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Modern Public Market to Revitalize a Small Community

by Kate J. Bentley B.A. May, 1994, Corcoran College of Art + Design

The Faculty of
The Columbian College of Arts and Sciences
of The George Washington University
in partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the degree of Master of Arts

May 15, 2016

Thesis directed by

Benjamin Ames
Architect, American Institute of Architecture
ProQuest Number: 10125621

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ii
Abstract of Thesis

Modern Public Market to Revitalize a Small Community

For thesis, I will explore the resurgence of public markets in a variety of settings

by analyzing branding strategies and design features that mold tradition to contemporary

tastes. Our contemporary culture has a love affair with food. Not only are chefs celebri-

ties but our society is more conscientious of food preparation and origins. This emerging

interest started a revolution in public markets. Public markets are not a new idea. They

have been in existence for centuries. Beyond providing food for the local community, they

are responsible for providing improved economic factors and more social opportunities

than supermarket shopping. The new markets are considered food entertainment estab-

lishments. Many of them have bars, restaurants, and cooking classes added for a sophisti-

cated shopping experience. Thankfully, our society has a had a shift in the way we spend

our money and time. Food offers a way for people to connect with themselves as well as

each other. Being a more sophisticated audience, design has become a crucial element in

establishing a successful business. Sleek construction and nods to historic origins give

an authentic vibe to markets while integrating modern conveniences like refrigeration.

Branding and Packing also play a role. Consumers have so many options that marketing

and image attract customers and illustrate the artisanal properties of markets today. By

analyzing the history of public markets both foreign and domestic, I will illustrate how

they have come full circle in their usefulness, contributing to local economies and societal

changes.

For my proposed project, I would like to illustrate how to bring the modern public mar-

ket into a suburban setting. Using all the attributes such as farm-to-table sourcing, con-

struction, branding, and design I would like to represent the public market in an area with

less population and analyze how it would affect the surrounding environment. For guid-

iii
ance on the process, I will analyze the following design and architecture firms, Edens,

Jensen Architects, and AvroKO.

My research up until this point has included but is not limited to the following: Books,

social media, online references, and site visits. Thankfully, I have at least one historical

public market in close proximity, Eastern Market on Capitol Hill. The new trendy version

of a public market is Union Market, located in NoMa neighborhood.

Originally, public markets were conceived out of necessity. Farmers needed a central-

ized means of selling and distribution of products and materials. Consumers did not have

cars and modern supermarkets had yet to be invented. Thus, public markets came into

existence and did much more for the community than provide a means to purchase food.

They became a means to support the community by providing economic and social en-

richment. Patrons and vendors created a sense of community. Good design fosters func-

tionality and success of a market.

In conclusion, public markets have a positive effect on local economy, providing

healthy food alternatives, employment opportunities and a sense of community pride.

iv
Table of Contents

Abstract of Thesis ........ iii

List of Figures ........ vi

Introduction .........1

Chapter 1: History of European Markets..... 11

Chapter 2: Branding for Modern Urban Markets.... 24

Chapter 3: Case Studies: Urban Public Markets in the U.S. ... 30

Chapter 4: Proposed Sites on the Eastern Shore .... 47

Chapter 5: Public Market Program to Revitalize Cape Charles, Virginia . 56

Conclusion: ......... 68

Bibliography: ........ 71

v
List of Figures

Figure 1 ..................................3

Figure 2 ..................................7

Figure 3 .................................13

Figure 4 .................................14

Figure 5 .................................17

Figure 6 .................................18

Figure 7 .................................21

Figure 8 .................................25

Figure 9 .................................27

Figure 10 .................................27

Figure 11 .................................32

Figure 12 .................................34

Figure 13 .................................34

Figure 14 .................................35

Figure 15 .................................37

Figure 16 .................................39

Figure 17 .................................39

Figure 18 .................................40

Figure 19 .................................42

Figure 20 ................................ 44

Figure 21 .................................45

Figure 22 .................................46

Figure 23 .................................51
Figure 24 .................................52

Figure 25 .................................54
vi
Figure 26 .................................56

Figure 27 .................................57

Figure 28 .................................58

Figure 29 .................................58

Figure 30 .................................59

Figure 31 .................................59

Figure 32 .................................60

Figure 33 .................................61

Figure 34 .................................62

Figure 35 .................................63

Figure 36 ................................ 64

Figure 37 ................................ 64

Figure 38 .................................65

Figure 39 .................................65

Figure 40 .................................66

Figure 41 .................................68

vii
Introduction

Ifyouwanttoseedaplacewithactivity,putoutfood.

WilliamH.Whyte

Nothingbringspeopletogetherlikefood.Itistrue,weallhavetoeat.Why

notmakeitamemorableexperience?FromasearlyasIcanremember,

gatheringatthetableforspecialoccasionsisfilledwithwarmmemories.It

seemedinthosepreciousmoments,weputourdifferencesasideandcame

togetherasafamily,appreciatinghowfortunateweweretobetogether.The

foodwastraditionalNewEnglandfare.Recipeshadbeenpasseddownfrom

generationsofpeoplewhoworkedwiththeirhandsandcollapsedfrom

physicalexhaustionattheendoftheday.Theseoccasionscalledfortheuse

ofheirloomsthatonlymadeabriefappearancesthroughouttheyear.A

litanyofwarningscamewiththeirusage.Thisoftenreferedtochina,silver

flatware,andofcoursetablelinens.WhenIwasyoung,Ithoughtthiswasso

trivial.Whyhaveplatesifyoucantusethem?Mypoormotheranguishedthe

entiretimeshewasentertainingabouteverythingfromthefoodtothe

placementofaclothnapkin.

Asanadultwithmyownfamily,Itrytorecreatethesamefeeling.It

isoddtothinkofmyselfastheparenttryingtoevokememoriesmysonwill

haveforalifetime.Thetorchhasbeenpassed.Wearefortunatetohavejobs

thatallowustosit,buttechnologyhasmadeuscontinuouslyconnected.I

oncewashappytopreparemealsonadailybasis.Thenmyhusbandcame

1
intothepicture.HeisfarmorecapablethanIaminthekitchen,easilyout

preparingmeonmybestday.Forentertaining,Ihaveamuchdifferent

approach.Itrulyenjoyit.Sincemyextendedfamilyissospreadout,friends

areoftenthebeneficiariesofourgettogethers.Togetherweareagood

team.Heisproficientandwellversedinhistalents,andIfocusonambiance

anddecor.Whenentertainingitiscrucialforyourgueststohavea

memorable,joyful,andheartfeltexperience.
Andguestscanspill,itsok.

Entertainingathomebringspeopletogether.

Havingpeopleoverfordinnerhastakenanewturnsincemy

childhood.Wehavesophisticatedfoodcultureconsumersinourmidst.

Boilingfoodwithsaltandpepperwontdoanymore(
seetraditionalNew

Englandcooking
).Throughthemediaandentertaining,peopleknowwhat

theywantandwhattheyarelookingfor,reallygoodqualityanddelicious

food,alongwithnewexperiences.Duetoourneedforconstantstimuli,the

atmosphereislikeanextensionofthefoodexperience.Oursurrounding

environmentismadetoenhancetheentireendeavorandreflectthatofwhat

youareconsuming.

IntheevolvingfoodcultureintheU.S.peoplehaveawiderknowledge

ofculture,foodproduction,health,socioeconomicfactors,andsustainability.

Asaresult,ashiftinourrelationshipwithfoodhasoccurred.Withthisin

mind,chefsarenowconsideredcelebrities.Peoplebuytheircookbooks,

watchtheirtelevisionshows,readtheirblogs,patronizetheirrestaurants,

andbuytheirproducts.Nomoredinnersoutofcansorfrozenplasticbagsas

2
peopletrytobemorelikethem.1
Butwhy
?Theinfluencesofpopculture

cannotbeignored.IntheU.S.,societycovetswhatisontelevisionandsocial

media.Thedesireispalpable.Theconnectivityisconstant,leadingtoboth

positiveandnegativeeffects
.

Americansaremoreawareofhealthyfoodconsumption,howfoodis

created,whereitisgrown,andunderwhatconditions.Theprevious

generationmademistakesusingpreservatives,transfats,andhormonesjust

tonameafew.Nowthefarmtotablemovementhasignitedacallto

freshness,artisanalhandcraftedfoodproductsandsociallyconsciousmarkets

(Seefigure1)
.

Figure1
ProjectforPublicSpaces
HowOurNewBuyingHabitsareChangingDesignApproachestoPublicMarkets

1
ProjectforPublicSpaces.
DavidONeil,TenQualitiesofSuccessfulPublicMarkets, Accessed
October30,2015.

3
Consumersembracethisideaforseveralreasons.Notonlydoesthis

movementpromotehealthy,freshproducebutalsoboostslocaleconomy,

andprovidescommerceforlocalfarminganditsemployees.Whenproducts

aremadelocally,vehiclesuselessfuel.Sustainabilityisabenefitaswell.

Thisreducestheemissionofcarbondioxideintotheatmosphereand

congestiononourroads.2

Food,likesomanythingsinU.S.culture,hasrisentostatussymbol

heights.Atonetime,itwassavvytobuyinbulkatabigboxstore.The

realityisbuyingbulkisnotnecessarilycheaperorbetter.Americanslearned

alessonafterthemortgagelendingcrisis.Bankswereapproving

questionableloans,soconsumerscouldpurchasethelargesthousepossible.

Theresultwasdefaultingonloans,foreclosure,andlargeemptyhomes.

Biggerisntalwaysbetter.3 Sincethen,Americanshavestartedtodownsize,

livingmorefrugallywithlessspaceandmaterialgoods.Americanculturehas

takenthistomarketsaswell.Supermarketsoncehadatremendousholdon

fooddistribution,theconvenienceofonestopshopping.Theunremarkable

shoppingexperienceinasupermarketleftpatronswantingmore.Thenew

solutionhasbeentherenaissanceofa .4
modernpublicmarket

Inthiscontext
modernpublicmarkets
aremarketsthatareenclosed

andhaveavarietyoftemporaryandpermanentfoodretailspaces.Theycan

beutilizedforfoodshopping,togomeals,andsitandeatestablishments.

2
TheodoreMorrowSpitzerandHilaryBaum, PublicMarketsandCommunityRevitalization,
(Washington,D.C.:ULItheUrbanInstituteandProjectsforPublicSpaces,Inc.1995),v.
3
TheEndoftheSuburbs:WheretheAmericanDreamisMoving,(
LeighGallagher, NewYork,
NewYork,PenguinGroup,LLC,2013),16.
4
DavidONeil,TenQualitiesofSuccessfulPublicMarkets.
4
Thetermpublicmarketshavebeeninexistenceforcenturies.Modern

publicmarketsmarrythetraditionoflocalartisanvendorsandtechnology,

providingsourcesofentertainmentthroughfoodandmodernculture.

AEuropeanculturalstandardwhichisgainingpopularityintheU.S.,

publicmarketsareafoundationtothrivingcommunities.Foodmarketswere

onceusedasthemaindistributionoutletforlocalfarms.Themarketwasa

farmersonlyoutletforretail.Twohundredyearsago,citizensdidnthave

carsorrefrigeration.Travelingacrosstownwasatimeconsuminghardship.

Asaresult,amenitieslikemarketssproutedupinandaroundcitiesandrural

areas.Theywereopenairestablishments,andwerethebackboneoflocal

farmingeconomy.Poultry,meat,andeggswereservedinthemorningand

produceallday.Thisattractedpeoplethroughouttheday,butsomething

elsebesidescommercewashappening.Citizensfromallsociallevelsand

cultureswereinteractingandsocializing,strengtheningtheseedsof

community.Themarketshadbecomegreaterthanfooddistribution.5

Aphenomenonoccurredattheseestablishmentsthatpeopledidnot

anticipate.Marketsbecomeasocialhubofvillagesorsquares,therefore

increasingacommunityspotentialtothrive.6 Amarketwasaplacetotalkto

neighbors,seevendors,andmeetnewpeople.Sustaininglocalbusinesses

wasgoodforacommunity.7Itcreatednewenergythatmadepeopleexcited

5
NinaFeldman,DesigningtheFoodMarketoftheFuture,
NextCity,InspiringBetter
Cities, March162015,AccessedAugust31,2015.
6
KevinBrass,FoodMarketsNourishingDevelopment,August24,2015,AccessedAugust31,
2015.
7

Ibid.
5
aboutneighborhoods.Whatwastrue200yearsagoisrecurringincurrent

times.

Themodernpublicmarketsroleinsocietyhaschanged,oftenleading

totherevitalizationofblightedurbanareas.Ithasoccurredmultipletimesin

theU.S.fromAnaheim,California,toBoston,Massachusetts.

Redevelopmentsindowntownareasaredottingneighborhoodsacrossthe

country.Thesuccessislargelyduetotheartfullydesignedideaof

community.Theseareasofnewdevelopmentcontainworkareas,

entertainment,andretailspace. 8Mostweredesignedwiththemillennialsin

mind,buttheappealismuchbroader.Peoplewhoareolderfindthesmaller

marketspaceslocatedinthrivingandtightknitcommunitiesappealingafter

spendingalifetimeinsuburbsdependentoncars.Walkableshopping

environmentswithalltheconveniencesclosebyofferarefreshingnewway

oflifeforthosewhousedtorelyoncars.

Afterlivinginasuburbs,whereeverythinglooksandfeelsthesame,

dynamicshoppingenvironmentsthattransportconsumersintoadifferent

worldarehighlydesirable.Havingoneononediscussionswithaproprietors

allowsAmericanstolearnmoreaboutcraftsmanshipandauthenticityinfood.

Themarketprovidesagoodenvironmentforthistotakeplaceandbuilding

designcanencouragethisinteraction.

Adaptivereuseofhistoricbuildingsorreuseofexistingbuildings

appealstodeveloperstoo.Thenotionofrecyclingappealstoconsumersasa

8
KevinBrass,FoodMarketsNourishingDevelopment.
6
sustainablemeasureandawaytoretainthehistoricalqualityofasite.9Ina

subtleway,thisisbreathingnewlifeintocommunities.Grittinessthat

reflectstheauthenticityofalocationiscurrentlyconsideredsochic.Being

truetoitsmaterialsiswhatpeoplearedesiringforfinishesandmaterials.

Locallysourcedmarketsbringaculturalvibetoneighborhoodsthatotherwise

maybedesolateandinactive.10 Modernpublicmarketshavecertainly

becomethehottestticketintown
(Seefigure2)
.

Figure2
:ProjectforPublicSpaces
HowOurNewBuyingHabitsareChangingDesignApproachestoPublicMarkets

Whathavetheeffectsofthisnewphenomenonbeenoncommunities?

Firstandforemost,itfostersjobs,mostlyinlocationswheretheyarenot

9
PublicMarkets,
Lavelle,Lynn.TradingPlaces:PublicMarkets.Reviewof byHelenTangires.
TraditionalBuilding,August2008.BookReview.http://www.traditionalbuilding.com/
PreviousIssues08/AugustBR08Public.html.
10
KevinBrass,FoodMarketsNourishingDevelopment.

7
plentiful.Secondly,itcreatesasenseofcommunity,thirdlyitisaplace

wheresmallbusinessescanshine,andthesemarketsbringculturaldiversity

toonceblandareas.

Sowhatwouldhappenifamodernpublicmarketweretobeplacedin

asmalltownenvironmentoreventhesuburbs?Thiscouldbeatownor

villagethathasamainstreetwithcommercialbusinessesoratowncenter.

Orasuburbanareaoutsideofacity.Ineithercase,thepopulationhastobe

onethatcansupportanenclosedpublicmarket.Anideallocalwouldbean

areathathasadiversecommunity,willingtopatronizealocallyrun,locally

supportedmarket.Anotherpluswouldbetheexistenceofatouristseason

foraninfluxofoutoftowners.Inordertobeanassettothecommunity,a

marketwouldhavetobeaccessibletoallincomelevelsandhavelarge

employmentopportunities.

Thephrase
AmericanDream
bringstomindtheidyllicsinglefamily

homewithawhitepicketfence.11 However,inthepastdecadeagrowing

numberofcultural,economic,andethnicchangeshaveoccurredinthese

bucolicsettingsleadingtoproblemslikethosefacingurbanareas.Couldthe

adventofamarkethelpsavetheseareas?

Americanfoodculturehasledtotherebirthofpublicmarketsin

restoredhistoricbuildings.Publicmarketshaverevivedstrugglingurban

areasandcanalsobringsmallcommunitiesnewenergy,culturalenrichment,

andeconomicgrowth.

11

LeighGallagher,
TheEndoftheSuburbs,WheretheAmericanDreamisMoving,9.
8
Foodcultureisawayofthinking,behaving,orworkingthatexiststhat

revolvesaroundfood.Urbanareasappeartohavecorneredthemarketin

thisrealmofartisanalfoods.Whynottrythatformulainotherareasthatare

struggling?Thesmalltownenvironmentimpliesanenvironmentthatisa

predominatelyaresidentialarea.Amodernpublicmarketwouldbringnew

vitalitytoacommunitybyinfusingitwithaneededamenity,a

healthconsciousgatheringplace,andawaytoactivelysupportsmalllocal

businesses.

Partofthesuccessofanymarketisbrandingwhichreferstothevisual

identityassociatedwithanobjectoraplace.Inthecontextofmarkets,

brandingcanrefertoanythingfromelementsfoundingraphicdesignto

materialsusedininteriordesign.Amarketsbrandingcanconveyits

authenticrootsbyusingvisualelementsthatrefertothegoodsitsells.

Designnotescanbethreadedthroughoutamarketinavarietyofwaysto

ensureacohesivelookanddistinctidentity.Thismakestheexperienceof

patronizingamarketmorepleasantandmemorablethanshoppingata

commonsupermarket.

Somepeoplebelieveinaredevelopingandrevitalizingcommunities

whileothersarecriticaloftheeffectsonhousingandcostofliving.Itisa

worthwhiledebate.Yet,ifapublicmarketisoperatedproperly,itcanbenefit

everyoneinthecommunity.Smallbusinessescangettheirstart,andpeople

canhavejobopportunities,therearehealthbenefitsfromeatingfreshfood,

localeconomygrows,alongwitheducationalprogramsforthoseinneed.If

supportedbylocalgovernment,amarketcanbeoperatedasanonprofit,

9
withtheabilitytoacceptfoodassistanceprogramslikeSupplemental

NutritionAssistanceProgram,(SNAP).Marketshavetheabilitytoenhancea

communityandservemanyinterestsinadditiontosellingfood.

Marketsareaneffectivewaytobringacommunitytogether.Inaway,

publicmarketshavethepotentialtomakepatronsfeelliketheyarewelcome

orpartofthefamily.Itisthisexperiencethatmakespatronswanttocome

backagain.

Infurtherdiscussionsofmarkets,Europeanhistoryispartofthe

dialogue.Forcenturies,marketshavebeenthecornerstonesofcommunity.

Longago,Europeansbroughtthosetraditionswiththemandrecreatedthem

here.Itisinterestingtoseehowtraditionalmarketsmeetaneedformodern

people.Creatingamarketfromthegroundupinmoderntimeswouldinvolve

analysingsuccessfulmodernpublicmarketsintheU.S.Thiswouldentail

lookingatlocation,demographics,buildingdesign,circulationpatterns,

brandingandcompanyethos.Thecriteriafordevelopingmarketsinsmall

townsmeritsfurtherexploration.

10
Chapter1:TheHistoryofEuropeanMarkets

InFrance,cookingisaseriousartformandanationalsport.

JuliaChild

AsinmostU.S.traditions,peopleintheU.S.turntoEuropeforalookatthe

originsoffoodmarkets.Foodisawindowintoculture,historyandtraditions.

Fourdiversemarkets,LesHallesinParis,FranceLaBoqueriainBarcelona,

SpaintheBoroughMarketinLondonEnglandandMarkthalinRotterdam,

TheNetherlands,areoldmarketsthathavereinventedthemselvestoadjust

tothecurrentcultureoffood.Allofthesemarketshavealonghistory,but

eachofthemhasadifferenttakeonhowtorespondtothemodernsociety's

fascinationwithfood.

LesHalles,Paris,France

AsoneoftheoldestcitiesinEurope,Parishashaditsshareofchallenges

movingintoamodernera.Restoration,revitalization,andcityplanningare

oftendauntingforanoldercity.Thequestionofwhetherornottosave

historicbuildingsandsitescomesuptimeandagain.InthecaseofLes

Halles,poorcityplanningledtothedismantlingofahistoricsiteforquick

revitalization.Theresultwasadownturninbothcommerceandtourism.

Effortstorepairthetransgressionsofapreviousplanrequiredcommitting

moreresourcestothemarket.

11
Paris,withitshighcostofliving,experiencedsimilarproblemstothe

U.S.asitsresidentsmovedtothemoreaffordablesuburbs.12 Thecity

struggledtomakedecisionsonwhethertopreserveoneofitsmosthistorical

structures,thecentralmarketofLesHalles.

LesHalleshasalonghistoryinParis.Centuriesold,itwasamarket

locatedintheheartofthecity.Asyearswentbyandtechnologyand

architecturebecomemoreadvanced,thebuildingsevolvedtomore

permanentstructuresformerchantstoselltheirwares.Thelastiterationof

thebuildingswereglassandirondesignedbyVictorBaltard.Sadlyinthe

1970sthebuildingsweredismantledandrelocated.Whatwasleftinitsplace

quicklybecameanareafraughtwithurbanblight.Thecityreplacedthe

800yearoldstructureswithamultilevelgarden,fivelevelunderground

mallandsubwaymetrostation.13 Thegardenwaspoorlydesignedproviding

ampleopportunityforunsavorybehaviorwhilethemallwasunsightlyina

cityfilledwithsuchbeautifulclassicarchitecture.ForParisiansandtourists

thissitebecamethehallmarkofunsightliness.

Recently,plansforaredevelopmenthavecometofruition.Thebusy

metrostop,ChateletLesHallesisgettingafaceliftprovidingbetteraccess

fortouristsandresidents.Bymakingthespace50percentlargerandadding

morelighting,userswillbeabletonavigatetheterminalinaneasyand

orderlyfashion. 14Themall,ForumdeHallesisgettingrevitalized,too
(See

12
JeffreyIverson,ParisFinallyGivesLesHallesaFaceLift, ctober19,2010.Accessed
Time,O
August31,2015.
13

Ibid.
14
LesHallesRedevelopmentProject,AccessedNovember1,2015.http://www.parisleshalles.fr/
00371.

12
figure3).
Thereareplansforarooftopcanopymadeoutofgreenglass

madetosimulatetreetopsandtieinwiththegardenscapewhereitresides.
15
Theamplegreenspacewillreceivearedesignandprovisionsweremadeto

completelyrevampthespace,makingitsafeforpedestriansandchildren.

Figure3
:TheabovegroundportionofLesHalleswillbereplacedbyacurvilinearbuildinginspired
byplantlife:LaCanope.
Source:http://ffemagazine.com/parisgetfreshmakeoverstarting2014/

AlthoughthisredesignisnotembracedbyallFrancophiles,itoffersa

lessonforthoseattemptingtorevitalizeastrugglingarea.Thehistoryand

estheticfromthepreviousstructurewasignored,removinganyattemptsto

connectwithitspast.Initsplaceisanentirelynewstructure.Thiswasa

missedopportunity,particularlyforacitylikeParis,whichseesitsfairshare

oftourists.Thiscouldbeadestinationhub.IfLesHallesweretoreturnasa

foodmarket,itcouldprovidefoodandjobsforlocalresidents.Parisis

15
JeffreyIverson,ParisFinallyGivesLesHallesaFaceLift.

13
famousforitsfood.Whynotprovideavenuethatbenefitbothtouristsand

locals?

MercatdeSantdeLaBoqueria(LaBoqueria),Barcelona,Spain

Barcelona,theCatalonianoutpostonSpainsMediterraneancoastisa

vibrantcitywithspectacularavantgardearchitectureandworldclassfood.

Richinhistory,Barcelonaregardsitsfoodmarketsasaculturalstaple.

Today,Barcelonahas43permanentmarketsserving73neighborhoods.16 Its

mostfamousmarket,MercatdeSantdeLaBoqueriaorsimplyLaBoqueria

hasbeensaidtobeinexistencesincethe1200s
(Seefigure4)
.Despiteits

longevity,LaBoqueriaandotherlocalmarketshavehadtoreinvent

themselvesinordertomeetthedemandsofmoderncityBarcelona.

Figure4
:LaBoqueriaFoodMarketfrontentranceBarcelonaSpain
Source:http://www.driftwoodjournals.com/?attachment_id=1381

16
MarketCities:BarcelonaOffersaHopefulGlimpseoftheFuture,ProjectforPublicSpaces,
AccessedNovember1,2015.
14
CityplanningreflectsthefactthatBarcelonaconsideredmarketsasa

centralpartofdaytodaylifethatshouldbeaccessibletoallinthe

community.Everymarketiswithin20minutesofacommunity.17 Other

activitiesaregroupednearbyreflectingthecentralityofmarketsandinlocal

culture.

ThebenefitsonlybeginwithfoodaccessibilityinBarcelona.The

economicadvantagesarenumerous.Fornewsmallervendors,aswellas

moreestablishedoldervendors,marketsprovideadvantageoverdistributing

inalargecity.ItissaidthatBarcelona'snetworkofmarketsemployabout

7,500peopleandrepresent10percentofthecommercewithinthecity.18

Thisaidsinfosteringstrongneighborhoodsandvaluablerelationshipsamong

citizensandvendors.ThesebenefitshelpBarcelonaweatherdownturns.

Becauseofthis,Barcelonasmajorfinancialcontributorstothestabilityofthe

Catalonianregion.

Inrecognitionofthevalueandculturalcontributionsofpublicmarkets,

thegoverningbodiesofBarcelonaformedtheBarcelonaMunicipalInstitute

ofMarkets,(IMMB).Thisorganizationsmanagerialrolesincludetrade

managementandbuildingsservicessuchasupgrades.Themarketsrolein

itscommunityismanagedbyitspublicrelations. 19TheIMMBoverseesa

uniquecentralizedfooddistributioncenter.Mostofthemerchandisethatisin

17
MarketCities:BarcelonaOffersaHopefulGlimpseoftheFuture,
18

Ibid.
19
BarcelonaMunicipalInstituteofMarkets,MercatsdeBarcelona.Accessed
November15,2015,http://w110.bcn.cat/portal/site/Mercats/menuitem.
8cf34d6b720bce1e7e357e35a2ef8a0c/?vgnextoid=c970ede30b518210VgnVCM10000074fea8c0R
CRD&vgnextchannel=c970ede30b518210VgnVCM10000074fea8c0RCRD&lang=en_GB.
15
themarketcontrollingandallowingforsmallerbusinessestocontributeas

wellaslargermoreestablishedentities.

AlmostallofthemarketsinBarcelonahavehadtoberemodelledone

wayoranother.Forexampleoneofthelargercentralmarketsactuallyhada

basementdugunderneathit.Itnowcontainsaparkinglot,shippingand

receiving,aswellasrefrigeration,thatcouldhavenotbeenaccommodated

onagroundlevelsite.

FooddistributionisnottheonlywayLaBoqueriaandothermarkets

havehadrevitalize.WiththeassistanceofIMMB,Vendorsstayopenlaterto

accommodatefulltimeworkingresidents.Socialmediaisnowbeingusedto

marketandpromotetheservicesofthelocalmarkets,includingordering

onlineanddeliveryservice.Marketsfromothercountriesareusingthis

modeltocrosspollinatetheirgoodsintonewcountries.

VitalpublicspaceslikethatofLaBoqueriaandothermarketsof

Barcelona,helpdefinethesecommunitiesandmakethemthrive.Itisabout

retainingacommunity'shistorybutbringingthemitintothe21stcentury

makingasandconvenientplacetolive.

BoroughMarket,London,England

LocatedinSouthwark,CentralLondon,BoroughMarketisoneofthe

oldestmarketsinLondon.In2014itcelebratedits1,000birthday.Starting

asastreetmarket,itssuccesswasduetoitsaffordabilityandlocation.The

spaceislocatedonthewater,directlysouthoftheLondonBridge.20 As

StephenHalliday,UnderneaththeArches:CelebratingBoroughMarket,
20
History
Today,
(Volume64Issue4,April2014),AccessedNovember5,2015.
16
Londongrew,sodidthemarketspopularity.Infact,itbecamesosuccessful

itcausedcongestioninthestreetsandwasshutdownbyParliament.21 The

residentsofSouthwarkweresoupinarmsabouttheclosurethatthey

startedanewmarketontheadjacentstreet,whichiswherethecurrent

marketnowstands.Hereisanearlyexampleofwhatcitizenparticipationcan

haveonacommunity,andtheBoroughMarketcontinuestohavestrongties

tothecommunityitserves.

:EntrancetotheBoroughMarket
figure5
Source:
www.travelstay.com

TheBoroughMarketisownedbyacharitabletrustandhasaboardof

volunteertrustees.Inkeepingwithatraditionofservingthecommunity,the

boardofdirectors,whoarerequiredtoliveinthevicinityofthemarket,are

chargedwithmaintainingthemarketasacenterforlocalresidents.The

21
Londonist
BenNorum,BoroughMarketisaThousandYearsOld, (September19,
2014),AccessedNovember22,2015.
17
marketismeanttobeallinclusiveandservethoseinthecommunity,aswell

commerceandentertainment.ADAcomplianceisenforcedandoutreach

programsforvendorsisencouraged.22 Thecommitmenttothecommunity

reflectsthelonghistoricaltraditionoftheBoroughMarket.

Likemanyofitscontemporarycounterparts,BoroughMarkethasalso

hadtoadapthistoricalbuildingstomoderndayrequirements.Inlate1800s,

thebuildingsweredesignedbyHenryRoseandEdwardHabershon,both

architectsknownforecclesiasticaldesignsofaGothicnature,popularatthe

time.23 Wroughtironglassstructuresaswellasbrickstructureswereusedto

house
(Seefigure6).
Thebuildingswerelocatednearthewharfsinorderto

accommodateships,andlaterrailwaysweredevelopedmakingthemarket

idealforreceivinggoods.

:BoroughMarketRehabilitation
figure6
http://www.gands.co.uk/projects/3/42/markets/boroughmarketlondon.html
Source:

22
TheGovernanceoftheBoroughMarket.BoroughMarket,AccessedNovember22,2015,
http://boroughmarket.org.uk/thegovernanceofboroughmarket.
23
StephenHalliday,UnderneaththeArches:CelebratingBoroughMarket.
18
Atthecloseofthe20thcentury,themarketfellintodisrepairand

surroundingareaintodecline.Theboardoftrusteeslaunchedarevitalization

thatwouldregeneratethemarketandinfusethesurroundingareaswithnew

energy.Notonlywastheboardinterestedinbreathingnewlifeintothe

market,italsowantedtobringinrestaurants,bars,cafes,andcoffeeshops

toprovideanentertainmenthubforthearea.

Londonbasedarchitecturalfirm,Greig&StephensonwontheRoyal

InstituteofBritishArchitects,(RIBA)designcompetitiontoprovidethearea

withanewvisionthatwassympathetictoitshistoryandcommittedtoits

preservation. 24Takingnotesfromitspast,theVictorianglassstructurewas

refurbishedwhileunsalvageablebuildingswereraisedtomakewayfornew

structures.Constructionandrestorationwentinstagesinordertohavethe

vendorsrelocatetotemporarystructuresandremainopenforbusiness.This

marketcaterstowholesalersandspecialitysuppliersaswellasvendorsand

stallholders.Thatencouragedthemixingofprofessionalsinthefoodindustry

andcommonshoppers.Asaresult,thisareaisnowthrivingwithretailers

andothercommercialbusinesses,makingitahotspottovisitwhilein

town.

Markthal,Rotterdam,TheNetherlands

Historyplaysalargeroleintraditionalmarketsaswellas

contemporaryones.Inhistoricallypreservedbuildings,peopletypicallycan

24
TheBoroughMarket,London,Greig&Stephenson,AccessedNovember22,2015,
http://www.gands.co.uk/projects/3/42/markets/boroughmarketlondon.html.
19
buyauthenticqualityproductswhileenjoyingtheexperienceofconnecting

withthepast.ButinRotterdamtheyaretakingawholenewapproach.

Likesomanypublicmarketsinthelate1990s,Rotterdamscentral

marketwascompetingwiththesupermarketsthatwerestartingtodominate

NorthernEuropeandGermany.25 However,themainculpritforthisparticular

marketsdeclinewasthedisregardforconsumerneedsanddesires.The

marketdidntofferavarietyofgoods,wasopenoddhours,anddidnothave

awellplannedlayout.In2004thecityofRotterdamsponsoredadesign

competitionforamarkethallatBinnenrotte,intheheartofRotterdam,near

theBlaakrailwaystation .26 Theobjectivesweretoprovidea


(Seefigure7)

coveredsectionofthemarketfornewhealthcodesonrefrigerationbutand

housingthatwouldinjectthecitycenterwithanewresidentialpopulation.

Thewinners,ProvastdevelopersandarchitecturestudioMVRDVreceivedthe

opportunitytorevisiontheconceptofapublicmarket.

25
HowOurNewBuyingHabitsareChangingDesignApproachestoPublicMarkets,Projectfor
PublicSpaces,(June26,2015),AccessedAugust31,2015,
http://www.sustainablecitiescollective.com/projectpublicspaces/1084971/reflectingtodaysmarkettr
endsreportbarcelona.
26
MarketsinRotterdam,CityGuideRotterdam,AccessedNovember22,2015,
http://www.cityguiderotterdam.com/thingstodo/shopping/marketrotterdam/.
20

:Markthal,Rotterdam
figure7
http://www.cityguiderotterdam.com/thingstodo/shopping/marketrotterdam/centre/.
Source:

Startingwithitslocation,thenewmarketwasreplacingwhatwasthe

largestopenairmarket.Anentirelynewconcept,theMarkthalwasgoingto

combineresidentialhousing,500vendorstallsandretailshops,restaurants

andcafes,asupermarketandundergroundparking.Thefirstofitskind,no

othercoveredmarkethadresidentialhousingasitsshelter.Thegeniusof

thisdevelopmentisthecohesionofallofthesefunctions.Thebuildings

uniquehorseshoeshapeisdesignedaroundtraditionalelevatorshaftsand

providesthelowerlevelwithmoreretailspace.Takingadvantageofthe

location,thebuildingissituatedontheblockthatoffersaviewofthecity

couldbeseen.27 Theexteriorofthebuildingisgreytomatchtheconcreteof

thesurroundingarea,buttheinsideisbrightlycoloredtoaccentuatethe

activityinsideanddrawattention.Thebuildingappearsopenoneitherside

27
ArchDaily
MarkthalRotterdam/MVRDV, (October8,2014),AccessedNovember12,2015,
http://www.archdaily.com/553933/markthalrotterdammvdv/.
21
butitdoeshaveasteelcablenetfacadewhichglassismountedonasan

enclosureforweatherconstraintsandcontrolofinteriorclimate.28

Onthelowerlevel,parkingandloadingbayswereincludedinthe

planstonotdisturbtheresidentsordisruptdailyactivitiesofthemarket.The

apartmentsthatsurroundtheopenairmarket,thewindowsthatfacethe

interioraretripleglazedtodeflectnoisesandsmells.Alloftheresidential

spaceshavebalconiesandsixprivateelevatorslocatedontheexteriorofthe

building.

Stillinitsinfancy,theMarkthalRotterdamisattractingalotof

attentionduetoitsuniquedesignandfunctionality.Itisreportedthatthe

marketserves135,000visitorsaweek.29 Managementisconstantly

evaluatingtheneedsofitscustomersandseestheneedtoremainflexiblein

ordertoserveachangingdemographic.

AlookbackatthehistoryofEuropeanmarkets,theircommunities

haverichhistoriesthatdefinetheircultures.Associetysneedschanged,so

didthemarkets.Sometimesthechangesweresuccessfulwhileotherswere

not.Takeforinstance,thedemiseofLesHalles.Themarketwasliterally

dismantledandthesitewaspoorlyreinterpretedasanunderground

shoppingmall.AlthougheffortshavetakenplacetorestoreportionsofLes

Halleshistory,thepreservationislost.LaBoqueriainBarcelonaandBorough

MarketinLondonhavefollowedadifferentpath.Bystayingtruetotheir

originalmissionofservingthecommunitywithlocalproduce,providinga

28
MarkthalRotterdam/MVRDV.
29
HowOurNewBuyingHabitsareChangingDesignApproachestoPublicMarkets,Projectfor
PublicSpaces.
22
service,andactingasthehubofacommunity.Bothofthesesitesarealso

populatedwithtourists.Thisisnotnecessarilyabadthing,astourists

generateincomeandactivityforthecommunity.Somecriticssaythat

tourismdetractsfrommarketsbeingathecommunityamenity.Tourists

wanttoexperiencelocalflavorsforthatauthenticexperience.Alocal

historicalmarketisanidealplacetofindsuchathing.Lastly,Markthalin

Rotterdamisacompletelynewinterpretationofthecontemporaryurban

market.Anarchitecturallysignificantbuilding,itcontainshousingaswellas

extensive,integratedfoodandretailestablishments.Theexamplescited

previously,fosterandcontributetothecommunitywhileinMarkthal,itis

thecommunity.Itwillbeinterestingtoseehowlargemixedusecomplexwill

affectthesurroundingareas.

23
Chapter2:BrandingforModernPublicMarkets

Authenticbrandsdon'temergefrommarketingcubiclesor
advertisingagencies.Theyemanatefromeverythingthecompanydoes.
HowardSchultz,
PourYourHeartIntoIt:HowStarbucksBuiltaCompanyOneCupataTime

Brandingisamarketingtoolusedtohelpconsumerseasilyrecognizetheir

products.Itconveysanidentity.Tosucceedinmarketing,abusinessmust

beabletotargetaconsumerandpositiontheirbrand.30 Traditionally,the

rulehasbeentocreateenticementbyshowingyourproduct.31Audiencesare

farmoresophisticatedthesedays.Withtheintroductionoftheinternetanda

constantstreamofmedia,consumershavemorebrandknowledgethanever

before.Restaurants,foodproducts,andrelatedsuppliershavetobringthat

extrasomethingtoattractandretainloyalpatrons.Forminganattachment

oranemotionalbondtoaproductorplacemakesthatconnection.

Consumersareattractedtobrandsthatalignwiththeircorevalues

andbeliefsystem.32 Peoplebuybrandsthatsupportandreinforcetheir

commitmenttoanideal.Productsareasignofabeliefsystemand

consumerswanttoembracethatmessage.

Abrandisaboutcreatingan

identityandfeelingthatemanatesthroughoutaproductorplace.

30
MattPetryni,DifferencesBetweenBrandingPositioning&TargetMarketing,
DemandMedia,
AccessedSeptember11,2015,http://smallbusiness.chron.com/differencesbetweenbrand
positioningtargetmarketing24167.html.
31
JosephSzala,ConsumerConnectionsKeytoImpactfulMarketing,RestaurantHospitality,
AccessedSeptember10,2015,http://restauranthospitality.com/marketing/
consumerconnectionkeyimpactfulmarketing
32

Ibid.
24
BostonPublicMarket,BostonMassachusetts

:BostonPublicMarket,Boston,Massachusetts
figure8
Source:http://northendwaterfront.com/2015/04/bostonpublicmarketvendorsselected
forjuly2015opening/.

BostonPublicMarketemploystheseverybrandingstrategiestoappeal

totouristsandlocals.Openedthissummer,PublicMarketisa28,000square

feetindoorretailspacelocatedintheHaymarketTstationBuildingalongthe

FreedomTrailinBoston
(Seefigure8).
Featuringover30vendors,itis

entirelycomprisedsmallbusinessesthatarebasedinNewEngland.33

Consideredselfsustaining,themarketsellsproduce,meat,cheese,fish,

bread,flowersandspecialtyfoodsthatarealllocallysourced.Asa

tremendousassettothecommunity,themarketwillprovidefoodforall

incomelevels,includingthoseacceptinggovernmentsubsidizedprograms.

Thereisademonstrationkitchentoprovideclassesonfoodpreparationand

33
MattConti,BostonPublicMarketVendorsSelectedforJuly2015Opening,
NorthEnd
Waterfront,
(April11,2015),AccessedNovember1,2015.http://northendwaterfront.com
/2015/04/bostonpublicmarketvendorsselectedforjuly2015opening/.

25
nutrition.Withitscommunitygoalsinmindandtheheavyfoottraffic,the

markethasplentyofopportunityforcommerceinordertosupportitself.34

Forthebrandingofthemarket,theorganizersandarchitecturefirm,

ArchiterratookinspirationfromtheNewEnglandlocationandgoodsforsale.

Theyuserusticelementanddurablematerials.Selectedwallsarecladin

reclaimedwoodinashiplapapplication.Themodularstandsalsohavea

roughwoodfinishonthemresemblingshippingcrates.Thisvisuallyconnects

therusticnatureofbarnsthatdottheNewEnglandcountrysidetothe

market.Thedesignelementemphasisesthebrandingofthemarketasa

sellerofNewEnglandgoods.Thespaceisclean,welllit,andhighlyusable.

Thelayoutcreatesacomfortablemarketsettingforcustomerstointeract

directlywithproducersandemployeesfromlocalfarms,foodbusinesses,

fishingboatsandrestaurants.35 Thespacewasrawsoalotofmaterialsand

designhadtobeusedinordertosetthestageforthemarketandmeetallof

therequiredhealthcodes.

Forvendorslookingtorentspace,thearchitectscameupwitha

strategicplanthatallowsbrandingofthemarketwhileprovidingvendors

withtheirownautonomy.Thisincludesflexiblestalldesign,structuralcanopy

designandsignage.Sincetheinteriorisarawindustrialspacewithhigh

ceilings,acanopysystemwasdevelopedinordertovisuallygroundthestalls

andprovideaconsistentlocationtohangvendorsigns
(Seefigure9)
.The

vendorshavetheoptionofrentingvariousstallsizes,whicharebasedona

34
DavidONeilandLarryLund,BusinessPlanExecutiveSummaryFall2013,(Boston
PublicMarketAssociationandtheProjectforPublicSpaces,CommonwealthofMassachusetts,
Boston,Massachusetts,2013).16.
35

Ibid.
26
modularcubedesign
(Seefigure10).
Thesizeofthestallwilldeterminethe

numberofcubesonerequires,bygivingtheoverallspacecohesivelookand

feel.

figure9
:BostonPublicMarket,Boston,Massachusetts:HandRenderingofstallsandcanopydesign
Architerra
Source:https://www.bostonglobe.com/business/2014/04/18/braapprovesplansforpublicfoodmarket/1
e7C0bdjGTdrr8pzShJogK/story.html.


:BostonPublicMarket,Boston,Massachusetts:FlexibleStallDesign
figure10
Source:www.slideshare.net.

27
Signageisimportantforvendorsbecausetheywanttopromotetheir

ownbusiness.Knowingthis,thedesignersofthemarkettookashrewd

approachtobrandingBostonsPublicMarket.Theygivevendorsasize,

material,andcolorrequirementbutotherwise,thedesignisuptothe

individualvendor.So,theyarefreetousetheircompanylogoand

typographytopromotetheirbusinesswithintheconstraintsofthemarket

requirements.

Sinceopeninginthesummerof2015,BostonsPublicMarkethas

receivedpraises,forthemostpart.Althoughthephysicalbrandinghas

achieveditsdesiredeffect,themarketisattemptingtostrikeabalanceasit

strivestopleasedifferenttypesofcustomersincludingpatronswhoconsider

artisanal,localfoodthecornerstoneofahealthydietandlocalswhojust

wanttoputdinneronthetable.36 DuetoitslocationontheFreedomTraila

Bostontouristattraction,themarkethastoattractoutoftownerswhowant

toexperiencelocalNewEnglandflavors.Byacceptingpublicassistance

programs,thedevelopersalsoconsideredcommunitywithitswiderangeof

incomesandethnicgroups.Thecommunityiscomprisedofawiderangeof

incomedemographicsandithastobeaccessibleforallpatrons.

Thecriticismofthemarketisthatitistryingtopleasetoomany

groupsatonetime.Somefeelthatthemarketcaterstotouristsandfocuses

onlocalentertainmentratherthanfeedingthelocalpopulation. 37Thisis

strictlyduetolocation.ThefuturewilltellifBostonsPublicMarketwill

36
DavidONeilandLarryLund,BusinessPlanExecutiveSummaryFall2013.
37
CorbyKummer,MarketCorrection:TheFragileBalancingActofCreatingaGreat
NewRepublic.
PublicFoodMarket. September20,2015,AccessedNovember29,2015,
https://newrepublic.com/article/122670/howcreateperfectpublicfoodmarket.
28
becomeasuccessornotbut,themanagementtookgreatcareinmakingit

affordablebyallgroups.

29
Chapter3:CaseStudies:UrbanPublicMarketsintheU.S.

Mostcookstrytolearnbymakingdishes.Doesn'tmeanyoucancook.
Itmeansyoucanmakethatdish.Whenyoucancookiswhenyoucangoto
afarmersmarket,buyabunchofstuff,thengohomeandmakesomething
withoutlookingatarecipe.Nowyou'recooking.
TomColicchio

ModernfoodculturehasrevitalizedpublicmarketsintheU.S.PublicMarkets

haveevolvedbeyondtheshelteredfarmersmarketspreviouslyseenon

streetcorners.Modernpublicmarketsareenclosedandhaveamenitiessuch

asbars,cafes,restaurants,locationstosit,music,lectures,andspacefor

children.Insomeways,theyhavereplacedshoppingmallsoncepopularin

U.S.societyonlyafewdecadesago.Bothserveasameansof

entertainment,creatingexperienceswhileconsumerstacklenecessary

shopping.Unliketheapparelusuallyfoundintheshoppingmalls,whichis

nowboughtmostlyonline,buyingfoodcontinuestobeahandson

experience.Consumerswanttoseewhattheyarepurchasingandduetothe

limitedshelflifeoffreshfood,orderingontheinternetisnotreallyaviable

option.Unlikeshoppingfornonperishables,onlineshoppingforfoodcannot

providetheimmediatesatisfactionthatshoppinginpersoncan.Goingtoa

marketthathasalloftheseneedsmetplusaninvitingenvironmentis

enticingfortheconsumer.

Inthischapter,therearecasestudiesofurbanmarketsintheU.S.

thatembodytheprinciplesofasuccessfulmarketformodernlifestyle.

Analysisofimportantelementssuchaslayoutdesign,branding,locationand

thedesignteamsassociatedwiththeseprojects,providespractical

30
informationwhendesigninganewmarketsforasmalltown.Canthe

attributesofanurbanmarketbeusedinamarketinasmalltowntohelp

revitalizingthecommunity?

Bydefinition,urbanmarketsarelocatedinareasthataredensely

populatedeitherbyresidentsortourists.Thankstopopularculture,foodhas

becomeasourceofinterestforoursocietywhichismoreandmoreseeking

artisanalqualityfood.Themodernpublicmarketconceptingbeganinthe

citiesandhasrecentlystartedmakeitstolesspopulatedareas.Smalltowns

andthesuburbswanttoenjoytherevitalizationitbringsandformastronger

community.

GothamWestMarket:NewYork,NewYork:AvroKO

Situatedonthegroundfloorofa1,238unitapartmentbuildingintheHells

KitchenneighborhoodofNewYorkCityisGothamWestMarket
(Seefigure

11)
.Designedtoluretenantstothisnewcomplex,themarketisonelarge

stepaheadofthefoodcourtsfoundinshoppingmalls.Over10,000square

feetofsuperslickdesignandsophisticatedfoodieoptionsarepartofthis

space.Fromhighendrestaurantstosmallfoodstands,GothamWesthas

somethingtofiteverytaste.Foreventsandcookingdemonstrations,Gotham

ClubRoom.38
Westcontainsaprivatediningandentertainingspacecalledthe

Thevarietyofdiningoptionsrangefrom
GenuineRoadside,
asitdowncasual

diningexperience,to
TheCannibal,
amarketdrivensmallplatebarthat

38
Events,GothamWestMarket,AccessedSeptember13,2015,
http://www.gothamwestmarket.com/events.
31
featurescharcuterieandcuredmeatsservedwithavarietyofglobalbeers

andcuratedbourbonsandwhiskeys.

figure11:GothamWestMarket
Source:www.avroko.com/blog/projects/gothamwestmarket.

Theteamwhocreatedthespaceisinternationaldesignandconcept

firmAvroKO.Formedbyfourcollegefriends,AvroKOhasdesignstrategies

usinganintegratedprocessthatsetsthemapartfromotherdesignfirms.

TherecipientoftwoJamesBeardAwards,AvroKOcamefromobscurityto

becomeagotodesignfirm.By2001theorganizationhadgrowntoemploy

astaffof90andhavefourdistinctoperatinggroups:
AvroKO,
theinterior

designandarchitecturefirm
BrandBureau,
astrategyandconceptgroup

branchgearedtowardhospitalityand
Goodshop,
whichcreatescustom

furnitureandlightfixturesforthe
AvrokoHospitalityGroup
focusedonguest

andconsumerendofhospitality.39 ThemannerAvroKOhasobtainedthis

39
About,AvroKOadesign&conceptfirm,AccessedSeptember30,2015.
http://www.avroko.com/about/thecompany/.
32
successisbyhavingacompletedesignprocessesthatincludesarchitecture,

interiordesign,branding,andhospitality.CofounderKristinaOneal

explains:

Ourdesignsarebasedonwhatwewanttheendexperiencetofeellike,and
wetrytoachievethatashonestlyaspossiblethroughmaterialsandobjects,
hopefullyavoidingalotoftheatricalornonutilitybasedelementswecallit
integratedpsychologicaldesign40

ThisbrandingphilosophypluslocationservesasAvrokosdesign

inspiration,leadingtoaconceptthatbecomesauniquestoryreflectedin

everydetailofthespace.Avrokoincorporatesmanylayersfromthe

elementsoftheneighborhoodtothearchitectureandtheingredientsusedin

themenuitems.Thecohesiveelementsformacommunitythatincludes

artisanalchefsandbartenders. 41InAvroKo,thereisapassionbehind

designinganalluringspace.Theirgeniusisknowinghowtocreateadynamic

spacethatattractsavarietyofpatrons.42

ForthemarketinHellsKitchen,theywantedtouse,
Genuine

Roadside

(Seefigure12)
asananchorrestaurantforeightartisanalfood

vendorsplusabicyclestore.Whilethisisaspaceprimarilyforresidentsof

buildingandsurroundingareas,italsohasappealtotourists.Usingthe

designelementsfromtheirrestaurant,theyemployedasimilar,1970sgritty

NewYorkvibethroughoutthemarket.GenuineRoadsidetakesitsdesign

elementsfromwornCaliforniaroadsidestandsbutwithgourmetinfluences.43

40
MaryScoviak,Q+A:FabFour, BoutiqueDesign.A ccessedSeptember15,2015.
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/STMG/boutiquedesign_201505/index.php?startid=
41
TheMakingofGenuineSuperette.
AvroKO, http://www.bbnyc.com/uploads/300003/
1437407139658/GENUINE_MakingOf_web720p.mp4.
42

Ibid.
43
HotelBusinessDesign
NicoleCarlino,PersonsofInterest ,May/June2015.Accessed
September20,2015,http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/icd/hotelbusinessdesign_20140506
/index.php?startid=Cover1
33
Clearly,thereareelementsfromtheseventiessuchaspinewoodpaneling

andfadedphotosindatedframes.Thelightsareadjustablesoyoucan

controltheatmosphere.

:GenuineRoadside,GothamWestMarket
figure12
Source:www.m.interiordesign.net

Thisaestheticiscarriedthroughintotheinteriorofthemarket,

providingaconsistentlookandfeel.Usingnostalgicmotifs,themarkets

aesthetictiesinwiththebuildinganditssurroundings
(Seefigure13)
.The

vendorsrangefromalocalbutchertoadairyfarm.Alloftheproductsare

consideredartisanalandarelocallysourced.Inthemarketpatronscangrab

dinnertogoortheycansitatoneofthemanyfoodestablishments.There

arecommunaltablestowardsthecenterofthespace.

:GothamWestMarket
figure13
Source:newyork.seriouseats.com.

34

Thefloorplanisalengthwisespacewithanchorstoresateachendand

permanentvendorsontheouteredge.Temporaryvendorsandcommunal

tablesaresituatedtowardsthecenteraisles.Theentrancefromthestreetis

inthemiddleofthespacecreatingacenteraisle.Duetoitslongextent,the

circulationisreminiscentofafigureeightracetrack.Patronscanslipin

betweensomeofthecentralvendorsandtablesbuttrafficisfunneled

throughthemainspace,
(Seefigure14).

:GothamWestMarketcirculationplanandretailplan
figure14

Thisspacecontainsallthefeaturesassociatedwithamodernurban

market.ItisinNewYorkcity,andGothamWestcontainsthetrendiest

35
vendorsinartisanalfoodculture,anditsflexibilityaccommodatingtopatrons

whoareeithergettingfoodtogoorwanttohaveauniquedining

experienceatacommunaltable.Themarketoffersawonderfulatmosphere

thatcanappealtoseveralgenerations.

Butitssizeandlocationalsoleadtosomechallenges.Duetoits

popularity,foottrafficisheavyandnoiseisanissue.BeinglocatedinNew

Yorkcity,itisexpensiveandthereisnoparking.Greenspaceislimitedtoa

smallpatioadjacenttothebikeshoponthefarendofthemarket.The

designisalsoverytastespecificanditmaynotbetoeveryonesliking.In

addition,itisverydark,notusingalotofnaturallight.Thankfully,thereare

manymarketsinNewYorkCitytochoosefromsopatronsaresuretofind

onethatsuitstheirtaste.

TheSHED:Healdsburg,California:JensenArchitects

AcrossthecountryinSonomaValley,California,istheSHED.Locatedin

Healdsburg,theSHEDwasdevelopedbyhusbandandwifeteamDougLipton

andCindyDaniel.Unlikethemodernpublicmarketsthatareinurban

settings,theSHEDislocatedinHealdsburg,asmalltownofabout12,000

residents.Committedtosustainablefarmingandwinemaking,thecouple

wantedtosharetheirfoodandwayoflifewiththecommunity.TheSHED,

consideredamoderngrange,onlyuseslocallygrownandproducedproducts

createdwithinatenmileradiusofthesite.InspiredbytheCaliforniagrange,

SHEDsupportsstrongcommunities,familyfarms,andlocaleconomies.44 For

AmyEvans,SHED:AModernGrangeinHealdsburg,
44
DailyDemocrat.
AccessedDecember16,
2015.http://www.dailydemocrat.com/article/NI/20150505/FEATURES/150509955.
36
design,thecoupleturnedtoJensenArchitectsofSanFranciscotohelpbring

theirdreamtolife
(Seefigure15).

:SHEDstorefrontandCafebyJensenArchitects
figure15
Source:www.jensenarchitects.com/our_work/shed_store_and_cafe

Openingin2013,theSHEDwasdesignedasastructurethatisboth

barnlikeandmoderninitsinterpretation.Theuseofapreengineered

utilitarianmetalstructurecommonlyknownasaButlerbuildingisafamiliar

partoftheagriculturalvisuallanguagecommontothearea.45Passersby

immediatelynoticethebuildingsinceitstandsapartfromtheother

structuresinthesurroundingareas.Thesignageisalsounique,being

integratedintothemetalexterior,andisahomagetothelargescalebarn

signsindigenoustothisregion.46 InordertakeadvantageofCalifornias

45
CaseStudiesHome,JensenArchitects.AccessedNovember15,2015,
http://www.jensenarchitects.com/case_studies/casestudy/shed.
46
SaraJohnson,SHEDStoreandCafe:JensenArchitects.
ArchitectMagazine:2014Annual
DesignReview. AccessedNovember29,2015.
http://www.architecturemagazine.com/awards/annualdesignreview/shedstoreandcafeo.
37
perfectclimate,theSHEDhasmultipletwostoryglassgaragelikedoorsthat

openuptoconnecttheindoorsandoutdoors.

Designedwithsustainabilityinmind,theSHEDtakesadvantageofthe

topographyalreadyinplace,channellingitsroofwaterrunoffintoanearby

smallcreek.Theprefabricatedbuildingisconstructedmostlyofrecycled

materialandhasinsulatedmetalpanelcladding.Itwasconstructedentirely

offsitethenquicklyreassembledatitspermanentlocation.Thisquick

constructiontimewasgentleontheenvironmentsinceitproducedlesssite

erosionandconstructionwaste.47 Prefabricationisinherentlycostandtime

effective.

Inside,thebuildingsfirstfloorholdsamarketandacafe.Carefully

curatedbyCindy,theartisanalfoodproductsandproducearethebest

locallygrownandmadegoods.IndividualsectionsdesignatedEAT,COOK,or

FARMbylargewoodenlettersgivepatronsvisualcuesastowhattheywill

find
(Seefigure16)
.Onthemarketsidearegrabngoitemssuchas

charcuterie,wine,milk,eggsandevenhomemadepickles.Theretailside

hasadistinctiveselectionoftoolsforgardeningandcooking,reinforcingthe

ownersconnectiontofarming.Thereisabakeryandcoffeeshopaswell.

UniquetothisareaisaFermentationBar,concoctingkombuchaandshrubs,

oldfashionedthirstquenchersmadefromfruit,water,andvinegar.While

visiting,patronscantakeaseatatoneofthecommunaltables
(Seefigure

17).

47
CaseStudiesHome,JensenArchitects.
38

:SHEDcirculationplanandretailplan
figure16

:SHEDstorefrontandCafebyJensenArchitects
figure17
Source:www.jensenarchitects.com/our_work/shed_store_and_cafe

Thesecondfloorcontainsaneventspaceforlectures,publicmeetings,

anddemonstrations
(Seefigure18).
Inkeepingwiththeownersspiritof

communitythespaceisdesignedtorevivethetraditionsoffellowship.48

Outfittedwithmoderntechnology,includingalargevideoscreenanda

commissarykitchen,thesecondfloorisanincrediblespacetoholdany

event.Carryingthroughthematerialsandfinishesfromthefirstfloor,the

48
CaseStudiesHome,JensenArchitects.
39
SHEDssecondfloorisflexibleinitsdesignbeingabletoconcealthekitchen

whenitisnotinuse.InCindyDanielsownwords:

Itsnotjustafoodplace,butmoreofahubAsmuchaspossible,
wewanttoshowthehand,thepeople,theprocessbehindthefood.

:SHEDsecondfloorentertainmentspacebyJensenArchitects
figure18
Source:www.jensenarchitects.com/our_work/shed_store_and_cafe.

Theinteriordesignofthisbuildingstronglyreliesonthelanguage

presentedoutsideitsdoors.Usingnatureasitssteppingoffpoint,theSHED

iscladinwoodandglasstoallowasmanynaturalelementsaspossible

permeatethespace.Thewoodplanksarelocallysourcedreclaimedwood.

Theglassgaragedoorsarefunctionalandacttobringtheoutdoorsinwhen

weatherpermits.

Seeingthetrendtowardsnaturalfoodcultivationandlocalresident

involvement,theownerswantedthisspacetobeacommunitycenterwhere

itspatronscoulddineaswellasshopforhighendkitchenandgarden

equipment.49 Asthehomeofthefarmtotablemovement,Californias

49
CaseStudiesHome,JensenArchitects.
40
SonomaValleyistheperfectlocationforthisscenario.Moreover,Healdsburg

hasdeeprootsinfarming.Thetownhasresistedtheurgetooverexpandand

giveintothebigboxstores.TheSHEDenhancedthecommunityspiritin

theheartofthissmalltowninwinecountry.50

TheSHEDisanembodimentofcommunity,unity,andconservation

wrappedupinonebeautifulmarket.AtrueCalifornianhomagetoconnection

withtheearthanditsinhabitants,theSHEDstrivestoeducateandprovide

forthepeopleitserves.51 BeinginSonomaValley,ithasacertain

demographicthatcanpatronizethisestablishment.Butisit,infact,available

toeveryoneinthecommunityitserves?Itisalreadyahitwiththecritics.It

willtakesometimetoestablishatrackrecordwiththecommunity.In2014

itwonaJamesBeardAward,whichshouldboostitsimageasawelldesigned

multifunctionalbuilding.


UnionMarket:Washington,D.C.:Edens

LocatedinWashingtonD.C.surbanNOMAneighborhoodisthe

resurrectedUnionMarket.Responsibleforbreathingnewlifeintothe

NortheastneighborhoodofD.C.,UnionMarketwasreinventedbythefolksat

EDENS,adevelopmentfirm.

OriginallycalledtheCentreMarket,thecapitalslargestpublicmarket

wasatacrosssectionofoldworldheritageandnewimmigrant

opportunities.52 In1931,itwasrazedtomakewayfortheNationalArchives

50
CareySweet,APeekInsidetheShedHealdsburgsStunningNewDesignerGrange,
SonomaCounty, AccessedNovember29,2015.www.sonomacounty.com/blog/
insidetheshedHealdsburg.
51

Ibid.
52
TheHistoryofUnionMarket,UnionMarketDC,AccessedNovember25,2015,
http://www.unionmarket.com/history.
41
andthemarketwasthenreopenedclosertoUnionStationasUnionTerminal

Market.Itwashometoasmanyas700vendors,coldstoragevaults,

elevators,andapubliccafe.53 Vendorssoldmerchandisetypicaltomarketsof

thetime:meat,fish,eggs,dairyandproduce.Unfortunately,in1962thecity

bannedtheoutdoorsaleofmeatsandeggs,resultingintheessential

shutdownofthesemarkets.In1967,anewutilitarianbuildingwasbuiltinits

place,creatinganewindoormarket.By1989,theareahadbecomerundown

andvendorsleftthemarketsforsupermarketsandothermodernavenuesof

distribution.

YettheareasrichheritageappealedtoEdens,amultibilliondollar

developerandpropertyownerwhosawanopportunitytobreathnewlifeinto

thischallengedneighborhood.In2012theUnionMarketwasopenedand

marketedasanauthenticartisanalmarketplace .54
(Seefigure19)

:UnionMarketExterior
figure19
Source:PhotobyTomBridgeviaFlickr

ItwasthefirststepinEdenslargerplantobringmixedusehousing

intotheneighborhood.Theirgoalwastorestorecommunityandopportunity

53
TheHistoryofUnionMarket.
54
Centers:UnionMarketWashington,DistrictofColumbia.Edens,Accessed
November25,2015,http://www.edens.com/centers/DC/Washington/UnionMarket.
42
tothisstrugglingneighborhood,andbyallaccounttheyhavesucceeded.55

Lookingtoaddahotel,residencesandothermodesofcommercetothearea,

Edenshasstartedabuzzinaneighborhoodthatwasonceasitetobe

avoidedforsafetyreasons.

ThemarketislocateddirectlybesideGallaudetUniversitymetrostop,

andithassomethingrarelyseenincommercialspacesinWashington,D.C.:

aparkinglot.Thestructureisaplainutilitarianwarehousemeanttofitin

withthecurrentdesignofothervendorsintheimmediateneighborhood.

Consideredpartofitscharm,thegrittinessappealstothemarketsnew

patronsasalinktoitspast.Despitehonoringtradition,Edondidaddmodern

glassgaragedoorsontothefacadetoallowforplentyofnaturallightandfor

openingduringwarmdays.

Theinsideofthemarkethassomecommonthemeswithotherurban

markets.Ithasalargesitdownrestaurantasitsanchorandpermanentto

semipermanentvendorsthroughoutthefloorplan.Thereareseveral

entrancesononesideofthebuilding,andthecirculationmimicsacircular

racetrackpattern,allowingpatronstoweaveinbetweenstalls.Thevendors

aresmalllocalbusinesses,somewithnamerecognitionwhichisimportantto

brandingofthemarketasadestination
(Seeoffigure20).
Thesecondfloor

isreservedforrentalentertainmentspaceonly.

55
DuckPieBlog.
J.S.Grayboyes,ATaleofTwoMarkets. May25,2014,
http://duckpie.com/2014/05/25/ataleoftwomarketsdcswholesaledistrictgoestrendy/.
43


:UnionMarketCirculationPlanandRetailPlan
figure20

Theaestheticsofthespaceareindustrial.Theceilingsareopensothe

ductworkandpipingarevisible.Onweekends,thespaceisteamingwith

activity.Mostofthevendorsarefoodrelatedwithafewstallsbeing

housewares.

Althoughthisisamodernurbanmarket,oneissuethatcomesupisa

lackofindoorseatingwhichencouragespatronstohavegrabngomentality.

InWashingtonD.C.,outdoorseatingoptionsmaybeusableforsevenor

eightmonthsatthemost.Intheory,theseestablishmentsshouldhavea

varietyofseatingoptionsencouragingavarietyofoptionsforsocializingand

retail.

44
Thismarketispredominatelymeatheavy.Thisposesachallengefor

consumerswhoarevegetarianorvegan.Inorderformarketstoappealto

thelargeraudience,itisimportanttoconsideralltastes
(Seefigure21)
.

:UnionMarketInterior
figure21
Source:https://hungrygamesdotcom1.files.wordpress.com/2013/01/unionmarketshops.png

Thesethreemarketsarejustanexampleofwhatishappeningacross

thecountry.Communitiesarebeingrevitalizedasmarketsprovide

opportunitiesforcommerce,fellowship,andentertainment.TheGotham

WestMarketinHellsKitchenispartofamixeduseddevelopmentdesigned

toenticenewresidentstoalesspopularsectionofManhattan.Beinganew

building,thedesignteamassociatedwiththeprojectsoughttoretainthe

authenticcharacteroftheneighborhoodasanindustrialwarehousedistrict.

UnionMarketinWashington,D.C.,hashadadramaticeffectona

neighborhoodintheNortheastpartofthecity.Edenshashadgreatsuccess

completelyredevelopingstrugglingareasbyincludingmixedusehousingand

adaptivereuseofbuildings.56 EdenshasmanyholdingsthroughouttheMetro

area,includingthepopularMosaicDistrictinsuburbanVirginia.Theyhave

56
JonathanOConnell,Edens,developerofMosaicDistrictandUnionMarket,lands$1.5billion
investment.
TheWashingtonPost,D ecember20,2013.Accessed
November29,2015,https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/capitalbusiness/edensdev
eloperofmosaicdistrictandunionmarketlands15billioninvestment/2013/12/20/55c9ddc6697f1
1e38b5ba77187b716a3_story.html
45
beensosuccessfulthatdevelopershavebeenluredtoinvestintheirvision

forNortheast,D.C.TheSHEDinSonomaValleyisaslightlydifferentproject

focusingonthefarmtotablemovementwheretheproduceiscloseathand.

TheSHEDisinthesmalltouristtownofHealdsburg.Locatedatthe

intersectionofthreemajorwineproducingregions,itissmalltownwhose

residentsareveryinterestedinwine,foodandculture.57 TheSHEDhasgiven

thesecivicmindedcitizensaplacetoconveneandprovidedtouristswithan

entertainmentvenue.

Onthesurfacethesemarketssharethecommongoalsofproviding

entertainment,retailingauthenticgoodsandproduce,andfostering

community,yettheirenvironmentsaredifferent.Someareurbancitieswhile

othersaresmallerandmoresuburban.Eachofthesemarketshashadan

impactonthepopulationinapositiveway,showingtheadaptabilityofthe

publicmarketconcept.

57
Healdsburg,
HealdsburgSonomaCounty,CAASmallTownforAllSeasons, AccessedNov
30,2,2015,http://www.healdsburg.com/.
46
Chapter4:ProposedSitesontheEasternShore


Whentillagebegins,otherartsfollow.Thefarmersthereforearethe
foundersofhumancivilization.
DanielWebster

Theproposedlocationofamodernpublicmarketservingasmalltown

orsuburbanarea,hastomeetcertaincriteria.First,thereneedstobea

populationthatisknowledgeableaboutgrowing,harvestingandpreparing

food.Theremustbepeoplewillingtoundertakeculinaryendeavorsnot

typicallyfoundinasmalltown,orperhapssomeoneinsearchofthefood

choicestheyleftbehindinthecity.Second,therehastobeaplethoraof

localvendorsavailabletopopulatethemarketandprovideauthenticityin

food,products,andcraftaswellasfostercommunityspirit.Third,the

locationhastohavegoodvisibilityandcanbeeasilyaccessedbypatrons.In

asmalltownorsuburbanarea,theideallocationwouldbeatowncenteror

onthemainstreet,preferablyinabuildingthathashistoricsignificanceto

thetownorisavailableforreuse.Therehastobeplentyofparkingavailable

alsosmallercommunitiesareoftencardependent.

Inorderforamodernpublicmarkettosucceedoutsideofanurban

area,itmustselltheidealsofauthenticityandcommunity.Thiswillmakeit

appealingtoanaudiencethatembracessmalltownlifeandiswillingto

patronizeestablishmentsdesignedtohelpthelocalcommunity.TheEastern

Shoreissuchacommunity.

TheEasternShoreofMaryland,Virginia,andDelawareencompassthe

DelmarvaPeninsulawiththeChesapeakeBayonthewestsideandthe

AtlanticOceanontheeastside.ItincludesninecountiesinMarylanddivided

47
intothreeregions:UpperShore(Cecil,Kent,QueenAnnes)MidShore

(Talbot,Caroline,Dorchester)andLowerShore(Somerset,Wicomico,

Worcester),inDelaware(KentandSussex)andVirginia(Accomackand

Northampton) .58 Thisareaappealstoawidevarietyofpeople


(Seefigure22)

becauseofitsidylliclandscapeandleisureactivities.Theseregionsoffer

waterrelatedactivities,suchasboatingandbeachgoing,andoutdoor

enthusiastshavemanyoptionsbetweenthecyclingtrailsandfootpaths.

Golfingisalsoapopularsportbecauseofthegreatweatherinthisarea.

Dottedacrossthelandscapeareseveralquainthistorictowns,like

Easton,MarylandandCapeCharles,Virginia.Theyeachhaveacommitment

topreservinghistoricalsitesandarchitecture.Recentlysmalltownculture

hasgainedpopularityamongthosewhoareseekingsecondweekendhomes,

workingpeoplewantingaslowerwayoflife,andnewretireeslookingtostay

activeinmoreaffordablehomes.Nottobeoverlookedistheadventof

telecommuting.Withouttheneedtogotoanoffice,professionalworkers

havemorelivingoptionsthantheydidbefore.

MarylandStatisticalHandbookMarylandDepartmentofPlanning.
58
ccessed
StateofMaryland.A
December2,2015.http://www.mdp.state.md.us/msdc/
md_statistical_handbook12.pdf
48

figure22
:DelmarvaPeninsula
Source:www.worldatlas.com.

MarylandsEasternShoreappealstofolkswhoareconsideringjust

suchthings.59 Itisconvenientlylocatedabouttwohoursdrivingdistance

fromWashington,DCandBaltimore,MD,makingittheperfectweekend

retreat.PeoplefromasfarawayasNewYorkarebuyinghomesonthe

EasternShore.Althoughitisafivehourdrive,housingthereisfarmore

affordablethantheHamptonsofLongIsland,NewYork.60 Thereisalsoan

influxofretirees.Babyboomersareretiringingreaternumbers.Thestateof

MarylandprojectsthatonethirdofallWorcesterCountyresidencewillbe65

yearsorolderby2018.61 Giventheincreaseofaffluentretireesand

weekenders,itisimportanttoconsiderwhattastestheyhavepickedupfrom

livinginaffluentregions.Oneofthesetastesisforartisanalproducts.

59
TheWashingtonTimes
AnnGeracimos,TheEasternShoresHamptonization .July23,2008,
AccessedDecember1,2015.http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2008/jul/23/
easternshoresboom/?page=all.
60

Ibid.
61
MarylandStatisticalHandbookMarylandDepartmentofPlanning.
49
Inresearchingpossiblesites,threebuildingsrosetothetopas

candidates.TwoareinthetownofEaston,MDandoneslightlyfurthersouth

inCapeCharles,VA.

ThepopulationofEaston,Marylandinoffseasonis16,000butinthe

summertime,touristsswellthesmalltown.Eastonisquaintandhasatown

centerwithhistoriccharm.Offeringmanyservicesandamenities,itisthe

perfectplacetogetawayfromtheactivityofitssurroundingmajorcities.

ThefirstsiteislocatedonOceanGateway,whichisthemainarteryto

thebeach.Aformer
MidasMufflershop,thebuildingisasimpleCMUsquare

withfiveglassgaragedoorsandaglassedreceptionarea.Itwasbuiltinthe

1980sandisapproximately4,000squarefeet.Thebuildingisreminiscentof

theindustrialbuildingthathousesUnionMarketinWashington,DC.Ittoo

usesglassgaragedoorsasadesignelementallowingtheoutdoorsin.Its

simplicityisvaguelyreminiscentofBauhausDessau
(Seefigure23)
.The

immediatelocationissurroundedbywoodsonthreesides,givingitanairof

isolationandtranquility.Ontheinterior,itisablankslatewithsoaring

twentyfootceilings.Thebenefitofanewerbuildingwouldbeitsupdated

infrastructure.Intheory,plumbing,HVAC,andelectricitywouldbeupto

codeandsuitableforadaptiveuse.

50

figure23
:MidasMufflerShoppe
Source:www.EasternShoreHomes.com.

Despitethesepositivequalities,thereareanumberoffactorsthat

keepthislocationfrombeingthechosensite.Althoughthetownthatthe

buildingislocatedinissuitable,thebuildingitselfisonamainroadfilled

withmotelsandchainrestaurants.Itisabusystreetsofoottrafficand

bicyclelanesarenotpresentatthistime.Duetothewoodssurroundingthe

building,visibilityfromthestreetiscompromised.Thelowgradecommercial

locationofbuildingdoesntallowforasmuchcharacterasitwouldinan

urbanenvironment.Thesizeofthebuildingwouldalsohavetobeaddressed.

Initscurrentstate,itistoosmalltohousealltheelementsrequiredfora

publicmarket.

Justafewmilesfromthisfirstpotentialsite,thenextoptionison

DoverRoad.Locatedonabusycommercialstreetthisbuildingisashed

dormerlikestructurethathasabayofretailstoresalongthestreetanda

51
secondstoryforresidentialapartments.Muchlargerthantheprevious

building,ParkPlaceisapproximately13,000squarefeet.Ithasalarge

parkinglotandisaccessiblebycar,foot,orbicycle
(Seefigure24)
.Alsoin

itsfavorisitisonacommercialstreetwithprivateresidencessurrounding

thestripmall.

figure24
:ParkPlace
Source:www.EasternShoreHomes.com.

However,thisbuildinglackscurbappealandhistoriccharm.Cosmetic

changesbeyondsurfacerepairwouldhavetobemadetomakeitstandout

fromitscommercialcompetitors.Thereisnogreenspaceontheproperty.

Becausethemodernpublicmarketistobesupportedbylocalfarmersand

businesses,itneedstohaveagreenfeel.Theinteriorwouldrequirethe

sameamountofenergytoconvertitintosomethingseeminglyauthentic,

sodespiteitssizeandlocationitwasnotchosenasthesiteforthemarket.

ThefinalsiteisfurthersouthonVirginiasEasternShore.Muchlikeits

northernneighbor,thisareahasseenagrowthinpopularity,too.Locatedat

52
thesoutherntipoftheDelmarvaPeninsula,itisVirginiaswaterfrontretreat

withasmalltownvibe.Inthiscloseknitcommunity,theresidentshavea

strongcommitmenttotheenvironmentandarchitecturalpreservation.The

VictoriantownofCapeCharlesisincludedintheNationalRegisterofHistoric

Places.62

Thesevenbysevenblockdowntownoffersalot,including

restaurants,cafes,galleries,andamuseum.ThecenteroftownhasCape

CharlesCentralPark,agreenoasisthathasagazeboandhostsannual

eventssuchasCrabbyBlueFestival(May),LaborDayNeighborhoodPicnic

(September),andGrandIlluminations(November).63 TheCapeCharlesTown

Beachislocatedatthesouthwestpartoftownandiscompletelyunspoiled

bydevelopment.Recently,amajorresidentialprojectwascompleted

adjacenttoCapeCharles,VA.TheBayCreekResortandClubisa

masterplannedcommunity,featuring1,800acresofwaterfrontliving,two

golfcourses,andtwomilesofwhite,sandybeach.Thegolfcourseisranked

#12intheUnitedStates.64

Richinhistory,CapeCharlesisdottedwithbeautifulantiquebuildings.

OnesuchbuildingisabeautifulSpanishColonialRevivalinneedof

revitalization.KnownastheKelloggBuilding,itwasbuiltin1930toserveas

theofficesoftheiceplantacrossthestreet
(Seefigure25)
.Justoffthemain

streetintotown,thebuildingsitsonFigStreet.Itsbrickfacadeandlarge

62
ADayintheLifeofBayCreek,BayCreek,AccessedDecember2,2015
http://www.http://s1056111.instanturl.net/story/press/releases/BayCreekOverview.php#vision.
63
About,CapeCharlesbytheBay:HarborfortheArts,AccessedDecember2,2015.
http://www.capecharlesbythebay.com/about/.
64
ADayintheLifeofBayCreek.
53
firstfloorwindowsspanthelengthofthepropertymakingitanexcellent

candidateforaretailspace.Itsmanyunusualdetailsgivethishistoric

buildingalotofcharacter.Itislongandnarrowwithasmallsecondstory.

Thefirstfloorisapproximately5,000squarefeetwhilethesecondflooris

1,200squarefeet.Ithousedanautodealerforashorttimebuthas

remainedvacantforyears.Theadjacentlotoffersplentyofparkingand

therearesidewalks.Golfingisverypopularinthiscommunitysoitcommon

toseegolfcartsonthestreet.Thereisanundevelopedgreenspacebehind

thebuilding.

figure25
:KelloggBuilding
Source:www.BlueHeronReality.com.

Althoughthisbuildingisquiteremarkable,itdoespresentchallenges.

Ithasbeenvacantforyearsandneedsmajorworktomeetcurrentliving

andhealthcodestandards.Theinfrastructurewouldhavetobeaddressed.

Theplumbing,electricity,andHVACneedtobeupdated.Fortunatelytheroof

andthebrickshavebeenmaintainedbytheowner,sotherearenostructural

issuesatthistime.

54
Despiteallthesetbacks,thislocationoffersthemostdesignpotential

andacharminglocationinthesmalltownofCapeCharles.Amodernpublic

marketwouldenhancethecommunitybyfuelingeconomicgrowthand

providingthenewaffluentresidentsanamenitycommontourbanareas.

Untilrecently,CapeCharleswas15percentbelowthepovertyline.The

adventofthisnewmarketplacewouldcreatejobs,andtheadditionofBay

CreekResortandClubbringsaninfluxofresourcesthatthesmalltown

desperatelyneeds.Whynottakethisopportunitytofillaneedfornewand

oldresidentsalike?

55
Chapter5:PublicMarketProgramtoRevitalizeCapeCharles,Virginia


Asmalltownisaplacewherethere'snoplacetogowhereyoushouldn't.
BurtBacharach

Bringingamodernpublicmarkettoasmallcommunityrequiresa

numberofconditions.Therehastobeademographicthatiswillingto

supportandpatronizealocalmarketand/orbeemployedbyit.Theremust

beresourcesfromwhichthemarketcandrawitsmerchandise.Thesitealso

needsastellarlocationthatlocalswillembraceandtouristswillbeexcitedto

try.Inasmalltown,themarketshouldbefairlysmallandhaveaplanfor

thewinternongrowingseason.

Inordertoaccommodatemodernconveniences,TheKelloggBuilding

wouldrequireadditionalspace.Uniqueandcharmingasthebuildingis,it

mustbeexpandedtoholdastudio,restaurant,marketplace,coffeeshopand

aneventspace.Thefacadeoftheofthebuildingwillremainthesame,

retainingitsestheticandperioddetails.Ithasalongfacadeofwindows

alongthestreettoenticepassersby
(Seefigure26).
Thebackofthebuilding

isonelongsolidbrickwallthatrunsalongthepropertylineandwouldallow

fortheneededexpansionoftheexistingstructure
(Seefigure27)
.

figure26
:KelloggBuildingFrontView
Source:www.trulia.com.

56

Theoriginalspaceisapproximately5,000squarefeet.Sizableadditions

woulddoubleitto10,000squarefeet.Twoadjacentlotswouldhavetobe

acquiredinordertobringthisvisiontolight.

figure27
:KelloggBuildingBackView
Source:www.commercialsearch.com.

Theadditionswillneedtobeplacedontheentirerearlengthofthe

building
(Seefigure28)
.Thedifferentsectionsshouldhavetohaveaccessto

eachotheryethavetheabilitytocloseareasoffwhenneeded
(Seefigure

29)
.Differentactivities,takingplaceatdifferenttimes,willchangethetraffic

flow.Acourtyardisaddedtocreateoutdoorseatingandactivities.Grassy

areasaremadetoinagridlikefashioninordertotransversethroughthe

courtyardwithouthavingtogothroughthegrass.Aroundthecourtyardare

planterbenches.Italsoincludesasmallstageforbandperformancesor

movienight.Everyinteriorareahasaviewofandaccesstothecourtyard

(Seefigure30)
.

Therewillbeaseparatestudioconstructedtothesideoftheplan,and

theuseofthesecondstorywillbeconfinedtoprivateeventsrangingfrom

57
communityorientatedlecturestocookingclasses.Thespacewillhavea

largeoutdoordeck.

figure28
:KelloggBuildingAreaMapwithAdditions



figure29
:SchematicDiagramwithAdditionsdesignatingthefivedistinctareas.

58


figure30
:ConceptualDiagramswithAdditionsdesignatingthefivedistinctareas.


Foraestheticandbrandingpurposes,retainingthelookoftheoriginal

buildingisessential.ItisaSpanishColonialRevivalcharacterizedbytheuse

ofarchesonthefacade.Theornatebrickdetailingofthearchesinthe

secondstoryareuniquetotheSpanishmodeandinspiredbythe1880s

CapeCharlesmostpopularandeconomicallysuccessfultime.Initsheyday,

itwasamajorportforshippingandtherailroadindustries.Tousean

updatedversionofthisVictorianaestheticwouldspeaktothetownsgolden

ageandbringauniquelookandfeeltothebrandingandinteriorspace
(See

figure31).

:KelloggBuildingeastfacadeonFigStreet.ArtStudioandcoveredpavilionnotpictured.
figure31

59



Thestudiospaceswillbeinnorthwestcornerofthelot.Artistslike

privacyandtheyneedaccesstoprivateareasonthelottotransport

supplies.Oftenartistscancreatealotofnoise,smells,andwaste.Thoseare

allthingsthatcoulddeterpeoplefrompatronizingafoodestablishment,so

havingtheminaseparatespacewithdesignatedhourswouldbeanideal

solution.

Theartiststudiowillhavedifferentarchitecturethantheother

buildings.Currently,therearethreestudiosforpainting,ceramics,and

woodworking.Inordertoaccesslightbut,controlglare,aclerestoryroofline

wasused.ThisallowstoaccesstoNorthernlightandlimittheexposureto

Southernlight.Plus,therecanbeasecondstoryloftineachstudio.Thereis

aretailspaceavailableinthewoodshop.Thethoughtistheartisanscould

usethisspacecouldselltheirwares
(Seefigure32)
.

:StudioSpaceinteriorview.
figure32

60
Theexterioroftheartistsstudiowillbemadeoutofbrickbutpainted

adarkgraytodifferentiateitfromthemainbuilding.Itllhaveawooden

deckwithapergolatohelpshadethesouthernexposure.Theentranceswill

bemoremodernwithallglass
(Seefigure33)
.Thesewillhaveexcellent

viewsofthecourtyard.ThenameofthestudiospacewillbeArtHouseand

hasitsownlogo
.

:StudioSpaceexteriorviewfromthecourtyard.
figure33

Basedoncasestudiesofmodernpublicmarkets,arestaurantwould

bethemostlikelyestablishmentbesidesthemarket,locatedatthenorthend

oftheproperty.Thestreetsideoftherestaurantwillusethewindowlined

facadeoftheoriginalbuilding
(Seefigure34)
.Alargeadditionontherear

willbeforrestroomsandbackofhouseoperations.Thisrestaurantwilluse

produce,seafood,poultryandmeatsfromlocalfarmsandresources.The

menuwoulduseseasonalingredientsacquiredfromthemarketrightoutside

thedoorandfeaturelocalwines.Thisestablishmentwillofferlunchand

dinnerinacasualbutsophisticatedambiance.Itshouldaccommodate

patronswhowanttofeelcomfortablewalkinginfromalongdayofboating

orgolfing,aswellasthosewhowanttoenjoyanelegantnightout.There

61
willbeafullservicebarthatservessmallplates,localwinesandbeer.There

isastreetentrance,marketentranceandonefromthecourtyard.During

warmermonthsoutdoorseatingwillbeavailableinfrontandinthe

courtyard.TherestaurantwillbecalledAnchorandhaveitsownlogo
.

:Restaurantviewexterior.
figure34

Fordecorativeelementsandmaterials,thereareelementsthatreflect

the1930sinstructionalvibe.Startingwiththefloor,Ihavehexagontilein

blackandwhiteinaclassicpattern.Forthewalls,someoriginalbrickis

exposedbutwoodpanelinginadarkbluefinishlinethewallsfromthe

baseboardtofivefeet.Forcontinuity,thebarbasealsousesdarkbluewood

paneling.Thesurfacetopsincludingthebarareahonedmarble,togiveita

traditionalpatina,commoninolderestablishments.Torecreatetheeras

look,oakisfeaturedinseveralfurniturepieceslikeThonetchairsand

barstools.Forthemetalrailsandlightfixtures,oilrubbedbronzewas

selected
(Seefigure35)
.

62

:Interiorviewoftherestaurant.
figure35

Inthecenterandheartofthebuildingisthemarketplace.Tomake

accesseasyforabusycommercialspace,twoentrydoorswereaddedtothe

originalwindowbaysfacingFigStreet/Eastside.Ontheoppositeside,two

doorswereaddedtothemostlyglassWestsidethatfacescourtyard.Onthe

interiorofthemarket,thelookisindustrial.Thefloorsareapolished

concreteandwallshaveexposedbrickwithwhitesubwaytileuphalfthe

wall.Thecabinetryandopenshelvesaremadeoutofahewedoaknativeto

Virginia.Theceilingisroughwithservicesandconduitexposed.Thelight

fixturesandfansarestainlesssteel
(Seefigure36)
.Thevendorsonthe

outeredgehavetraditionalcoldcaseswhilethevendorsinthecenterhave

standsmadefromreusedshippingpalettes.Agaragedoorislocatedonthe

southernsideofthemarket.Thiswasretainedfromtheoriginalbuilding

whenthemarketwastheshowroom.Itwillmakeforagoodpickupand

dropoffspotforvendors.

63

:Interiorviewoftherestaurant.
figure36

Workinginconcertwiththemarketistheoutdoorpavilion.The

pavilionislargeat70x30.Ithouses12semipermanentstands.Itismade

outofwoodandhasslatswithremovablescreens.Thereisagreenroofthat

growsherbsfortherestauranttoharvest
(Seefigure37).
Thespaceis

flexibleso,itcanberentedforevents.Thenameofthesemarketspacesis

Provisions.

:Exteriorviewofthepavilion.
figure37

Thecoffeeshopisonthesouthernsideandishousedintheformer

gasstationoffice.Inordertoaccommodaterestroomsandaservicecounter,

anadditionwasaddedontotherearofthebuilding.Windowsandadoors

64
wereaddedtothenewspacetoaccessthecourtyard.Thereisalargeglass

windowthatfacesthecornerofstreetcorner.Foradditionalseating,alarge

planterboxwithbencheswascreatedoutside
(Seefigure38)
.

:Exteriorviewofthecoffeeshop.
figure38

Formaterialsontheinterior,bluepaneling,hewedoakcabinetryand

shelves,andhonedmarblearereusedinthespace.Toaddaunique

element,colorfulblueandorangeSpanishtilewasusedonthefloor
(See

figure39)
.ThenameofthiscoffeeshopwillbeJosephsanditwillhaveits

ownlogo
.

:Exteriorviewofthecoffeeshop.
figure39

65
Abovethemarketisasmallspaceforprivateevents.Accesstothis

spaceislimited,thereisonlyonestairwellfromthemarketplace.Itequipped

withasmallkitchenavailableforusewithdoors.Thisspecialeventsspace

willbecalledTopHatandhaveitsownlogo
.

Formarketingandbrandingpurposes,3FigStreetwillhaveitsown

icons.ThelocationwillbereferredtoIceHouseandwillcontainfive

programmaticelementssuchasJosephsforthecoffeeshop,Provisions

forthemarketplaceandoutdoorpavilion,Anchorfortherestaurant,Top

HatfortheeventspaceandArtHouseforthestudiospaces
(Seefigure

40).
Fortheartworkusedintheicons,ithasaverydistinctivelook.Itis

reminiscentoftheVictorianErathatisapproximatelywhenthisbuildingwas

constructed.


figure40
:IconsfortheModernPublicMarket:ICEHOUSE
Includingitsdivisions:Josephs,Provisions,Anchor,TopHat,andArtHouse.

66
Conclusion

ThethrivingAmericanfoodculturehasledtotherebirthofpublic

marketsinrestoredhistoricbuildings.Publicmarkets,inturn,haverevived

strugglingurbanareas.Andtheycanalsoimbuesmallcommunitieswithnew

energy,culturalenrichment,andeconomicgrowth.

Foodunifiesusall,andthetableisaperfectgatheringplacefor

peoplefromallwalksoflife.Ourvigorousfoodculturehasstokedour

appetiteforauthenticityandaconnectionwithnaturalproducts.Markets

answerourdesiresbyconnectingpeople,community,andfood.

Althoughpublicmarketshavealonghistory,anewtwistonthemhas

comeabout.Modernpublicmarketsdoofferfood,buttheyalsoincorporate

restaurants,retailvenues,studiospaces,andareasforspecialevents.In

short,theyaredestinationsforentertainment.

Manyexistingmarketsprovidecasestudiesforbringingthebenefitsof

publicmarketstoasmalltown.FromLaBoqueriainBarcelonatoUnion

MarketinWashington,DC,marketscomeinalldifferentshapesandsizes.

ThemarketthatwasmostrelevantforthisprojectisTheShedin

Healdsburg,California.LocatedintheSonomawinecountry,TheShed

appliestheconceptofamodernpublicmarkettoasmallcommunity.It

dependsonthesurroundingpeopleforpatronageandinresponse,itserves

thecommunitybyprovidingspaceforlocalfarmers,artisans,andcraftsmen.

Asaresult,thecommunityhasahubtosupportlocallysourcedbusinesses,

consumetheirproductsandfeelgoodaboutit.

67
Thisgiveandtakeisespeciallyhelpfulforasmallcommunitythat

needsrevitalization.Suchasmalltownwasselectedbasedonthefollowing

criteria:

ClosetotheWashington,DC,Metroareabutbeyondcommuting

distance

AtouristdestinationliketheChesapeakeBayArea

Astrongartscommunity

Agriculturalroots

Ahistorictowncenterorbuildings

TheideallocationisCapeCharles,Virginia,ontheEasternShore.A

formertraindepotandshippingportfortheagriculturalindustry,thishistoric

townhasmanybuildingsinneedofrestoration,including3FigStreet.

OriginallybuiltasaDesotocardealership,this1930sbrickSpanishColonial

Revivalisanarrowbuildingonthefirstleftturnintotownandoneofthefirst

thingsyouseewhenyoucomeintohistoricCapeCharles.Thebuildingis

highlyvisiblesinceitfacesaconveniencestoryonabusycornerofMonroe

Street,thestartofthetownscommercialstrip
(Seefigure41)
.

figure41
:Streetmapoflocation.

68
Inordertocreateavibrant,multifacetedmarket,zoneswillbe

created,eachwithauniquerole.Thesefiveprogrammaticelementsarea

restaurant,acoffeeshop,aneventspace,astudiospace,andamarket.

Accommodatingthesespaceswillrequireadditionsthattakecirculationand

activitylevelintoaccount.Theoriginalbuildingwillbeleftintactwiththe

newspacesputtowardtherearoftheproperty.Therestaurantwillbe

locatedinthenortheastcornerofthebuildingwithanadditionattheback.

Themarketinthebuildingscenterwillhaveasmalladditionofftheback.

Andthecoffeeshopwillbeofftotheside,alsowithanadditionforservices

andrestrooms.Thestudiospaces,liketheoutdoorpavilion,willbe

completelynew.

ForthetownofCapeCharles,thisprojectcouldprovideadestination

spacethathonorstheregionshistoryandcontributionsacelebrationofall

thatisauthentic,beit,food,materialsorarchitecture.Byinvestinginnew

amenitiesandservices,CapeCharleswouldattractmoretouristsandtheir

business.Lesstangiblebutjustasimportantarethesocialconnectionsa

commonspacewouldfosteramongthelocals.Itwouldbeaplacewhere

peoplecometogetherformanypurposesbutcomeawaywithasingular

prideinthecommunitytheyshare.

69
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70
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71
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72
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73
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This website is Union Markets homepage. It features a timeline from
the original market to the present.

74