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AUTOMOTIVE GRASS CUTTER

A THESIS

Submitted in partial fulfilment of the

Requirements for the award of the degree

Of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
In

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
UNDER THE GUIDACE OF
Mr. PRADEEP BARTHWAL

UNDER TAKEN BY
AKASH MADAN (1328040006), AKASH SAXENA (1328040008), DEEPAK
SINGH (1328040018), GURPREET KAUR (1328040020), JAGJOT SINGH
(1328040024)

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


APEX INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Rampur-244901, Uttar Pradesh, INDIA
May, 2017
i
CERTIFICATE

I hereby declare that the work which is being presented in the Thesis entitled Automotive
Grass Cutter in the partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of
Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical Engineering and submitted to Department of
Mechanical Engineering, Apex Institute of Technology, Rampur, Uttar Pradesh, is authentic
record of my project work under the supervision of Mr. Pradeep Barthwal (H.O.D.),
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Apex Institute of Technology, Rampur, Uttar Pradesh.
The matter embodied in this project report is not being submitted for the award of any other
degree.

Mr. Pradeep Barthwal

(Project Guide) H.O.D.

(Department of ME)

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First and foremost thanks to God who blessed me with the potential and ability to complete this
project. This is to place on record my appreciation and deep gratitude to the persons without
whose support this would never see the light of day.

We take the privilege of expressing my deep sense of gratitude towards my college Apex
Institute of Technology, Mr. Pradeep Barthwal (H.O.D. Dept. of ME), and the whole staff of
Apex Institute of Technology for their wholehearted, intellectual, invaluable guidance.

The whole staffs are heartily thanked by us for the valuable guidance and encouragement
extended by them during the tenure of this report. We also wish to express my profound
feelings of gratitude to all the library staff at Apex Institute of Technology, who facilitated and
provided us kind help in searching the relevant material throughout our report. Their keen
interest, constant encourage, constructive criticism and valuable guidance has been driving
force throughout the project development.

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ABSTRACT

The design objective is to come up with a mower that is portable, durable, easy to
operate and maintain. It also aims to design a self- powered mower of mechanical
source; a cordless mechanical lawn mower. The heart of the machine is a motor bike. It
comprises of a system of speed multiplication pulleys which drive the cutting blades
and a lift mechanism meant to alter the height of cut. This is achieved by means of a
system of pulleys with minimal slip effect; collapsible blades to reduce the common
problem of wear. The use of collapsible blades and incorporation of an arrangement for
cutter make the design unique such that no electricity is involved. Performance test gave
a cutting efficiency of 89.55% with negligible human effort. Thus, the machine is
considered highly efficient and is readily adaptable to different cutting conditions.

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CONTENTS

Certificate..ii

Acknowledgementiii

Abstract.iv

List of figurevii

List of table.viii

1. Introduction...1-7
1.1 Types of Gras Cutters..2
1.1.1 By Rotation2
1.1.1.1 Cylindrical Cutters...2
1.1.1.2 Rotary Cutters..2
1.1.2 By Energy Sources.3
1.1.2.1 Gasoline...3
1.1.2.2 Electricity.3
1.1.2.3 Hand Operated.3
1.2 History.3
1.2.1 Invention3
1.2.2 Further Improvements4
1.3 Safety Issues6
1.4 Environmental Impact.6
1.5 Future Aspects.7
2. Literature review.8-22
3. Materials and Methods.23-29
3.1 Materials23
3.1.1 Blade23
3.1.2 Body Frame..23
3.1.3 Wheels..24
3.1.4 Rear Wheel Arrangement24
3.1.5 Gear Wheel Design..25
3.1.6 Shaft Design.25
3.1.7 Bearing Design.26
v
3.1.8 Specifications of Bike.27
3.2 Methodology Adopted...28
3.3 Assembly and Working.29
4. Result and discussion30
4.1 Result...30
4.2 Discussion..30
5. Conclusion...31
6. References..32-34

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LIST OF FIGURE

1.1 First lawn mower.4

1.2 Commercial lawn mower5

3.1 High-Carbon steel cutting blade23

3.2 Cutting frame with various equipped arrangements..23

3.3 Base frame with four wheels.24

3.4 Rear wheel arrangement24

3.5 Bevel gear..25

3.6 Shaft...26

3.7 Bearing design...26

3.8 TVS centra.27

3.9 Assembling the blade with shaft...28

3.10 Assembly of rear wheel arrangement..29

3.11 Assembly of trolley along with blade and wheels...29

vii
LIST OF TABLE

3.1 Specifications of Bike..27

viii
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
A Grass Cutter is a machine utilizing one or more revolving blades to cut a grass
surface to an even height. The height of the cut grass may be fixed by the design of the
mower, but generally is adjustable by the operator, typically by a single master lever, or
by a lever or nut and bolt on each of the machine's wheels. The blades may be powered
by muscle, with wheels mechanically connected to the cutting blades so that when the
mower is pushed forward, the blades spin, or the machine may have a battery-powered
or plug-in electric motor. The most common power source for lawn mowers is a small
(typically one cylinder) internal combustion engine. Smaller mowers often lack any
form of propulsion, requiring human power to move over a surface; "walk-behind"
mowers are self-propelled, requiring a human only to walk behind and guide them.
Larger grass cutter usually either self-propelled "walk-behind" types, or more often, are
"ride-on" mowers, equipped so the operator can ride on the mower and control it. A
grass cutter is designed to operate either entirely on its own, or less commonly by an
operator by remote control.
Powered rotary "push mower", which has self-powered cutting blades, but still requires
human power to move across the ground. "Walk-behind" mowers can be self-propelled,
only requiring a human to walk behind and guide the mower. Mowers of the type
displayed usually vary in width from 20 to 24 inches.
A lawn mower is a machine utilizing one or more revolving blades to cut a grass
surface to an even height. The height of the cut grass may be fixed by the design of the
mower, but generally is adjustable by the operator, typically by a single master lever, or
by a lever or nut and bolt on each of the machine's wheels. The blades may be powered
by muscle, with wheels mechanically connected to the cutting blades so that when the
mower is pushed forward, the blades spin, or the machine may have a battery-powered
or plug-in electric motor. The most common power source for lawn mowers is a small
(typically one cylinder) internal combustion engine. Smaller mowers often lack any
form of propulsion, requiring human power to move over a surface; "walk-behind"
mowers are self-propelled, requiring a human only to walk behind and guide them.
Larger lawn mowers are usually either self-propelled "walk-behind" types, or more
often, are "ride-on" mowers, equipped so the operator can ride on the mower and
control it. A robotic lawn mower is designed to operate either entirely on its own, or
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less commonly by an operator by remote control. Two main styles of blades are used in
lawn mowers. Lawn mowers employing a single blade that rotates about a single
vertical axis are known as rotary mowers, while those employing a cutting bar and
multiple blade assembly that rotates about a single horizontal axis are known as cylinder
or reel mowers (although in some versions, the cutting bar is the only blade, and the
rotating assembly consists of flat metal pieces which force the blades of grass against
the sharp cutting bar).There are several types of mowers, each suited to a particular
scale and purpose. The smallest types, unpowered push mowers, are suitable for small
residential lawns and gardens. Electrical or piston engine-powered push-mowers are
used for larger residential lawns (although there is some overlap). Riding mowers,
which sometimes resemble small tractors, are larger than push mowers and are suitable
for large lawns, although commercial riding lawn mowers (such as zero-turn mowers)
can be "stand-on" types, and often bear little resemblance to residential lawn tractors,
being designed to mow large areas at high speed in the shortest time possible. The
largest multi-gang (multi-blade) mowers are mounted on tractors and are designed for
large expanses of grass such as golf courses and municipal parks, although they are ill-
suited for complex terrain.

1.1 Types of Grass cutters


1.1.1 By Rotation:

1.1.1.1 Cylindrical Cutters:-

A cylinder mower or reel mower carries a fixed, horizontal cutting blade at the desired
height of cut. Over this is a fast-spinning reel of blades which force the grass past the
cutting bar. Each blade in the blade cylinder forms a helix around the reel axis, and the
set of spinning blades describes a cylinder.

1.1.1.2 Rotary Cutters:-


A rotary mower rotates about a vertical axis with the blade spinning at high speed
relying on impact to cut the grass. This tends to result in a rougher cut and bruises and
shreds the grass leaf resulting in discolouration of the leaf ends as the shredded portion
dies. This is particularly prevalent if the blades become clogged or blunt. Most rotary
mowers need to be set a little higher than cylinder equivalents to avoid scalping and
gouging of slightly uneven lawns, although some modern rotaries are fitted with a rear

2
roller to provide a more formal striped cut. These machines will also tend to cut lower
(13 mm) than a standard four-wheeled rotary.

1.1.2 By Energy Source


1.1.2.1 Gasoline (Petrol):
Extensive grass trimming was not common before the widespread application of the
vertical shaft single cylinder gasoline/petrol engine. In the United States this
development paralleled the market penetration of companies such as the Briggs and
Stratton Company of Wisconsin.
1.1.2.2 Electricity:
Electric mowers are further subdivided into corded and cordless electric models. Both
are relatively quiet, typically producing less than 75 decibels, while a gasoline lawn
mower can be 95 decibels or more.
1.1.2.3 Hand Operated:
While considered antiquated in modern times, the original type of push-powered reel
mowers are still available. The reel is attached to the mower's wheels by gears, so that
when the mower is pushed forward, the reel spins several times faster than the rubber-
tired wheels turn. These types of reel mowers offer the benefit of zero pollution being
produced. Since all of the energy necessary comes from the user however, this method
of mowing is the most strenuous and is not recommended for large lawns. Depending
on the placement of the reel, these mowers often cannot cut grass very close to lawn
obstacles, like trees, driveways, edging, etc., and also require a very smooth lawn
surface to operate properly without bottoming out the cutter bar.

1.2 HISTORY
1.2.1 Invention
The first lawn mower was invented by Edwin Budding in 1830 in Thrupp, just
outside Stroud, in Gloucestershire, England. Budding's mower was designed primarily
to cut the grass on sports grounds and extensive gardens, as a superior alternative to
the scythe, and was granted a British patent on August 31, 1830.
Budding's first machine was 19 inches (480 mm) wide with a frame made of wrought
iron. The mower was pushed from behind. Cast-irongear wheels transmitted power from
the rear roller to the cutting cylinder, allowing the rear roller to drive the knives on the
cutting cylinder; the ratio was 16:1. Another roller placed between the cutting cylinder
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and the main or land roller could be raised or lowered to alter the height of cut. The
grass clippings were hurled forward into a tray-like box. It was soon realized, however,
that an extra handle was needed in front to help pull the machine along. Overall, these
machines were remarkably similar to modern mowers.
Two of the earliest Budding machines sold went to Regent's Park Zoological Gardens in
London and the Oxford Colleges. In an agreement between John Ferrabee and Edwin
Budding dated May 18, 1830, Ferrabee paid the costs of enlarging the small blades,
obtained letters of patent and acquired rights to manufacture, sell and license other
manufacturers in the production of lawn mowers. Without patent, Budding and Ferrabee
were shrewd enough to allow other companies to build copies of their mower under
license, the most successful of these being Ransomes of Ipswich, which began making
mowers as early as 1832.

Fig 1.1 First Lawn Mower

His machine was the catalyst for the preparation of modern-style sporting ovals, playing
fields (pitches), grass courts, etc. This led to the codification of modern rules for many
sports, including for football, lawn bowls, lawn tennis and others.

1.2.2 Further Improvements:


It took ten more years and further innovations to create a machine that could be drawn
by animals, and sixty years before a steam-powered lawn mower was built. In the
1850s, Thomas Green & Son of Leeds introduced a mower called the Silens Messor
(meaning silent cutter), which used a chain drive to transmit power from the rear roller
to the cutting cylinder. These machines were lighter and quieter than the gear-driven
machines that preceded them, although they were slightly more expensive. The rise in

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popularity of lawn sports helped prompt the spread of the invention. Lawn mowers
became a more efficient alternative to the scythe and domesticated grazing animals.
Manufacture of lawn mowers took off in the 1860s. By 1862, Ferrabee's company was
making eight models in various roller sizes. He manufactured over 5000 machines until
production ceased in 1863. The first grass boxes were flat trays but took their present
shape in the 1860s. James Sumner of Lancashire patented the first steam-powered lawn
mower in 1893. His machine burned petrol and/or paraffin (kerosene) as fuel. These
were heavy machines that took several hours to warm up to operating pressure. After
numerous advances, these machines were sold by the Stott Fertilizer and Insecticide
Company of Manchester and Sumner. The company they both controlled was called
the Leyland Steam Motor Company.
Around 1900, one of the best known English machines was the Ransomes' Automaton,
available in chain- or gear-driven models. Numerous manufacturers entered the field
with petrol (gasoline) engine-powered mowers after the start of the 20th century. The
first was produced by Ransomes in 1902. JP Engineering of Leicester, founded
after World War I, produced a range of very popular chain-driven mowers. About this
time, an operator could ride behind animals that pulled the large machines. These were
the first riding mowers.

Fig.1.2 Commercial lawn mower in use April 1930 in Berlin.


The first United States patent for a reel lawn mower was granted to Amariah Hills on
January 12, 1868. In 1870, Elwood McGuire of Richmond, Indiana designed a human-
pushed lawn mower, which was very lightweight and a commercial success. John Burr
patented an improved rotary-blade lawn mower in 1899, with the wheel placement
altered for better performance. Amariah Hills went on to found the Archimedean Lawn
Mower Co. in 1871.
In the United States, gasoline-powered lawn mowers were first manufactured in 1914
by Ideal Power Mower Co. of Lansing, Michigan, based on a patent by Ransom E.
Olds. Ideal Power Mower also introduced the world's first self-propelled, riding lawn
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tractor in 1922, known as the "Triplex." The roller-drive lawn mower has changed very
little since around 1930. Gang mowers, those with multiple sets of blades to cut a wider
swath, were built in the United States in 1919 by the Worthington Mower Company.
In the 1920s one of the most successful companies to emerge during this period was
Atco, at that time a brand name of Charles H Pugh Ltd. The Atco motor mower,
launched in 1921 was an immediate success. Just 900 of the 22-inch-cut machines were
made in 1921, each costing 75. Within five years, annual production had accelerated to
tens of thousands. Prices were reduced and a range of sizes was available, making the
Standard the first truly mass-produced engine-powered mower.

1.3 Safety Issues


Rotary mowers can throw out debris with extreme velocity and energy. Additionally,
the blades of a self-powered push mower (gasoline or electric) can injure a careless or
inattentive user; as such, many come equipped with a dead man's switch to immediately
disable the blade rotation when the user is no longer holding the handle. In the United
States, over 12,000 people per year are hospitalized as a result of lawn mower
accidents. The vast majority of these injuries can be prevented by wearing protective
footwear when mowing. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that
children be at least 12 years old before they are allowed to use a walk-behind lawn
mower and at least 16 years of age before using a riding mower. They also should
demonstrate proper judgment and maturity. Persons using a mower should wear heavy
footwear, eye protection, and hearing protection in the case of engine-powered mowers.

1.4 Environmental Impact


A 2001 study showed that some mowers produce the same amount of pollution
(emissions other than carbon dioxide) in one hour as driving a 1992 model vehicle for
650 miles (1,050 km). Another estimate puts the amount of pollution from a lawn
mower at four times the amount from a car, per hour, although this report is no longer
available. Beginning in 2011, the United States Environmental Protection Agency set
standards for lawn equipment emissions and expects a reduction of at least 35 percent.
Mowers also create significant noise pollution, and could cause hearing loss if used
without hearing protection. This can be avoided through the use of reel mowers or by
using cheap, easily obtainable hearing protection such as earplugs or earmuffs.

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1.5 Future Aspects
In future we will be only princes and princesses, at least at our homes where these
cutters will be our servants and will take care of all grass in our lawns. No grass lawn
will be unkempt and human will not have the stress that predicts a tedious task. The
conflict between a wire of grass and a cutter full of strength will end in only one way
a perfect lawn.

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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

Glenn W. Burton (1951) [Ref. 1]:This chapter discusses the adaptability and breeding of
suitable grasses for the south-eastern states in the United States. Accurately evaluating grasses
for pastures is a difficult and an expensive operation. Most agronomists begin the task by
planting the grasses in rows or plots in pure stand. There they are allowed to grow undisturbed,
and if they fail to survive the first 12 months, they are usually written off as having no value.
Dallis grass, recognized as one of the best pasture grasses in the south, makes a poor showing
in such a planting. Plantings of Dallis grass at Tifton, Georgia, which were never grazed or
mowed, were found to make good growth during the first part of the summer, but died out by
fall. The combined effect of the foliage diseases that build up in the accumulated mass of
leaves and the heading process was thought to be responsible for these results. Tall fescue,
another promising grass in the south, makes a poor record in such a planting if it is not well
fertilized. This chapter describes the problem of evaluating grasses. Different types of grasses
are discussed in detail in the chapter.

Thomas Zane (1980) [Ref.2]:The effects of training using visual modelling prompts as pre-
response and as error-correction prompting and a combination of both procedures were
examined by teaching vocational rehabilitation clients the construction of three assembly tasks.
Clients learned to assemble a carburettor, a bicycle brake, and a lawn mower engine on 3
consecutive days. On the first 2 days, all clients learned either two tasks by pre-response
prompting, or two tasks by error-correction prompting, or one task by each prompting method.
All clients learned a transfer task on the third day by error-correction prompting. Pre-response
prompting resulted in fewer total errors and more trials on tasks 1 and 2. There were no
statistical differences in training time between the two methods, although there was a trend
toward less time for pre-response prompting. The combination group demonstrated superior
performance on total errors and number of trials on the transfer task. Data for retention and
relearning indicated no significant differences.

T.E.T. Bond(1981) [Ref.3]:Intensive recording of c. 380 m2 of an impoverished garden lawn


on the western outskirts of Bristol (v-c. 6), three times a month for a period of 7 years, yielded
well over 10,000 sporophores belonging to nearly 90 species of macro-fungi. Their status in the
community is briefly indicated and, for the principal species, their seasonal productivity and
behaviour in successive years is discussed in relation to meteorological influences, chiefly
8
rainfall and temperature. Further aspects of fruiting behaviour and any special problems in
identification and nomenclatureare discussed for 68 species individually.

A. Dartnall (1982) [Ref.4]: The advent of microelectronics has enabled designers to


incorporate considerably more functional capability and flexibility into products than was
previously possible. Technical capabilities are no longer major constraints and designers are
finding it increasingly difficult to choose between a vast range of alternatives. In an effort to
narrow the range, designers are turning to behavioural scientists in marketing, ergonomics and
psychology to guide them when selecting functions, specifying operating procedures and
selecting components. This paper illustrates the application of human factors techniques to the
analysis of problems with existing consumer products and to the synthesis of novel designs
incorporating advanced microelectronics components. Within this general theme the paper
concentrates on the design of a particular product the central heating timer/programmer.

M. Vojtecky (1988) [Ref.5]: An observational study was performed to asses the nature and
relative frequency of special circumstances of nursing which might contribute to occupational
back pain and of preventive methods unique to nursing practice. The activities of 63 nurses
were observed and coded in a behavioural scoring system. The group included registered
nurses, licensed vocational nurses, aides and orderlies, and they worked in several different
nursing units including intensive care units, medical/surgical units, post-anesthesia room and
delivery room. Physical obstruction to easy contact with patients and fragile, extended
attachments to patients were the most frequently observed problems. Mechanical assist devices,
although available, were rarely employed. Assistance by a second staff member was the most
commonly used preventive method. Such information is valuable for worker training
programme design, job design and guiding priorities for future research.

D.B. Chaffin (1989) [Ref.6]:A technique is described for monitoring and analysis of the
angular displacement of the human torso. The technique is based on the use of miniature
electromechanical inclinometers and video recording. The system was developed for
continuous measurement of the angular displacement of spinal segments in the sagittal plane
during all stages of lifting. Angular displacements of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar regions
were obtained from a dynamic lifting case study using a digital processing system. The
geometrical changes of the torso during five prescribed stages were measured.The system
revealed good accuracy with high correlation coefficient scores for a wide range of lifting tasks
in a comparative laboratory study. This paper describes the monitoring technique; the system's
advantages, disadvantages and measuring accuracy are discussed.
9
J.H. Goldberg (1989) [Ref.7]:Accounting for nearly half of all work-related farm tractor
injuries annually, tractor side and rear overturn continue to be an ongoing problem. The causes
of both side and rear overturns may be grouped into design-related and human factors-related
categories. This review addresses the latter, highlighting those information processing
bottlenecks, some of which may be aided through training or stability indicator devices. It is
argued that tractor instability must first be perceived before a corrective response may be taken.
Evidence was drawn from orientation perception, tractor rollover response time, and driving
studies to describe an overall model of the tractor operator attempting to stay within stable
operating conditions. With this more precise model of the tractor operator, a foundation is
provided for further research on the operator-tractor interface.

S. Mason (1990) [Ref.8]:The maintenance of plant and equipment is costly and can be arduous
and hazardous; and yet very little ergonomics attention has been directed to these jobs and, in
particular, to designing machines to be safely and speedily maintained. A new maintainability
index has been developed and assessed in the UK mining industry. By applying the index the
attention of ergonomists and engineers can be focused on those maintenance tasks and
ergonomics factors which score high on safety and performance. Improved designs can then be
synthesized using the index and assessed for their impact on machine availability. The index
can also be used in product selection.

K.R. Parkes (1994) [Ref.9]:This article reports two studies which examine the role of social
support in the context of the demanddiscretion theory of job stress, with particular reference to
additive versus interactive models. In Study I, data from a heterogeneous sample of health-care
workers (N = 145) were analysed using regression methods; after control for demographic
factors, occupational group, and negative affectivity, job satisfaction was predicted by the main
effect of support (p < .001), and by the demand discretion interaction (p = .04). In contrast,
somatic symptoms were predicted by a three-way demand discretion support interaction
(p < .02), support mitigating the adverse effects of high strain as compared with low strain
conditions. In Study II, longitudinal data from a homogeneous sample (N = 180) student
teachers) were analysed using a similar predictive model to examine Time 2 somatic
symptoms, controlling for Time 1 levels. Again, the demand discretion support interaction
was significant (p < .05); its form was closely similar to that found in Study I. These results are
discussed in relation to the existing literature, with reference to theoretical and methodological
issues.

10
Dov Zohar (1994) [Ref.10]:Job stress in the hotel industry has been little investigated, despite
indications of its prevalence. The purpose of the present study was to identify stressors that
affect role strain the most, using multiple-regression techniques, and derive a stressor profile in
relation to each o f the major aspects of role strain. Using a stratified sample of hotel employees
(i.e. line employees, middle management, and upper management) it is shown that role
ambiguity and low decision-latitude affect global symptoms the most, whereas ambiguity and
workload affect specific symptoms of stress having to do with powerlessness. Role conflict,
surprisingly, had no independent effect on symptoms. Both profiles are interpreted to form a
coherent pattern pointing at employee empowerment at all three levels as the focal issue of the
job stress in this industry. Since this tie with current approaches to service quality, the
possibility is raised for developing integrated strategies for improving both.

D.J. Williams (2000) [Ref.11]: Concern over the levels of pollutants emitted from small
engines has led to recent legislation in the United States that regulates exhaust emissions from
lawn and garden equipment. Particular attention has focused on the high levels of hydrocarbons
emitted by these engines. The present study establishes emission factors for lawn-mowers in
use in Australia. The estimates were calculated on the basis of a series of controlled emission
tests conducted on commonly used lawn-mowers. Ten two-stroke and six four-stroke lawn-
mower engines were operated under simulated power requirements while fuel usage and gas
emissions were monitored. Fuel consumption rates from the tests were compared to those
ascertained under actual mowing conditions in field tests conducted on 19 two-stroke and ten
four-stroke lawn-mowers. Basic emission factors were established for CO, CO2, CH4, NMHC
and NOx, and combined with data on machine population and annual usage collected in a
survey of lawn care practices and lawn-mower usage conducted in the Newcastle area. When
compared to transport sources in the Newcastle study region, lawn-mowers contribute 5.2 and
11.6% of CO and NMHC emissions, respectively.

Laurence R. Horn (2000) [Ref.12]:Geis and Zwicky's squib on conditional perfection


(1971) released a hornet's nest of rebuttal and counter-rebuttal into the pragmatic atmosphere,
with many scholars in the area playing alternately the roles of stinger and stingier. Geis and
Zwicky's goal was to explain the notorious tendency among introductory logic students. In an
overlapping pair of studies, van der Auwera (1997a,b) has recently contributed a
comprehensive survey of the literature on conditional perfection before and since Geis and
Zwicky as a microcosm of the development of post-Gricean pragmatic theory. While agreeing
with van der Auwera on the centrality of themove for contemporary pragmatics, I will critique
11
his treatment and offer my own perspective on the data and their ramifications, along with an
expanded history that touches on the manifestations of conditional perfection and related
inferential fallacies addressed in philosophical treatises, empirical psycholinguistic studies, and
self-help primers. By extending the data base to include counterfactuals and other non-
predictive conditionals, I will also present problems for Dancygier and Sweetser's (1997)
alternative recent account of the CP phenomenon within the mental-spaces framework. The
overall focus will be on the implications for the theory of conversational implicature, and in
particular of R-based pragmatic strengthening, that can be drawn from the conditions on - and
motivation for - conditional perfection.

Mohan D Rao (2003) [Ref.13]:In this paper, the application of passive damping technology
using viscoelastic materials to control noise and vibration in vehicles and commercial airplanes
is described. Special damped laminates and spray paints suitable for mass production and
capable of forming with conventional techniques are now manufactured in a continuous manner
using advanced processes. These are widely used in the automotive and aerospace industry in a
variety of applications to reduce noise and vibration and to improve interior sound quality.
Many of these recent applications are not readily available for dissemination in academe and
archival literature. It is hoped that the material presented in this paper will be useful for
instruction and further research in developing new and innovative applications in other
industries.

Hooman Estelami (2004) [Ref.14]: Existing research in pricing has not extensively examined
the impact of the product category on consumers knowledge of prices, especially for durable
goods. In two empirical studies, this paper examines the influence of the product category on
consumers knowledge of prices for durables. The first study utilizes data from the popular
television game show The Price is Right to establish significant cross-category variations in
price knowledge, while the second study links these variations to the specific characteristics of
each product category. The results extend existing research findings by isolating the impact of
product category determinants, such as purchase frequency, advertising exposure, and use of
the pricequality cue, on consumers knowledge of prices.

C. Forza(2005) [Ref.15]:Despite the undeniable appeal and importance of coordinating


decisions across products design, manufacturing process design, and supply chain design to
both science and practice, we know very little about how to do so to maximize operational,
supply chain, and firm performance. This special issue on Coordinating Product Design,

12
Process Design, and Supply Chain Design Decisions was conceived early 2003 to bring
awareness to and to spur scholarly research into this topic. In doing so, we cast a wide net from
both content and methodological perspectives, encouraging interdisciplinary papers that were
theory-building and/or theory-testing in purpose using either empirical-based (e.g., case
research, survey research, historical research, etc.) and/or modelling (i.e., optimization or
simulation) methodologies.The resulting seven papers represent the fruits of this harvest and
are being presented in two consecutive parts. Whereas Part A introduces the three papers that
speak to the performance implications of coordinating product design, manufacturing process
design, and supply chain design decisions, Part B introduces the remaining four papers that
address how and why these three decision areas can be coordinated. Included in Part A of this
special issue, we also make the review process transparent for third-party evaluation and, more
importantly, formally recognize and thank the numerous colleagues from across multiple
disciplines and academic institutions around the world for their efforts in helping us produce
this two-part special issue.

Sandor M. Veres (2005) [Ref.16]:The paper provides a review and addresses the problem of
creating a modular hardware system that can be effortlessly reconfigured by developers of
autonomous intelligent control systems for mission type task execution in realtime physical
environments. The idea is to allow for a common hardware platform which enables algorithmic
results to be compared, accumulated and properly assessed by the research community. Such a
single platform can then be used by researchers of autonomous systems in their research to
speed up progress.

F. Baralli (2006) [Ref.17]: Recognizing the potential of autonomous underwater vehicles for
scientific and military applications, in 1997 MIT and the NATO Undersea Research Centre
initiated a Joint Research Project (GOATS), for the development of environmentally adaptive
robotic technology applicable to mine counter measures (MCM) and rapid environmental
assessment (REA) in coastal environments. The August 2001 GOATS Conference marked the
end of this 5 years project, but did not mark the end of the work. The Centre initiated in 2002 a
new long-term programme to explore and demonstrate the operational benefits and
performances of AUV for covert preparation of the battlespace. Recently the work addressed
the evaluation of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) AUV technology for MCM operations in
response to terrorist mining of port. The paper summarizes the work performed and refers to
the scientific publications derived from the AUV programme at the NATO Undersea Research
Centre.
13
Egisto DAndrea (2006) [Ref.18]:Public and private sport turf grass fields in areas with a
Mediterranean climate are largely based on cool-season grasses. The widespread use of these
turf grasses in such environments has been ascribed to their availability on the seed market. The
large number of cool-season cultivars of all turf species is generally released in northern
Europe, Canada and the USA. Thus, the appropriate use of turf for implanting lawns requires
field evaluation of the genotypes in sites with a Mediterranean climate to assess the behaviour
of cultivars during the growing period. Our study aimed to evaluate the adaptability and quality
of the most popular varieties of cool-season turf grass species in a Mediterranean site in
southern Italy. Forty varieties of perennial ryegrass, 20 Kentucky bluegrass and tall fescue
and10 cultivars for each species of creeping red, chewing red and slender creeping red fescue,
were evaluated for 5 years in a replicated experimental block group design. On the varieties of
each species turf quality, colour and cover were determined by using a visual score (19),
assessed monthly from January to December, from 1999 to 2003. Kentucky bluegrass achieved
lower scores in turf quality, colour and cover in winter, spring and autumn, and red fescue
subspecies in spring and summer, than perennial ryegrass and tall fescue. Perennial ryegrass
and tall fescue genotypes were better able than those of Kentucky bluegrass to cope with the
climatic condition. The establishment of the varieties to the environment is determined by
cluster analysis which identified for each trait of all turf grass species, a group of varieties with
superior performance and adaptability to cope in Mediterranean environmental conditions.

Zulquernain Mallick (2008) [Ref.19]:Handarm vibration syndrome (HAVS) is very


common among workers operating power tools and performing similar work for extended
period of time. Grass trimming involves the use of motorized cutter spinning at high speed,
resulting in high levels of handarm vibration (HAV) among the machine operators. In this
study the influence of handlehand interaction of a grass trimming machine (GTM) is
evaluated based on different hand positions of operator during operation. Besides, several
operating parameters (length of nylon cutting thread, engine speed and sway angle) are
investigated in terms of HAV. Three handlehand positions (HHPs) are studied that are
generally adopted by the GTM operators during their work. Data are analysed via orthogonal
array, main effect, signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, and analysis of variance to determine the
appropriate operating parameter levels and HHP to minimize HAV. HHPs and operating
parameters under investigation are found to be influential in controlling HAV generation during
grass trimming operation. Experiments are carried out for measuring hand vibration using a tri-
axial accelerometer conforming the effectiveness of this approach. It is shown that among the

14
three HHPs considered in this study, optimum result in terms of HAV is 2.42 m/s2. Moreover
results show that 170 mm length of nylon thread, 3000400 rpm of engine speed and 45 of
sway angle combination results in minimum HAV (HARM) of magnitude 2.42 m/s2. Through
this study not only the optimal operating parameter levels for GTM are obtained, but also the
main process parameters that affect the HAV are determined. The optimum HAV obtained
through appropriate selection of HHP and operating parameters significantly reduces the
occurrence of HAVS among the grass trimmers.

Jianzhong Tang (2009) [Ref.20]:Dredger is the most important equipment in port construction
and waterway reclamation projects. This paper presents a complete scheme for monitoring and
control of cutter suction dredgers. The proposed scheme has introduced a hierarchical structure;
in the topmost level a knowledge based system is designed to realize overall optimization,
coordinated control and fault handling; in the process control level a couple of controllers are
designed. This paper gives detailed introduction to the design of the knowledge processing
mechanism, and also the control algorithms for the slurry concentration and slurry velocity,
these are the most important aspects in dredging operations. Implementation examples on
newly constructed dredgers are finally presented. Software is developed to control the
hydraulic driven movements, engine system and also the slurry transportation system. Overall
optimization and fault processing tasks are also carried out by software developed. Experiment
results carried out on site are presented and compared in the last; it is verified through actual
operations that the proposed monitoring and control scheme can achieve acceptable
performance; a much smoother dredging process is achieved.

Conrad Bock (2010) [Ref.21]:This paper shows how to combine ontological and model-based
techniques in languages that facilitate collaborative design exploration. The proposed approach
uses ontology to capture alternative designs and incremental refinements that meet
requirements and earlier design commitments. It uses ontologys open world semantics to
support design collaboration with flexible and accurate design combination, refinement, and
consistency checking. It also leads to more reliable interpretation of models across the product
lifecycle due to more rigorous language semantics. An example language is described using
these techniques.

James A. Brickley (2010) [Ref.22]:This paper argues that academics, politicians, and the
media have six commonly held but misguided beliefs about corporate governance.
While Armstrong et al. (2010) discuss some of these misconceptions, a wider recognition that

15
these beliefs are actually myths is important. They include:- a common definition of
corporate governance exists; a useful distinction is internal versus external governance
mechanisms; outside directors perform two separable roles: to advise and monitor managers;
research has identified good and bad governance practices; a good governance index
can be constructed; and corporate governance best practices can be deduced from peer data.

Zaidi MohdRipin (2011) [Ref.23]:Prolonged use of electric grass trimmer exposes the user to
the risk of hand-arm vibration syndrome. A simple approach for the suppression of hand-arm
vibration in electric grass trimmer is presented. The proposed system is a tuned vibration
absorber (TVA). Modal analysis and operating deflection shape analysis of the electric grass
trimmer were carried out and a TVA was designed and fabricated for testing. The results
indicated that minimum vibration level was related to the position of the TVA on the shaft of
electric grass trimmer. The TVA was found to have best performance with 95% reduction on
the acceleration level at position 0.025L. The results from modal analysis and operating
deflection shape revealed that the presence of TVA has successfully reduced the large
deformations of the handle where the node was shifted nearer to the handle location. The effect
of TVA was also evaluated during field test involving grass trimming operation and subjective
rating. The results indicated that average reduction of frequency-weighted rms acceleration in
the Z-axis was 84% and 72% in X-axis for the cutting operation. For the no cutting operation,
the reduction is 82% in Z-axis and 67% in X-axis. The presence of TVA in the electric grass
trimmer has amplified the vibration level in Y-axis by 19% (no cutting) and 21% (cutting).
From the field test, subjective rating of vibration perception consistently rate better for
controlled electric grass trimmer.

Catherine Chapman (2011) [Ref.24]:Horse riders represent a significant group of vulnerable


road user and are involved in a number of accidents and near misses on the road. Despite this
horse riders have received little attention both in terms of academic research and transport
policy. Based on literature on vulnerable road user safety, including attitudes to road user safety
and behaviour of drivers and their relationship with cyclists and motorcyclists, this paper
examines the attitudes and reported behaviour of drivers and horse riders. A total of 46
participants took part in six focus groups divided into four groups of drivers with little or no
horse riding experience and two groups of frequent horse riders. Each group investigated five
key topic areas stemming from the literature review on vulnerable road users including hazard
perception, risk perception, emotion, attitudes to sharing the road and empathy. It was found
that drivers and horse riders are not always aware of the same hazards in the road and that this
16
may lead drivers to under-estimate the risk when encountering horses. Drivers often had good
intentions to overtake horses safely, but were unaware of how vulnerable passing very wide
and slow made them feel until they had begun the manoeuvre and hence quickly reduced such
feelings either by speeding up or cutting in too soon. However, other than this, drivers had
good skills when encountering horses. But these skills could be impeded by frustration when
encountering a slow moving horse which was further compounded by a feeling, mainly by
younger drivers, that horse riding was for leisure and as such should not get in the way of
necessary work journeys. There is a need for drivers to be more aware of the potential hazards a
horse rider faces on the road and these could be achieved through inducing empathy amongst
drivers for horse riders, creating nudges for drivers in the environment and better education for
drivers.

E. Omerdic (2012) [Ref.25]:Majority are ROVs underwater vehicles with relatively slow
dynamics virtually providing a ROV pilot extra time to perform other tasks, such as inspections
and arm operation. However, with many tasks performed simultaneously with flying the
relevant information is typically dispersed on a number of screens overloading the pilot's visual
channel. Therefore, mishaps are likely to occur. To improve pilots perception of its
surroundings and to unload their visual channel, a new method called AD AR (Audio
Augmented Reality) which combines the concept of Augmented Reality with virtual audio-
video user interface, is proposed. In this paper, the feasibility of proposed method used as an
aiding tool for navigation is investigated. All experiments are performed on the state-of-the-art,
realistic ROV simulator developed by Mobile & Marine Robotics Research Centre, ECE
Department, University of Limerick, Ireland.

Zaidi Mohd Ripin (2013) [Ref.26]:Imposing node technique is applied to the grass trimmer
shaft in order to achieve very low vibration (node) at the handle location. The optimum tuning
frequencies of the two tuned vibration absorbers (TVAs) attached at 0.74L and 0.85L along the
shaft of the grass trimmer are determined using the imposing node technique. Transverse
deflection, experimental modal analysis and operating deflection shape analysis of the grass
trimmer were carried out, and the results indicated that nearly zero deflection (node) was
induced at the position very close the loop handle location. Moreover, the vibration along the
segment of the shaft (0.70L0.94L) was also found to have relatively small amplitude. The
TVAs were found to have best performance with 71% reduction on the frequency weighted rms
acceleration at the loop handle and 72% for the rear handle. The results from the experimental
modal analysis and operating deflection shape revealed that the presence of the two TVAs has
17
successfully reduced the large deformations of the loop and rear handle where the node was
shifted nearer to the handle location. The effects of TVAs were also evaluated during the field
test involving grass trimming operation and subjective rating. The results indicated that average
reduction of frequency-weighted rms acceleration was by 25%, 69%, 17%, 58% in X, Y, Z- axes
and vibration total value respectively during the cutting operation. From the field test,
subjective rating of vibration perception consistently rate better for the controlled grass
trimmer.
Arda Kurt (2013) [Ref.27]:This paper proposes a system architecture, related design
approaches for autonomous mobile systems and guidelines for self-sufficient autonomy.
Development of a tiered layout for a hybrid-state control in a series of stages as well as the
integration of such a controller in the overall autonomy structure are proposed and
demonstrated as part of multiple examples, including The Ohio State University participation in
DARPA Urban Challenge 2007. The hierarchical layout and the iterative design methodology
enable a certain level of design flexibility for the overall system and preparation for various
contingencies, as illustrated on specific development cycles.
Hilaal Alam (2013) [Ref.28]:Thermal management and energy crisis have been two major
problems in this 21st century. The thermoelectric concept is seen as a perfect solution for the
both issues provided its figure of merit is large enough to compete with the traditional
techniques. Since the use of semiconductor materials for thermoelectric applications, there has
been a huge quest for improving its figure of merits (ZT) to cross 3 in order to make it
commercially viable. This review starts with thermoelectric concepts and explains briefly the
challenges in enhancing the figure of merits. It also reports the various approaches adopted in
bulk materials, complex structures and the recent nanostructures to circumvent the
interdependency of parameters in achieving higher ZT. It ends with discussion of the future
trends of nanocomposite materials and its underlying challenges of fabrication.Dominik
Schwarz,september2016.An integrated refining and pulping process for ensiled biomass from
permanent grassland was established on laboratory scale. The liquid phase, containing the
majority of water-soluble components, including 24% of the initial dry matter (DM), was first
separated by mechanical pressing. The fibres fraction was subjected to high solid load
scarification (25% DM) to enhance the lignin content in the feed for subsequent organ
solvation. The scarification enzymes were pre-selected applying experimental design
approaches. Cellulose convertibility was improved by a secondary pressing step during
liquefaction. Combined scarification and organ solvation showed high degree of saccharide
solubilisation with recovery of 98% of the glucan and 73% of the xylem from the fibres

18
fraction in the hydrolysates, and enabled the recovery of 41% of the grass silage lignin. The
effects of the treatment were confirmed by XRD and SEM tracking of cellulose crystallinity
and fibres morphology throughout the pulping procedure.

Kai Tang (2017) [Ref.29]:Five-axis flank milling has been commonly used in the
manufacturing of complex workpieces because of its greater productivity than that of three-axis
or five-axis end milling. The advantage of this milling operation largely depends on effective
cutter location planning. The finished surface sometimes suffers from large geometrical errors
induced by improper tool positioning, due to the non-develop ability of most ruled surfaces in
industrial applications. In addition, a slender flank-milling cutter may be deflected when
subjected to large cutting forces during the machining process, further degrading the surface
quality or even breaking the cutter. This paper proposes a novel tool path planning scheme to
address those problems. A simple but effective algorithm is developed to adaptively allocate a
series of cutter locations over the design surface with each one being confined within an
angular rotation range. The allocation result satisfies a given constraint of geometrical errors on
the finished surface, which consists of the tool positioning errors at each cutter location and the
sweeping errors between consecutive ones. In addition, a feed rate scheduling algorithm is
proposed to maximize the machining efficiency subject to the cutting force constraint and the
kinematical constraints of a specific machine configuration. Simulation and experimental tests
are conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms. Both the machining
efficiency and finish surface quality are greatly improved compared with conventional cutter
locations.
Arvind A. Daya (Dec 18, 2012) [30]: A rail train actuated energy generating device for the use
along the path of a trains includes Y type actuator arm members for transverse disposed,
parallel to rail tracks in a module mounted to the ground, the bottom of each of the actuator arm
is tied to a shaft in the module with a one way clutch gears in the module's oil bath. As the train
passes the actuator arms are pushed by V type attachments mounted to the edge of train's
undercarriage parallel to the rail, thereby moving the actuator arms randomly as train passes.
This motion of the actuator arm turns the shaft of the actuator arm with the one way clutch
locked turning the gear in the module, thus turning the adjacent sprocket gears with chains.
This process is repeated as the gears continue to turn upon contact that turns gearbox input
shaft whereby the generator.

M.Turan Soylemez et al. (2004) [31]: Simulation is an important part of the design and
optimization of DC rail traction power systems. With the help of simulation, it is possible to
determine possible problems, reduce the design costs and optimize for several design criteria
such as power consumption, passenger flow, and passenger comfort. This paper presents a new
simulation tool that can be used for these purposes while discussing several problems that must
19
be tackled in writing a rail traction power simulator. Keywords: multi-train simulation,
regenerative braking, DC rail traction systems.

Naoko Momma et al. (Sep 13, 1994) [32]: A railway control system for controllably
suppressing the maximum output of a railway substation for energy saving in a densified
operation territory and, in which a predetermined upper limit value is established in the output
of a substation. The output of the substation is always monitored by output monitoring
apparatus, and, when the substation output exceeds an upper limit value, control command
apparatus transmits a control command signal to any or several of output control apparatus, a
train group and an operation administration system. The output control apparatus, train group
or operation administration system which receives this signal performs output control or drive
force control or both of them, thereby to limit the output of the substation at or below a
predetermined value. It thus becomes possible to restrain a temporary output peak of a railway
substation and to reduce the installed capacity. Further, with drive force regulation among a
train group, an operation method having little overcapacity by gradual acceleration and
deceleration is applied to each train, thus realizing energy saving along the entire route.

Xin Yang et al. (October 10, 2012) [33]: In subway systems, the energy put into accelerating
trains can be reconverted into electric energy by using the motors as generators during the
braking phase. In general, except for a small part that is used for onboard purposes, most of the
recovery energy is transmitted backward along the conversion chain and fed back into the
overhead contact line. To improve the utilization of recovery energy, this paper proposes a
cooperative scheduling approach to optimize the timetable so that the recovery energy that is
generated by the braking train can directly be used by the accelerating train. The recovery that
is generated by the braking train is less than the required energy for the accelerating train;
therefore, only the synchronization between successive trains is considered. First, we propose
the cooperative scheduling rules and define the overlapping time between the accelerating and
braking trains for a peak-hours scenario and an off-peak-hours scenario, respectively. Second,
we formulate an integer programming model to maximize the overlapping time with the
headway time and dwell time control. Furthermore, we design a genetic algorithm with binary
encoding to solve the optimal timetable. Last, we present six numerical examples based on the
operation data from the Beijing Yizhuang subway line in China. The results illustrate that the
proposed model can significantly improve the overlapping time by 22.06% at peak hours and
15.19% at off-peak hours.

S. Hillmansen et al. (January 1, 2007) [34]: Concerns over future energy security, energy
costs, and competitiveness with other modes have prompted the railway industry to search for
cost-effective energy efficient traction solutions which will ensure continuing business
feasibility. For non-electrified routes, where the business case for electrification is unfavorable,
traction is usually provided by diesel fuel combustion. Hybridization offers the potential to
achieve a step change in energy efficiency. This article presents an analysis of the potential
benefits of hybridization for rail vehicles. The performance requirements of the energy storage
device in a hybrid rail vehicle which is storage device dominant are derived. A rail vehicle
simulator has been developed in order to compute the drive train duty cycle in typical high-
speed and commuter passenger services. The outputs from the simulator have been inputted
20
into a series hybrid model, which has been optimized to preserve the state of charge of the
energy storage device over a single typical rail journey. The analysis suggests the energy
savings of up to 28 per cent for high-speed intercity vehicles and 35 per cent for commuter
vehicles are achievable with practical system components. A sensitivity analysis exploring the
effect of the inherent efficiency of the regenerative braking capability and the energy storage
device revealed that primary energy savings are only realized with in/out storage efficiencies of
greater than 40 per cent.

Jon Stern (June 3, 2010) [35]: It is frequently suggested that regulation by contract can
effectively substitute for regulation by a specialist regulatory agency for utility service
industries. We examine these arguments and consider legal aspects and the historical
experience of the UK as regards railways and electricity. We conjecture that regulation and
contracts are complements for network industries rather than substitutes so that a regulatory
agency allows for better and simpler contracts, which are easier to monitor, enforce and revise.
This is what would be expected from the theory of incomplete contracts. We demonstrate that
UK historical experience is strongly consistent with this view.

F. Schmid I et al. (May 14-18, 2007) [36]: An appreciation of the requirements and operating
principles of an electric traction system starts from an understanding of the basic physics of
motion. Despite the recent major advances in the capabilities of power electronic converters
and microprocessor controllers, the overall tractive effort vs. speed characteristics are still
much the same as in the early days of electric railways and trains services are subject to the
same limitations, such as adhesion and power limits.

Ajith Kumar (Jan 12, 2006) [37]: A railroad vehicle for carrying freight is described. The
railroad vehicle comprises power regeneration capability through a traction motor linked to a
driving wheel, an electrical energy storage system, a controller that may selectively operate the
traction motor in a motoring mode, a coasting mode, or a dynamic braking mode. In the
dynamic braking mode electrical energy from the traction motor is transmitted to the electrical
energy storage system. The controller is in communication with a communication link that
receives control commands from an external control source and those control commands
indicate the operating mode for a particular period of time.

Brakeley Welles II Kenneth (April 29, 2008) [38]: A data gathering apparatus comprises a
power generation device configured to generate power via movement of the rail. The data
gathering apparatus further comprises a sensing device configured to receive power from the
power generation device and to sense at least one property of the rail, wherein the property of
the rail is at least partially defined by a vehicle travelling on the rail.

Yuan Tianchen et al. (November 12, 2014) [39]: This research is focused on energy
harvesting from track vibration in order to provide power for the wireless sensors which
monitor railroad health. Considering that track vibration has vibration energy, a new method is
proposed in the paper to harvest energy based on the piezoelectric effect. The piezoelectric
generator called drum transducer is the key part for track vibration energy harvesting. The
model of drum transducer is established and the simulation results show that it can generate

21
100 mW in real track situation. In addition, an experiment rig is developed and its vibration
model is also established. The simulation and experiment results show that peak open-circuit
voltage of piezoelectric generator is about 5070 V at the full load of the train. The whole track
vibration energy harvesting system is analytically modelled, numerically simulated, and
experimentally realized to demonstrate the feasibility and the reliability of the theoretical
model. This paper is the theoretical basis of harvesting, recovering and recycling of the track
vibration energy for track safety.

Karel Mulder et al. (Jan 10, 2014) [40]: Today, technological innovation is often called upon
to deliver solutions to the sustainable development challenges that the world faces. The
integration of different technological systems is promoted as a main option for that goal. By
integrating systems, waste from one system can be used as feedstock for another system,
equipment can be used more efficiently by economies of scale, and/or the service that can be
provided to customers, can increase.
Integration of technological systems is not just a technological challenge. Systems integration
creates new social interdependencies which imply that the previously unrelated systems lose
part of their autonomy. Autonomy of a system is a valuable asset that allows a system some
flexibility when it is confronted with changing conditions. Integration implies that institutional
frameworks have to be created to balance the interests of previously unrelated actors.
Moreover, the technological as well as the social complexity of an integrating system increases,
which makes it harder to manage.
This paper studies the process of systems integration and its related process of creating new
institutional frameworks by analyzing the introduction of large scale hydropower in Western
Sweden and developments that were triggered in this complex systems integration. In 1910, the
first large scale hydropower station was opened in the Gta lv river at Trollhttan. The
hydropower station was close to the Gothenburg-Stockholm railway line, which was planned to
be electrified. The seasonal excess of electricity was sold at a low price. This attracted
industries that depended on cheap electricity, and Trollhttan became a centre for metallurgical
and electrochemical industry.
The hydropower plant owners aimed at completely regulating the river in order to optimize
power production. However, this implied that the interests of riparians, agriculture, river
transport and fisheries would become subordinate to power production. Creating an
institutional framework for this integration lasted 21 years.
This historical analysis identifies three main elements which enabled (or impeded) systems
integration. These were: spatial conditions that provided options for integration, expected
efficiency gains in relation to the anticipated loss of autonomy for the integrating systems,
social processes among the actors involved. Different degrees as well as different types of
systems integration were discerned and the paper develops a typology of systems integration
processes.

22
CHAPTER 3
MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Materials
The main parts of a cylinder or reel mower are:-
3.1.1 Blade - Consist of blades that are attached to a vertically rotating shaft, to the
downward direction. The blades rotate, creating a cutting motion.(fig. 6)

Fig.3.1 A High-Carbon Steel Cutting Blade


Its important to cut lawn, with a sharp blade as blunt blades can rip or tear grass from
the roots, damaging our greenery and causing our lawn to become patchy over time.
The size of the blade is 13 inches and the metal used in makimg of blade is High Carbon
Steel.
3.1.2 Body frame - The main structural frame of the mower onto which the other
parts of the mower are mounted.

Fig.3.2 A Cutter frame with various equipped arrangements


The frame is that provides a base unit that all of the components/subsystems are
mounted on. The hollow Iron piped frame will be designed to provide adequate
23
sectioning for the separate subsystems. The rear wheel motors are mounted to the rear
exterior section of the frame. The Batteries will have a separate compartment for
mounting and secured safely.
The Frame is to be composed of 1.5x2.5. Hollow Iron pipe was chosen due to its
strength and availability.
3.1.3 Wheels - These help propel the mower in action. Generally, our lawn mowers
have four wheels. The diameter of the wheel is 8 inches.

Fig.3.3 A Base Frame with Four Wheels of the Lawn Mower


The wheels having rubber gripped, for better moving on grass. We are using wooden
wheels for reducing the cost of lawn mower.
3.1.4 Rear Wheel Arrangement- The "power source" of an automoted operated
mower. It consists of a small wheel which is paired with the rear wheel of the bike
which allows the blade to rotate with the help of gear arrangement. This is is connected
to the frame, and blade chamber.

Fig.3.4 A Rear Wheel Arrangement


The hollow Iron piped arrangement will be designed to provide adequate sectioning for
the separate subsystems.
24
3.1.5 Gear wheel design- In the design of the project, there is only single type of gear wheel
have been used. This is helical bevel gear wheels.

Fig 3.5 Bevel gear


The gear specifications are as follows:
1. Bevel gears 1
2. Number of Teeth 38 and 11
3. Addendum diameter 135mm and 40mm
4. Module 4.0mm
5. Pressure angle 20 full depth teeth
6. Material cast iron, stainless steel

3.1.6 Shaft design- In the present model two shafts is used. One is used to mount the gears.
Both the shaft has been mounted on bearings to provide for resistance free rotation about its
own axis. The loads acting on the shaft are that of the weights of the components mounted on
the shaft, transmission loads and self-weight of the shaft.

25
Fig 3.6 Shaft
The specifications of the shafts are as follows:
Input shaft diameter 20mm
Input shaft length 900mm
Output shaft diameter 30mm
Output shaft length 1500mm

3.1.7 Bearing design

To support the rotation of the shaft in its seat, single sleeve needle roller bearings have been
employed. They are a type of cylindrical roller bearings. The specifications of the bearings are
as follows:

Fig 3.7 Bearing


Input shaft bearing:
Inner diameter 20mm
Outer diameter 55mm
Output shaft bearing:
Inner diameter 30mm
Outer diameter 60mm

26
3.1.8 Specification of Bike

Fig 3.8 TVS Centra


The bike which has been used in project is TVS Centra which provides the power to the grass
cutter through various arrangements.

Table 3.1 Specifications of Bike

ENGINE, POWER & TORQUE


Maximum Power 7.5 bhp@ 7500 rpm
Maximum Torque 7.5@ 5000 rpm
Engine Description 99.8 cc
No. of Cylinders 1
TRANSMISSION
No. of Gears 5
BRAKES
Front Brake Drum
Rear Brake Drum
BATTERY
Battery Type Maintenance Free
DIMENSIONS, WEIGHT & CAPACITIES
Ground Clearance 51.00 mm
Wheelbase 1250.00 mm
Kerb/Wet Weight 106.00 kg
Fuel Tank Capacity 13.00 litres
PERFORMANCE & MILEAGE
Top Speed 87 kmph
Mileage (Combined) 68 kmpl

27
3.2 Methodology adopted for assembling of Lawn Mower:-
1) First we attached the small wheel at the rear wheel of the bike with the help of
shaft and bearings.
2) Then with the help of hook joint, we attached the gear arrangement at the another
end of the shaft.
3) Now the rear frame (trolley) is made using the iron bars. After that the gear
arrangement is welded on the trolley for further functioning.
4) Now, four wheels are attached to the frame. The diameter of the wheels is 8
each.
5) Assemble the wheels:-
(a) Put the wheels and the screws on the Mower.
(b) Pull the screws using the supplied Screwdriver to tighten.
6) Now, the blade is assembled at the bottom of the frame.
7) Assemble the Blade: - Now, Blade are fitted at the bottom side of the lawn mower,
to the shaft which is attached to the gear. (Fig. 11) These blades are fitted by the
bolts.

Fig.3.9 Assembling the Blade with the Shaft.

8) Now, testing the Lawn Mower on the ground.

28
3.3 Assembly and working

3.3.1 Assembly of the model

Fig 3.10 Assembly of rear wheel arrangement

Fig 3.11 Assembly of trolley along with blade and wheels.

29
CHAPTER 4

RESULT AND DISCUSSION


4.1 Results:-

1) The area of cut (fuel consumption by bike) depends on lawn conditions, grass density,
moisture content, grass length and height of cut.
2) Switching the product on and off frequently during cutting will also reduce the area of cut
(bike performance).
3) To improve the area of cut (bike performance) it is recommended to cut more frequently,
raise the cutting height and ride the bike at a normal pace.
4) The maximum cutting height is 3.5 inch.
5) The average speed of bike for frequent working is around 30km\hr.

4.2 Discussions:-
Below the speed of 10km\hr of the bike, the mower becomes very uncomfortable to
handle and pushing the mower becomes quite difficult with the bike and moreover the
blade does not rotate with the desired cutting speed. At a speed of 30km\hr and above,
the bike and gearing arrangement is found most convenient in terms of freedom in
moving the mower.

30
CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION
This engine powered grass cutter will meet the challenge of electricity consumption and low
cost of operation since there is no cost for electricity. A engine powered grass cutter has been
developed for the use of residences and establishments that have lawns where other cutters
could not be used. The machines capacity is adequate for its purpose. The machine has proved
to be a possible replacement for the electricity powered grass cutters. This lawn mower is
identified to be cheaper than many other alternatives and the model has less number of parts
and the assembly would cost very less with all the components being available regularly and no
model specific parts are to be manufactured.

It is observed that this project diminishes the need of electricity and there are several types of
cutters, each suited to a particular scale and purpose. The smaller types are pushed by human
user and are suitable for small residential lawns and gardens. Grass Cutter is widely used in all
sports grounds. Grass Cutter become a more efficient alternative to the domesticated grazing
animals. It is widely used to cut small grasses & it can also be used for cutting small plants and
also used for trimming grass of play grounds and sports ground.

31
CHAPTER 6

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