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AUTOMOTIVE GRASS CUTTER

A PROJECT SYNOPSIS
Submitted in partial fulfilment of the
Requirements for the award of the degree
Of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
In

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
By

Akash Madan
Gurpreet Kaur
Akash Saxena
Deepak Singh
Jagjot Singh

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

APEX INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY


Rampur-244923, Uttar Pradesh, INDIA
Introduction
Grass Cutter
A Grass Cutter is a machine utilizing one or more revolving blades to cut
a grass surface to an even height. The height of the cut grass may be fixed by
the design of the mower, but generally is adjustable by the operator, typically by
a single master lever, or by a lever or nut and bolt on each of the machine's
wheels. The blades may be powered by muscle, with wheels mechanically
connected to the cutting blades so that when the mower is pushed forward, the
blades spin, or the machine may have a battery-powered or plug-inelectric
motor. The most common power source for lawn mowers is a small
(typically one cylinder) internal combustion engine. Smaller mowers often lack
any form of propulsion, requiring human power to move over a surface; "walk-
behind" mowers are self-propelled, requiring a human only to walk behind and
guide them. Larger grass cutter usually either self-propelled "walk-behind"
types, or more often, are "ride-on" mowers, equipped so the operator can ride on
the mower and control it. A grass cutter is designed to operate either entirely on
its own, or less commonly by an operator by remote control.

Types of Grass cutters


1. By Rotation
I. Cylindrical Cutters:- A cylinder mower or reel mower
carries a fixed, horizontal cutting blade at the desired height
of cut. Over this is a fast-spinning reel of blades which force
the grass past the cutting bar. Each blade in the blade
cylinder forms a helix around the reel axis, and the set of
spinning blades describes a cylinder.
II. Rotary Cutters:- A rotary mower rotates about a vertical
axis with the blade spinning at high speed relying on impact
to cut the grass. This tends to result in a rougher cut and
bruises and shreds the grass leaf resulting in discolouration
of the leaf ends as the shredded portion dies. This is
particularly prevalent if the blades become clogged or blunt.
Most rotary mowers need to be set a little higher than
cylinder equivalents to avoid scalping and gouging of
slightly uneven lawns, although some modern rotaries are
fitted with a rear roller to provide a more formal striped cut.
These machines will also tend to cut lower (13 mm) than a
standard four-wheeled rotary.
2. By Energy Source
I. Gasoline (Petrol):- Extensive grass trimming was not
common before the widespread application of the vertical
shaft single cylinder gasoline/petrol engine. In the United
States this development paralleled the market penetration of
companies such as the Briggs and Stratton company of
Wisconsin.
II. Electricity:- Electric mowers are further subdivided into
corded and cordless electric models. Both are relatively
quiet, typically producing less than 75 decibels, while a
gasoline lawn mower can be 95 decibels or more.
III. Hand Operated:- While considered antiquated in modern
times[by whom?], the original type of push-powered reel mowers
are still available. The reel is attached to the mower's wheels
by gears, so that when the mower is pushed forward, the reel
spins several times faster than the rubber-tired wheels turn.
These types of reel mowers offer the benefit of zero
pollution being produced. Since all of the energy necessary
comes from the user however, this method of mowing is the
most strenuous and is not recommended for large lawns.
Depending on the placement of the reel, these mowers often
cannot cut grass very close to lawn obstacles, like trees,
driveways, edging, etc., and also require a very smooth lawn
surface to operate properly without bottoming out the cutter
bar.
Why we have chosen this topic for our Project?
We chooses this topic for our project because we all have a great interest in
Automobile engineering and we wants to show what we have studied
throughout our Bachelor degree. We had studied that Automotive Grass Cutter
looks like one of the best topic for our project and we also thinks that with the
help of this topic we could get very deep knowledge about how the bike engine
can be used for grass cutting purpose and we could able to know about the
different mechanisms involved in the engine during grass cutting process.

So, due to all these phenomenon, we four came to conclusion that tbis is the
appropriate topic for our final project and we hope that this topic will surely
beneficial for future.
Automotive Grass Cutter
Automotive Grass Cutter is powered by internal combustion engines. Such
engines usually four-stroke engines, used for their greater torque and cleaner
combustion (although a we can also use two-stroke engine), running
on gasoline (petrol). Internal combustion engine used with lawn grass cutter
normally have only one cylinder. Power generally ranges from four to
seven horsepower. The engine usually have a carburettor and require a manual
pull crank to start, although an electric starter is offered on some models,
particularly large riding and commercial mowers. Some mowers have a throttle
control on the handlebar with which the operator can adjust the engine speed.
Other mowers have a fixed, pre-set engine speed. All are equipped with an air
vane style of governor to maintain the pre-selected speed when the force needed
to cut the thicker or taller grass is encountered. Gasoline mowers have the
advantages over electric mowers of greater power and distance range. They do
create a significant amount of pollution due to the combustion in the engine, and
their engines require periodic maintenance such as cleaning or replacement of
the spark plug and air filter, and changing the engine oil.

Safety Issue Involver in Automotive Grass Cutter


Grass cutters can throw out debris with extreme velocity and energy.
Additionally, the blades of a self-powered push mower (gasoline or electric) can
injure a careless or inattentive user; as such, many come equipped with a dead
man's switch to immediately disable the blade rotation when the user is no
longer holding the handle. The vast majority of these injuries can be prevented
by wearing protective footwear when mowing. It is recommends that children be
at least 12 years old before they are allowed to use a walk-behind lawn mower
and at least 16 years of age before using a riding mower. They also should
demonstrate proper judgment and maturity. Persons using a mower should wear
heavy footwear, eye protection, and hearing protection in the case of engine-
powered mowers.

Environmental Impact
A 2001 study showed that some mowers produce the same amount of pollution
(emissions other than carbon dioxide) in one hour as driving a 1992 model
vehicle for 650 miles (1,050 km). Another estimate puts the amount of pollution
from a lawn mower at four times the amount from a car, per hour, although this
report is no longer available.[22]Beginning in 2011, the United States
Environmental Protection Agency set standards for lawn equipment emissions
and expects a reduction of at least 35 percent.
Mowers also create significant noise pollution and could cause hearing loss if
used without hearing protection. This can be avoided through the use of reel
mowers or by using cheap, easily obtainable hearing protection such
as earplugs or earmuffs.

Future Aspects
In future we will be only princes and princesses, at least at our homes where the
these cutters will be our servants and will take care of all grass in our lawns. No
grass lawn will be unkempt and no human will not have the stress that predicts a
tedious task. The conflict between a wire of grass and a cutter full of strength
will end in only one way a perfect lawn.