figure 5.2. the
behaviour of the steel identical in tension and compression, being linear in the elastic range up to the
design yield stress of f yk / s where f yk is the characteristic yield stress and s is the partial factor
of safety.

f yk
S
Tension and
2

compression
Stress N/mm

2
200 KN/mm

Strain

Fig.5-2 Short-term design stress-strain curve for reinforcement

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Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

Within the elastic range, the relationship between the stress and strain is
Stress elastic modulus strain
Es s (5-1)
f yk
so that the design yield strain is y / E s
s
at the ultimate limit for f yk 500 N / mm 2
y 500 /(1.15 200 103 )
0.00217

5.2 Distribution of strains and stress across a section in bending


The theory of bending for reinforcement concrete assumes that the concrete will crack in the regions
of tensile strains and that, after cracking, all tension is carried by the reinforcement. It is also assumed
that plane sections of a structural member remain plane after straining, so that across the section there
must be a distribution of strain.
b
cc

d' s=0.8x
A's sc x
neutral
d axis

As

st (a) (b) (c)


triangular rectangular equivalent
parabolic rectangular
Section Strain Stress blocks
Fig.5-3 Section with strain diagram and stress blocks

Figure 5.3 shows the cross-section of a member subjected to bending, and the resultant strain
diagram, together with three different types of stress distribution in the concrete:
1. The triangular stress distribution applies when the stresses are very nearly proportional to the
strains, which generally occurs at the loading levels encountered under working conditions and is,
therefore, used at the serviceability limit state.
2. The rectangular-parabolic stress block represents the distribution at failure when the compressive
strains are within the plastic range, and it is associated with the design for the ultimate state.
3. The equivalent rectangular stress block is a simplified alternative to the rectangular-parabolic
distribution.
where b beam width
d effective depth of the beam
d depth of the compression steel
As Area of tension steel

As Area of compression steel

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Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

cc ultimate strain of concrete in compression


sc strain of steel in compression
st strain of steel in tension
x depth of neutral axis
s 0.8x depth of equivalent stress block
As there is compatibility of strains between the reinforcement and the adjacent concrete, the steel
strains st in tension and sc in compression can be determined from the strain diagram. The
relationships between the depth of neutral axis (x) and the maximum concrete strain ( cu 2 ) and the
steel strains are given by
d x
st cu 2 (5-2)
x
and
x d
sc cu 2 (5-3)
x
Having determined the strains, we can evaluate the stresses in the reinforcement from the stress-strain
curve of figure 5-2, together with the equations developed in section reinforcing steel.
For analysis of a section with known steel strains, the depth of the neutral axis can be determined by
rearranging equation 5-2 as
d
x (5-4)
st
1
cu 2
At the ultimate limit state the maximum compressive strain in the concrete is taken as cu 2 0.0035
for concrete class 50 / 60 .
For steel with f yk 500 N / mm 2 the yield strain is y 0.00217 .
Inserting these values for cu 2 and y into equation 5-4:
d d
x 0.617d
st 0.00217
1 1
cu 2 0.0035
Hence, to ensure yielding of the tension steel at the ultimate limit state:
x 0.617d

At the ultimate limit state it is important that member sections in flexure should be ductile and that
failure should occur with the gradual yielding of the tension steel and not by a sudden catastrophic
compression failure of the concrete. Also, yielding of the reinforcement enables the formation of
plastic hinges so that redistribution of maximum moments can occur, resulting in a safer and more
economical structure. To ensure rotation of the plastic hinges with sufficient yielding of the tension
steel and also to allow for other factors such as the strain hardening of the steel, EC2 limits the depth
of neutral axis to
x 0.45d for concrete class 50 / 60 .
This is the limiting maximum value for x given by EC2 with no redistribution applied to the moments
calculated by an elastic analysis of the structure. When moment redistribution is applied these
maximum values of x are reduced.

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Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

5.3 Bending and the equivalent rectangular stress block


For most reinforced concrete structures it is usual to commence the design for the conditions at the
ultimate limit state, followed by checks to ensure that the structure is adequate for the serviceability
limit state without excessive deflection or cracking of the concrete. For this reason the analysis will
first consider the simplified rectangular stress block which can be used for the design at the ultimate
limit state.
The rectangular stress block as shown in figure 5-4 may be used in preference to the more rigorous
rectangular-parabolic stress block.
b 0.85fck / =0.567fck
0.0035 C

s/2
x s=0.8x
neutral Fcc
d axis z
As

st Fst

Section Strain Stress block


Fig.5-4 Singly reinforced section with rectangular stress block
The design equations derived bellow are for zero redistribution of moments. When moment
redistribution is applied, reference should be made to section 5.7 which describes how to modify the
design equations.

5.4 Singly reinforced rectangular section in bending at the ultimate limit state
5.4.1 Design equations for bending
Bending of the section will induce a resultant tensile force Fst in the reinforcing steel, and a resultant
compressive force in the concrete Fcc which acts through the centroid of the effective area of concrete
in compression, as shown in figure 5-4.
For equilibrium, the ultimate design moment, M, must be balanced by the moment of resistance of
the section so that
M Fcc z Fst z (5.5)
where z the lever arm between the resultant forces Fcc and Fst
Fcc stress area of action
0.567 f ck bs
and
z d s/2 (5.6)
so that substituting in equation 5.5
M 0.567 f ck bs z
and replacing s from equation 5.6 gives
M 1.134 f ck b(d z ) z (5.7)

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Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

Rearranging and substituting K M / bd 2 f ck :


( z / d ) 2 ( z / d ) K / 1.134 0
Solving this quadratic equation:

z s 0.5 (0.25 K / 1.134) (5.8)
in equation 5.5
Fst ( f y / s ) As with s 1.15
0.87 f yk As
Hence
M
As (5.9)
0.87 f yk z
Equations 5.8 and 5.9 can be used to design the area of tension reinforcement in a singly reinforced
concrete section to resist an ultimate moment, M.

5.4.2 The balanced section


The concrete section with the depth of neutral axis at the specified maximum depth of 0.45d is often
referred to as the balanced section because at the ultimate limit state the concrete and tension steel
reach their ultimate strains at the same time. This occurs at the maximum moment of resistance for a
singly reinforced section, that is a section with no compression steel. So for this section with
xbal 0.45d
the depth of the stress block is
s 0.8 xbal 0.8 0.45d 0.36d
The force in the concrete stress block is
Fcc bal 0.567 f ck bs 0.204 f ck bd
For equilibrium the force in the concrete Fcc bal must be balanced by the force Fst bal in the steel. So
that
Fst bal 0.87 f yk As bal 0.204 f ck bd
Therefore; As bal 0.234 f ck bd / f yk
100As bal f ck
So that; 23.4 per cent
bd f yk
which is the steel percentage for a balanced section which should not be exceeded for a ductile singly
reinforced section.
Thus, for example, with f ck 25N / mm2 and f yk 500N / mm 2
100As bal 25
23.4
1.17 per cent
bd 500
The ultimate moment of resistance of the balanced section is M bal Fcc bal zbal where
z bal d s / 2 0.82d
Substituting for Fcc bal and z:
M bal 0.167 f ck bd 2 (5.10)

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Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

Md
And; 0.167 K bal
f ck bd 2
Md
When the design moment M d is such that K bal 0.167 then the section cannot be singly
f ck bd 2
reinforced and compression reinforcing steel is required in the compression zone of the section.

Worked Example 5.1: Design of a singly rectangular section


The ultimate design moment to be resisted by the section in figure 5-5 is 185KNm. Determine the
area of tension reinforcement ( As ) required given the characteristic material strength are
f yk 500 N / mm 2 and f ck 25N / mm2 . b=260

M
K
bd 2 f ck

d=440
185 106
0.147 0.167
260 4402 25 As
therefore compression steel is not required.

Lever arm:

K
z d 0.5 0.25 Fig.5-5 Design example-singly

1.134

reinforced section
0.147
4400.5 0.25
1.134
373mm
Area of tension reinforcement:
M
As
0.87 f yk z
185 106

0.87 500 373
1140mm 2

5.4.3 Analysis equation for a singly reinforced section


The following equations may be used to calculate the moment of resistance of a given section with
a known area of steel reinforcement. For equilibrium of the compressive force in the concrete and
the tensile force in the steel in figure 5-4:
Fcc Fst
or 0.567 f ck b s 0.87 f yk As
Therefore depth of stress block is
0.87 f yk As
s (5.11)
0.567 f ck b

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Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

And; x s / 0.8
Therefore the moment of resistance of the section is
M Fst z
0.87 f yk As (d s / 2)
0.87 f yk As
0.87 f yk As d (5.12)
1.134 f ck b
These equations assume the tension reinforcement has yielded, which will be the case if
x 0.617d .

Worked Example 5.2: Analysis of a singly reinforced rectangular section in bending


Determine the ultimate moment of resistance of the cross-section shown in figure 5.6 given that the
characteristic strengths are f yk 500 N / mm 2 for the reinforcement and f ck 25N / mm2 for the
concrete.
b=300 0.567fck

x s
neutral Fcc
d=520

axis z
2
A s =1470mm

Fst
Fig.5-6 Analysis example singly reinforced section

For equilibrium of the compressive and tensile forces on the section


Fcc Fst
therefore
0.567 f ck b s 0.87 f yk As
0.567 25 300 s 0.87 500 1470
therefore
s 150 mm
and
x s / 0.8 150 / 0.8
188mm
This value of x is less than the value of 0.617d derived from section 5.2, and therefore the steel has
yielded and f st 0.87 f yk as assumed.
Moment of resistance of the section is
M Fst z
0.87 f yk As (d s / 2)
0.87 500 1470(520 150 / 2) 10 6 284 KNm

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Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

5.5 Rectangular section in bending with compression reinforcement at the ultimate


limit state
5.5.1 Derivation of basic equations
It should be noted that the equations in this section have been derived for the case of zero moment
redistribution. When this is not the case, reference should be made to section 5.7 which deals with
the effect of moment redistribution.
b
0.0035 0.567fck

d' Fsc
A's sc x=0.45d s=0.8x
neutral Fcc
d axis
Z bal
As

st Fst

Section Strain Stress block


Fig.5-7 Section with compression reinforcement

From the section dealing with the analysis of a singly reinforced section and for concrete class not
greater than C50/60 when M 0.167 f ck bd 2 the design moment exceeds the moment of resistance
of the concrete ( M bal ) and therefore compression reinforcement is required. For this condition the
depth of neutral axis, x 0.45d , the maximum value allowed by the code in order to endure a tension
failure with a ductile section. Therefore
z bal d s bal / 2 d 0.8 x bal / 2
d 0.8 0.45d / 2
0.82d
For equilibrium of the section in figure 5-7
Fst Fcc Fsc
so that with the reinforcement at yield
0.87 f yk As 0.567 f ck bs 0.87 f yk As
or with
s 0.8 0.45d 0.36d
0.87 f yk As 0.204 f ck bd 0.87 f yk As (5.13)
and taking moments about the centroid of the tension steel,
M Fcc zbal Fsc (d d )
0.204 f ck bd 0.82d 0.87 f yk As (d d )
0.167 f ck bd 2 0.87 f yk As (d d ) (5.14)
From equation 5.14
M 0.167 f ck bd 2
As (5.15)
0.87 f yk (d d )
Multiplying both sides of equation 5.13 by z 0.82d and rearranging gives

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Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

0.167 f ck bd 2
As As (5.16)
0.87 f yk z bal
with z bal 0.82d .
Hence the areas of compression steel, As , and tension steel, As , can be calculated from equations
5.15 and 5.16.
Substituting K bal 0.167 and K M / bd 2 f ck into these equations would convert them into:
( K K bal ) f ck bd 2
As (5.17)
0.87 f yk (d d )
K bal f ck bd 2
As As (5.18)
0.87 f yk z bal
In this analysis it has been assumed that the compression steel has yielded so that the steel stress
f sc 0.87 f yk . From the proportions of the strain distribution diagram:
sc 0.0035
(5.19)
x d x
so that
x d sc

x 0.0035
or
d sc
1
x 0.0035
At yield with f yk 500 N / mm 2 , the steel strain sc y 0.00217. Therefore for yielding of the
compression steel
d 0.00217
1 0.38 (5.20)
x 0.0035
or with x 0.45d
d
0.171 (5.21)
d
The ratio of d / d for yielding of other grades of steel can be determined by using their yield strain
in equation 5.19, but for values of f yk less than 500 N / mm 2 , the application of equation 5.21 will
provide an adequate safe check.
If d / d 0.171, then it is necessary to calculate the strain sc from equation 5.19 and then determine
f sc E s sc
f sc from
200000 sc
This value of stress for the compressive steel must then be used in the denominator of equation 5.15
in place of 0.87 f yk in order to calculate the area As of compression steel. The area of tension steel
is calculated from a modified equation 5.16 such that
0.167 f ck bd 2 f sc
As As
0.87 f yk z bal 0.87 f yk
The above equations apply for the case where the concrete class is less than or equal to C50/60. The
constants for concretes up to class C50/60 are tabulated in table 5.1.

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Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

Table 5-1 Limiting constant values


Concrete class C50 / 60
Limiting x bal / d 0.45
0.82d
Maximum z bal
0.167
K bal limiting K 0.171
Limiting d / d 23.4 f ck / f yk
Maximum percentage steel area 100 Abal / bd

5.5.2 Numerical Examples


Worked Example 5.3: Design of a rectangular section with compression reinforcement (no
moment redistribution)
The section shown in figure 5-8 is to resist an ultimate design moment of 285KNm . The characteristic
material strengths are f yk 500 N / mm 2 and f ck 25 N / mm 2 . Determine the areas of reinforcement
required.
b=260 M
K
bd 2 f ck
d ' =50 285 106
0.226
A's 260 4402 25
0.167
d=440

therefore compression steel is required


d / d 50 / 440 0.11 0.171
As as in equation 5.21 and the compression steel will have yielded.

Fig.5-8 Design example with


compression reinforcement,
no moment redistribution

Compression steel:
( K K bal ) f ck bd 2
As
0.87 f yk (d d )
(0.226 0.167)25 260 4402

0.87 500(440 50)
438 mm 2

Tension steel:
K bal f ck bd 2
As As
0.87 f yk z bal
0.167 25 260 4402
438
0.87 500(0.82 440)
1339 438 1777 mm 2

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Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

Worked Example 5.4: Analysis of a doubly reinforced rectangular section


Determine the ultimate moment of resistance of the cross-section shown in figure 5-9 given that the
characteristic strengths are f yk 500 N / mm 2 for the reinforcement and f ck 25N / mm 2 for the
concrete.
b=280
0.567fck

d ' =50 Fsc


s=0.8x
A's =628 Fcc
d=510

As =2410

Fst
Section Stress block
Fig.5.9 Analysis example, doubly reinforced section

For equilibrium of the tensile and compressive forces on the section:


Fst Fcc Fsc
Assuming initially that the steel stresses f st and f sc are the design yield values, then
0.87 f yk As 0.567 f ck bs 0.87 f yk As
therefore
0.87 f yk ( As As )
s
0.567 f ck b
0.87 500(2410 628)

0.567 25 280
195 mm
x s / 0.8 195 / 0.8 244 mm
x / d 244/ 510 0.48 0.617 (see section 5.2)
so the tension steel will have yielded. Also
d / x 50 / 244 0.2 0.38 (see equation 5.20)
so the compression steel will also have yielded, as assumed.
Taking moment about the tension steel
M Fcc (d s / 2) Fsc (d d )
0.567 f ck bs(d s / 2) 0.87 f yk As (d d )
0.567 25 280195(510 195/ 2) 0.87 500 620(510 50)106
319 124 443 KNm

5.6 Flanged section in bending at the ultimate limit state


T-section and L-section which have their flanges in compression can be designed or analysed in a
similar manner, and the equations which are derived can be applied to either type of cross-section.
As the flanges generally provide a large compressive area, it is usually unnecessary to consider the

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Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

case where compression steel is required; if it should be required, the design would be based on the
principles derived in section Flanged section with compression reinforcement.
For the singly reinforced section it is necessary to consider two conditions:
1.the stress block lies within the compression flange, and
2.the stress block extends below the flange.

5.6.1 Flanged section- the depth of the stress block lies within the flange, s h f
bf 0.567f ck

x s/2
hf neutral axis s=0.8x
Fcc
d z
As
Fst
bw
Section Stress block

Fig. 5-10 T-section, stress block within the flange, s h f


For this depth of stress block, the beam can be considered as an equivalent rectangular section of
breadth b f equal to the flange width. This is because the non-rectangular section below the neutral
axis is in tension and is, therefore, considered to be cracked and inactive. Thus K M / b f d 2 f ck can
be calculated and the lever arm determined from equation 5.8. The relation between the lever arm, z,
and depth, x, of the neutral axis is given by
z d s/2
or
s 2(d z )
If s is less than the flange thickness ( h f ), the stress block does lie within the flange as assumed and
the area of reinforcement is given by
M
As
0.87 f yk z
Worked Example 5.5: Analysis of a flanged section
Determine the ultimate moment of resistance of the T-section shown in figure 5-11. The characteristic
material strengths are f yk 500 N / mm 2 and f ck 25 N / mm 2 .

b f =800 0.567f ck

s/2
h f =150 neutral axis
x s
Fcc
d=420

As =1470mm2
Fst
Section Stress block

Fig.5-11 Analysis example of a T-section, s h f

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Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

Assume initially that the stress block depth lies within the flange and the reinforcement is strained to
the yield, so that f st 0.87 f yk .
For equilibrium of the section
Fcc Fst
Therefore; 0.567 f ck b f s 0.87 f yk As
and solving for the depth of stress block
0.87 5001470
s
0.567 25 800
56 mm h f 150mm
x s / 0.8 56 / 0.8 70 mm
Hence the stress block does lie within the flange and with this depth of neutral axis the steel will have
yielded as assumed.
Lever arm:
z d s/2
420 56 / 2
392 mm
Taking moments about the centroid of the reinforcement the moment of resistance is
M Fcc z
0.567 f ck b f sz
0.567 25 800 56 392106
249 KNm
s hf
5.6.2 Flanged section- the depth of the stress block extends below the flange,
For the design of a flanged section, the procedure described in section above (Flanged section- the
depth of the stress block lies within the flange, s h f ) will check if the depth of the stress block
extends below the flange. An alternative procedure is to calculate the moment of resistance, M f , of
the section with s h f , the depth of the flange(see equation 5.22 of example 5.6 following). Hence
if the design moment, M d , is such that
Md M f
then the stress block must extend below the flange, and
s hf
In this case the design can be carried out by either:
(a) using an exact method to determine the depth of the neutral axis, as in example 5.6 or
(b) designing for the conservative condition of x 0.45d , which is the maximum value of x for a
singly reinforced section and concrete class C50 / 60.

Worked Example 5.6: Design of a flanged section with the depth of the stress block below the
flange
The T-section beam shown in figure 5.12 is required to resist an ultimate design moment of 180KNm.
The characteristic material strengths are f yk 500 N / mm 2 and f ck 25 N / mm 2 .
Calculate the area of reinforcement required.

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Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

bf =400
0.567fck
Fcf
hf =100 x s
neutral sw
d =350

axis
Fcw z1
z2
As
Fst
bw =200

Section Stress block

Fig.5-12 Design example of a T-section, s h f


In figure 5.12
Fcf is the force developed in the flange
Fcw is the force in the area of web in compression
Moment of resistance, M f , of the flange is
M f Fcf z1
or M f 0.567 f ck b f h f (d h f / 2) (5.22)
0.567 25 400100(350 100 / 2) 106
170KNm 180KNm , the design moment
Therefore, the stress block must extend below the flange.
It is now necessary to determine the depth, s w , of the web in compression, where sw s h f .
For equilibrium:
Applied moment
180 Fcf z1 Fcw z 2
170 0.567 f ck bw s w z 2
170 0.567 25 200s w (250 s w / 2) 106
170 2835s w (250 s w / 2) 106
This equation can be rearranged into
sw 500sw 7.05 103 0
2

Solving this quadratic equation


s w 15 mm
so that the depth of neutral axis
x (h f sw ) / 0.8 (100 15) / 0.8
144mm 0.41d
As x 0.45d compression reinforcement is not required.
For the equilibrium of the section; Fst Fcf Fcw
or 0.87 f yk As 0.567 f ck b f h f 0.567 f ck bw sw
0.87 500 As 0.567 25(400100 20015) 610103

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Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

Therefore
610103
As
0.87 500
1402mm 2

Worked Example 5.7: Analysis of a flanged section


Determine the ultimate moment of resistance of the T-beam section shown in figure 5.13 given
f yk 500 N / mm 2 and f ck 25 N / mm 2 .
b f =450
0.567fck

Fcf
hf =150
s=0.8x
neutral
Fcw
d =550

axis

As =2592

Fst
b w=300

Section Stress block


Fig.5-13 Analysis example of a T-section, s h f
The compressive force in the flange is
Fcf 0.567 f ck b f h f
0.567 25 450 150 103 957 KN
Then tensile force in the reinforcing steel, assuming it has yielded, is
Fst 0.87 f yk As
0.87 500 2592103
1128kN
Therefore Fst Fcf so that s h f and the force in the web is
Fcw 0.567 f ck bw ( s h f )
0.567 25 300( s 150) 103
4.25( s 150)
For equilibrium
Fcw Fst Fcf
or
4.25( s 150) 1128 957
Hence
s 190 mm
x s / 0.8 190 / 0.8 238mm 0.43d

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Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

With this depth of neutral axis the reinforcement has yielded, as assumed, and
Fcw 4.25(190 150) 170 KN
(If Fcf Fst , the stress block would not extend beyond the flange and the section would be analysed
as in example 5.2 for a rectangular section of dimensions b f d .)
Taking moments about the centroid of the reinforcement
M Fcf (d h f / 2) Fcw (d s / 2 h f / 2)
957(550 150 / 2) 170(550 190 / 2 150 / 2) 103
519 KNm

Worked Example 5.8: Design of a flanged section with depth of neutral axis x 0.45d
A safe but conservative design for a flanged section with s h f can be achieved by setting the depth
of neutral axis to x 0.45d , the maximum depth allowed in the code. Design equations can be
derived for this condition as follows.

bf 0.567f ck

Fc2
hf 2 2 s=0.8x
1 x=0.45d
neutral Fc1
axis z1 z2

As
Fst
bw
Section Stress block
Fig.5-14 Flanged section with depth of neutral axis x 0.45d

Depth of stress block, s 0.8x 0.8 0.45d 0.36d


Divide the flanged section within the depth of the stress block into areas 1 and 2 as shown in figure
5.14, so that
Area 1 bw s 0.36bw d
Area 2 (b f bw ) h f
and the compression forces developed by these areas are
Fc1 0.567 f ck 0.36bw d 0.2 f ck bw d
Fc 2 0.567 f ck h f (b f bw )
Taking moments about Fc 2 at the centroid of the flange
M Fst (d h f / 2) Fc1 ( s / 2 h f / 2)
0.87 f yk As (d h f / 2) 0.2 f ck bw d (0.36d h f ) / 2
Therefore
M 0.1 f ck bw d (0.36d h f )
As (5.23)
0.87 f yk (d 0.5h f )

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Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

This equation should not be used when h f 0.36d .


Appling this equation to example 5.6:
180 106 0.1 25 200 350(0.36 350 100)
As
0.87 500(350 100 / 2)
1414mm 2 (compared with 1407mm 2 in example 5.6)
Before using equation 5.23 for calculating As , it is necessary to confirm that compression
reinforcement is not required. This is achieved by using equation 5.24 to check that the moment of
resistance of the concrete, M bal , is greater than the design moment, M.

Flanged section with compression reinforcement


With x 0.45d in figure 5-14 and taking moments about As , the maximum resistance moment of
the concrete is
M bal Fc1 z1 Fc 2 z 2
0.167 f ck bw d 2 0.567 f ck (b f bw )(d h f / 2)
(Note that the value of 0.167 was derived in equation 5.10 for the rectangular section.)
Dividing through by f ck b f d 2

M bal b bw h f
hf
1 1
0.167 w 0.567 (5.25)
2 b 2d
f ck b f d bf d f
If the applied design moment, M M bal , compression reinforcement is required. In this case the area
of compression steel can be calculated from
M M bal
As (5.26)
0.87 f yk (d d )
and considering the equilibrium of forces on the section
Fst Fc1 Fc 2 Fsc
so that the area of tension steel is
0.2 f ck bw d 0.567 f ck h f (b f bw )
As As (5.27)
0.87 f yk
Again, d / x 0.38 , otherwise the design compressive steel stress is less than 0.87 f yk .

5.7 Moment redistribution and the design equations


The plastic behaviour of reinforced concrete at the ultimate limit state affects the distribution of
moments in a structure. To allow for this, the moments derived from an elastic analysis may be
redistributed based on the assumption that plastic hinges have formed at the sections with the largest
moments. The formation of plastic hinges requires relatively large rotations with yielding of the
tension reinforcement. To ensure large strains in the tension steel, the code of practice restricts the
depth of the neutral axis according to the magnitude of the moment redistribution carried out.
The equations for this, given by EC2 for concrete class less than or equal to C50/60 is
x
k1 k 2 bal
d
or

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Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

x bal
( k1 ) / k 2 (5.28)
d
where
moment at section after redistribution
1.0
moment at section before redistribution
k1 and k 2 are constants from the EC2 code
x bal is the maximum value of the depth of the neutral axis which will take the limiting value of the
equality of equation 5.28 but should be less than 0.45d for class C50 / 60.
The depth of the stress block is
s bal 0.8 x bal
and the lever arm is
z bal d s bal / 2 (5.29)
The moment of resistance of the concrete in compression is
M bal Fcc z bal 0.567 f ck bsbal z bal
and
K bal M bal / bd 2 f ck 0.567sbal z bal / d 2
This equation for K bal and the previous equations from 5.28to 5.29 can be arranged to give
K bal 0.454( k1 ) / k 2 0.182( k1 ) / k 2
2
(5.30)
or alternatively
x z
K bal 0.454 bal bal
d d
From the EC2 the constants k1 and k 2 are given as: k1 0.44 and k 2 1.25 .
The relevant values of x bal , z bal and K bal for varying percentages of moment redistribution and
concrete class C50 / 60 are shown in table 5-2.

Table 5.2 Moment redistribution design factors


Redistribution x bal / d z bal / d K bal d/ d
(%)
According to EC2, k1 0.44 and k 2 1.25
0 1.0 0.448 0.821 0.167 0.171
10 0.90 0.368 0.853 0.142 0.140
15 0.85 0.328 0.869 0.129 0.125
20 0.80 0.288 0.885 0.116 0.109
25 0.75 0.248 0.900 0.101 0.094
30 0.70 0.206 0.917 0.087 0.079

When the ultimate design moment is such that


M K bal bd 2 f ck
or K K bal
then compression steel is required such that

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Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

( K K bal ) f ck bd 2
As (5.31)
0.87 f yk (d d )
K bal f ck bd 2
And; As As (5.32)
0.87 f yk z bal
M bal
where K (5.33)
bd 2 f ck
If the value of d / d for the section exceeds that shown in table 5.2, the compression steel will not
have yielded and the compressive stress will be less than 0.87 f yk . In such cases, the compressive
stress f sc will be E s sc where the strain sc is obtained from the proportions of the strain diagram.
This value of f sc should replace 0.87 f yk in equation 5.31, and equation 5.32 becomes
K bal f ck bd 2 f sc
As As
0.87 f yk z bal 0.87 f yk
It should be noted that for a singly reinforced section ( K K bal ), the lever arm is calculated from
equation 5.8.
For a section requiring compression steel, the lever arm can be calculated from equation 5.29 or by
using the equation

z d 0.5 (0.25 K bal / 1.134) (5.34)
which is similar to equation 5.8 but with K bal replacing K .

Worked Example 5.9: Design of a section with moment redistribution applied and 0.8
The section shown in figure 5.15 is subject to an ultimate design moment of 230 KNm after a 20%
reduction due to moment redistribution. The characteristic material strengths are f yk 500 N / mm 2
and f ck 25 N / mm 2 . Determine the areas of reinforcement required using the constants k1 and k 2 .

(i) From first principles


b=260
Limiting neutral axis depth, x bal ( k1 )d / k 2
d ' =50
From EC2 k1 0.44 and k 2 1.25 , A's
d=490

therefore xbal (0.8 0.44)490 / 1.25 141 mm


Stress block depth s bal 0.8 x bal 0.8 141 113 mm As
Lever arm z bal d s bal / 2 490 113/ 2 434 mm
Moment of resistance of the concrete
M bal Fcc z bal 0.567 f ck bsbal z bal Fig.5-15 Design example
6
0.567 25 260113 43410
181 KNm
230 KNm , the applied moment
therefore compression steel is required.
d / x bal 50 / 141 0.35 0.38 (see equation 5.20)
therefore compression steel has yielded.

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Chapter V: Analysis of the Section

Compression steel:
M M bal
As
0.87 f yk (d d )
(230 181) 106

0.87 500(490 50)
256 mm 2
Tension steel:
M bal
As As
0.87 f yk z bal
181 106
256
0.87 500 434
959 256 1215 mm 2

(ii) Alternative solution applying equations developed in section 5.7


From equations 5.30 to 5.34
K bal 0.454( k1 ) / k 2 0.182( k1 ) / k 2
2

0.454(0.8 0.44) / 1.25 0.182(0.8 0.44) / 1.25


2

0.131 0.015 0.116


which agrees with the value given in table 5.2.
M
K 2
bd f ck
230 106

260 4902 25
0.147 K bal 0.116
Therefore compression steel required.
Compression steel:
( K K bal ) f ck bd 2
As
0.87 f yk (d d )
(0.147 0.116)25 260 4902

0.87 500(490 50)
244 mm 2
Tension steel:

z bal d 0.5 (0.25 K bal / 1.134)
d 0.5
(0.25 0.116 / 1.134) 0.89d
2
K bal f ck bd
As As
0.87 f yk z bal
0.116 25 260 4902
244
0.87 500 0.89 490
954 244 1198 mm 2

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Chapter VII: Shear and Bond

CHAPTER VI. SHEAR AND BOND


6.1 Shear
6.1.1 The variable strut inclination method for sections that do require shear reinforcement
In order to derive the design equations the action of a reinforced concrete beam in shear is represented
by an analogous truss as shown in figure 6.2. The concrete acts as the top compression member and
as the diagonal compression members inclined at an angle to the horizontal. The bottom chord is
the horizontal tension steel and the vertical links are the transverse tension members. It should be
noted that in this method of shear behaviour all shear will be resisted by the provision of links with
no direct contribution from the shear capacity of the concrete itself.

X Y
b
z

zco
s
compression Fc
n n
sio sio
tension

VEd
z = 0.9d

e s e s
d pr mp
r
om
tension

tension
c co VEd / sin

tension Fs

zcot Section
X Y
VEd
Fig.6-2 Assumed truss for the variable strut inclination method

The analysis of the truss to derive the design equation will be carried out in the following order:
1. Consideration of the compressive strength of the diagonal concrete strut and its angle ;
2. Calculation of the required shear reinforcement Asw / s for the vertical ties;
3. Calculation of the additional tension steel As1 required in the bottom chord member.
The following notation is used in the equations for the shear design
Asw the cross-sectional area of the two legs of the link
s the spacing of the links
z the lever arm between the upper and lower chord members of the analogous truss
f ywd the design yield strength of the link reinforcement
f yk the characteristic strength of the link reinforcement
V Ed the shear force due to the actions at the ultimate limit state
VEf the ultimate shear force at the face of the support
Vwd the shear force in the link
VRd ,s the shear resistance of the links
VRd ,max the maximum design value of the shear which can be resisted by the concrete strut

(1) The diagonal compressive strut and the angle


The shear force applied to the section must be limited so that excessive compressive stresses do not
occur in the diagonal compressive struts, leading to compressive failure of the concrete. Thus the

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Chapter VII: Shear and Bond

maximum design shear force VRd ,max is limited by the ultimate crushing strength of the diagonal
concrete member in the analogous truss and its vertical component.
With reference to figure 6.2, the effective cross sectional area of concrete acting as the diagonal strut
is taken as bw z cos and the design concrete stress f cd f ck / 1.5 .

The ultimate strength of the strut ultimate design stress cross-sectional area
( f ck / 1.5) (bw z cos )
and its vertical component [( f ck / 1.5) (bw z cos )] sin
so that VRd ,max f ck bw z cos sin / 1.5
which by conversion of the trigometrical functions can be expressed as
f ck bw z
VRd ,max
1.5(cot tan )
In EC2 this equation is modified by the inclusion of a strength reduction factor ( v1 ) for concrete
cracked in shear.
f ck bw zv1
VRd ,max (6.3)
1.5(cot tan )
where the strength reduction factor takes the value of v1 0.6(1 f ck / 250) and, putting z 0.9d ,
equation 6.3 becomes
0.9d bw 0.6(1 f ck / 250) f ck
VRd ,max
1.5(cot tan )
0.36bw d (1 f ck / 250) f ck
(6.4)
(cot tan )
and to ensure that there is no crushing of the diagonal compressive strut:
VRd ,max VEd (6.5)
This must be checked for the maximum value of shear on the beam, which is usually taken as the
shear force, VEf , at face of the beams supports so that
VRd ,max VEf
EC2 limits to a value between 22 and 45 degrees.
The angle increases with the magnitude of the maximum shear force on the beam and hence the
compressive forces in the diagonal concrete members. It is set by EC2 to have a value 22 and 45
degrees. For most cases of predominately uniformly distributed loading the angle will be 22
degrees but for heavy and concentrated loads it can be higher in order to resist crushing of the
concrete diagonal members.
(i) With 22 degrees (this is the usual case for uniformly distributed loads)
From equation 6.4:
VRd ,max(22) 0.124bw d (1 f ck / 250) f ck (6.6)
If VRd ,max(22) VEf then a larger value of the angle must be used so that the diagonal concrete strut
has a larger vertical component to balance V Ed .
(ii) With 45 degrees (the maximum value of as allowed by EC2)
From equation 6.4:

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Chapter VII: Shear and Bond

VRd ,max(45) 0.18bw d (1 f ck / 250) f ck (6.7)


which is the upper limit on the compressive strength of the concrete diagonal member in the
analogous truss. When VEf VRd ,max(45) , from equation 6.7 the diagonal strut will be over stressed and
the beams dimensions must be increased or a higher class of concrete be used.
(iii) With between 22 degrees and 45 degrees
The required value for can be obtained by equating V Ed to VRd ,max and solving for in equation
6.4 as follows:
0.36bw d (1 f ck / 250) f ck
VED VRd ,max
(cot tan )
1 /(cot tan ) sin cos
And;
0.5 sin 2
therefore by substitution
VEd
0.5 sin 1 45 (6.8a)
0.18bw d (1 f ck / 250) f ck
which alternatively can be expressed as:
VEd
0.5 sin 1 45 (6.8b)
VRd ,max(45)
where VEf is the shear force at the face of the support and the calculated value of the angle can
then be used to determine cot and calculate the shear reinforcement Asw / s from equation 6.9
below (when 22 45 ).

(2) The vertical shear reinforcement


As previously noted, all shear will be resisted by the provision of links with no direct contribution
from the shear capacity of the concrete itself. Using the method of section it can be seen that, at
section X-X in figure 6.2, the force in the vertical link member ( V wd ) must equal the shear force
( V Ed ), that is
Vwd V Ed f ywd Asw
f yk Asw

1.15
0.87 f yk Asw
If the links are spaced at a distance s apart, then the force in each link is reduced proportionately and
is given by
s
Vwd 0.87 f yk Asw
z cot
or
Vwd VEd
Asw
0.87 zf yk cot
s
A
0.87 sw 0.9df yk cot
s

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Chapter VII: Shear and Bond

thus rearranging
Asw VEd
(6.9)
s 0.78df yk cot
EC2 specifies a minimum value for Asw / s such that
Asw,min 0.08 f ck0.5bw
(6.10)
s f yk
Equation 6.9 can be used to determine the amount and spacing of the shear links and will depend on
the value of used in the design. For most cases of beams with predominately uniformly distributed
loads the angle will be 22 degrees with cot 2.5 . Otherwise the value for can be calculated
from equation 6.8.
EC2 also specifies that, for beams with predominately uniformly distributed loads, the design shear
force VEd need not be checked at a distance d from the face of the support but the shear reinforcement
calculated must be continued to the support.
Equation 6.9 can be rearranged to give the shear resistance VRd ,s of a given arrangement of links
Asw / s .
Thus:
Asw
VRd ,s 0.78df yk cot (6.11)
s

3) Additional longitudinal force


When using this method of shear design it is necessary to allow for the additional longitudinal force
in the tension steel caused by the shear V Ed . This longitudinal tensile force Ftd is caused by the
horizontal component required to balance the compressive force in the inclined concrete strut.
Resolving forces horizontally in the Y-Y shown in figure 6-2, the longitudinal component of the
force in the compressive strut is given by
Longitudinal force (VEd / sin ) cos
VEd cot
If it is assumed that half of this force is carried by the reinforcement in the tension zone of the beam
then the additional tensile force to be provided in the tensile zone is given by
Ftd 0.5VEd cot (6.12)
To provide for this longitudinal force, at any section it is necessary to provide longitudinal
reinforcement additional to that required at that section to resist bending. In practice, increasing the
curtailment lengths of the bottom-face tension reinforcement can usually provide the required force.

6.1.2 Bent-up bars


To resist shearing forces, longitudinal tension bars may be bent up near to the supports as shown in
figure 6.3. The bent-up bars and the concrete in compression are considered to act as an analogous
lattice girder and the shear resistance of the bars is determined by taking a section X-X through the
girder.

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Chapter VII: Shear and Bond

Anchorage
length
X

Asw Asw Asw


0.9d

com
p
X
s

s=0.9d(cot + cot )

(a) Single system (b) Multiple system


Fig.6.3 Bent up bars

From the geometry of part (a) of figure 6.3, the spacing of the bent-up bars is:
s 0.9d (cot cot )
and at the section X-X the shear resistance of a single bent-up bar ( V wd ) must equal the shear force
( V Ed ).
f yk
Vwd VEd f ywd Asw sin Asw sin 0.87 f yk Asw sin
1.15
where Asw is the cross-sectional area of the bent-up bar.
For a multiple system of bent-up bars, as in part (b) of figure 6.3, the shear resistance is increased
proportionately to the spacing, s. Hence:
0.9d (cot cot )
VEd 0.87 f yk Asw sin
s
0.9d (cot cot )
= number of bars crossing the crack
s
or
Asw VEd
(6.13)
s 0.78df yk (cot cot ) sin
This equation is analogous to equation (6.9) for the resistance of shear links. In a similar way it can
be shown that, based on crushing of the concrete in the compressive struts, the analogous equation
to (6.4) is given by:
(cot cot )
VRd ,max 0.36bw d (1 f ck / 250) f ck (6.14)
(1 cot2 )
and the additional tensile force to be provided by the provision of additional tension steel is given by
a modified version of equation 6.12:
Ftd 0.5VEd (cot cot ) (6.15)
EC2 also requires that
i) the maximum longitudinal spacing of bent-up bars limited to 0.6(1 cot ) ;
ii) at least 50 per cent of the required shear reinforcement should be in the form of shear links.

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Chapter VII: Shear and Bond

6.2 Anchorage bond


6.2.1 General
Anchorage is the embedment of the bar into the concrete so that it can carry the load through bond
between the steel and the concrete.
The reinforcing bar subject to direct tension shown in figure 6.4 must be firmly anchored if it is not
to be pulled out of the concrete. Bars subject to forces induced by flexure must be similarly anchored
to develop their design stresses. The anchorage depends on the bond between the bar and the concrete,
the area of contact and whether or not the bar is located in a region where good bond conditions can
be expected. Let:
lb basic required anchorage length to prevent pull out
bar size or nominal diameter
f bd ultimate anchorage bond stress
f s the direct tensile or compressive stress in the bar

Fig.6.4 Anchorage bond


Considering the forces on the bar
Tensile pull-out force cross-sectional area of bar direct stress
2
fs
4
Anchorage force contact area anchorage bond stress
(lb) f bd
Hence
f s
lb
4 f bd
and when f s f yd , the design yield strength of the reinforcement ( f yk /1.15 ) the anchorage length
is given by
lb ( / 4)([ f yk /1.15] / f bd )
f yk
lb (6.19)
4.6 f bd
6.2.2 Basic anchorage length
Equation 6.19 may be used to determine the basic anchorage length of bars which are either in tension
or compression. For the calculation of anchorage lengths, design values of ultimate anchorage bond
stresses are specified according to whether the bond conditions are good or otherwise.

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Chapter VII: Shear and Bond

Fig.6.5 Definition of good and poor bond conditions

Good bond conditions are considered to be when (a) bars are inclined at an angle of between 45 and
90 to the horizontal or (b) zero to 45 provided that in this second case additional requirements are
met. These additional conditions are that bars are

1. either placed in members whose depth in the direction of concreting does not exceed 250mm or
2. embedded in members with a depth greater than 250mm and are either in the lower 250mm of the
member or at least 300mm from the top surface when the depth exceeds 600mm.

These conditions are illustrated in figure 6.5. When bond conditions are poor then the specified
ultimate bond stresses should be reduced by a factor 0.7.
The design value of the ultimate bond stress is also dependent on the bar size. For all bar size ( )
greater than 32mm the bond stress should additionally be multiplied by a factor (132 ) / 100 .
Table 6.1 gives the design values of ultimate bond stresses for good conditions. These depend on
the class of concrete and are obtained from the equation f bd 1.5 f ctk where f ctk is the characteristic
tensile strength of the concrete.

Table 6.1 Design values of bond stresses f bd ( N / mm 2 )


f ck N / mm 2 12 16 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Plain bars 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7
Bars 32mm diameter and 1.6 2.0 2.3 2.7 3.0 3.4 3.7 4.0 4.3 4.5 4.7
good bond conditions
Bars 32mm diameter and 1.1 1.4 1.6 1.9 2.1 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.1 3.3
poor bond conditions

6.2.3 Design anchorage length


The required minimum anchorage length ( lbd ) is given by
lbd 1 2lb As,req / As, prov (6.20)

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Chapter VII: Shear and Bond

where As ,req , As. prov area of reinforcement required and provided at that section
1 , 2 coefficients as given in Table 6.2
In Table 6.2:
c d concrete cover coefficients as shown in figure 6.6.
c1 a c a

c c

Straight bars Bent or hooked bars Looped bars


cd min (a / 2, c1 , c) cd min (a / 2, c1 ) cd c
Fig.6.6 values of c d for beams and slabs

Table 6.2 Coefficients


Value allows for the Type of Reinforcement in
of effect of: anchorage Tension Compression
1 The shape of the bars Straight 1.0 1.0
Other than 0.7 if cd 3.0 or 1.0 if not 1.0
Straight
2 Concrete cover to the Straight 1 0.15(cd ) / 1.0
reinforcement But 0.7 and 1.0
Other than 1 0.15(cd 3 ) / 1.0
Straight
But 0.7 and 1.0

This minimum design length must not be less than:


for tension bars: 0.3lb
for compression bars: 0.6lb
In both cases the minimum value must also exceed both 10 bar diameters and 100mm.

Worked Example 6.1: Shear resistance of a beam


The beam in figure 6.7 spans 8.0 meters on 300mm wide supports. It is required to support a
uniformly distributed ultimate load, wu of 200KN / m . The characteristic material strengths are
f ck 30N / mm2 for the concrete and f yk 500N / mm 2 for the steel. Check if the shear
reinforcement in the form of the vertical links shown can support, in shear, the given ultimate load.

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Chapter VII: Shear and Bond

H12 stirrups at 175 spcg


b=350

d=650
H12

Section

2
2H25: As =982mm
Fig.6.7 Beam with stirrups

Total ultimate load on beam 200 8.0 1600KN


Support reaction 1600/ 2 800KN
Shear, VEf at face of support 800 200 0.3 / 2 770KN
Shear, V Ed distance d from face of support 770 200 0.65 640KN

1. Check the crushing strength VRd ,max of the concrete diagonal strut at the face of the beams support.
From equation 6.6 with 22
VRd ,max(22) 0.124bw d (1 f ck / 250) f ck
0.124 350 650(1 30 / 250)30
745KN ( VEf 770KN )
From equation 6.7 with 45
VRd ,max(45) 0.18bw d (1 f ck / 250) f ck
0.18 350 650(1 30 / 250)30
1081KN ( VEf 770KN )
Therefore: 22 45 .

2. Determine angle
From equation 6.8(a)
VEf
0.5 sin 1 45
0.18bw d (1 f ck / 250) f ck
or alternatively from equation 6.8(b)
VEf 1 770
0.5 sin 1 0.5 sin 22.7
VRd ,max(45) 1081
From which cot 2.39 and tan 0.42 .

3. Determine shear resistance of the links


The cross-sectional area Asw of a 12mm bar 113mm 2 . Thus for the two legs of the link and a spacing
of 175mm

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Asw 2 113
1.29
s 175
From equation 6.11 the shear resistance, VRd ,s of the links is given by
Asw
VRd ,s 0.78df yk cot
s
1.29 0.78 650 500 2.39 103 781KN
Therefore shear resistance of links 781KN .
Design shear, V Ed distance d from the face of the support 640KN ( 781KN ) . Therefore, the beam
can support, in shear, the ultimate load of 200KN / m .

4. Additional longitudinal tensile force in the tension steel


It is necessary to check that the bottom tension steel has a sufficient length of curtailment, and
anchorage to resist the additional horizontal tension Ftd caused by the design shear. These
additional tension forces are calculated from equation 6.12. Therefore
Ftd 0.5VEd cot
0.5 640 2.39 765KN

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Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

CHAPTER VII. DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS


7.0 Introduction
Reinforced concrete beam design consists primarily of producing member details which will
adequately resist the ultimate bending moments, shear forces and torsional moments. At the same
time serviceability requirements must be considered to ensure that the member will behave
satisfactorily under working loads.
The design procedure consists of three basic design stages:
1. preliminary analysis and member sizing;
2. detailed analysis and design of reinforcement;
3. serviceability calculations.

7.1 Preliminary analysis and member sizing


7.1.1 Overview
The preliminary analysis need only provide the maximum moments and shears in order to ascertain
reasonable dimensions. Beam dimensions required are
1. cover to the reinforcement
2. breadth (b)
3. effective depth (d)
4. overall depth (h)
Adequate concrete cover is required to ensure adequate bond and to protect the reinforcement from
corrosion and damage. The necessary cover depends on the class of concrete, the exposure of the
beam, and the required fire resistance. Table 7.2 gives the nominal cover that should be provided to
all reinforcement, including links. This cover may need to be increased to meet the fire resistance
requirement of the Code of Practice.

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Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

Table 7.1 Exposure class designation


Class Description Examples of environmental conditions
designatio
n
XO No risk of corrosion Unreinforced concrete ( no freeze/thaw,
- Very dry abrasion or chemical attack)
Reinforced concrete buildings with very
low humidity
XC Carbonation-induced corrosion risk Reinforced and prestressed concrete:
-1 - Dry or permanently wet - inside structures (except high humidity)
-2 or permanently submerged (non-
-3 - Wet- rarely dry aggressive water)
-4 - Moderate humidity - completely buried in non-aggressive soil
- Cyclic wet and dry - external surfaces (including exposed to
rain)
- exposed to alternate wetting and drying
XD Chloride-induced corrosion risk (not due to Reinforced and prestressed concrete:
-1 seawater) - exposed to airborne chlorides, bridge
- Moderate humidity parts away from direct spray containing
de-icing agents, occasional/slight chloride
-2 exposure
- Wet, rarely dry - totally immersed in water containing
-3 chlorides (swimming pools, industrial
- Cyclic wet and dry waters)
-exposed to de-icing salts and spray
(bridges and adjacent structures,
pavements, car parks)
XS Chloride-induced corrosion risk (sea water) Reinforced and prestressed concrete:
-1 - Exposed to airborne salt but not in direct - external in coastal areas
-2 water contact - remaining saturated (e.g. below mid-tide
-3 - Permanently submerged level)
- Tidal, splash and spray zones - in upper tidal, splash and spray zones
XF Freeze/thaw attack whilst wet Concrete surfaces exposed to freezing:
-1 - Moderate water saturation-without de-icing - vertical exposed to rain
-2 agent - vertical (road structures) exposed to de-
- Moderate water saturation-with de-icing icing agents as spray or run-off
-3 agent - horizontal exposed to rain or water
-4 accumulation
- High water saturation-without de-icing agent - horizontal exposed to de-icing agents
- High water saturation-with de-icing agent or directly or as spray or run-off. Others
sea water subject to frequent splashing
XA Chemical attack
-1 - Slightly aggressive
-2 - Moderately aggressive - Defined in specialist literature
-3 - Highly aggressive

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Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

Table 7.2 Cover to reinforcement


Expose class Nominal Cover(mm)
XO Not recommended for reinforced concrete
XC1 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25
XC2 - 35 35 35 35 35 35 35
XC3/4 - 45 40 35 35 30 30 30
1 1
XD1 - - 45 40 40 35 1 35 35
XD2 - - 50 2 45 2 45 1 40 2 40 40
XD3 - - - - 60 2 55 2 50 1 50
XS1 - - - - 50 1 45 1 45 40
2 2 1 2
XS2 - - 50 45 45 40 40 40
XS3 - - - - - 60 2 55 1 55
Maximum free 0.70 0.65 0.60 0.55 0.50 0.45 0.35
0.35
water/cement
ratio
Minimum cement 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380
3
(kg/m )
Lowest concrete C20/25 C25/30 C28/35 C32/40 C35/45 C40/50 C45/55 C50/60
Notes:
1. Cement content should be increased by 20 kg/m 3 above the values shown in the table.
2. Cement content should be increased by 40 kg/m 3 AND water-cement ratio reduced by 0.05 compared
with the values shown in the table.
General Notes
These values may be reduced by 5mm if an approved quality control system is specified.
Cover should not be less than the bar diameter 10mm to ensure adequate bond performance.

Table 7.3 Minimum concrete mix-requirement for concrete exposed to


freeze/thaw (Exposure Class XF) 20mm aggregates
Class Strength Class (maximum water/cement ratio)
No air-entrainment 3.5% air-entrainment
XF1 C25/30 (0.6) 28/35 (0.6)
XF2 C25/30 (0.6) 32/40(0.55)
1
XF3 C25/30 (0.6) 40/50(0.45)
XF4 1 C28/35 (0.55) 40/50 (0.45)
Note:
1. Freeze-thaw resisting aggregates to be specified.

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Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

Table 7.4 Minimum dimensions and axis distance for RC beams for fire resistance
Standard fire Minimum dimensions (mm)
resistance Possible combinations of a and bmin where a is the average axis distance
and bmin is the width of the beam
Simply supported Continuous
A B C D E F G H
R60 bmin 120 160 200 300 120 200
a 40 35 30 25 25 12
R90 bmin 150 200 300 400 150 250
a 55 45 40 35 35 25
R120 bmin 200 240 300 500 200 300 450 500
a 65 60 55 50 45 35 35 30
R240 bmin 280 350 500 700 280 500 650 700
a 90 80 75 70 75 60 60 50
Note: The axis distance a sd from the side of a beam to the corner bar should be a 10mm except
where bmin is greater than the values in columns C and F

The strength of a beam is affected considerably more by its depth than its breadth. The span-depth
ratios usually vary between say 14 and 30 but for larger spans the ratios can be greater. A suitable
breadth may be one-third to one-half of the depth; but it may be much less for a deep beam. At other
times wide shallow beams are used to conserve headroom. The beam should not be too narrow; if it
is much less than 200mm wide there may be difficulty in providing adequate side cover and space
for the reinforcing bars.
Suitable dimensions for b and d can be decided by a few trial calculations as follow:

1. For no compression reinforcement


K M / bd 2 f ck K bal
where
K bal 0.167 for f ck 50
With compression reinforcement it can be shown that
M / bd 2 f ck 8 / f ck
approximately, if the area of bending reinforcement is not to be excessive.
2. The maximum design shear force VEd ,max should not be greater than
VRd ,max 0.18bw d (1 f ck / 250) f ck . To avoid congested shear reinforcement, VEd ,max should
preferably be somewhat closer to half ( or less) of the maximum allowed.
3. The span-effective depth ratio for spans not exceeding 7m should be within the basic values given
in table 7.5. For spans greater than 7m the basic ratios are multiplied by 7/span.
4. The overall depth of the beam is given by
h d cover t

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Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

b where t estimated distance from the outside of the link to the centre
of the tension bars ( see figure 7.1). For example, with nominal sized
12mm links and one layer of 32mm tension bars, t 28 , mm
h d approximately. It will, in fact, be slightly larger than this with
deformed bars as they have a larger overall dimension than the
t cover
nominal bar size.

Fig.7.1 Beam dimensions

7.1.2 Span-effective depth ratios


The appearance and function of a reinforced concrete beam or slab may be impaired if the deflection
under serviceability loading is excessive. Deflections can be calculated but it is more usual to control
deflections by placing a limit on the ratio of the span to the effective depth of the beam or slab. EC2
specifies equations to calculate basic span-effective depth ratios, to control deflections to a maximum
of span/250. Some typical values are given in the table 7.5 for rectangular sections of class C30/35
concrete and for grade 500 steel. The ratios can also be used for flanged sections except where the
ratio of the width of flange to the width of web exceeds 3 when the basic values should be multiplied
by 0.8. For two-way spanning slabs, the check for the basic span-effective depth ratio should be based
on the shorter span whereas for flat slabs calculations should be based on the longer span.
The two columns given in the table 7.5 correspond to levels of concrete stress under serviceability
conditions: highly stressed when the steel ratio exceeds 1.5 per cent and lightly stressed when
equals 0.5 per cent. is given by 100As ,req / bd where As ,req is the area of tension reinforcement
required in the section. Interpolation between the values of indicated is permissible. In the case of
slabs it is reasonable to assume that they are lightly stressed.
Since the value of allowable span-effective depth ratio is affected by both reinforcement ratio and
concrete strength it may be more convenient to use the chart in figure 7.2 which is for a simply
supported span with no compression steel together with a modification factor K (as shown in table
7.5) according to member type.

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Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

Fig.7.2 Basic span effective depth ratios

The basic ratios are modified in particular cases as follows:


(a) For spans loner than 7m (except flat slabs) and where it is necessary to limit deflections to ensure
that finishes, such as partitions, are not damaged, the basic values should be multiplied by 7/span.
(b) For flat slabs with spans in excess of 8.5m, similarly multiply the basic ratios by 8.5/span.
(c) For characteristic steel strength other than 500 N / mm 2 , multiply the basic ratios by 500 / f yk .
(d) Where more tension reinforcement is provided ( As, prov ) than that calculated ( As ,req ) at the
ultimate limit state, multiply the basic ratios by A s, prov / A s , req (upper limit 1.5 ).
These basic ratios assume a steel working stress of f s 310N / mm2 where f yk 500N / mm 2 .

Table 7.5 Basic span-effective depth ratios ( f yk 500N / mm 2 , C30/35 concrete)


Structural system Factor for Basic span-effective depth ratio
structural Concrete highly Concrete
system K stressed lightly
( 1 .5 % ) stressed
( 0 .5 % )
1. Simply supported beams and slabs 1.0 14 20
2. End span of continuous beams and slabs 1.3 18 26
3. Interior spans of continuous beams and 1.5 20 30
slabs
4. Cantilever beams and slabs 0.4 6 8

Table 7.5 shows basic span/depth ratio for commonly occurring reinforced concrete members and
support conditions. They have been obtained using equations 7.1 and 7.2.

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Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

l 0 0
3/ 2

K 11 1.5 f ck 3.2 f ck 1 if 0 (7.1)


d

l 0 1
1/ 2

K 11 1.5 f ck f ck if 0 (7.2)
d 12 0
where
l / d is the limiting span/depth ratio
K is the factor to take into account the different structural systems, given in Table 7.5
0 f ck 103
is the required tension reinforcement ratio
is the required compression reinforcement ratio
The values in Table 7.5 assume the steel stress at the critical section, s , is 310 N mm 2 ,
corresponding roughly to the stress under characteristic load when f yk 500 Nmm 2 . Where other
steel stresses are used, the values in the table can be multiplied by 310 / s . It will normally be
conservative to assume that
310 f yk As ,req
s (7.3)
500As , prov
where
As ,req is the area of steel required
As, prov is the area of steels provided

Worked Example 7.1: Span-effective depth ratio


A rectangular continuous beam of class C25/30 concrete spans 10m. If the breadth is 300mm, check
the acceptability of an effective depth of 600mm when high yield reinforcement, f yk 500N / mm 2 ,
is used. At the ultimate limit state it is determined that 1250mm 2 of tension steel is needed and 3 No.
25mm diameter reinforcing bars ( As , prov 1470mm 2 ) are actually provided in an interior span.
100As ,req / bd
(100 1250) /(300 600)
0.7% (0.007)
f ck 25N / mm 2 0 f ck 103 25 103 5 103
From the table 7.5, for interior span K 1.5
Since 0 , use equation 7.2

l 0 1

1/ 2
0.005 1 0
1/ 2

K 11 1.5 f ck f ck
1.511 1.5 25 25
d 12 0
0.007 0 12 0.005
1.5 16.357 24.5
To avoid damage to finishes for span greater than 7m:
7
Modified ratio 24.5 17.15
10

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Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

Modification for steel area provided:


1470
Modified ratio 17.15 20.17
1250
10 103
Span-effective depth ratio provided 16.7
600
which is less than the allowable upper limit, thus deflection requirements are likely to be satisfied.

Worked Example 7.2: Beam sizing


A concrete lintel with an effective span of 4.0m supports a 230mm brick wall as shown in figure 7.3.
The loads on the lintel are G k 100KN and Qk 40KN . Determine suitable dimensions for the
lintel if class C25/30 concrete is used.

The beam breadth b will match the wall thickness so that


b 230mm
Allowing, say, 14KN for the weight of the beam, Assumed load
gives the ultimate load distribution
F 1.35 114 1.5 40 4m effective span
214KN
Therefore maximum design shear force
VEd 107KN Fig.7.3 Beam dimensions
Assuming a triangular load distribution for the preliminary analysis, we have
F span 214 4.0
M 143KNm
6 6
For such a relatively minor beam the case with no compression steel should be considered
M
K 2 K bal 0.167
bd f ck
143 106
Therefore; 0.167
230 d 2 25
Rearranging, d 386mm .
Assume a concrete cover of 25mm to the reinforcing steel. So for 10mm links and, say, 32mm bars
Overall beam depth h d 25 10 32 / 2
d 51
Therefore make h 525mm as an integer number of brick courses. So that
d 525 51 474mm
Maximum shear resistance is
VRd ,max 0.18bw d (1 f ck / 250) f ck
0.18 230 474 (1 25 / 250) 25 103
446KN VEd 107KN
4000
Basic span-effective depth 8.44 20 (for a lightly stressed beam in C25 concrete- table 7.5)
474
A beam size of 230mm by 525mm deep would be suitable.
Weight of beam 0.23 0.525 4.0 25 12.1KN which is sufficiently close to the assumed value.

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Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

7.2 Design for bending of a rectangular section with no moment redistribution


7.2.1 Requirements

a) Minimum areas of reinforcement


Table 7.6 Minimum areas of reinforcement
Tension reinforcement in beams and slabs Concrete class ( f yk 500N / mm 2 )
C25/30 C30/35 C40/50 C50/60
As ,min f ctm 0.0013 0.0015 0.0018 0.0021
0.26 ( 0.0013)
bt d f yk
Secondary reinforcement 20% main reinforcement
Longitudinal reinforcement in columns
As ,min 0.10N sd / 0.87 f yk 0.002Ac where N sd is the axial compression force
Vertical reinforcement in walls
As,min 0.002Ac where Ac is the area of concrete b h for a rectangular section
Note: bt is the mean width of the beams tension zone.
f ctm is the concretes mean axial tensile strength 0.3 f ck2 / 3 for f ck C 50

b) Maximum areas of reinforcement


These are determined largely from the practical need to achieve adequate compaction of the concrete
around the reinforcement. The limits specified are as follows
(a) For a slab or beam, tension or compression reinforcement
100As / Ac 4 per cent other than at laps
(b) For a column
100As / Ac 4 per cent other than at laps and 8 per cent at laps
(c) For a wall, vertical reinforcement
100As / Ac 4 per cent

c) Bar areas
Table 7.7 Sectional areas of groups of bars ( mm 2 )
Bar size Number of bars
(mm) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
6 28.3 56.6 84.9 113 142 170 198 226 255 283
8 50.3 101 151 201 252 302 352 402 453 503
10 78.5 157 236 314 393 471 550 628 707 785
12 113 226 339 452 566 679 792 905 1020 1130
16 201 402 603 804 1010 1210 1410 1610 1810 2010
20 314 628 943 1260 1570 1890 2200 2510 2830 3140
25 491 982 1470 1960 2450 2950 3440 3930 4420 4910
32 804 1610 2410 3220 4020 4830 5630 6430 7240 8040
40 1260 2510 3770 5030 6280 7540 8800 10100 11300 12600

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Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

7.2.2 Singly reinforced rectangular sections, no moment redistribution


A beam section needs reinforcement only in the tensile zone when
M
K 2 K bal 0.167
bd f ck
The singly reinforced section considered is shown in figure 7.4 and it is subjected to a sagging design
moment M at the ultimate limit state. The design calculations for the longitudinal steel can be
summarized as follows:
b 0.85fck / =0.567fck
0.0035 C

s/2
x s=0.8x
neutral Fcc
d axis z
As

st Fst

Section Strain Stress block


Fig.7-4 Singly reinforced section with rectangular stress block
M
1. Check that K 2 K bal 0.167
bd f ck
2. Determine the lever-arm, z, from the equation

z d 0.5 (0.25 K / 1.134) (7.4)
3. Calculate the area of tension steel required from
M
As (7.5)
0.87 f yk z
4. Select suitable bar sizes.
5. Check that the area of steel actually provided is within the limits required by the code, that is
As ,max
100 4.0 %
bh
A f
And; 100 s ,min 26 ctm % and not less than 0.13%
bd f yk
where f ctm 0.3 f ck2 / 3 for C50

Worked Example 7.3: Design of tension reinforcement for a rectangular sections, no moment
redistribution
The beam section shown in figure 7.5 has characteristic material strengths of f ck 25N / mm 2 for the
concrete and f yk 500N / mm 2 for the steel. The design moment at the ultimate limit state is
165KNm which causes sagging of the beam.

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Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

b=230
M 165 10 6
1. K 0.12
bd f ck 230 4902 25
2

This is less than K bal 0.167 therefore compression steel is not required.

d=490

h=550
2. From the lever-arm equation

z d 0.5 (0.25 K / 1.134)

490 0.5 (0.25 0.12 / 1.134) 431mm As 3-H20

M 165 106
3. As 880mm 2 Fig.7.5 Singly reinforced beam
0.87 f yk z 0.87 500 431
4. Provide three H20 bars, area 943mm 2 .
100As 100 943
5. For the steel provided 0.84 ( 0.13%)
bd 230 490
100As 100 943
And; 0.75 ( 4.0%)
bh 230 550
therefore the steel percentage is within the limits specified by the code.

7.2.3 Rectangular sections with tension and compression reinforcement, no moment


redistribution
Compression steel is required whenever the concrete in compression, by itself, is unable to develop
the necessary moment of resistance. The simplified equations based on the equivalent rectangular
stress block are quick to apply. The arrangement of the reinforcement to resist a sagging moment is
shown in figure 7.6.
b
0.0035 0.567fck

d' s=0.8x
A's sc x
neutral
d axis

As

st Fst
Equivalent
rectangular
Section Strain Stress block
Fig. 7.6 Beam doubly reinforced to resist a sagging moment
In order to have a ductile section so avoiding a sudden compressive failure of the concrete it is
generally required that the maximum depth of the neutral axis is xbal 0.45d and this is the value
used in the design of a section with compression steel.

The design steps are:


M
1. Calculate K
f ck bd 2
If K K bal 0.167 compression reinforcement is required and x x bal 0.45d .

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Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

2. Calculate the area of compression steel from


( M K bal f ck bd 2 )
As (7.6)
f sc (d d )
where f sc is the compressive stress in the steel
If d / x 0.38 the compression steel has yielded and f sc 0.87 f yk
If d / x 0.38 then the strain sc in the compressive steel must be calculated from the proportions
of the strain diagram and f sc Es sc 200103 sc .
3. Calculate the area of tension steel required from
K f bd 2 f sc
As bal ck As (7.7)
0.87 f yk z 0.87 f yk
With lever arm z 0.82d .
4. Check for the areas of steel required and the areas provided that
( As, prov As,req ) ( As, prov As ,req ) (7.8)
This is to ensure that the depth of the neutral axis has not exceeded the maximum value of 0.45d
by providing an over-excess of tensile reinforcement.
5. Check that the area of steel actually provided is within the limits required by the Code of practice.

Worked Example 7.4: Design of tension and compression reinforcement, no moment


redistribution
The beam section shown in figure 7.7 has characteristic material strengths of f ck 25N / mm 2 and
f yk 500N / mm 2 . The ultimate design moment is 165KNm, causing hogging of the beam:
165 106
1. K 0.26 K bal 0.167 b=230
25 230 3302
so that compression steel is required.
2. x 0.45d 0.45 330 148mm
d / x 50 / 148 0.34 0.38 As
h=390

therefore the compression steel has yielded and


d=330

f sc 0.87 f yk
From equation 7.6 A's
( M K bal f ck bd )
2
d ' =50
Compression steel As
f sc (d d )
( M 0.167 f ck bd 2 )
Fig.7.7 Beam doubly reinforced
0.87 f yk (d d )
(165 106 0.167 25 230 3302 )
496mm 2
0.87 500(330 50)
Provide two H20 bars for As , area 628mm 2 , bottom steel.
3. From equation 7.7
K bal f ck bd 2 f sc
Tension steel As As
0.87 f yk z 0.87 f yk

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Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

0.167 f ck bd 2
As
0.87 f yk z
0.167 25 230 3302
496
0.87 500 0.82 330
888 496 1384mm 2
Provide three H25 bars for As , area 1470mm 2 , top steel.
4. Check equation 7.8 for the areas of steel required and provided for the compression and tension
reinforcement to ensure ductility of the section
( As, prov As,req ) ( As, prov As ,req )
That is
628 496( 132) 1470 1384( 86)mm 2
5. The bar areas provided are within the upper and lower limits specified by the code. To restrain the
compression steel, at least 8mm links at 300mm centres should be provided.

7.3 Design for bending of a rectangular section with moment redistribution


7.3.1 Singly reinforced rectangular sections with moment redistribution
The design procedure using the equations based on the UK Annex to EC2 is
1. Calculate K M / bd 2 f ck
2. Take K bal from table 5.2 or alternatively calculate
K bal 0.454( 0.4) 0.182( 0.4) 2 for C50
where moment after redistribution/moment before redistribution
and check that K K bal . Therefore compression steel is not required.

3. Calculate z d 0.5 (0.25 K / 1.134)
M
4. Calculate As
0.87 f yk z
5. Check that the area of steel provided is within the maximum and minimum limits required.

7.3.2 Rectangular sections with tension and compression reinforcement with moment
redistribution applied (based on the UK Annex to EC2)
The steps in the design are:
1. Calculate x bal ( 0.4)d
2. Calculate K M / bd 2 f ck
3. Take K bal from table 5.2 or alternatively calculate
K bal 0.454( 0.4) 0.182( 0.4) 2 for C50
If K K bal , compression steel is required.
4. Calculate the area of compression steel from
( K K bal ) f ck bd 2
As
f sc (d d )
where f sc is the stress in the compression steel

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If d / x 0.38 the compression steel has yielded and f sc 0.87 f yk


If d / x 0.38 then the strain sc in the compressive steel must be calculated from the proportions
of the strain diagram and f sc Es sc 200103 sc .
5. Calculate the area of tension steel required from
K f bd 2 f sc
As bal ck As (7.9)
0.87 f yk z 0.87 f yk
where lever arm z d 0.8 x bal / 2 .
6. Check equation 7.8 for the areas of steel required and the areas provided that
( As, prov As,req ) ( As, prov As ,req )
This is to ensure that the depth of the neutral axis has not exceeded the maximum value of x bal by
providing an over-excess of tensile reinforcement.
7. Check that the area of steel actually provided is within the maximum and minimum limits required.

Worked Example 7.5: Design of tension and compression reinforcement, with 20 per cent
moment redistribution, 0.8 (based on the UK Annex to EC2)
The beam section shown in figure 7.8 has characteristic material strengths of f ck 25N / mm 2 and
f yk 500N / mm 2 . The ultimate moment is 370KNm, causing hogging of the beam.
b=300
st

As sc
d=540

neutral
A's axis
x=216

d '=100
0.0035

Section Strain
Fig.7.8 Beam doubly reinforced to resist a hogging moment

1. As the moment reduction factor 0.8 , the limiting depth of the neutral axis is
x ( 0.4)d
(0.8 0.4) 540 216mm
2. K M / bd 2 f ck 370106 /(300 5402 25) 0.169
3. K bal 0.454( 0.4) 0.182( 0.4) 2
0.454(0.8 0.4) 0.182(0.8 0.4) 2 0.152
K K bal therefore compression steel is required.
4. d / x 100/ 216 0.46 0.38
therefore f sc 0.87 f yk
From the proportions of the strain diagram

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0.0035( x d )
Steel compressive strain sc
x
0.0035(216 100)
0.00188
216
Steel compressive stress E s sc
200000 0.00188 376N / mm 2
( K K bal ) f ck bd 2
Compression steel As
f sc (d d )
(0.169 0.152)25 300 5402
224 mm 2
376(540 100)
Provide two H20 bars for As , area 628mm 2 , bottom steel.

5. Tension steel
K f bd 2 f sc
As bal ck As
0.87 f yk z 0.87 f yk
where
z d 0.8x / 2 540 0.8 216/ 2 454mm
therefore
0.152 25 300 5402 376
As 224
0.87 500 454 0.87 500
1683 194 1877mm 2

Provide four H25 bars for As , area 1960mm 2 , top steel.


6. Check equation 7.8 for the areas of steel required and provided for the compression, and tension
reinforcement to ensure ductility of the section
( As, prov As,req ) ( As, prov As ,req )
That is
628 224( 404) 1960 1877( 83) mm 2
7. These areas lie within the maximum and minimum limits specified by the code. To restrain the
compression steel, at least 8mm links at 300mm centres should be provided.

7.4 Flanged beams


7.4.1 Overview
Figure 7.9 shows sections through a T-beam and an L-beam which may form part of a concrete beam
and slab floor. When the beams are resisting sagging moments, part of the slab acts as a compression
flange and the members may be designed as T- or L-beams. With hogging moments the slab will be
in tension and assumed to be cracked, therefore the beam must then be designed as a rectangular
section of width b w and overall depth h.

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beff beff
As As
hf
d h
Transverse steel in flange

beff 1 bw beff 2 bw

Section Section
Fig 7.9 T-beam and L-beam
At intermediate supports of continuous beams where hogging moments occur the total area of tension
reinforcement should be spread over the effective width of the flange as shown in figure 7.9.
The effective flange width beff is specified by the following equation:
beff bw beff, i
where
beff, i 0.2bi 0.1l0 0.2l0 and also beff, i bi
2bi is the clear distance between the webs of adjacent beams
l0 is the distance between the points of contraflexure along the beam as shown in figure 7.10.
So that for the interior span of a symmetrical T-beam with b1 b2 b and l0 0.7l
beff bw 2[0.2b 0.07l ] bw 2[0.14l ]
For sagging moments the flanges act as a large compressive area. Therefore the stress block for the
flanged beam section usually falls within the flange thickness. For this position of the stress block,
the section may be designed as an equivalent rectangular section of breadth bf ( beff ) .
Transverse reinforcement should be placed across the full width of the flange to resist the shear
developed between the web and the flange.

l 0= 0.85l 1 0.15(l1+l 2 ) l 0= 0.7l 2 l 0= 0.15l2+l3

l1 l2 l3

Fig 7.10 Dimensions to be used in the calculation of effective flange widths

Note: (i) the length of the cantilever should be less than half the length of the adjacent span
(ii) the ratio of adjacent span lengths should be between 0.67 and 1.50

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eff
beff 1 beff 2

b1 b1 b2 b2
bw
b
Fig.7.11 Effective flange width parameters

7.4.2 Design procedure for a flanged beam subject to a sagging moment


M
1. Calculate and determine the lever arm z from the equation
b f d 2 f ck

z d 0.5 (0.25 K / 1.134)
and
s 2( d z )
2. If s h f the stress block falls within the flange depth, and the design may proceed as for a
rectangular section, breadth b f .
3. Design transverse steel in the top of the flange to resist the longitudinal shear stresses at the
flange-web interface.

7.4.3 Shear between the web and flange of a flanged section


It is assumed that the web carries all of the vertical shear and that the web width, b w , is used as the
minimum width of the section in the relevant calculations.
Longitudinal shear stresses also occur in a flanged section along the interface between the web and
flange. This is allowed for by providing transverse reinforcement over the width of the flange on the
assumption that this reinforcement acts as ties combined with compressive struts in the concrete.
The design is divided into the following stages:

1. Calculate the longitudinal design shear stresses, v Ed at the web-flange interface.


The longitudinal shear stresses are at a maximum in the regions of the maximum changes in bending
stresses that, in turn, occur at the steepest parts of the bending moment diagram. These occur at the
lengths up to the maximum hogging moment over the supports and at the lengths away from the zero
sagging moments in the span of the beam.
The change in the longitudinal force Fd in the flange outstand at a section is obtained from
M b
Fd fo
(d h f / 2) b f
where b f the effective breadth of the flange
bfo the breadth of the outstand of the flange (b f bw ) / 2
bw the breadth of the web

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h f the thickness of the flange


and M the change in moment over the distance x
Therefore
M (b f bw ) / 2
Fd
(d h f / 2) bf
The longitudinal shear stress, v Ed , at the vertical section between the outstand of the flange and the
web is caused by the change in the longitudinal force, Fd , which occurs over the distance x , so
that
Fd
v Ed (7.10)
(h f x)
The maximum value allowed for x is half the distance between the section with zero moment and
that where maximum moment occurs. Where point loads occur x should not exceed the distance
between the loads.
If v Ed is less than or equal to 40 per cent of the design tensile cracking strength of the concrete, f ctd ,
i.e. v Ed 0.4 f ctk / 1.5 0.27 f ctk , then no shear reinforcement is required and proceed directly to step 4.
2. Check the shear stresses in the inclined strut
The angle for the inclination of the concrete strut is restricted to a lower and upper value and EC2
recommends that, in this case:
26.5 f 45 i.e 2.0 cot f 1.0 for flanges in compression
38.6 f 45 i.e 1.25 cot f 1.0 for flanges in tension.
To prevent crushing of the concrete in the compressive struts the longitudinal shear stress is limited
to:
v1 f ck
v Ed (7.11)
1.5(cot f tan f )
where the strength reduction factor v1 0.6(1 f ck / 250) .
The lower value of the angle is first tried and if the shear stresses are too high the angle is
calculated from the following equation:
v Ed
f 0.5 sin 1 45
0.2(1 f ck / 250) f ck
3. Calculate the transverse shear reinforcement required
The required transverse reinforcement per unit length, Asf / s f , may be calculated from the
equation:
Asf v Ed h f
(7.12)
sf 0.87 f yk cot f
4. The requirements of transverse steel.
EC2 requires that the area of transverse steel should be the greater of (a) that given by equation
7.12 or (b) half that given by equation 7.12 plus the area of steel required by transverse bending of
the flange.
The minimum amount of transverse steel required in the flange is
As ,min 0.26bd f xfctm / f yk ( 0.0012bd f ) mm 2 m , where b 1000mm (see table 7.6).

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Worked Example 7.6: Design of bending and transverse reinforcement for a T-section
A simply supported beam has a span L 6.0m and has the flanged cross-section shown in figure
7.12. the characteristic material strengths are f ck 25N / mm2 and f yk 500N / mm 2 and the
ultimate design uniformly distributed load wu is 44kN per metre.
600
H10 at 300

150
d=530
h=580

As 2-H25

250

Fig 7.12 T-beam


44 6 2
Maximum bending moment at mid-span is M 198kNm
8
(1) Longitudinal reinforcement
M 198106
0.047
b f d 2 f ck 600 5302 25

z d 0.5 (0.25 K / 1.134) d [0.5 (0.25 0.047 / 1.134) ] 0.956d 0.95d
Therefore z 0.95d 0.95 530 503mm
Depth of stress block s 2(d z) 2(530 503) 54mm ( h f 150mm)
Thus the stress block lies within the flange
M 198106
As 905mm 2
0.87 f yk z 0.87 500 503
Provide two H25 bars, area 982 mm 2 . For these bars
100As 100 982
0.74 per cent 0.13
bw d 250 530
Thus the steel percentage is greater than the minimum specified by the Code of practice.

(2) Transverse steel in the flange


(i) Calculate the design longitudinal shear v Ed at the web-flange interface
For a sagging moment the longitudinal shear stresses are the greatest over a distance of x measured
from the point of zero moment and x is taken as half the distance to the maximum moment at mid-
span, or
x 0.5 L / 2 L / 4 6000/ 4 1500mm .
Therefore the change in moment M over distance x L / 4 from the zero moment is
wu L L wu L L 3wu L2 3 44 6 2
M 149kNm
2 4 4 8 32 32
The change in longitudinal force F at the flange-web interface is

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Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

M b
Fd fo
(d h f / 2) b f
where bfo is the breadth of flange outstanding from the web.
Thus
M (b f bw ) / 2
Fd
(d h f / 2) bf
149 103 (600 250 / 2)
96 kN
(530 150 / 2) 600
The longitudinal shear stress v Ed induced is
Fd 96 103
v Ed 0.43N / mm 2
(h f x) 150 1500
(ii) Check the strength of the concrete strut
From equation 7.11, to prevent crushing of the compressive strut in the flange
0.6(1 f ck / 250) f ck
v Ed
1.5(cot f tan f )
The moments are sagging so the flange is in compression and the limits for f are
26.5 f 45
with f the minimum value of 26.5
0.6(1 25 / 250) 25
v Ed (max) 3.6 ( 0.43N / mm 2 )
1.5(2.0 0.5)
and the concrete strut has sufficient strength with 26.5 ( for a flange in tension the limits on
are 38.6 45 or 1.0 cot 1.25 .)

(iii) Design transverse steel reinforcement


Transverse shear reinforcement is required if v Ed 0.27 f ctk where f ctk is the characteristic axial
tensile strength of concrete ( 1.8 N / mm 2 for class 25 concrete).
The maximum allowable value of vEd 0.27 f ctk 0.27 1.8 0.49N / mm2 ( 0.43) and transverse
shear reinforcement is therefore not required.
A minimum area of 0.13% of transverse steel should be provided as given in table 7.6.
Hence
Asf 0.13bh f / 100 0.131000150 / 100 195 mm 2 / m
Provide H10 bars at 300mm centres 262mm 2 / m (see table below)

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Longitudinal reinforcement should also be provided in the flange as shown in figure 7.12.
Sectional areas per metre width for various bar spacings ( mm 2 )
Bar Spacing of bars
size 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 250 300
(mm)
6 566 377 283 226 189 162 142 113 94
8 1010 671 503 402 335 287 252 201 168
10 1570 1050 785 628 523 446 393 314 262
12 2260 1510 1130 905 754 646 566 452 377
16 4020 2680 2010 1610 1340 1150 1010 804 670
20 6280 4190 3140 2510 2090 1800 1570 1260 1050
25 9820 6550 4910 3930 3270 2810 2450 1960 1640
32 16100 10700 8040 6430 5360 4600 4020 3220 2680
40 25100 16800 12600 10100 8380 7180 6280 5030 4190

7.5 One span beams


The following example describes the calculations for designing the bending reinforcement for a
simply supported beam. The shear reinforcement for this beam is designed later in example 7.8.

Worked Example 7.7: Design of a beam-bending reinforcement


The beam shown in figure 7.9 supports the following uniformly distributed loads
permanent load g k 60KN / m , including self-weight
variable load q k 18KN / m
The characteristic strengths of the concrete and steel are f ck 30N / mm 2 and f yk 500N / mm 2 .
Effective depth, d 540mm and breadth, b 300mm .
480
50

2H16
540

2H32+2H25

300 2H25 2H25


6.0m

Fig.7.10 One-span beam-bending


(a) Ultimate loading and maximum moment
Ultimate load wu (1.35g k 1.5q k ) KN / m
(1.35 60 1.5 18) 108KN / m
wu L2 108 6.0 2
therefore maximum design moment M 486KNm
8 8
(b) Bending reinforcement
M 486 106
K 0.185 K bal 0.167
bd 2 f ck 300 5402 30

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Therefore compression reinforcement, As is required.


d / d 50 / 540 0.092 0.171 in table 5.2, therefore f sc 0.87 f yk
( K K bal ) f ck bd 2
Compression steel As
f sc (d d )
(0.185 0.167) 30 300 5402
222 mm 2
0.87 500(540 50)
Provide two H16 bars, As 402mm 2
0.167 f ck bd 2
Tension steel, As As
0.87 f yk z
where
z 0.82d 0.82 540 442.8mm
therefore
0.167 30 300 5402
As 222
0.87 500 442.8
2275 222 2497mm 2
Provide two H32 bars and two H25 bars, for As , area 2592mm 2 , 100As / bd 1.6 0.15 .
(c) Curtailment at support
The tension reinforcement should be anchored over the supports with a bend as shown in figure 7.11
which is based on past UK practice. Two bars may be curtailed near to the supports.

50% 100% 50%

0.08L 0.08L
L

Fig.7.11 Simplified rules for curtailment of bars in beams


(d) Span-effective depth ratio
100As,req / bd (100 2497) /(300 540) 1.54 per cent.
From table 7.5 basic span-effective depth ratio 14
2592
Modified ratio 14.0 14.5
2497
6000
Span-effective depth ratio provided 11.1
540
which is less than the allowable upper limit, thus deflection requirements are likely to be satisfied.

7.6 Design for shear


7.6.1 General Overview
The shear reinforcement will usually take the form of vertical links or a combination of links and
bent-up bars. Shear reinforcement may not be required in very minor beams such as door or window
lintels with short spans of less than say 1.5 metres and light loads.

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The following notation is used in the equations for the shear design
Asw the cross-sectional area of the two legs of the link
s the spacing of the stirrups
z the lever arm between the upper and lower chord members of the analogous truss
f ywd the design yield strength of the stirrup reinforcement
f yk the characteristic strength of the stirrup reinforcement
V Ed the shear force due to the actions at the ultimate limit state
VEf the ultimate shear force at the face of the support
Vwd the shear force in the stirrup
VRd ,s the shear resistance of the stirrups
VRd ,max the maximum design value of the shear which can be resisted by the concrete strut

7.6.2 Vertical stirrups or links


The procedure for designing the shear links is as follows
1. Calculate the ultimate design shear forced V Ed along the beams span.
2. Check the crushing strength VRd ,max of the concrete diagonal strut at the section of maximum shear,
usually at the face of the beam support.
For most cases the angle of inclination of the strut is 22 , with cot 2.5 and tan 0.4 so
that from equation 6.6:
VRd ,max 0.124bw d (1 f ck / 250) f ck (7.10)
and if VRd ,max VEd then go to step (3) with 22 and cot 2.5
but if VRd ,max VEd then 22 and must be calculated from equation 7.11 as
VEd
0.5 sin 1 45 (7.11)
0.18bw d (1 f ck / 250) f ck
3. The shear links required can be calculated from equation 7.12
Asw VEd
(7.12)
s 0.78df yk cot
where Asw is the cross-sectional area of the legs of the stirrups ( 2 2 / 4 for single stirrups)
For a predominately uniformly distributed load the shear V Ed should be taken at a distance d from
the face of the support and the shear reinforcement should continue to the face of the support.

4. Calculate the minimum links required by EC2 from


Asw,min 0.08 f ck0.5bw
(7.13)
s f yk
and the shear resistance for the links actually specified
A
Vmin sw 0.78df yk cot (7.14)
s
This value should be marked on the shear force envelop to show the extent of these links as shown
in figure 7.11 of example 7.8.

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Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

5. Calculate the additional longitudinal tensile force caused by the shear force
Ftd 0.5VEd cot (7.15)

The minimum spacing of the links is governed by the requirements of placing and compacting the
concrete and should not normally be less than about 80mm. EC2 gives the following guidance on the
maximum link spacing:
(a) Maximum longitudinal spacing between shear links in a series of links
s1,max 0.75d (1 cot )
where is the inclination of the shear reinforcement to the longitudinal axis of the beam.
(b) Maximum transverse spacing between legs in a series of shear links
sb,max 0.75d ( 600mm)

Table 7.8 Asw / s for varying stirrup diameter spacing


Stirrup Stirrup spacing (mm)
diameter
85 90 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300
(mm)
8 1.183 1.118 1.006 0.805 0.671 0.575 0.503 0.447 0.402 0.366 0.335
10 1.847 1.744 1.57 1.256 1.047 0.897 0.785 0.698 0.628 0.571 0.523
12 2.659 2.511 2.26 1.808 1.507 1.291 1.13 1.004 0.904 0.822 0.753
16 4.729 4.467 4.02 3.216 2.68 2.297 2.01 1.787 1.608 1.462 1.34

Worked Example 7.8: Design of shear reinforcement for a beam


Shear reinforcement is to be designed for the one-span beam of example 7.7 as shown in figure 7.9
and 7.12. The total ultimate load is 108KN/metre and the characteristic strengths of the concrete and
steel are f ck 30N / mm 2 and f yk 500N / mm 2 .

1.45 m

308KN
SR nominal links

151KN

151KN

308KN
S.F diagram

9-H8 @ 200 H8 links @ 350 9-H8 @ 200


300
540

300
6.0m

Fig.7.12 Non continuous beam-shear reinforcement

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(a) Check maximum shear wu effective span / 2 108 6.0 / 2 324KN


Maximum shear at face of support VEd 324 108 0.15 308KN
Crushing strength VRd ,max of diagonal strut, assuming angle 22, cot 2.5 is
VRd ,max 0.124bw d (1 f ck / 250) f ck
0.124 300 540(1 30 / 250) 30 103
530KN ( VEd 308KN )
Therefore angle 22 and cot 2.5 as assumed.
(b) Shear links
At distance d from face of support the design shear is VEd 308 wu d 308 108 0.54 250KN
Asw VEd

s 0.78df yk cot
250 103
0.475
0.78 540 500 2.5
Using table 7.8
Provide 8mm links at 200mm centres, Asw / s 0.503 .
(c) Minimum links
Asw,min 0.08 f ck0.5bw

s f yk
0.08 300.5 300
0.26
500
Provide 8mm links at 350mm centres, Asw / s 0.287 .
The shear resistance of the links actually specified is
A
Vmin sw 0.78df yk cot
s
0.287 0.78 540 500 2.5 103 151KN
(d) Extent of shear links
Shear links are required at each of the beam from the face of the support to the point where the design
shear force is Vmin 151KN as shown on the shear force diagram of figure 7.12.
From the face of the support
V Vmin 308 151
distance x Ed 1.45 metres
wu 108
Therefore the number of H8 links at 200mm centres required at each end of the beam is
1 ( x / s ) 1 (1450/ 200) 9
Spaced over a distance of (9 1)200 1600mm .
(e) Additional longitudinal tensile force
Ftd 0.5VEd cot
0.5 308 2.5
385KN
This additional longitudinal tensile force is provided for by extending the curtailment point of the
mid-span longitudinal reinforcement as discussed in section 7.8.

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Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

7.6.3 Bent-up bars to resist shear


In regions of high forces it may be found that the use of links to carry the full force will cause steel
congestion and lead to constructional problems. In these situations, consideration should be given to
bending-up main reinforcement which is no longer required to resist bending forces but can be so
used to resist part of the shear.
The equations for designing this type of shear reinforcement and the additional longitudinal tension
force are given below
Asw VEd

s 0.78df yk (cot cot ) sin
Ftd 0.5VEd (cot cot )
where is the angle of inclination with the horizontal of the bent-up bar.
Bent-up bars must be fully anchored past the point at which they are acting as tension members.
EC2 also requires that the maximum longitudinal spacing of bent-up bars is limited to 0.6d (1 cot )
and at least 50 per cent of the required shear reinforcement should be in the form of shear links.

7.7 Continuous beams


The bending-moment envelope is generally a series of sagging moments in the spans and hogging
moments at the supports, but occasionally the hogging moments may extend completely over the
span. Where the sagging moments occur the beam and slab act together, and the beam can be designed
as a T-section. At the supports, the beam must be designed as a rectangular section because the
hogging moments cause tension in the slab.

Worked Example 7.9: Design of a continuous beam


The beam has a width, bw 300mm and an overall depth, h 660mm with three equal spans,
L 5.0m . In the transverse direction the beams spacings are B 4.0m centres with a slab thickness,
h f 180mm , as shown in figure 7.13 and 7.14. The supports have a width of 300mm.
The uniformly distributed ultimate design load, wu 190KN / m . The ultimate design moments and
shears near mid-span and the supports are shown in figure 7.13.
The characteristic strengths of the concrete and steel are f ck 30N / mm 2 and f yk 500N / mm 2 .
0 -523 -523 0
Moment M (kNm) =
428 333 428

Shear V (kN) = 427 570 522 522 570 427

A B C D

5.0m 5.0m 5.0m

F=1.35Gk +1.5Qk
Fig.7.13 Continuous beam with ultimate design bending moments and shear forces shown

Total ultimate load on each span is


F 190 5.0 950KN

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Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

Design for bending


(a) Mid-span of 1st and 3rd end spans-design as a T-section
Moment 428KNm sagging
Effective width of flange
beff bw 2[0.2b 0.1 0.85L] ( bw 2[0.2 0.85L])
300 2[( 0.2 (2000 300 / 2)) (0.085 5000)] 1890mm
bw 2[0.2 0.85L] 300 2[0.2 0.85 5000] 2000mm
Therefore b f beff 1890mm .
M 428 106
0.021
b f d 2 f ck 1890 6002 30
Lever arm z d [0.5 (0.25 K / 1.134) ] d [0.5 (0.25 0.021/ 1.134) ] 0.98d 0.95d
therefore z 0.95d 0.95 600 570mm
and d z 600 570 30 ( h f / 2)
so that the stress block must lie within the 180mm thick flange and the section is designed as a
rectangular section with b b f .
M 428 106
As 1726mm 2
0.87 f yk z 0.87 500 570
Provide three H25 bars and two H16 bars, area 1872mm 2 (bottom steel).

(b) Interior supports design as a rectangular section


Moment 523KNm hogging
M 523 106
0.173 0.167
bd 2 f ck 300 5802 30
Therefore, compression steel is required.
( K K bal ) f ck bd 2
As
0.87 f yk (d d )
(0.173 0.167) 30 300 5802
79 mm 2
0.87 500(580 50)
This small area of reinforcement can be provided by extending the bottom span bars beyond the
internal supports.
From the lever arm equation
z d [0.5 (0.25 K / 1.134) ] d [0.5 (0.25 0.173/ 1.134) ] 0.812d 0.82d
therefore z 0.82d 0.82 580 475.6mm
0.167 f ck bd 2
Tension steel, As As
0.87 f yk z
0.167 30 300 5802
79 2444 79 2523mm 2
0.87 500 475.6

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Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

Provide four H25 bars plus two H20 bars, area 2588mm 2 (top steel). The arrangement of the
reinforcement is shown in figure 7.14. At end support A two H25 bars have been provided as top
continuity steel to meet the requirement.
H8 @ 200 H8 @ 300 H10 @ 200
2-H20
4-H25
2-H25

A B
3-H25
300 2-H16 300
L= 5.0m

25 20 25
180

H8 H10
h=660
16 16 16 16

25 25 25 25 25 25
b w=300

Sections midspan near the interior support

Fig.7.14 End span reinforcement details


(c) Mid-span of interior 2 span BC design as a T-section
nd

Moment 333KNm sagging


Effective flange width
beff bw 2[0.2b 0.1 0.70L] ( bw 2[0.2 0.70L])
300 2[( 0.2 (2000 300 / 2)) (0.07 5000)] 1740mm
bw 2[0.2 0.7 L] 300 2[0.2 0.7 5000] 1700mm
Therefore b f beff 1700mm .
Calculate K
M 333 106
0.018
b f d 2 f ck 1700 6002 30
Lever arm z d [0.5 (0.25 K / 1.134) ] d [0.5 (0.25 0.018 / 1.134) ] 0.98d 0.95d
therefore z 0.95d 0.95 600 570mm
M 333 106
As 1343mm 2
0.87 f yk z 0.87 500 570
Provide three H25 bars, area 1470mm 2 (bottom steel).

Design for shear


(a) Check for crushing of the concrete strut at the maximum shear force
Maximum shear is in spans AB and CD at supports B and C.

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Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

At the face of the supports


VEd 570 wu support width / 2
570 190 0.15 542KN
Crushing strength VRd ,max of diagonal strut, assuming angle 22, cot 2.5 is
VRd ,max 0.124bw d (1 f ck / 250) f ck
0.124 300 600(1 30 / 250) 30 103
589KN ( VEd 542KN )
Therefore angle 22 and cot 2.5 for all the shear calculations.
(b) Design of shear links
(i) Shear links in end spans at supports A and D
Shear distance d from face of support is VEd 427 wu d 427 190 (0.15 0.6) 285KN
Asw V Ed

s 0.78df yk cot
285 103
0.49
0.78 600 500 2.5
Using table 7.8
Provide H8 links at 200mm centres, Asw / s 0.50 .
Additional longitudinal tensile force is
Ftd 0.5V Ed cot
0.5 285 2.5
356KN
This additional longitudinal tensile force is provided for by extending the curtailment point of the
mid-span longitudinal reinforcement as discussed in section 7.8.

(ii) Shear links in end spans at supports B and C


Shear distance d from face of support is VEd 570 wu d 570 190 (0.15 0.58) 431KN
Therefore:
Asw VEd

s 0.78df yk cot
431 103
0.762
0.78 580 500 2.5
Using table 7.8
Provide H10 links at 200mm centres, Asw / s 0.762 .
Additional longitudinal tensile force is
Ftd 0.5V Ed cot
0.5 431 2.5
539KN
This additional longitudinal tensile force is provided for by extending the curtailment point of
longitudinal reinforcement as discussed in section 7.8.

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Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

(iii) Shear links in middle span BC at supports B and C


Shear distance d from face of support is VEd 522 wu d 522 190 (0.15 0.6) 380KN
Therefore:
Asw V Ed

s 0.78df yk cot
380 103
0.65
0.78 600 500 2.5
Using table 7.8
Provide 10mm links at 225mm centres, Asw / s 0.65 .
Additional longitudinal tensile force is
Ftd 0.5VEd cot
0.5 380 2.5
475KN

(iv) Minimum shear links


Asw,min 0.08 f ck0.5 bw

s f yk
0.08 300.5 300
0.263
500
Provide H8 links at 300mm spacing, Asw / s 0.335.
The shear resistance of the links actually specified is
A
Vmin sw 0.78df yk cot
s
0.335 0.78 600 500 2.5 10 3 196KN
(v) Extent of shear links
Links to resist shear are required over a distance x i from the face of the supports to the point on the
shear force diagram where the shear can be resisted by Vmin 196KN , as provided by the minimum
links.
For the face of the end supports A and D the distance x1 is
VEd Vmin 427 196
x1 0.15 0.15 1.07 m
wu 190
For the interior supports B and C of the 1st and 3rd spans
570 196
x2 0.15 1.82 m
190
For the links at supports B and C in the middle span
522 196
x3 0.15 1.57 m
190
Based on these dimensions the links are arranged as shown in figure 7.13.

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Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

7.8 Curtailment and anchorage of reinforcing bars


As the magnitude of the bending moment on a beam decreases along its length, so may the area of
bending reinforcement be reduced by curtailing bars since they are no longer required, as shown in
figure 7.15. Figure 7.15 illustrates the curtailment of bars in the span and at an internal support of a
continuous beam.
Each curtailed bar should extend a full anchorage length beyond the point at which it is no longer
needed so that it is well anchored into the concrete.
The equation for the design anchorage length, lbd , is
f yk
lbd n
4.6 f bd
where
n is a series of coefficients depending on the anchorage conditions
is the bar diameter
f bd is the design bond strength which, for a beam, depends on the concrete strength and the bar
size and whether the bar is in the top or bottom of the beam.

l full anchorage length

6
Curtailment anchorage
5 M Ed / z envelope diagram
Ftd (hogging region)
4 a1
M Ed / z

4 5 6
Beam
2,3
1 1 2 3

M Ed / z M Ed / z envelope diagram
a1
3
(sagging region)
Ftd
2
1

Fig 7.15 Curtailment of reinforcement-envelope of tensile forces

For a straight bar with 32mm , the order of anchorage lengths are lbd 52 for a top bar and
lbd 36 for a bottom bar with class C30 concrete.
The curtailment of the tension reinforcement is based upon the envelope of tensile forces, Fs , derived
from the bending moment envelope as shown in figure 7.15 such that at any location along the span
Fs M Ed / z Ftd
where

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Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

M Ed is the design bending moment from the moment envelope


z is the lever arm
Ftd is the additional tensile force obtained from the design for shear
Ftd is a maximum where the shear force is a maximum at section of zero moment, and Ftd is zero
at the maximum moment near to mid-span and the interior support.
For members where shear reinforcement is not required the tensile force envelope may be estimated
by simply shifting the bending moment envelope diagram horizontally by a distance a1 ( d ) as
shown in figure 7.15.
To determine the curtailment positions of each reinforcing bar the tensile force envelope is divided
into sections as shown, in proportional to the area of each bar.

When considering the curtailment the following rules must also be applied:
1. At least one-quarter of the bottom reinforcement should extend to the supports
2. The bottom reinforcement at an end support should be anchored into the supports as shown
in figure 7.16.
3. At an end support where there is little or no fixity the bottom steel should be designed to resist
a tensile force of 0.5VEd to allow for the tension induced by the shear with a minimum
requirement of 25% of the reinforcement provided in the span.
4. At an end support where is fixity but it has been analysed as a simply support, top steel should
be designed and anchored to resist at least 25 per cent of the maximum span moment.
5. At internal supports the bottom steel should extend at least 10 bar diameters beyond the
face of the support. To achieve continuity and resistance to such factors as accidental damage
or seismic forces, splice bars should be provided across the support with a full anchorage lap
on each side as shown in figure 7.17.
6. Where the loads on a beam are substantially uniformly distributed, simplified rules for
curtailment may be used. These rules only apply to continuous beams if the characteristic
variable load does not exceed the characteristic permanent load and the spans are
approximately equal. Figure 7,18 shows the rules in diagrammatic form.
l bd l bd l bd l bd

10

(1) Beam supported (2) Beam intersecting


on wall or column another supporting beam

Fig 7.16 Anchorage of bottom Fig 7.17 Anchorage at intermediate supports


Reinforcement at end supports

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Chapter VII: Design of Reinforced Concrete BEAMS

50% 100% 50%

0.08L 0.08L
L

Simply supported
C=0.25L

C=0.15L
C 45

20% 60% 100%


30% 100% 30%

0.15L
0.1L
L

Continuous beam
Fig 7.18 Simplified rules for curtailment of bars in beams

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Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

CHAPTER VIII. DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SLABS


8.0 Introduction
Reinforced concrete slabs are used in floors, roofs and walls of buildings and as the deck of bridges.

8.0.1 Classification of Slabs


i) By support conditions
Slabs supported on beams
Slabs supported on columns (Flat slabs)
Slabs supported on walls or steel beams

ii) By Form Cross-section


Solid slabs
Ribbed slabs

iii) By Spanning Method


One way spanning slabs
Two way spanning slabs

iv) By Fixing
Simply supported slabs
Continuous slabs

8.0.2 Concrete sections that do not require design shear reinforcement


The Concrete sections that do not require design shear reinforcement are mainly lightly loaded floor
slabs and pad foundations. Beams are generally more heavily loaded and have a smaller cross-section
so that they nearly always require shear reinforcement.
Where shear forces are small the concrete section on its own may have sufficient shear capacity
( VRd ,c ) to resist the ultimate shear force ( V Ed ) resulting from the worst combination of actions on the
structure.
In those sections where VEd VRd ,c then no calculated shear reinforcement is required.
The shear capacity of the concrete, VRd ,c , in such situations is given by an empirical expression:

VRd ,c 0.12k (1001 f ck )1 / 3 bw d (8.1)
with a minimum value of:

VRd ,c 0.035k 3 / 2 f ck
1/ 2
b d
w (8.2)
where
VRd ,c the design shear resistance of the section without shear reinforcement
200
k 1 2.0 with d expressed in mm

d
A
1 s1 0.02
bw d

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Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

As1 the area of tensile reinforcement that extends beyond the section being considered by
at least a full anchorage length plus one effective depth (d)
bw the smallest width of the section in the tensile area (mm)
Slabs are designed in the same way as beams except:
i) the breadth of the slab is already fixed and a unit breadth of 1m is used in the calculations;
ii) the shear stresses are usually low in a slab except when there are heavy concentrated loads;
iii) compression reinforcement is seldom required.

8.1 Shear in slabs


8.1.1 Introduction
The shear resistance of a solid slab may be calculated by the procedures given in chapter 6.
Calculations are usually based on a strip of slab 1m wide.
Since shear forces in slabs subject to uniformly distributed loads are generally small, shear
reinforcement will seldom be required and it would be usual to design the slab such that the design
ultimate shear force, V Ed , is less than the shear strength of the unreinforced section, VRd ,c . In this case
it is not necessary to provide any shear reinforcement. This can conveniently be checked using Table
8.1 which has been derived from Equations 8.1 and 8.2 for class C30 concrete on the basis that the
allowable shear stress in the unreinforced slab is given by
V Rd ,c
v Rd ,c
bd
In this case, the applied ultimate shear stress
V
vEd Ed vRd ,c
bd
2
Table 8.1 Shear resistance of slabs without shear reinforcement v Rd ,c N / mm (Class C30/35 concrete)
Effective depth, d (mm)
1 As / bd
200 225 250 300 350 400 500 600 750
0.25% 0.54 0.52 0.50 0.47 0.45 0.43 0.40 0.38 0.36
0.50% 0.59 0.57 0.56 0.54 0.52 0.51 0.48 0.47 0.45
0.75% 0.68 0.66 0.64 0.62 0.59 0.58 0.55 0.53 0.51
1.00% 0.75 0.72 0.71 0.68 0.65 0.64 0.61 0.59 0.57
1.25% 0.80 0.78 0.76 0.73 0.71 0.69 0.66 0.63 0.61
1.50% 0.85 0.83 0.81 0.78 0.75 0.73 0.70 0.67 0.65
2.00% 0.94 0.91 0.89 0.85 0.82 0.80 0.77 0.74 0.71

Where different concrete strengths are used, the values in table 8.1 may be modified by the factors
in table 8.2 provided 1 0.4% .
Table 8.2 Concrete strength modification factor
f ck ( N / mm 2 ) 25 30 35 40 45 50
Modification factor 0.94 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.14 1.19

8.1.2 Punching shear analysis


Localized punching actions due to heavy concentrated loads may cause more critical conditions.
A concentrated load on a slab causes shearing stresses on a section around the load; this effect is

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Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

referred to as punching shear. The critical surface for checking punching shear is shown as the
perimeter in figure 8.1 which is located at 2.0d from the loaded area.
2.0d

a
Critical
Section Loaded
b area

Plan
Load

d h

Elevation
Fig.8.1 Punching shear

The maximum force that can be carried by the slab without shear reinforcement ( VRd ,c ) can be
obtained using the values of v Rd ,c given in table 8.1 based on equations 8.1 and 8.2 for normal shear
in beams and slabs, where 1 ( y z ) where y and z are the reinforcement ratios, As / bd in
the two mutually perpendicular directions then
VRd ,c v Rd ,c du (8.3)
Where; d effective depth of section [average of the two steel layers in perpendicular directions
dy dz
]
2
u length of the punching shear perimeter.
Checks must be undertaken to ensure that the maximum permissible shear force ( VRd ,max ) is not
exceeded at the face of the loaded area.
The maximum permissible shear force is given by VRd ,max 0.5v1 f cd ud 0.5v1 ( f ck / 1.5)ud
Where; u is the perimeter of the loaded area
v1 is the strength reduction factor given by v1 0.6(1 f ck / 250) .

Worked Example 8.1: Punching shear


A slab, 175mm thick, average effective depth 145mm is constructed with C25/30 concrete and
reinforcement with 12mm bars at 150mm centers one way ( 754mm 2 / m ) and 10mm bars at 200mm
centres in the other direction ( 393mm 2 / m ). Determine the maximum ultimate load that can be
carried on an area 300 400mm .
For the unreinforced section, the first critical perimeter
u1 (2a 2b 2 2d )
2(a b) 4d
2(300 400) 4 145
3222 mm

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Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

hence from equation 8.3


VRd ,c vRd ,c du vRd ,c 3222145 467190vRd ,c
Average steel ratio
1 ( y z )
where
y 754/(1000145) 0.0052
z 393/(1000145) 0.0027
hence
1 (0.0052 0.0027) 0.0038 0.38%
Thus from table 8.1, for a 175mm slab, vRd ,c 0.56N / mm 2 for a class C30 concrete and from table
8.2 for class C25 concrete, as used here, modification factor 0.94 .
Hence, maximum ultimate load
VRd ,c 467190vRd ,c (467190103 ) (0.94 0.56) 246KN
The maximum permissible shear force based on the face of the loaded area is given by the maximum
shear resistance
f f
VRd ,max 0.5ud 0.61 ck ck
250 1.5
25 25
0.5 2(300 400) 145 0.61 103
250 1.5
914KN
which clearly exceeds the value VRd ,c based on the first critical perimeter. Hence the maximum load
that the slab can carry is 246KN .

8.1.3 Punching shear reinforcement design


If reinforcement is required to resist shear around the control perimeter indicated in Figure 8.1, it
should be placed between not more than 0.5d from the loaded area and a distance 1.5d inside the
outer control perimeter at which shear reinforcement is no longer required. The length of this is given
by uout,ef VEd /(vRd ,c d ) from which the necessary distance from the loaded area can be calculated.
If this is less than 3d from the face of the loaded area, then reinforcement should be placed in the
zone between 0.3d and 1.5d from this face.
Vertical links will normally be used and provided around at least two perimeters not more than 0.75d
apart. Link spacing around a perimeter within 2d of the face of the loaded area should not be greater
than 1.5d.
Provide that the slab is greater than 200mm thick overall then the amount of reinforcement:
v Rd ,cs 0.75v Rd ,c
Asw sin
d f ywd ,ef
1.5
s r u1 d
where
Asw is the total area of shear reinforcement in one perimeter ( mm 2 )
s r is the radial spacing of perimeters of shear reinforcement

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Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

f ywd ,ef is the effective design strength of the reinforcement and is given by
f ywd ,ef 250 0.25d f ywd .
v Rd ,cs is the punching shear resistance of the reinforced slab
is the angle between shear reinforcement and the plane of the slab, so that sin 1 for critical
reinforcement.
This expression effectively allows for a 75 per cent contribution from the unreinforced concrete slab,
and for vertical kinks can be expressed as:
v Rd ,cs 0.75v Rd ,c
Asw
f ywd ,ef
1.5
s r u1
V
Where the required v Rd ,cs would be given by Ed .
u1 d
A check must also be made that the calculated reinforcement satisfies the minimum requirement that:
0.08 f ck ( s r st ) 0.053 f ck ( s r st )
Asw,min
1.5 f yk f yk
where s t is the spacing of links around the perimeter
Asw,min is the area of an individual link leg.

Worked Example 8.2: Design of Punching shear reinforcement


A 260mm thick slab of class C25/30 concrete is reinforced by 12mm high yield bars at 125mm
centres in each direction. The slab is subject to a dry environment and must be able to carry a localized
concentrated ultimate load of 650KN over a square area of 300mm side. Determine the shear
reinforcement required for f yk 500 N / mm 2 .
For exposure class XC-1, cover required for a C25/30 concrete is 25mm, thus average effective depth
for the two layers of steel and allowing for 8mm links is equal to 260 (25 8 12) 215mm .
(i) Check maximum permissible force at face of loaded area
Maximum shear resistance:
f f
VRd ,max 0.5ud 0.61 ck ck
250 1.5
25 25
0.5(4 300) 215 0.61 10 3
250 1.5
1161KN ( VEd 650KN )
(ii) Check control perimeter 2d from loaded face
Perimeter u1 2(a b) 4d 2(300 300) 4 215 3902mm
hence for concrete without shear reinforcement the shear capacity is given by:
VRd ,c vRd ,c 3902 215 83890vRd ,c
bending steel ratio
A 905
1 s 0.0042( 0.40 per cent)
bd 1000 215

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Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

hence from table 8.1, v Rd ,c 0.56 for class C30 concrete and, from table 8.2, modification factor for
class C25 concrete 0.94 then
VRd ,c 83890 0.56 0.94 103
442KN ( VEd 650KN )
and punching shear reinforcement is required.
(iii) Check outer perimeter at which reinforcement is not required.
V 650 103
u out,ef Ed 5743mm
v Rd ,c d 0.56 0.94 215
This will occur at a distance xd from the face of the loaded area, such that
5743 2(300 300) 2 215 x
and x 3.36 ( 3.0)
(iv) Provision of reinforcement
Shear reinforcement should thus be provided within the zone extending from a distance not greater
than 0.5d and less than (3.36 1.5)d 1.86d from the loaded face.
For perimeters 0.75d apart, 3 perimeters of steel will thus be adequate loaded area (i.e.
sr 0.75d 160mm apart).
Since all perimeters lie within 2d ( 430mm) of the loaded and maximum link spacing, ( st ) , is
limited to 1.5d ( 323mm) .
The minimum link leg area is therefore given by:
0.053 f ck ( s r st ) 0.053 25(160 323)
Asw,min
f yk 500
27.3mm 2 which is satisfied by a 6mm diameter bar ( 28.3mm 2 )
Hence the assumed 8mm links will be adequate.
The area of steel required/perimeter is thus given by:
v Rd ,cs 0.75v Rd ,c
Asw
f ywd ,ef
1.5
s r u1
where, for the outer perimeter
VEd 650 103
VRd ,cs 0.775 N / mm 2
u1d 3902 215
v Rd ,c 0.94 0.56 0.526 N / mm 2 (as above)
f ywd ,ef 250 0.25 215 303 N / mm 2 ( 500)
and sr 160mm
(0.775 0.75 0.526) 160 3902
thus Asw
1.5 303
523mm 2

(v) Number of links


The area of one leg of an 8mm link is 50.3mm 2 . Hence the number of link-legs required
523/ 50.3 11 on the outer perimeter. The same number of links can conveniently be provided

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Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

around each of the 3 proposed perimeters as summarized in the table below. The table indicates the
number of single-leg 8mm diameter links (area 50.3mm 2 ) proposed for each of the three
reinforcement perimeters taking account of the maximum required spacing and practical fixing
considerations. Bending reinforcement is spaced at 125mm centres in both directions; hence link
spacing is set at multiples of this values.

Distance from Length of Required link Proposed link Proposed


load face perimeter spacing (mm) spacing (mm) number of
(mm) (mm) links
85 1734 158 125 14
245 2739 249 250 11
400 3713 323 250 15

8.2 Span effective depth ratios


Excessive deflections of slabs will cause damage to the ceiling, floor finishes or other architectural
finishes. To avoid this, limits are set on the span-depth ratios. These limits are exactly the same as
those beams. In terms of the span-effective depth ratio, the depth of slab is given by
span
minimum effective depth
basic ratio correctionfactors

8.3 Reinforcement details


To resist cracking of the concrete, codes of practice specify details such as
the minimum area of reinforcement required in a section
limits to the maximum and minimum spacing of bars.
(a) Minimum areas of reinforcement
minimum area 0.26 f ctm bt d / f yk 0.0013bt d
in both directions, where bt is the mean width of the tensile zone of section. The minimum
reinforcement provision for crack control, as specified in table 7.6 may also have to be considered
where the slab depth exceeds 200mm. Secondary transverse reinforcement should not be less
than 20 per cent of the minimum main reinforcement requirement in one way slabs.
(b) Maximum areas of longitudinal and transverse reinforcement
maximum area 0.04 Ac
where Ac is the gross cross-sectional area. This limit applies to sections away from areas of bar
lapping.
(c) Maximum spacing of bars
For slabs not exceeding 200mm thickness, bar spacing should not exceed three times the overall
depth of slab or 400mm whichever is the lesser for main reinforcement, and 3.5h or 450mm for
secondary reinforcement.

8.4 One Way Spanning Solid Slabs


The slabs are designed as if they consist of a series of beams of 1m breadth. The main steel is in the
direction of the span and secondary or distribution steel is required in the transverse direction. The
main steel should from the outer layer of reinforcement to give it the maximum lever arm.

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Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

The calculations for bending reinforcement follow a similar procedure to that used in beam design.
The area of tension reinforcement is given by
M
As
0.87 f yk z
8.4.1 Single-span solid slabs
The basic span-effective depth ratio for this type of slab is 20:1 on the basis that it is lightly stressed
and that grade 500 steel is used in the design. For a start-point in design a value above this can usually
be estimated (unless the slab is known to be heavily loaded).
The effective span of the slab may be taken as the clear distance between the face of the supports
plus a distance at both ends taken as the lesser of (a) the distance from the face of the support to its
centerline and (b) one-half of the overall depth of the slab.

Worked Example 8.3: Design of a simply supported slab


The slab shown in figure 8.2 is to be designed to carry a variable load of 3.0 KN / mm 2 plus floor
finishes and ceiling loads of 1.0 KN / mm 2 . The characteristic material strengths are f ck 25 N / mm 2
and f yk 500 N / mm 2 . Basic span-effective depth ratio 19 for a lightly stressed slab from Figure
7.2 for class C25/30 concrete and 0.5% .
For simplicity, take the effective span to be 4.5m between centrelines of supports.
H10-300

H10-150
300
4.5m

Fig.8.2 Simply supported slab example


(a) Estimate of slab depth
Try a basic span-depth ratio of 27 (approx. 40% above value from figure 7.2):
span
Minimum effective depth
27 correctionfactors(c.f)
4500 167

27 c.f. c.f.
As high yield steel is being used and the span is less than 7m the correction factors can be taken as
unity. Try an effective depth of 170mm. For a class XC-1 exposure the cover 25mm . Allowing,
say, 5mm as half the bar diameter of the reinforcing bar:
Overall depth of slab 170 25 5 200mm
(b) Slab loading
Self-weight of slab 200 25 10 3 5.0 KN / m 2
Total permanent load 1.0 5.0 6.0 KN / m 2
For a 1m width of slab:

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Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

Ultimate load (1.35g k 1.5q k )4.5


(1.35 6.0 1.5 3.0)4.5 56.7 KN
M 56.7 4.5 / 8 31.9KNm
(c) Bending reinforcement
M 31.9 106
0.044
bd 2 f ck 1000 1702 25
From the lever arm equation
z d [0.5 (0.25 K / 1.134) ] d [0.5 (0.25 0.044 / 1.134) ] 0.96d 0.95d
Therefore adopt upper limit of 0.95d and lever arm z 0.95d 0.95 170 161mm :
M 31.9 106
As 455mm 2 / m
0.87 f yk z 0.87 500 161
Provide H10 bars at 150mm centres, As 523mm 2 / m (as shown in table 8.3).
Table 8.3 Sectional areas per metre width for various bar spacings ( mm 2 )
Bar Spacing of bars
size
50 75 100 125 150 175 200 250 300
(mm)
6 566 377 283 226 189 162 142 113 94
8 1010 671 503 402 335 287 252 201 168
10 1570 1050 785 628 523 446 393 314 262
12 2260 1510 1130 905 754 646 566 452 377
16 4020 2680 2010 1610 1340 1150 1010 804 670
20 6280 4190 3140 2510 2090 1800 1570 1260 1050
25 9820 6550 4910 3930 3270 2810 2450 1960 1640
32 16100 10700 8040 6430 5360 4600 4020 3220 2680
40 25100 16800 12600 10100 8380 7180 6280 5030 4190

(d) Check span-effective depth ratio


100As ,req 100 455
0.268% ( 0.13% minimum requirement)
bd 1000 170
From figure 7.2, this corresponds to a basic span-effective depth ratio of 32. The actual ratio
4500/ 170 26.5 ; hence the chosen effective depth is acceptable.
(e) Shear
At the face of the support
55.5 2.25 0.5 0.3
Shear VEd 25.9KN
2 2.25
100 523
1 0.31
1000 170
VRd ,c vRd ,c bd where vRd ,c from table 8.1 0.55 (note: no concrete strength adjustment since
1 0.4% ). Thus:
VRd ,c 0.55 1000170 93.5KN
as V Ed is less than VRd ,c then no shear reinforcement is required.

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Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

(f) End anchorage


From the table 8.4 the tension anchorage length 40 40 10 400mm
f yk 500 10
or lb 402mm
4.6 f bd 4.6 2.7

Table 8.4 Anchorage and lap length coefficients (length L K A bar size) for good bond conditions
K A for concrete strength, f ck ( N / mm 2 )
20 25 30 35 40 45 50
Straight bars
Anchorage in tension and compression 47 40 36 32 29 27 25
Curved bars
Anchorage in tension 33 28 25 22 20 19 18
Anchorage in compression 47 40 36 32 29 27 25
% of bars lapped
at section
Compression and tension 25% 47 40 36 32 29 27 25
laps 33% 54 46 42 37 33 31 29
50% 66 56 51 45 41 38 35
50% 71 60 54 48 44 41 38
Notes:
1. For poor bond conditions divide the coefficients by 0.7.
2. For bars greater than 32mm divide the coefficients by [(132 )100] where is the bar
size.

(g) Distribution steel


Provide minimum 0.0012bd 0.0013 1000 170 221mm 2 / m .
Provide H10 at 300mm centres ( 262mm 2 / m ) which satisfies maximum bar spacing limits.

8.4.2 Continuous solid slab spanning in one direction


Continuous slabs should in principle be designed to withstand the most unfavourable arrangements
of loads, in the same manner as beams. For a continuous slab, bottom reinforcement is required within
the span and top reinforcement over the supports. The effective span is the distance between the
centerline of the supports and basic-effective depth ratio of an interior span is 30 for lightly stressed
where grade 500 steel and class C30/35 concrete are used. The corresponding limit for an end span
is 26.
The bending moment and shear force coefficients given in table 8.5 may be used for one-way
spanning slabs if the following conditions are met.
i) the reinforcement must be of ductility class B and C
ii) neutral axis depth, x, should be no greater than 0.25 of the effective depth
iii) there are at least three spans that do not differ in length by more than 15 per cent
iv) Qk should be less than or equal to 1.25Gk and also less than 5 KN / m 2

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Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

Table 8.5 Ultimate bending moment and shear force coefficients in one-way spanning slabs
End support condition
At
Pinned Continuous At first
middle of At interior
Near interior
Outer End interior supports
middle of End span support
support support spans
end span
Moment 0 0.086Fl 0.04Fl 0.075Fl 0.086Fl 0.063Fl 0.063Fl
Shear 0.40F 0.46F 0.60F 0.50F
Notes:
1. F is the total design ultimate load, F (1.35Gk 1.5Qk ) L
2. L is the span length

Worked Example 8.4: Design of a continuous solid slab


The four-span slab shown in figure 8.3 supports a variable load of 3.0 KN / m 2 plus floor finishes and
a ceiling load of 1.0 KN / m 2 . The characteristic material strengths are f ck 25 N / mm 2 and
f yk 500 N / mm 2 .
Beam

Beam

Beam

Beam

Beam
Span Span Span Span
7m

Plan

4.5 m 4.5 m 4.5 m 4.5 m

Elevation

Fig.8.3 Continuous slab


(a) Estimate of slab depth
As the end span is more critical than interior spans, try a basic span-effective depth ratio 30 per cent
above the end-span limit of 26.0 (i.e. 33.0):
span
Minimum effective depth
33 correctionfactors(c.f)
4500 136

33 c.f. c.f.
As high yield steel is being used and the span is less than 7m the correction factors can be taken as
unity. Try an effective depth of 140mm. For a class XC-1 exposure the cover 25mm . Allowing,
say, 5mm as half the bar diameter of the reinforcing bar:
Overall depth of slab 140 25 5 170mm

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Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

(b) Slab loading


Self-weight of slab 170 25 10 3 4.25KN / m 2
Total permanent load 1.0 4.25 5.25KN / m 2
For a 1m width of slab:
Ultimate load F (1.35g k 1.5q k )4.5
(1.35 5.25 1.5 3.0)4.5 52.14KN
Using the coefficients of table 8.5, assuming the end support is pinned, the moment at the middle of
the end span is given by
M 0.086Fl 0.086 52.14 4.5 20.18KNm
(c) Bending reinforcement
M 20.18 106
0.0412
bd 2 f ck 1000 1402 25
From the lever arm equation
z d [0.5 (0.25 K / 1.134) ] d [0.5 (0.25 0.0412/ 1.134) ] 0.96d 0.95d
Therefore adopt upper limit of 0.95d and lever arm z 0.95d 0.95 140 133mm :
M 20.18 106
As 349mm 2 / m
0.87 f yk z 0.87 500 133
Provide H10 bars at 200mm centres, As 393mm 2 / m (as shown in table 8.3).
(d) Check span-effective depth ratio
100As ,req 100 349
0.249% ( 0.13% minimum requirement)
bd 1000 140
From figure 7.2, this corresponds to a basic span-effective depth ratio in excess of 321.3 (for an
end span) 41 . The actual ratio 4500/ 140 32.1 ; hence the chosen effective depth is acceptable.
Similar calculations for the supports and the interior span give the steel areas shown in figure 8.4.

H10-400 H10-200 H10-400 H10-250

H10-200 H10-400 H10-250 H10-250

Fig.8.4 Reinforcement in a continuous slab

At the end supports there is a monolithic connection between the slab and the beam, therefore top
steel should be provided to resist any negative moment. The moment to be designed for is a minimum
of 25 per cent of the span moment, this is 5.1KNm . In fact, to provide a minimum of 0.13 per cent
of steel, H10 bars at 400mm centres have been specified.
Transverse reinforcement 0.0013bd
0.0013 1000 140
182mm 2 / m
Provide H10 at 400mm centres top and bottom, wherever there is main reinforcement
( 196mm 2 / m ).

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Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

8.5 Two Way Spanning Solid Slabs


When a slab is supported on all four of its sides it spans in both directions. A solid slab is two way
spanning if Ly / Lx 2.0 ( Ly Lx ) . The amount of bending in each direction will depend on the ratio
of the two spans and the conditions of restraint at each support. Moments in each direction of span
are generally calculated using tabulated coefficients. Areas of reinforcement to resist the moments
are determined independently for each direction of span.
The span-effective depth ratios are based on the shorter span and the percentage of reinforcement in
that direction. With a uniformly distributed load the loads on the supporting beams may generally be
apportioned as shown in figure 8.5.
There are two types of two way spanning solid slabs.
i) Simply supported slab spanning in two directions
ii) Restrained slab spanning in two directions
Beam A

Load on beam A

Beam D
Beam C

Load on Load on
beam C beam D

Load on beam B

Beam B
Fig.8.5 loads carried by supporting beams

8.5.1 Simply supported slab spanning in two directions


A slab simply supported on its four sides will deflect about both axes under load and the corners will
tend to lift and curl up from the supports, causing torsional moments. When no provision has been
made to prevent this lifting or to resist the torsion then the moment coefficients of table 8.6 may be
used and the maximum moments are given by
M sx asx nlx2 in direction of span l x
And M sy a sy nl x2 in direction of span l y
where M sx and M sy are the moments at mid-span on strips of unit width with spans l x and l y
respectively
n (1.35g k 1.5q k ) , that is the total ultimate load per unit area
l x is the length of the shorter side
l y is the length of the longer side
a sx and a sy are the moment coefficients from table 8.6.
The area of reinforcement in directions l x and l y respectively are
M sx
Asx per metre width
0.87 f yk z
M sy
And; Asy per metre width
0.87 f yk z

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Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

The slab should be reinforced uniformly across the full width, in each direction.
The effective depth d used in calculating Asy should be less than that for Asx because of the different
depths of the two layers of reinforcement.
At least 40 per cent of the mid-span reinforcement should extend to the supports and the remaining
60 per cent should extend to within 0.1l x or 0.1l y of the appropriate support.
Table 8.6 Bending-moment coefficients for slabs spanning in two directions
at right angles, simply supported on four sides
l y / lx 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.75 2.0
a sx 0.062 0.074 0.084 0.093 0.099 0.104 0.113 0.118
a sy 0.062 0.061 0.059 0.055 0.051 0.046 0.037 0.029

Worked Example 8.5: Design the reinforcement for a simply supported slab
The slab is 220mm thick and spans in two directions. The effective span in each direction is 4.5m
and 6.3m and the slab supports a variable load of 10KN / m 2 . The characteristic material strengths are
f ck 25N / mm 2 and f yk 500N / mm 2 .
l y / l x 6.3 / 4.5 1.4
From table 8.6, a sx 0.099 and asy 0.051.
Self-weight of slab 220 25 10 3 5.5 KN / m 2
Ultimate load 1.35g k 1.5q k
1.35 5.5 1.5 10.0 22.43KN / m 2
Bending-short span
With class XC-1 exposure conditions take d 185mm .
M sx asx nlx2 0.099 22.43 4.52 45.0KNm
M sx 45.0 106
0.053
bd 2 f ck 1000 1852 25
From the lever arm equation
z d [0.5 (0.25 K / 1.134) ] d [0.5 (0.25 0.053/ 1.134) ] 0.951d 0.95d
Therefore adopt upper limit of 0.95d and lever arm z 0.95d 0.95 185 176mm
and
M sx 45.0 106
Asx 588mm 2 / m
0.87 f yk z 0.87 500 176
Provide H12 at 175mm centres, Asx 646mm 2 / m .

Span-effective depth ratio


100As ,req 100 588
1 0.318%
bd 1000 185
From figure 7.2, this corresponds to a basic span-effective depth ratio of 28.0:
Actual span-effective depth ratio 4500/ 185 24.3
Thus d 185mm is adequate.

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Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

Bending-long span
M sy a sy nlx2 0.051 22.43 4.5 2 23.16KNm
Since the reinforcement for this span will have a reduced effective depth, take z 176 12 164mm .
Therefore
M sy 23.16 106
Asy 325mm 2 / m
0.87 f yk z 0.87 500 164
Provide H10 at 200mm centres, Asy 393mm 2 / m .
100As ,req100 393
2 0.24%
bd 1000 164
which is greater than 0.13, the minimum for transverse steel, with class C25/30 concrete.
The arrangement of the reinforcement is shown in figure 8.6.
H10-200

H12-175

4.5m

Fig.8.6 Simply supported slab spanning in two directions

8.5.2 Restrained slab spanning in two directions


When the slabs have fixity at the supports and reinforcement is added to resist torsion and to
prevent the corners of the slab from lifting then the maximum moments per unit width are given by
M sx sx nlx2 in direction of span l x
and
M sy sy nlx2 in direction of span l y
where sx and sy are the moment coefficients given in table 8.7.
The slab is divided into middle and edge strips as shown in figure 8.7 and reinforcement is required
in the middle strips to resist M sx and M sy . In the edge strips only nominal reinforcement is necessary,
such that As / bd 0.26 f ctm / f yk 0.0013 for high yield steel.

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Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

Table 8.7 Bending moment coefficients for two-way spanning rectangular slabs supported by beams
Short span coefficients, sx for values of l y / l x Long-span
Type of panel and coefficients, sy for
moments considered 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.75 2.0
all value of l y / l x
Interior panels
Negative moment at continuous edge 0.031 0.037 0.042 0.046 0.050 0.053 0.059 0.063 0.032
Positive moment at mid-span 0.024 0.028 0.032 0.035 0.037 0.040 0.044 0.048 0.024
One short edge discontinuous
Negative moment at continuous edge 0.039 0.044 0.048 0.052 0.055 0.058 0.063 0.067 0.037
Positive moment at mid-span 0.029 0.033 0.036 0.039 0.041 0.043 0.047 0.050 0.028
One long edge discontinuous
Negative moment at continuous edge 0.039 0.049 0.056 0.062 0.068 0.073 0.082 0.089 0.037
Positive moment at mid-span 0.030 0.036 0.042 0.047 0.051 0.055 0.062 0.067 0.028
Two adjacent edges discontinuous
Negative moment at continuous edge 0.047 0.056 0.063 0.069 0.074 0.078 0.087 0.093 0.045
Positive moment at mid-span 0.036 0.042 0.047 0.051 0.055 0.059 0.065 0.070 0.034
Two short edges discontinuous
Negative moment at continuous edge 0.046 0.050 0.054 0.057 0.060 0.062 0.067 0.070 -
Positive moment at mid-span 0.034 0.038 0.040 0.043 0.045 0.047 0.050 0.053 0.034
Two long edges discontinuous
Negative moment at continuous edge - - - - - - - - 0.045
Positive moment at mid-span 0.034 0.046 0.056 0.065 0.072 0.078 0.091 0.100 0.034
Three edges discontinuous (one
long edge continuous)
Negative moment at continuous edge 0.057 0.065 0.071 0.076 0.081 0.084 0.092 0.098 -
Positive moment at mid-span 0.043 0.048 0.053 0.057 0.060 0.063 0.069 0.074 0.044
Three edges discontinuous (one
short edge continuous)
Negative moment at continuous edge - - - - - - - - 0.058
Positive moment at mid-span 0.042 0.054 0.063 0.071 0.078 0.084 0.096 0.105 0.044
Four edges discontinuous
Positive moment at mid-span 0.055 0.065 0.074 0.081 0.087 0.092 0.103 0.111 0.056
ly ly
lx
8
Edge strip
Middle strip
Edge strip

Edge strip

Middle strip 3lx


lx
4
Edge strip

ly 3ly ly lx
8 4 8 8

(a) For span l x (b) For span l y


Fig.8.7 Division of slab into middle and edge strips

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Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

In addition, torsion reinforcement is provided at discontinuous corners and it should:


1. consists of top and bottom mats, each having bars in both directions of span;
2. extend from the edges a minimum distance l x / 5 ;
3. at a corner where the slab is discontinuous in both directions have an area of steel in each of the
four layers equal to three-quarters of the area required for the maximum mid-span moment
4. at a corner where the slab is discontinuous in one direction only, have an area of torsion
reinforcement only half of that specified in rule 3.
Torsion reinforcement is not, however, necessary at any corner where the slab is continuous in both
directions.
Where l y / l x 2 , the slabs should be designed as spanning in one direction only.
It should be noted that the coefficients for both shear and moments can only be used if class B or C
ductility reinforcement is specified and the ratio x / d is limited to 0.25.

Worked Example 8.6: Moments in a continuous two-way slab


The panel considered is an edge panel, as shown in figure 8.8 and the uniformly distributed load,
n (1.35g k 1.5qk ) 10KN / m 2 .
l x =5m

support
Discontinuous
a b supported edge
l y =6.25m

support

d c
support

Fig.8.8 Continuous panel spanning in two directions

The moment coefficients are taken from table 8.7.


l y 6.25
1.25
lx 5.0
Positive moments at mid-span
M sx sx nlx2 0.04510 52 11.25KNm in direction of span l x
M sy sy nlx2 0.028 10 5 2 7.0 KNm in direction of span l y
Negative moments
Support ad, M x 0.05910 52 14.75KNm
Support ab and dc, M y 0.037 10 5 2 9.25KNm
The moments calculated are for a metre width of slab.
The design of reinforcement to resist these moments would follow the usual procedure. Torsion
reinforcement, according to rule 4 is required at corners b and c. A check would be required on the
span-effective depth ratio of the slab.

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Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

8.6 Ribbed and Hollow Block Slabs


8.6.1 Classification;
i) Ribbed with hollow blocks, i.e. maxpans
ii) Rebbed without hollow blocks
Rebbed without hollow blocks are divided into:
a) Ribs running in one direction
b) Ribs running in both directions (waffle slab)
Cross-sections through a ribbed and hollow block floor slabs are shown in figure 8.9.

8.6.2 Advantages of Ribbed and hollow block slabs:


i) These floors are lighter
ii) These floors are economical for buildings where there are long spans, over about 5m, and
light or moderate live loads, such as in hospital wards or apartment buildings.
They would not be suitable for structures having a heavy loading, such as Warehouses and garages.

8.6.3 Design
The slab is designed as a T-section with the effective flange breadths. Near the supports the slab
is made solid at about 0.5 ~ 1.0m from the support to increase shear strength.
The slabs are usually made solid under partitions and concentrated loads.
During construction the hollow tiles should be well soaked in water prior to placing the concrete,
otherwise shrinkage cracking of the top concrete flange is liable to occur.
The thickness of the concrete flange should not be less than:
1. 40mm or one-tenth of the clear distance between ribs, whichever is the greater, for slabs with
permanent blocks;
2. 50mm or one-tenth tenth of the clear distance between ribs, whichever is the greater, for slabs
without permanent blocks.
The rib width will be governed by
1. cover
2. bar-spacing
3. fire resistance requirements
The ribs should be spaced no further apart 1.5m and their depth below the flange should not be
greater than four times their width.
Transverse ribs should be provided at spacing no greater than ten times the overall slab depth.
Span-effective depth ratios will be based on the shorter span with the basic values given in figure
7.2 multiplied by 0.8 where the ratio of the flange width to the rib width exceeds 3.
At least 50 per cent of the tensile reinforcement in the span should continue to the supports and be
anchored.
A light reinforcement mesh in the topping flange is provided:
1. to control cracking due to shrinkage or thermal movement;
2. to distribute concentrated or moving loads;
3. to give added strength and durability to the slab;
4. to serve as distribution bars for tension bars over supports
The minimum area of reinforcement mesh should not be less than 0.13% of the topping flange.
Waffle slabs are designed as ribbed slabs and their design moments each way are obtained from
the moment coefficients tabulated in table 8.7 for two-way spanning slabs.

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Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

(a) Section through a ribbed floor


Supporting beam

Solid end section

Supporting beam

light mesh

(b) partial plan of and section through a waffle slab

(c) Section through a hollow block floor

Fig.8.9 Sections through ribbed and hollow block floors, and waffle slab

Worked Example 8.7: Design of a ribbed floor


The ribbed floor is constructed with permanent fiberglass moulds; it is continuous over several spans
of 5.0m. The characteristic material strengths are f ck 25N / mm 2 and f yk 500N / mm 2 .
An effective section, as shown in figure 8.10, which satisfies requirements for a 60 minute resistance
(see table 8.8) is to be tried. The characteristic permanent load including self-weight and finishes is
4.5 KN / m 2 and the characteristic variable load is 2.5 KN / m 2 .
600
solid 2-H10 above each rib
slab

2-H10 per rib


span = 5.0m

d =160 h =200
60

125 400

Cross-section at mid-span

Fig.8.10 Ribbed slab

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Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

Table 8.8 Minimum dimensions and axis distance for RC slabs for fire resistance
Minimum dimensions (mm)
Standard fire Two-way spanning
One-way Ribs in two-way spanning
resistance
spanning l y / l x 1.5 1.5 l y / l x 2.0 ribbed slab
100 120
hs 80 80 80 bmin
200
REI 60
25 15
a 20 10 15
a 10
120 160
hs 100 100 100 bmin
250
REI 90
35 25
a 30 15 20
a 15
160 190
hs 120 120 120 bmin
REI 300
120 45 40
a 40 20 25
a 30
450 700
hs 175 175 175 bmin
REI -
240 70 60
a 65 40 50
a -

The calculations are for an end span (which will be most critical) for which the moments and shears
can be determined from the coefficients in table 8.5.
Considering a 0.4m width of floor as supported by each rib:
Ultimate load 0.4(0.35g k 1.5q k )
0.4(0.35 4.5 1.5 2.5)
3.93KN / m
Ultimate load on the span, F 3.93 5.0 19.65KN

Bending
1. At mid-span design as a T-section:
M 0.086Fl 0.08619.65 5.0 8.45KNm
The effective breadth of flange bw beff 1 beff 2 where
beff 1 beff 2 0.2b1 0.1l0 0.2l0 b1
with b1 (400 125) / 2 137mm and l 0 0.85 5000 4250mm
thus
bw beff 1 beff 2 125 2(0.2 137 0.1 4250) 1030mm
or 0.2 4250) 850mm
which both exceed the rib spacing of 400mm, which governs
M 8.45 106
0.033
bd 2 f ck 400 1602 25
From the lever arm equation

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Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

z d [0.5 (0.25 K / 1.134) ] d [0.5 (0.25 0.033/ 1.134) ] 0.97d 0.95d . Thus
the neutral axis depth lies within the flange.
Therefore adopt upper limit of 0.95d and lever arm z 0.95d 0.95160 152mm
and
M 8.45 106
As 127.8mm 2
0.87 f yk z 0.87 500 152
Provide two H10 bars in the ribs, As 157mm 2 .
2. At the end interior support design as a rectangular section for the solid slab:
M 0.086Fl 0.08619.65 5.0 8.45KNm as in 1.
and As 128mm 2 as at mid-span
Provide two H10 bars in each 0.4m width of slab, As 157mm 2 .
3. At the section where the ribs terminate: this occurs 0.6m from the centerline of the support and the
moment may be hogging so that 125mm ribs must provide the concrete area in compression to resist
the design moment. The maximum moment of resistance of the concrete is
M 0.167 f ck bd 2 0.167 25 1251602 106 13.36KNm
which must be greater than the moment at this section, therefore compression steel is not required.

Span-effective depth ratio


At the centre of the span
100As ,req 100 128
0.20%
bd 400 160
From figure 7.2 and table 7.5 the limiting basic-effective depth ratio ( 0.3% ) for an end span is
32 1.3 41.6 .
For a T-section with a flange width greater than three times the web width this should be multiplied
by 0.8 to give a limiting ratio of 0.8 41.6 33.2 .
actual span-effective depth ratio 5000/ 160 31.3
Thus d 160mm is adequate.

Shear
Maximum shear in the rib 0.6m from the support centerline (end span)
VEd 0.6 F 0.6 3.93 0.6 19.65 0.6 3.93 9.43KN
As 157
1 0.0079
bd 125 160
From table 8.1, the shear resistance without reinforcement VRd ,c vRd ,c bd where
v Rd ,c 0.68N / mm 2 and, from table 8.2, the strength modification factor 0.94 . Hence:
VRd ,c vRd ,c bd 0.94 0.68 125160 12.78KN
As VRd ,c is greater than V Ed then no shear reinforcement is required provided that the bars in the ribs
are securely located during construction.

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Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

Worked Example 8.8: Design of a waffle slab


Design a waffle slab for an internal panel of a floor system, each panel spanning 6.0m in each
direction. The characteristic material strengths are f ck 25N / mm 2 and f yk 500N / mm 2 . The
section as used in example 8.7, figure 8.10 is to be tried with characteristic permanent load including
self-weight of 6.0 KN / m 2 and characteristic variable load of 2.5 KN / m 2 .

Design ultimate load (1.35g k 1.5q k )


(1.35 6.0) (1.5 2.5) 11.85KN / m 2
As the slab has the same span in each direction the moment coefficients, sx , sy are taken from table
8.7 with l y / l x 1.0 . Calculations are given for a single 0.4m wide beam section and in both
directions of span.

Bending
1. At mid-span: design as a T-section.
Positive moment at mid-span msx sx nlx2 0.02411.85 6 2 10.24KNm / m
Moment carried by each rib 0.4 10.24 4.10KNm
M 4.1 106
0.016
bd 2 f ck 400 1602 25
where the effective breadth is 400mm as in the previous example.
From the lever arm equation
z d [0.5 (0.25 K / 1.134) ] d [0.5 (0.25 0.016 / 1.134) ] 0.98d 0.95d . Thus the
neutral axis depth lies within the flange and
M 4.1 106
As 62 mm 2
0.87 f yk z 0.87 500 0.95 160
Provide two H10 bars in each rib at the bottom of the beam, As 157mm 2 to satisfy minimum
requirement of 0.13bd % 0.0013 400 160 83mm 2 / rib . Note that since the service stress in the
steel will be reduced, this lead to a higher span-effective depth ratio thus ensuring that the span-
effective depth ratio of the slab is kept within acceptable limits.

2. At the support: design as a rectangular section for the solid slab.


Negative moment at support msx sx nlx2 0.03111.85 6 2 13.22KNm / m
Moment carried by each 0.4m width 0.4 13.22 5.29KNm
M 5.29 106
0.021
bd 2 f ck 400 1602 25
From the lever arm equation
z d [0.5 (0.25 K / 1.134) ] d [0.5 (0.25 0.021/ 1.134) ] 0.98d 0.95d .
M 5.29 106
As 80 mm 2
0.87 f yk z 0.87 500 0.95 160
Provide two H10 bars in each 0.4m width of slab, As 157mm 2 .

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Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

3. At the section where the ribs terminate: the maximum hogging moment of resistance of the
concrete ribs is 13.36KNm as in the previous example. This is greater than the moment at this section,
therefore compression steel is not required.

Span-effective depth ratio


100As ,req 100 62
At the mid span 0.096%
bd 400 160
Hence from figure 7.2, limiting basic sapn depth ratio 321.5 (for interior span) 0.8 ( for flange
3 web thickness) when 0.3% .
Thus allowable ratio 32 1.5 0.8 38.4
actual span-effective depth ratio 6000/ 160 37.5
Thus d 160mm is just adequate. It has not been necessary here to allow for the increased
span/effective depth resulting from providing an increased steel area, thus consideration could be
given to reducing the rib reinforcement to two H8 bars ( 101mm 2 ) which still satisfies nominal
requirements.

Shear
From the table 8.9 the shear force coefficient for a continuous edge support is 0.33. Hence, for one
rib, the shear at the support
Vsx vx nl x b 0.33 11.85 6 0.4 9.38KN
Maximum shear in the rib 0.6m from the centerline is
VEd 9.38 0.6 11.85 0.4 6.54KN
At this position, VRd ,c vRd ,c 125 160 and
100As 100 157
1 0.79%
bd 125 160
Hence from table 8.1, v Rd ,c 0.68N / mm 2 and, from table 8.2, the strength modification factor
0.94 . Hence:
VRd ,c vRd ,c bd 0.94 0.68 125160 12.8KN
Therefore the unreinforced section is adequate in shear, and no links are required provided that the
bars in the ribs are securely located during construction.

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Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

Table 8.9 Shear force coefficients for uniformly loaded rectangular panels supported
on four sides with provision for torsion at corners
vx for values of l y / l x
vy
Type of panel and location 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.75 2.0
Four edges continuous
continuous 0.33 0.36 0.39 0.41 0.43 0.45 0.48 0.50 0.33
One short edge discontinuous
Continuous edge 0.36 0.39 0.42 0.44 0.45 0.47 0.50 0.52 0.36
Discontinuous edge - - - - - - - - 0.24
One long edge discontinuous
Continuous edge 0.36 0.40 0.44 0.47 0.49 0.51 0.55 0.59 0.36
Discontinuous edge 0.24 0.27 0.29 0.31 0.32 0.34 0.36 0.38 -
Two adjacent edges
discontinuous
0.40 0.44 0.47 0.50 0.52 0.54 0.57 0.60 0.40
Continuous edge
0.26 0.29 0.31 0.33 0.34 0.35 0.38 0.40 0.26
Discontinuous edge
Two short edges discontinuous
Continuous edge 0.40 0.43 0.45 0.47 0.48 0.49 0.52 0.54 -
Discontinuous edge - - - - - - - - 0.26
Two long edges discontinuous
Continuous edge - - - - - - - - 0.40
Discontinuous edge 0.26 0.30 0.33 0.36 0.38 0.40 0.44 0.47 -
Three edges discontinuous
(one long edge discontinuous)
Continuous edge 0.45 0.48 0.51 0.53 0.55 0.57 0.60 0.63 -
Discontinuous edge 0.30 0.32 0.34 0.35 0.36 0.37 0.39 0.41 0.29
Three edges discontinuous
(one short edge discontinuous)
Continuous edge - - - - - - - - 0.45
Discontinuous edge 0.29 0.33 0.36 0.38 0.40 0.42 0.45 0.48 0.30
Four edges discontinuous
Discontinuous edge 0.33 0.36 0.39 0.41 0.43 0.45 0.48 0.50 0.33

Reinforcement in the topping flange


Light reinforcing mesh should be provided in the top of the flange.
Area required 0.13 b h / 100 0.13 1000 60 / 100 78mm 2 / mm
Provide D98 mesh (see table 8.10), As 98mm 2 / m .

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Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

Table 8.10 Sectional areas for different fabric types


Longitudinal wires Cross wires
Fabric reference Wire size Pitch Area Wire size Pitch Area
2
(mm) (mm) ( mm / m ) (mm) (mm) ( mm 2 / m )
Square mesh
200
A393 10 200 393 10 393
200
A252 8 200 252 8 252
200
A193 7 200 193 7 193
200
A142 6 200 142 6 142
200
A98 5 200 98 5 98
Structural mesh
B1131 12 100 1131 8 200 252
B785 10 100 785 8 200 252
B503 8 100 503 8 200 252
B385 7 100 385 7 200 193
B283 6 100 283 7 200 193
B196 5 100 196 7 200 193
Long mesh
C785 10 100 785 6 400 70.8
C636 9 100 636 6 400 70.8
C503 8 100 503 5 400 49
C385 7 100 385 5 400 49
C283 6 100 283 5 400 49
Wrapping mesh
D98 5 200 98 5 200 98
D49 2.5 100 49 2.5 100 49

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Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

8.7 Stair slabs


8.7.1 General
The usual form of stairs can be classified into two types:
a) those spanning horizontally in the transverse direction
b) those spanning longitudinally

Note: Stairs are one way spanning slabs.

Building Regulation Requirements for stair Design D


private Common b
Riser, R 220mm 190mm

Tread, G 220mm 230mm Tread


Distribution steel
Pitch, 42 38
No of steps
16 Main steel
in a flight Riser
if 700mm G 2R 550mm - Pitch
Assume G 300mm and R 150mm
Tread should be uniform
Riser should be uniform Waist
Fig. 8.11 Section of transverse stair
8.7.2 Stairs spanning horizontally
Stairs of this type may be supported on both sides (e.g. between walls, a wall and a stringer beam,
between two stringer beams) or they may be cantilevered from a supporting wall. Transverse
spanning stair slabs are designed as a series of beams consisting of one step with breadth, b and an
effective depth of d D / 2 as shown in the figure 8.11.
Distribution steel in the longitudinal direction is placed above the main reinforcement. The main steel
must not be spaced at more than one bar per rib.
In the case of the cantilever stairs, the effective depth of the member is taken as the mean effective
depth of the section and the main reinforcement must be placed in the top of the stairs and anchored
into the support. A light mesh of reinforcement is placed in the bottom face to resist shrinkage
cracking.
CL

Light mesh

Fig. 8.12 Section of cantilevered stair

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Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

8.7.3 Stair slab spanning longitudinally


The stair slab may span into landings which span at right angles to the stairs as in figure 8.13 or it
may span between supporting beams as in figure 8.14.

Landing Landing
H12-400

H1
Open well 0-
400

1.5m
H12-300

Effective depth, d=115

H12-400
Span 3.0m

Span

Fig.8.13 Stairs spanning into landings Fig.8.14 Stairs supported by beams

The permanent load is calculated along the slope length of the stairs but the variable load is based on
the plan area. If the total design load on the stair is F and the staircase is cast monolithically with the
floor slab, then positive moment at mid span, M Fl / 10 , and negative moment at supports,
M Fl / 10 . If the staircase is precast, the positive design moment, M Fl / 8 . The shear force in
both cases, SF F / 2 .
When the staircase is built monolithically at its ends into a structural member spanning at right angles
to its span, the effective span is given by
Leff Ln a1 a 2
where Ln is the clear horizontal distance between supporting members
a1 is half the breadth of supporting member at one end
a 2 is half the breadth of supporting member at other end
The thickness of the waist is taken as the slab thickness.
The design procedure is the same as that of slabs.

Worked Example 8.9: Design of stair slab


The stairs are of the type shown in figure 8.14 spanning longitudinally and set into pockets in the two
supporting beams. The effective span is 3m and the rise of the stairs is 1.5m with 260mm treads and
150mm risers. The variable load is 3.0 KN / m 2 and the characteristic material strengths are
f ck 30N / mm 2 and f yk 500N / mm 2 .

Try a 140mm thick waist, effective depth, d 115mm . This would give an initial estimate of the
span-effective ratio of 26.1 (3000/115) which, from 7.2, lies a little above the basic value for a lightly
stressed simply supported slab.

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Chapter VIII: Design of Reinforced Concrete SLABS

Slope length of stairs (32 5 2 ) 3.35m


Consider a 1m width of stairs:
Weight of waist plus steps (0.14 3.35 0.26 1.5 / 2)25 16.6 KN
Variable load 3.0 3 9.0KN
Ultimate load, F 1.35 16.6 1.5 9.0 35.91KN
With no effective end restraint:
Fl 13.91 3.0
M 13.46KNm
8 8

Bending reinforcement
M 13.16 106
0.034
bd 2 f ck 1000 1152 30
From the lever arm equation
z d [0.5 (0.25 K / 1.134) ] d [0.5 (0.25 0.034 / 1.134) ] 0.97d 0.95d .
M 13.46 106
As 283mm 2 / m
0.87 f yk z 0.87 500 0.95 115
Maximum allowable spacing is 3h 3 140 420mm with an upper limit of 400mm.
Provide H12 bars at 300mm centres, As 377mm 2 / m .

Span-effective depth ratio


100As ,req100 377
At the centre of the span 0.33
bd 1000 115
which is greater than the minimum requirement of 0.15 for class C30 concrete (see table 7.6).
From table 7.5 the basic span-effective depth ratio for a simply supported span with req 0.5% is
20. Allowing for the actual steel area provided:
limiting span-effective depth ratio 20 As, prov / As.req 20 377 / 283 26.6
actual span-effective depth ratio 3000/ 115 26.09
Hence the slab effective depth is acceptable. (Note that the allowable ratio will actually be greater
than estimated above since the required steel ratio is less than the 0.5% used with table 7.5)

Secondary reinforcement
Transverse distribution steel 0.2 As ,min 0.2 377 75.4mm 2 / m
This is very small, and adequately covered by H10 bars at the maximum allowable spacing of 400mm
centres, area 174mm 2 / m .
Continuity bars at the top and bottom of the span should be provided and, whereas about 50per cent
of the main steel would be reasonable, the maximum spacing is limited to 400mm. Hence provide,
say, H12 bars at 400mm centres as continuity steel.

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Chapter IX: Design of COLUMNS

CHAPTER IX. DESIGN OF COLUMNS


9.0 Introduction
The columns in a structure carry the loads from the beams and slabs down to the foundations, and
therefore they are primarily compression members, although they may also have to resist bending
forces due to the continuity of the structure.
Columns carrying only axial forces can be designed based on the equations.
Columns carrying axial forces plus bending moments are designed with the aid of design charts.
Columns may be square, rectangular, circular, elliptical, and cruciform or of other shapes.
Initial dimensions are normally determined by taking into account requirements for durability and
fire resistance (table 9.1).

Table 9.1 Minimum dimensions and axis distance for RC columns and walls for fire resistance
Standard fire Minimum dimensions (mm)
resistance Column width bmin /axis distance, a, of Wall thickness/axis distance, a, of the
the main bars main bars
Columns exposed Columns exposed Wall exposed on Wall exposed on
on more than one on one side one side two sides
side
R60 250/46 155/25 130/10 140/10
350/40
R90 350/53 155/25 140/25 170/25
450/40
R120 350/57 175/35 160/35 220/35
450/51
R240 600/70 295/70 270/60 350/60

9.1 Classification of Columns


i) Braced and unbraced columns
A braced column is one where the lateral loads are resisted by shear walls or other forms of
bracing capable of transmitting all horizontal loading to the foundations.
With a braced structure the axial forces and moments in the columns are caused by the vertical
permanent and variable actions only.
An unbraced column is one where horizontal loads are resisted by the frame action of rigidly
connected columns, beams and slabs.
With an unbraced structure the loading arrangements which include the effects of the lateral loads
must be considered.
ii) Sway and Non sway structures
Both braced and unbraced structures can be further classified as sway or non-sway.
Frames may be classified as non-sway if the first order displacement of the connections do not
increase the bending moments by more than 10%, otherwise they are classified as sway.
iii) Isolated columns
These may be:

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Chapter IX: Design of COLUMNS

a) isolated compression members


individual isolated columns (figure 9.1 a)
columns with articulation in a non-sway structure (figure 9.1 b)
b) compression members which are integral parts of a structure but which are considered to be
isolated for design purposes.
slender bracing element considered as isolated column (figure 9.1 c)
columns with restrained ends in a non-sway structure (figure 9.1 d)

(a) (b) (c) (d)

Fig.9.1 Types of isolated columns


In this chapter only the design of the most common types of columns found in building structures,
namely braced columns, will be described. A column may be considered to be braced in a given plane
if the bracing element or system (e.g. core or shear walls) is sufficiently stiff to resist all the lateral
forces in that plane. Thus braced columns
are assumed to not contribute to the overall horizontal stability of a structure and as such are only
designed to resist axial load and bending due to vertical loading.

9.2 Slenderness ratio, Effective height and Limiting slenderness ratio of column
9.2.1 Slenderness ratio of a column
The slenderness ratio of a column bent about an axis is given by
l l0
0 (9.1)
i ( I / A)
where
l 0 is the effective height of the column
i is the radius of gyration about the axis considered
I is the second moment of area of the section about the axis
A is the cross-section area of the column
l
9.2.2 Effective height 0 of a column
The effective height of a column, l 0 , is the height of a theoretical column of equivalent section but
pinned at both ends. This depends on the degree of fixity at each end of the column, which itself
depends on the relative stiffness of the columns and beam connected to either end of the column
under consideration.
EC2 gives two formulae for calculating the effective height:
For braced members:

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Chapter IX: Design of COLUMNS

k1 k2
l0 0.5l 1 1 (9.2)
0.45 k1 0.45 k 2
For unbraced members the larger of:
k k
l0 l 1 10 1 2 (9.3.a)
k1 k 2
and
k k
l 0 l 1 1 1 2 (9.3.b)
1 k1 1 k 2
In the above formulae, k1 and k2 are the relative flexibilities of the rotational restraints at ends 1
and 2 of the column respectively. At each end k1 and k2 can be taken as:

column stiffness ( EI / l ) column ( I / l ) column


k
beam stiffness 2( EI / l ) beam 2( I / l ) beam
It is assumed that any column above or below the column under consideration does not contribute
anything to the rotational restraint of the joint and that the stiffness of each connecting beam is taken
as 2EI / l to allow for cracking effects in the beam.
Once k1 and k2 have been calculated, the effective length factor, F , can be established from table
9.2 for braced columns. The effective length is then l 0 Fl .

Table 9.2 Effective length factor, F, for braced columns


k2 k1
0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.70 1.00 2.00 5.00 9.00 Pinned
0.10 0.59 0.62 0.64 0.66 0.67 0.69 0.71 0.73 0.75 0.76 0.77
0.20 0.62 0.65 0.68 0.69 0.71 0.73 0.74 0.77 0.79 0.80 0.81
0.30 0.64 0.68 0.70 0.72 0.73 0.75 0.77 0.80 0.82 0.83 0.84
0.40 0.66 0.69 0.72 0.74 0.75 0.77 0.79 0.82 0.84 0.85 0.86
0.50 0.67 0.71 0.73 0.75 0.76 0.78 0.80 0.83 0.86 0.86 0.87
0.70 0.69 0.73 0.75 0.77 0.78 0.80 0.82 0.85 0.88 0.89 0.90
1.00 0.71 0.74 0.77 0.79 0.80 0.82 0.84 0.88 0.90 0.91 0.92
2.00 0.73 0.77 0.80 0.82 0.83 0.85 0.88 0.91 0.93 0.94 0.95
5.00 0.75 0.79 0.82 0.84 0.86 0.88 0.90 0.93 0.96 0.97 0.98
9.00 0.76 0.80 0.83 0.85 0.86 0.89 0.91 0.94 0.97 0.98 0.99
Pinned 0.77 0.81 0.84 0.86 0.87 0.90 0.92 0.95 0.98 0.99 1.00

9.2.3 Limiting slenderness ratio-short or slender columns


EC2 places an upper limit on the slenderness ratio of a single member below which second order
effects may be ignored. This limit is given by:
min 20 A B C / n (9.4)
where

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Chapter IX: Design of COLUMNS

A 1/(1 0.2ef )
B 1 2w
C 1.7 rm
ef effective creep ratio (if not known A can be taken as 0.7)
w As f yd /( Ac f cd ) (if not known B can be taken as 1.1)
f yd the design yield strength of the reinforcement
f cd the design compressive strength of the concrete
As the total area of longitudinal reinforcement
n N Ed /( Ac f cd )
N Ed the design ultimate axial load in the column
rm M 01 / M 02 (if rm not known then C can be taken as 0.7)
M 01 , M 02 are first order moments at the end of the column with M 02 M 01

The following conditions apply to the value of C:


(a) If the end moments, M 01 and M 02 , give rise to tension on the same side of the column rm
should be taken as positive from which it follows that C 1.7 .
(b) If the converse to (a) is true, i.e. the column is in a state of double curvature, then rm should be
taken as negative from which it follows that C 1.7 .
(c) For braced members in which the first order moments arise only from transverse loads or
imperfections; C can be taken as 0.7.
(d) For unbraced members; C can be taken as 0.7.
For an unbraced column an approximation to the limiting value of will be given by:
min 20 A B C / n 20 0.7 1.1 2.7 / N Ed /( Ac f cd )
41.6 / N Ed /( Ac f cd )
For a braced column the minimum limiting value of will be given by taking C 1.7 :
min 20 A B C / n 20 0.7 1.11.7 / N Ed /( Ac f cd )
26.2 / N Ed /( Ac f cd )
The limiting value of for a braced column will depend on the relative value of the columns end
moments that will normally act in the same clockwise or anti-clockwise direction as in case (b)
above. If these moments are of approximately equal value then rm 1, C 1.7 1 2.7 and a
typical, approximate limit on will be given by:
min 20 A B C / n 20 0.7 1.1 1.7 / N Ed /( Ac f cd )
26.2 / N Ed /( Ac f cd )
If the actual slenderness ratio is less than the calculated value of min then the column can be treated
as short. Otherwise the column must be treated as slender and second order effects must be accounted
for in the design of the column.

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Chapter IX: Design of COLUMNS

Worked Example 9.1: Short or slender column


Determine if the column in the braced frame shown in figure 9.2 is short or slender. The concrete
strength f ck 25N / mm 2 , and ultimate axial load 1280KN .
300
300
Length=4.0m each side

500

700
Beam
Length=6.0m Length=4.0m
h col =3.0m

400
Z

300
Y Y

Beam

Note: the beams are continuous


in both direction
Fig.9.2 Column end support details

It can be seen that the column will have the highest slenderness ratio for bending about YY where
h 300mm and also the end restraints are the less stiff 300 500 beams.

Effective column height l 0


I col 400 3003 / 12 900 106 mm 4
I beam 300 5003 / 12 3125 106 mm 4
I col / l col 900 106 / 3.0 103
k1 k 2 0.096 0.1
(2I beam / lbeam ) 2(2 3125 106 / 4.0 103 )
From table 9.2 effective column height l 0 Fl 0.59 3.0 1.77m

Slenderness ratio
I bh3 / 12 h 300
Radius of gyration, i col 86.6mm
Acol bh 3.464 3.464
Slenderness ratio l0 / i 1.77 103 / 86.6 20.4
For a braced column the minimum limiting value of will be given by
min 26.2 / N Ed /( Ac f cd )
where
N Ed /( Ac f cd ) 1280103 /(400 300 25 / 1.5) 0.64
thus

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Chapter IX: Design of COLUMNS

min 26.2 / 0.64 32.7 ( 20.4)


Hence, compared with the minimum limiting value of the column is short and second order
moment effects would not have to be taken into account.

9.3 Reinforcement details


The rules governing the minimum and maximum amounts of reinforcement in a load bearing column
are as follows.

9.3.1 Longitudinal steel


1. A minimum of four bars is required in a rectangular column (one bar in each corner) and six
bars in a circular column. Bar diameter should not be less than 12mm.
2. The minimum area of steel is given by
0.10N Ed
As 0.002Ac
0.87 f yk
3. The maximum area of steel, at laps is given by
As ,max
0.08
Ac
where As is the total area of longitudinal steel and Ac is the cross-sectional area of the column.
As ,max
Otherwise, in regions away from laps: 0.04 .
Ac
9.3.2 Links
1
1. Minimum size size of the compression bar but not less than 6mm.
4
2. Maximum spacing should not exceed the lesser of 20 size of the smallest compression bar or
the least lateral dimension of the column or 400mm. This spacing should be reduced by a factor
of 0.60.
(a) for a distance equal to the larger lateral dimension of the column above and below a beam or
slab, and
(b) at lapped joints of longitudinal bars 14mm diameter.
3. Where the direction of the longitudinal reinforcement changes, the spacing of the links should
be calculated, while taking account of the lateral forces involved. If the change in direction is
less than or equal to 1 in 12 no calculation is necessary.
4. Every longitudinal bar placed in a corner should be held by transverse reinforcement.
5. No compression bar should be further than 150mm from a restrained bar.

9.4 Short columns resisting moments and axial forces


The area of longitudinal steel for these columns is determined by:
1. using design charts
2. a solution of the design equations
3. an approximate method
Design charts are usually used for columns having a rectangular or circular cross-section and a
symmetrical arrangement of reinforcement.

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Chapter IX: Design of COLUMNS

The basic equations or the approximate method can be used when an unsymmetrical arrangement of
reinforcement is required, or when the cross-section is non-rectangular.
Whichever design method is used, a column should not be designed for a moment less than
N Ed emin , where emin has the greater value of h / 30 or 20mm. This is to allow for tolerance in
construction. The dimension h is overall size of the column cross-section in the plane of bending.

9.4 Design charts


The basic equations derived for a rectangular section as shown in figure 9.3 and with a rectangular
stress block are:
N Ed Fcc Fsc Fs
(9.5)
0.567 f ck bs f sc As f s As
h s h h
M Ed Fcc Fsc d Fs d (9.6)
2 2 2 2
N Ed design ultimate axial load
M Ed design ultimate moment
s the depth of the stress block 0.8x
As the area of longitudinal reinforcement in the more highly compressed face
As the area of reinforcement in the other face
f sc the stress in reinforcement As
f s the stress in reinforcement As , negative when tensile.
b
0.0035 0.567fck
d'
Fsc
s/2
A's x s=0.8x
d sc Fcc
h neutral
As axis

s Fs

Section Strain Stress block


Fig.9.3 Column section
These equations are not suitable for direct solution and the design of a column with symmetrical
reinforcement in each face is best carried out using design chart as illustrated in figure 9.4.

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Chapter IX: Design of COLUMNS

Fig.9.4 Typical column design chart

Worked Example 9.2: Column design using design charts


Figure 9.5 shows a frame of a heavily loaded industrial structure for which the centre columns along
line PQ are to be designed in this example. The frames at 4m centres, are braced against lateral forces,
and support the following floor loads:
Permanent action g k 10KN / m 2
Variable action qk 15KN / m 2
Characteristic material strengths are f ck 25N / mm 2 for the concrete and f yk 500N / mm 2 for the
steel.

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Chapter IX: Design of COLUMNS

4.0m
Plan
P
3rd floor

3.0m
2nd floor

beams 300 700dp

3.0m
1st floor

3.0m
400
ground
floor 300 400 columns

Q
6.0m 4.0m

Section through the frame


Fig.9.5 Columns in an industrial structure

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Chapter IX: Design of COLUMNS

1.35G k + 1.5 Q k

1.35G k + 1.5 Q k

1st 1.35G k + 1.5 Q k 1.35G k


Floor
A B C

(a) Critical loading arrangement for centre columns at 1st floor

k column

144 6=864kN 54 4=216kN


+432 -432 +72 -72
A C A C
B kNm B
kAB kBC
2 k column 2

(b) Substitute frame (c) Fixed end moments

Fig.9.6 Substitute frame for column design example

Maximum ultimate load at each floor 4.0(1.35g k 1.5q k ) per meter length of beam
4(1.35 10 1.5 15)
144KN / m
Minimum ultimate load at each floor 4.0 1.35g k per meter length of beam
4.0 1.35 10
54KN / m per metrelength of beam
Consider first the design of the centre column at the underside (u.s.) of the first floor. The critical
arrangement of load that will cause the maximum moment in the column is shown in figure 9.6a.

Column loads
Second and third floors 2 144 10 / 2 1440KN
First floor 144 6 / 2 54 4 / 2 540KN
Column self-weight, say 2 14 28KN
N Ed 2008KN
Similar arrangement of load will give the axial load in the column at the underside (u.s.) and top side
(t.s.) of each floor level and these values of N Ed are shown in table 9.3.

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Chapter IX: Design of COLUMNS

Table 9.3
Floor N Ed M Ed N Ed M Ed As f yk As (mm 2 )
(KN ) (KNm ) bhfck bh 2 f ck bhfck
3rd u.s. 540 82.6 0.18 0.07 0 240
2nd t.s. 734 68.4 0.24 0.06 0 240
+ 540
2nd u.s. 1274 68.4 0.42 0.06 0 240
1st t.s. 1468 68.4 0.49 0.06 0.10 600
+ 540
1st u.s. 2008 68.4 0.67 0.06 0.30 1800

Column moments
The loading arrangement and the substitute frame for determining the column moments at the first
and second floors are shown in figure 9.6c.
Member stiffness are
k AB 1 bh3 1 0.3 0.7 3
0.71 10 3
2 2 12L AB 2 12 6
k BC 1 bh3 1 0.3 0.7 3
1.07 103
2 2 12LBC 2 12 4
0.3 0.4 3
k col 0.53 10 3
12 3.0
therefore
k (0.71 1.07 2 0.53)10 3
2.84 103
and
k col 0.53
distribution factor for the column 0.19
k 2.84
Fixed end moments at B are
144 6 2
F.E. M . BA 432KNm
12
54 4 2
F.E. M . BC 72KNm
12
Thus
Column moment M Ed 0.19(432 72) 68.4 KNm
At the 3rd floor
k (0.71 1.07 0.53)10 3
2.31 103
and
0.53
Column moment M Ed (432 72) 82.6 KNm
2.31
The areas of reinforcement in table 9.3 are determined by using the design chart of figure 9.4.
Sections through the column are shown figure 9.7.

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Chapter IX: Design of COLUMNS

300 H8 at 300 H8 at 300

400
4H25 4H16
(a) Ground to 1st Floor (b) 1st to 3rd Floor

Fig.9.7 Column section in design example

Cover for the reinforcement is taken as 50mm and d 2 / h 80 / 400 0.2 . The minimum area of
reinforcement allowed in the section is given by:
As 0.002bh 0.002 300 400 240mm 2
and the maximum area is
As 0.08bh 0.008 300 400 9600mm 2
and the reinforcement provided is within these limits.

9.5 Design equations for a non-symmetrical section


Some members are required to resist axial forces combined with large moments. In these cases the
usual design charts cannot be applied. A rigorous design for a rectangular section as shown in figure
9.8 involves the following iterative procedure:
NEd : Normal to the section

0.567fck
d' fsc A's
e
A's x s
h/2 d neutral 0.567f ck bs
axis

h/2 As
d2 fs As
b

Section Stress block

Fig.9.8 Column with a non-symmetrical arrangement of reinforcement

1. Select a depth of neutral axis, x (for this design method where the moments are relatively large,
x would generally be less than h).
2. Determine the steel strains sc and s from the strain distribution.
3. Determine the steel stresses f sc and f s from the equations relating to the stress-strain curve for
the reinforcing bars.

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Chapter IX: Design of COLUMNS

4. Taking moments about the centroid of As


h
N Ed e d 2 0.567 f ck bs(d s / 2) f sc As (d d ) (9.7)
2
where s 0.8x
This equation can be solved to give a value for As
5. As is then determined from the equilibrium of the axial forces, that is
N Ed 0.567 f ck bs f sc As f s As (9.8)
6. Further values of x may be selected and steps (1) to (5) repeated until a minimum value for
As As is obtained.
The term f sc in the equations may be modified to ( f sc 0.567 f ck ) to allow for the area of concrete
displaced by the reinforcement As . Stress f s has a negative sign whenever it is tensile.

Worked Example 9.3: Column section with an unsymmetrical arrangement of reinforcement


The column section shown in figure 9.9 resists an axial load of 1100kN and a moment of 230kNm at
the ultimate limit state. Determine the areas of reinforcement required if the characteristic material
strengths are f yk 500N / mm 2 and f ck 25N / mm2 .
300
0.0035

d '=80
A's x
400

340

neutral
axis sc
As
d 2=60
s
Section Strains
Fig.9.9 Unsymmetrical column design example
1. Select a depth of neutral axis, x 190mm .
2. From the strain diagram
0.0035 0.0035
steel strain sc ( x d ) (190 80) 0.00203
x 190
and
0.0035 0.0035
steel strain s (d x) (340 190) 0.00276
x 190
3. From the stress-strain curve and the relevant equations of section 5.1 yield strain, y 0.00217
for grade 500 steel
s 0.00217; therefore f s 500/ 1.15 435N / mm 2
and
sc 0.00217; therefore f sc Es sc 200103 0.00203 406N / mm2 , compression.
4. In equation 9.7
h
N Ed e d 2 0.567 f ck bs(d s / 2) f sc As (d d )
2

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Chapter IX: Design of COLUMNS

M Ed 230 106
e 209mm
N Ed 1100 103
s 0.8 x 0.8 190 152mm
To allow for the area of concrete displaced
f sc becomes 406 0.567 f ck 406 0.567 25 392N / mm2
and from equation 9.7
1100103 (209 140) 0.567 25 300152(340 152 / 2)
As
392(340 80)
2093mm 2
5. From equation 9.8
N Ed 0.567 f ck bs f sc As f s As
(0.567 25 300 152) (392 2093) (1100 103 )
As
435
843mm 2

Thus
As As 2093 843 2936mm 2 for x 190mm
6. Values of As As calculated for other depths of neutral axis, x, are plotted in figure 9.10. From
this figure the minimum area of reinforcement required occurs with x 210mm . Using this
depth of neutral axis, step 2 to 5 are repeated giving
sc 0.00217, s 0.00217
f sc f yk / m 435N / mm 2 and f s 435N / mm 2 tension
so that
As 1837mm2 and As 891mm2
(Alternatively separate values of As and As as calculated for each value of x could have also
have been plotted against x and their values read from the graph at x 210mm .) This area would
be provided with
As three H25 plus two H20 bars
2098mm2
and
As one H25 plus two H20 bars
2098mm2
A's +As

3000
2900
2800
2700
180 190 200 210 220 230
Depth of neutral axis, x
Fig.9.10 Design chart for unsymmetrical column example

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Chapter IX: Design of COLUMNS

9.6 Design of slender columns


A column is classified as slender if the slenderness ratio about either axis exceeds the value of min .
If min then the column may be classified as short and the slenderness effect may be neglected.
A slender column with min must be designed for an additional moment caused by its curvature
at ultimate conditions.
The nominal curvature method in EC2
The expressions given in EC2 for the additional moments were derived by studying the
moments/curvature behaviour for a member subject to bending plus axial load. The equations for
calculating the design moments are only applicable to columns of a rectangular or circular section
with symmetrical reinforcement.
A slender column should be designed for an ultimate axial load ( N Ed ) plus an increased moment
given by
M t N Ed etot
where
etot e0 ea e2
e0 is an equivalent first-order eccentricity
ea is an accidental eccentricity which accounts for geometric imperfections in the column
e2 is the second-order eccentricity.

The equivalent eccentricity e0 is given by the greater of


0.6e02 0.4e01 or 0.4e02
where e01 and e02 are the first-order eccentricities at the two ends of the column as described above,
and e02 is greater than e01 .
The accidental eccentricity ea is given by the equation
l0
ea v
2
where l0 is the effective column height about the axis considered and
1 1
v
100 l 200
where l is the height of the column in meter. A conservative estimate of ea can be given by:
l0 1 l0 l
ea v 0
2 200 2 400
The second-order eccentricity e2 is an estimate of the deflection of the column at failure and is
given by the equation
K1 K 2 l02 f yk
e2 2
103500d
where
f yk
K1 1 0.35 ef 1
200 150

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Chapter IX: Design of COLUMNS

slenderness ratio
ef effective creep ratio
N ud N Ed
K2 1.0 (9.9)
N ud N bal
where N ud is the ultimate axial load such that
N ud 0.567 f ck Ac 0.87 f yk Asc
and N bal is the axial load at balanced failure and may be taken as approximately N bal 0.29 f ck Ac
for symmetrical reinforcement.
In order to calculate K 2 , the area As of the column reinforcement must be known and hence a trial-
and-error approach is necessary, taking an initial conservative value of K 2 1.0 . Values of K 2 are
marked on the column design charts as shown in figure 9.4.

Worked Example 9.4: Design of a slender column


A non-sway (braced) column of 300 450 cross-section resists, at the ultimate limit state, an axial
load of 1700kN and end moments of 70 kN.m and 10 kN m causing double curvature about the minor
axis YY as shown in figure 9.11. The column's effective heights are ley 6.75m and lez 8.0m and
the characteristic material strengths f ck 25N / mm2 and f yk 500N / mm 2 . The effective creep
ratio ef 0.87 .

Eccentricities are
M 1 10 103
e01 5.9mm
N Ed 1700
M 2 70 103
e02 41.2mm
N Ed 1700
where e02 is negative since the column is bent in double curvature.
Z

b=450 NEd = 1700kN

M 2 =70kNm
M
'
d=60
d=240
h=300

Y Y

M 1 =10kNm
Z

(a) Section b) Axial load and initial moments

Fig 9.11 Slender column example

The limiting slenderness ratio can be calculated from equation 9.4 where:
A 1/(1 0.2ef ) 1/(1 (0.2 0.87)) 0.85

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Chapter IX: Design of COLUMNS

B the default value of 1.1


C 1.7 M 01 / M 02 1.7 (10 / 70) 1.84
34.41
min 20 A B C / n 20 0.85 1.1 1.84 / n
n
N Ed 1700 103
n 0.89
Ac f cd (300 450) 0.567 25
34.41
min 36.47
0.89
Actual slenderness ratios are
l 6.75
y ey 3.46 77.85 36.47
iy 0.3
lez 8.0
z 3.46 61.55 36.47
i z 0.45
Therefore the column is slender, and y is critical.
Equivalent eccentricity 0.6e02 0.4e01 0.4e02
0.6e02 0.4e01 0.6 41.2 0.4 (5.9) 22.35mm
0.4e02 0.4 41.2 16.47mm
Therefore equivalent eccentricity e0 22.35mm .
Taking v as 1/ 200 the accidental eccentricity is
ley 1 6750
ea v 16.88mm
2 200 2
The second-order eccentricity is
K1 K 2 l02 f yk
e2 2
103500d
where

ef 1 0.35
f yk 25 77.85
K1 1 0.35 0.87
200 150 200 150
0.96 ( 1)
K1 K 2 l02 f yk 11 67502 500
e2 92.92mm
2 103500d 2 103500 240
with K 2 1.0 for the initial value.
For the first iteration the total eccentricity is
etot e0 ea e2 22.35 16.88 92.92 132.15mm
and the total moment is
M t N Ed etot 1700132.15103 225kNm
N Ed 1700 103
0.504
bhfck 450 300 25
Mt 225 106
0.222
bh 2 f ck 450 3002 25

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Chapter IX: Design of COLUMNS

From the design chart of figure 9.4


As f yk
0.80 and K 2 0.78
bhfck
This new value of K 2 is used to calculate e2 and hence M t for the second iteration. The design
chart is again used to determine As f yk / bhfck and a new value of K 2 as shown in table 9.4.

Table 9.4
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
Mt As f yk
K2 Mt bh 2 f ck bhfck K2
1.0 225 0.222 0.80 0.78
0.78 190 0.187 0.6 0.73

The iterations are continued until the value of K 2 in columns (1) and (5) of the table are in reasonable
agreement, which in this design occurs after two iterations. So that the steel area required is
0.6bhfck 0.6 450 300 25
As 4050mm 2
f yk 500
and K 2 0.74 .
As a check on the final value of K 2 interpolated from the design chart:
N bal 0.29 f ck Ac
0.29 25 300 450103
978kN
N Ed 0.567 f ck Ac 0.87 f yk As
(0.567 25 300 450 0.87 500 4050)103
3675kN

N ud N Ed 3675 1700
K2 0.73 ( 1.0)
N ud N bal 3675 978
which agrees with the final value in column 5 of table 9.4.

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Chapter X: Design of FOUNDATIONS

CHAPTER X. DESIGN OF FOUNDATIONS


10.1 Introduction
10.1.1 General
A building is generally composed of a superstructure above the ground and a substructure which
forms the foundations below ground.
The foundations transfer and spread the loads from a structures columns and walls into the ground.
The safe bearing capacity of the soil must not be exceeded otherwise excessive settlement may occur,
resulting in damage to the building and its service facilities. Foundation failure can also affect the
overall stability of a structure so that it is liable to slide, to lift vertically or even overturn.

(a) (b)
Fig.10.1 Foundation failures: (a) sliding failure; (b) overturning failure
10.1.2 Foundation types
There are many types of foundations which are commonly used, namely strip, pad and raft. The
foundations may bear directly on the ground or be supported on piles. The choice of foundation type
will largely depend upon (1) ground conditions (i.e. strength and type of soil) and (2) type of structure
(i.e. layout and level of loading).
Pad footings are usually square or rectangular slabs and used to support a single column (Fig. 10.2).
The pad may be constructed using mass concrete or reinforced concrete depending on the relative
size of the loading. Continuous strip footings are used to support loadbearing walls or under a line of
closely spaced columns (Fig. 10.3). Strip footings are designed as pad footings in the transverse
direction and in the longitudinal direction as an inverted continuous beam subject to the ground
bearing pressure.
N N N N
= = =
A B C D

Elevation

Plan

(a) (b) (a) (b)

Fig.10.2 Pad footing: Fig.10.3 Strip footing:


(a) plan; (b) elevation (a) footing supporting columns;
(b) footing supporting wall
Where the ground conditions are relatively poor, a raft foundation may be necessary in order to
distribute the loads from the walls and columns over a large area. In its simplest form this may consist
of a flat slab, possibly strengthened by upstand or downstand beams for the more heavily loaded
structures (Fig. 10.4).

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Chapter X: Design of FOUNDATIONS

(a) (b) (c)

Plan Typical sections through raft foundations

Fig.10.4 Raft foundations. Typical sections through raft foundations:


(a) flat slab; (b) flat slab and downstand; (c) flat slab and upstand
Where the ground conditions are so poor that it is not practical to use strip or pad footings but better
quality soil is present at lower depths, the use of pile foundations should be considered (Fig. 10.5).

Soft strata

Hard strata

Fig.10.5 Piled foundations.

The piles may be made of precast reinforced concrete, prestressed concrete or in-situ reinforced
concrete. Loads are transmitted from the piles to the surrounding strata by end bearing and/or friction.
End bearing piles derive most of their carrying capacity from the penetration resistance of the soil at
the toe of the pile, while friction piles rely on the adhesion or friction between the sides of the pile
and the soil.
10.1.3 Foundation design
Foundation failure may arise as a result of (a) allowable bearing capacity of the soil being exceeded,
or (b) bending and/or shear failure of the base.
The first condition allows the plan-area of the base to be calculated, being equal to the design load
divided by the bearing capacity of the soil, i.e.
design load
Ground pressure bearing capacity of soil
plan area
Since the settlement of the structure occurs during its working life, the design loadings to be
considered when calculating the size of the base should be taken as those for the serviceability limit
state (i.e. 1.0Gk 1.0Qk ). The calculations to determine the thickness of the base and the bending
and shear reinforcement should, however, be based on ultimate loads (i.e. 1.35Gk 1.5Qk ).

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Chapter X: Design of FOUNDATIONS

10.2 Pad footings


10.2.1 Overview
The footing for a single column may be made square in plan, but where there is a large moment acting
about one axis it may be more economical to have a rectangular base.
Assuming there is a linear distribution the bearing pressures across the base will take one of the three
forms shown in figure 10.6, according to the relative magnitudes of the axial load N and moment M
acting on the base.

1. In figure 10.6(a) there is no moment and the pressure is uniform


N
p (10.1)
BD
2. With a moment M acting as shown, the pressures are given by the equation for axial load plus
bending. This is provided there is positive contact between the base and the ground along the
complete length D of the footing, as shown 10.6(b) so that
N My
p
BD I
where I is the second moment area of the base about the axis of bending and y is the distance from
the axis to where the pressure is being calculated.

Breadth of footing = B Eccentricity (e)=M/N


N N N

M M

D D Y/3 e
Centroid
p2
p p1 p

Y
e0 e D/6 e D/6
N N 6M 2N
p p p
B D B D B D2 B Y
D
where: Y 3 e
2
(a) (b) (c)
Fig.10.6 Pad-footing- pressure distributions

Substituting for I BD 3 / 12 and y D / 2 , the maximum pressure is


N 6M
p1 (10.2)
BD BD 2

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Chapter X: Design of FOUNDATIONS

and the minimum pressure is


N 6M
p2 (10.3)
BD BD 2
There is positive contact along the base if p 2 from equation 10.3 is positive.
When pressure p 2 just equals zero
N 6M
0
BD BD 2
M D
Or;
N 6
So that for p 2 always to be positive, M / N or the effective eccentricity, e must never be greater
than D / 6 . In these cases the eccentricity of loading is said to be within the middle third of the base.
3. When the eccentricity, e is greater than D / 6 there is no longer a positive pressure along the length
D and the pressure diagram is triangular as shown in figure 10.6(c). Balancing the downward load
and the upward pressures
1
pBY N
2
therefore
2N
maximum pressure p
BY
where Y is the length of positive contact. The centroid of the pressure diagram must coincide with
the eccentricity of loading in order for the load and reaction to be equal and opposite. Thus
Y D
e
3 2
or
D
Y 3 e
2
therefore in the case of e D / 6
2N
maximum pressure p (10.4)
3 B ( D / 2 e)
10.2.2 Requirements
A typical arrangement of the reinforcement in a pad footing is shown in figure 10.7. With a square
base the reinforcement to resist bending should be distributed uniformly across the full width of the
footing. For a rectangular base the reinforcement in the short direction should be distributed with a
closer spacing in the region under and near the column, to allow for the fact that the transverse
moments must be greater nearer the column. It is recommended that at least teo-thirds of the
reinforcement in the short direction should be concentrated in a band width of (c 3d ) where c is
the column dimension in the long direction and d is the effective depth. If the footing should be
subjected to a large overturning moment so that there is only partial bearing, or if there is a resultant
uplift force, then reinforcement may also be required in the top face.
Dowels or slarter bars should extend from the footing into the column in order to provide continuity
to the reinforcement. These dowels should be embedded into the footing and extend into the columns
a full lap length. Sometimes a 75mm length of the column is constructed in the same concrete pour

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Chapter X: Design of FOUNDATIONS

as the footing so as to form a 'kicker' or support for the columns shutters. In these cases the dowels
lap length should be measured from the top of the kicker.
The critical sections through the base for checking shear, punching shear and bending are shown in
figurc 10.8. The shearing force and bending moments are caused by the ultimate loads from the
column and the weight of the base should not be included in these calculations.
The thickness of the base is often goverened by the requirements for shear resistance.

Dowels

lap length

d h
h

D
Maximum
shear 2.0d Punching shear perimeter
= column perimeter +4pd

B As Shear

Bending 1.0d

Fig.10.7 Pad footing reinforcement details Fig.10.8 Critical sections for design

10.2.3 Design Procedure


The principal steps in the design calculations are as follows:
1. Calculate the plan size of the footing using the permissible bearing pressure and the critical loading
arrangement for the serviceability limit state.
2. Calculate the bearing pressures associated with the critical loading arrangement at the ultimate
limit state.
3. Assume a suitable value for the thickness (h) and effective depth (d). Check that the shear force at
the column face is less than 0.5v1 f cd ud 0.5v1 ( f ck / 1.5)ud where u is the perimeter of the column
and v1 is the strength reduction factor, v1 0.6(1 f ck / 250) .
4. Carry out a preliminary check for punching shear to ensure that the footing thickness gives a
pundhing shear which is within the likely range of acceptable performance.
5. Detennine the reinforcement required to resist bending.
6. Make a final check for the punching shear
7. Check the shear force at the critical sections.
8. Where applicable, both foundations and the structure should be checked for overall stability at the
ultimate limit state.
9. Reinforcement to resist bending in the bottom of the base should extend at least a full tension
anchorage length beyond the critical section for bending.

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Chapter X: Design of FOUNDATIONS

Worked Example: Design of a pad footing


The footing (figure 10.9) is required to resist characteristic axial loads of 1000 kN permanent and
350kN variable from a 400mm square column. The safe bearing pressure on the soil is 200KN / m 2
and the characteristic material strengths are f ck 30N / mm2 and f yk 500N / mm 2 .
Assume a footing weight of 150kN so that the total permanent load is 1150kN.
400 sq

d=520
h=600

12H16@225 e.w.
2.8m. sq

Fig.10.9 Pad footing example


1. For the serviceability limit state
Total design axial load 1.0Gk 1.0Qk 1150 350 1500KN
1500
Required base area 7.5m 2
200
Provide a base 2.8m square 7.8m 2
2. For the ultimate limit state
Column design axial load, N Ed 1.35Gk 1.5Qk
1.351000 1.5 350 1875KN
1875
Earth pressure 2
239KN / m 2
2.8
3. Assume a 600mm thick footing and with the footing constructed on a blinding layer of concrete
the minimum cover is taken as 50mm. Therefore, take mean effective depth d 520mm .
At the column face
f f
Maximum shear resistance, VRd ,max 0.5ud 0.61 ck ck
250 1.5
30 30
0.5(4 400) 520 0.61 103
250 1.5
4393KN ( N Ed 1875KN )
4. Punching shear
The critical section for checking punching shear is at a distance 2d as shown in figure 10.8.
Critical perimeter column perimeter 4d
4 400 4 520 8134mm
Area within perimeter (400 4d ) 2 (4 )(2.0d ) 2
(400 4 520) 2 (4 )(2. 520) 2
5.22 106 mm 2

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Chapter X: Design of FOUNDATIONS

Therefore
Punching shear force VEd 239(2.82 5.22) 626KN
VEd
Punching shear stress v Ed
perimeter d
626 103
0.15N / mm 2
8134 520
This ultimate shear stress is not excessive, (see table 8.1) therefore h 600mm will be a suitable
estimate.
5. Bending reinforcement-see figure 10.10(a).
At the column face which is the critical section
1.2
M Ed (239 2.8 1.2) 482KNm
2
1.2 m 0.68 m 1.0d=0.52 m
2.8 m

(a) Bending (b) Shear

Fig.10.10 Critical sections


For the concrete
M bal 0.167 f ck bd 2
0.167 30 2800 5202 106 3793KNm ( 482)
M Ed
As
0.87 f yk z
M Ed 482106
0.021
bd 2 f ck 2800 5202 30
From the lever arm equation
z d [0.5 (0.25 K / 1.134) ] d [0.5 (0.25 0.021/ 1.134) ] 0.98d 0.95d
Therefore adopt upper limit of 0.95d and lever arm z 0.95d 0.95 520 494mm :
M Ed 482106
As 2243mm 2
0.87 f yk z 0.87 500 494
Provide twelve H16 bars at 225mm centres, As 2412mm 2 . Therefore
100As 100 2412
0.165( 0.15 - see table 7.6)
bd 2800 520
That is, the minimum steel area requirement is satisfied.
Maximum bar size

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Chapter X: Design of FOUNDATIONS

The steel stress should be calculated under the action of the quasi-permanent loading which can be
estimated fron the equation,
f yk (Gk 0.3Qk )
fs
1.15(1.35Gk 1.5Qk )
500(1000 0.3 350)
256N / mm 2
1.15(1.35 1000 1.5 350)
Therefore from table below the maximum allowable bar size is 16mm. hence, minimum area and
bar size requirements as specified by the code for the pueposes of crack control are met.

Table 10.1 Maximum bardiameters (0.3mm crack width)


Steel stress ( N / mm 2 ) Maximum bar size
(mm)
160 32
200 25
240 16
280 12
320 10
360 8
400 6
450 5

6. Final check of punching shear


The shear resistance of the concrete without shear reinforcement can be obtained from table 8.1
where 1 can be taken as the average of the steel ratios in both directions;
As 2412
1 0.0017 ( 0.17% 0.25%)
bd 2800 520
hence from table 8.1 v Rd ,c 0.4 N / mm 2 .
2
Table 8.1 Shear resistance of slabs without shear reinforcement v Rd ,c N / mm (Class C30/35 concrete)
1 As / bd Effective depth, d (mm)
200 225 250 300 350 400 500 600 750
0.25% 0.54 0.52 0.50 0.47 0.45 0.43 0.40 0.38 0.36
0.50% 0.59 0.57 0.56 0.54 0.52 0.51 0.48 0.47 0.45
0.75% 0.68 0.66 0.64 0.62 0.59 0.58 0.55 0.53 0.51
1.00% 0.75 0.72 0.71 0.68 0.65 0.64 0.61 0.59 0.57
1.25% 0.80 0.78 0.76 0.73 0.71 0.69 0.66 0.63 0.61
1.50% 0.85 0.83 0.81 0.78 0.75 0.73 0.70 0.67 0.65
2.00% 0.94 0.91 0.89 0.85 0.82 0.80 0.77 0.74 0.71

Therefore the shear resistance of the concrete, VRd ,c is given by:


VRd ,c vRd ,c ud 0.40 8134 520103 1691KN ( VEd 626 KN )
7. Maximum Shear Force see figure 10.10 (b)
At the critical section for shear, 1.0d from the column face:

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Chapter X: Design of FOUNDATIONS

Design shear VEd 239 2.8 0.68 455 KN


As before, v Rd ,c 0.40N / mm 2
VRd ,c v Rd ,c bd
0.40 2800 520 103 582 KN ( VEd 455 KN )
Therefore no shear reinforcement is required.

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