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Petition of the town of Calamba To die to give you life, 'neath your skies to expire,

And in your mystic land to sleep through eternity!

Calm yourselves, peaceful inhabitants of Kalamba! None
of you are named Tales, none of you have committed
If over my tomb some day, you would see blow,
any crime! You are called Luis Habaa, Matas A simple humble flow'r amidst thick grasses,
Belarmino, Nicasio Eigasani, Cayetano de Jesus, Mateo Bring it up to your lips and kiss my soul so,
Elejorde, Leandro Lopez, Antonino Lopez, Silvestre And under the cold tomb, I may feel on my brow,
Ubaldo, Manuel Hidalgo, Paciano Mercado, your name Warmth of your breath, a whiff of your tenderness.
is the whole village of Kalamba. You cleared your fields,
on them you have spent the labor of your whole lives, Let the moon with soft, gentle light me descry,
your savings, your vigils and privations, and you have Let the dawn send forth its fleeting, brilliant light,
been despoiled of them, driven from your homes, with In murmurs grave allow the wind to sigh,
the rest forbidden to show you hospitality! Not content And should a bird descend on my cross and alight,
with outraging justice, they have trampled upon the
Let the bird intone a song of peace o'er my site.
sacred traditions of your country! You have
served Spain and the King, and when in their name you Let the burning sun the raindrops vaporize
have asked for justice, you were banished without trial, And with my clamor behind return pure to the sky;
torn from your wives arms and your childrens Let a friend shed tears over my early demise;
caresses! Any one of you has suffered more than And on quiet afternoons when one prays for me on
Cabesang Tales, and yet none, not one of you, has high,
received justice! Neither pity nor humanity has been Pray too, oh, my Motherland, that in God may rest I.
shown youyou have been persecuted beyond the
tomb, as was Mariano Herbosa! Weep or laugh, there in Pray thee for all the hapless who have died,
those lonely isles where you wander vaguely, uncertain
For all those who unequalled torments have undergone;
of the future! Spain, the generous Spain, is watching For our poor mothers who in bitterness have cried;
over you, and sooner or later you will have justice! For orphans, widows and captives to tortures were
And pray too that you may see your own redemption.
The Last Poem of Rizal
And when the dark night wraps the cemet'ry
And only the dead to vigil there are left alone,
His friend Mariano Ponce gave it the title of MI ULTIMO Don't disturb their repose, don't disturb the mystery:
ADIOS, as it originally had none If you hear the sounds of cittern or psaltery,
It is I, dear Country, who, a song t'you intone.
Farewell, my adored Land, region of the sun caressed,
Pearl of the Orient Sea, our Eden lost, And when my grave by all is no more remembered,
With gladness I give you my Life, sad and repressed; With neither cross nor stone to mark its place,
And were it more brilliant, more fresh and at its best, Let it be plowed by man, with spade let it be scattered
I would still give it to you for your welfare at most. And my ashes ere to nothingness are restored,
Let them turn to dust to cover your earthly space.
On the fields of battle, in the fury of fight,
Others give you their lives without pain or hesitancy, Then it doesn't matter that you should forget me:
The place does not matter: cypress laurel, lily white, Your atmosphere, your skies, your vales I'll sweep;
Scaffold, open field, conflict or martyrdom's site, Vibrant and clear note to your ears I shall be:
It is the same if asked by home and Country. Aroma, light, hues, murmur, song, moanings deep,
Constantly repeating the essence of the faith I keep.
I die as I see tints on the sky b'gin to show
And at last announce the day, after a gloomy night; My idolized Country, for whom I most gravely pine,
If you need a hue to dye your matutinal glow, Dear Philippines, to my last goodbye, oh, harken
Pour my blood and at the right moment spread it so, There I leave all: my parents, loves of mine,
And gild it with a reflection of your nascent light! I'll go where there are no slaves, tyrants or hangmen
Where faith does not kill and where God alone does
My dreams, when scarcely a lad adolescent, reign.
My dreams when already a youth, full of vigor to attain,
Were to see you, gem of the sea of the Orient, Farewell, parents, brothers, beloved by me,
Your dark eyes dry, smooth brow held to a high plane Friends of my childhood, in the home distressed;
Without frown, without wrinkles and of shame without Give thanks that now I rest from the wearisome day;
stain. Farewell, sweet stranger, my friend, who brightened my
My life's fancy, my ardent, passionate desire, Farewell, to all I love. To die is to rest.
Hail! Cries out the soul to you, that will soon part from
thee; An Open Letter to School Principals, Teachers, and
Hail! How sweet 'tis to fall that fullness you may Parents
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For language is the final judge and referee The poem is still believed to be written by the hero, but
Upon the people in the land where it holds sway; the claim for authorship is still open.
In truth our human race resembles in this way
The other living beings born in liberty.
Whoever knows not how to love his native tongue
Is worse than any best or evil smelling fish. 2. MY FIRST INSPIRATION (Mi Primera Inspiracion,
To make our language richer ought to be our wish 1874)
The same as any mother loves to feed her young.
Tagalog and the Latin language are the same
And English and Castilian and the angels' tongue; Why falls so rich a spray
And God, whose watchful care o'er all is flung, of fragrance from the bowers
Has given us His blessing in the speech we calim, of the balmy flowers
upon this festive day?
Our mother tongue, like all the highest that we know
Had alphabet and letters of its very own; Why from woods and vales
But these were lost -- by furious waves were do we hear sweet measures ringing
overthrown that seem to be the singing
Like bancas in the stormy sea, long years ago. of a choir of nightingales?
Why in the grass below
do birds start at the wind's noises,
unleashing their honeyed voices
The famous poem was a nationalistic undertaking to as they hop from bough to bough?
promote the usage of Tagalog language by the Filipino Why should the spring that glows
people. its crystalline murmur be tuning
to the zephyr's mellow crooning
as among the flowers it flows?
The poem To My Fellow Children was believed to be
the national heros first written Tagalog poem at the Why seems to me more endearing,
age of eight. However, it was said that this poem was more fair than on other days,
published posthumously a hundred years after his death the dawn's enchanting face
among red clouds appearing?
The reason, dear mother, is
they feast your day of bloom:
Doubts concerning the real author of this poem have the rose with its perfume,
emerged. Critics say that he could not possibly have the bird with its harmonies.
written Sa Aking mga Kababata due to his juvenile
age. Normally, the age ranging from 7 to 8 is the And the spring that rings with laughter
developmental age by which a child is just beginning to upon this joyful day
read. Hence, it is quite nonsensical that a child at this with its murmur seems to say:
age could write a five-stanza poem with profound 'Live happily ever after!'
words at that. Besides, records say that Jose Rizal had And from that spring in the grove
correspondence with Paciano, his brother, concerning now turn to hear the first note
some of his difficulties in the Tagalog language that from my lute I emote
particularly in translation. to the impulse of my love.

Furthermore, the use of mature insights and

terminologies is quite unrealistic for an eight year old
boy. Allegedly, he had only encountered the word Most likely, Mi Primera Inspiracion was the first poem
kalayaan (used several times in the poem) when he Jose Rizal wrote during his schooling stint in Ateneo.
was already 21 years old. This poem was written in honor of his mothers birthday
as evidenced by the terms perfume of the flowers,
the songs of the birds, feast your day of bloom and
From the National Library of the Philippines, records festive day.
show that Sa aking mga kabata was not published in
the original Tagalog but in a free Spanish translation of
the Tagalog by Epifano delos Santos as A mis Jose Rizals poetic verses show his eternal love and
companeros de ninez. appreciation for his mother. This is somehow his way of
paying tribute to all the efforts of her dear mother.

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Magellans fleet (El Embarque: Himno a la Flota de
Magallanes, 1875)
From 1872 to 1877, Jose Rizal studied at the Ateneo One beautiful day when in East
Municipal de Manila for his Bachiller en artes. The first
poems of Rizal dealt with history emphasizing on heroes The sun had gaily brightened,
and battles.
At Barrameda with rejoicing great
Activities everywhere reigned.

3. FELICITATION (Felicitacion, 1875)

Tis cause on the shores the caravels
If Philomela with harmonious tongue
To blond Apollo, who manifests his face Would part with their sails a-swelling;
Behind high hill or overhanging mountain, And noble warriors with their swords
Canticles sends.
To conquer unknown world are going.

So we as well, full of a sweet contentment,

Salute you and your very noble saint And all is glee and all is joy,
With tender music and fraternal measures, All is valor in the city.
Dear Antonino.
Everywhere the husky sounds of drums
Are resounding with majesty.
From all your sisters and your other kin
Receive most lovingly the loving accent
That the suave warmth of love dictates to them
With big echoes thousands of salvos
Placid and tender.
Makes at the ships a roaring cannon
And the Spanish people proudly greet
From amorous wife and amiable Emilio
Sweetly receive an unsurpassed affection; The soldiers with affection.
And may its sweetness in disaster soften
The ruder torments.
Farewell! They say to them, loved ones,

As the sea pilot, who so bravely fought Brave soldiers of the homeland;
Tempestuous waters in the dark of night, With glories gird our mother Spain,
Gazes upon his darling vessel safe
And come to port. In the campaign in the unknown land!

So, setting aside all [worldly] predilections, As they move away to the gentle breath
Now let your eyes be lifted heavenward
Of the cool wind with emotion,
To him who is the solace of all men
And loving Father. They all bless with a pious voice
So glorious, heroic action.
And from ourselves that in such loving accents And finally, the people salute
Salute you everywhere you celebrate,
These clamorous vivas that from the heart resound The standard of Magellan
Be pleased to accept. That he carries on the way to the seas
Where madly roars the hurricane.
The poem Felicitation was written by the Philippine
National Hero in 1875 during his schooling in the
Ateneo de Municipal. The 14 year old Rizal wrote this Rizal wrote the above poem while he was a boarding
poem to congratulate his brother-in-law, Antonio Lopez student at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila. It is
(husband of his sister Narcisa), on Saints day. believed to have been his first poem that had the honor
of being read in a public programme held at that school.
Hymn to Magellantas fleettalked about the departure

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of Ferdinand Magellan, the first man to colonize the Such is the invincible
Elcano, when cruising through
The waves, with his Spanish ships,
CIRCUMNAVIGATE THE WORLD (Y Es Espanol: Elcano, Their rage they might'ly subdue.
el Primero en dar la Vuelta al Mundo, December 1875)
Where does that frail ship go Triumphant crosses he
That proudly cruises on The vast roundness of the globe
And ploughs the distant seas With exceptional bravery
To seek the lands unknown? He measured the extensive orb.

Who's the brave and invincible, A thousand laurels crown

That from far down the West Defender of Spain, your brow ;
Sails on the expansive world And a brilliant diadem
To yonder roseate East? Now proudly decorates you.

Of Spain he's a heroic son, The poem AND HE IS SPANISH: ELCANO, THE FIRST TO
A Titan new of Pirene, CIRCUMNAVIGATE THE WORLDis about Juan Sebastin
Elcano, a Spanish Basque, Ferdinand Magellans second
Who with fury fights against, in command, who upon Magellans death on the shores
of Mactan in the Philippines, took over and completed
If it holds him, the hurricane. the first circumnavigation of the world.

He's Elcano who undertakes 6.The Battle: Urbiztondo, Terror of Jolo (El Combate:
A task that enchants the world ; Urbiztondo, Terror de Jolo, December 1875)

To accomplish it he vows A hundred war-tried ships

And its vastness him doesn't hold. At the mercy of the gentle wind,
Leave behind Manila bay

And to red-tailed eagle akin -The ruffled sea they plough.

That soars high in the wind A short while they descry

With an unequalled flight The Moros of Jolo

And with a movement swift, Who with pride they raise

A thousand waving flags.

Of the blowing storm that roars,

He scorns the horrible hiss ; And when the soldiers strong

And mocks with kingly air Had alighted on the shores

The lightning's shattering noise. And pointed all their guns

Against the enemy's wall,

And like a craggy rock With manly accent spoke

No impetuous ocean in rage The general : "Soldiers of mine,

Or the fury of hurricanes Upon your valor depends

Him can change or disengage ; The rich glory of victory.

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"I would prefer to die At our soldiers fierce attack.
Rather than desist from attack ; Perfidious Mahumat flees,
To thee the country entrusts Tyrannical and godless Sultan,
Her noble, sacred seals." And the warriors valorous
Said he ; and like Notus fierce March into Jolo as they sing.
By horrid lightning hedged in
In furious tempests it sows The poem The Battle: Urbiztondo, Terror of Jolo is a
reflection of Rizals liking for history. It was written to
Sad weeping and mourning around ; hail Urbiztondo for the successful battle against the
So Urbiztondo unsubdued Muslims. In the poem, the hero narrated how the great
warrior defeated the Moros under Sultan Mahumat of
His soldiers following him, Jolo.
He spreads death everywhere
With cold steel in his hand. 7. THE TRAGEDY OF ST. EUSTACE (La Tragedia de San
Eustaquio, June 1876)

And like a lion in the woods

This poem recounts the tragic story of St.
He roars, engendering fear, Eustace. However, it appears that the original
manuscript of this no longer exists and may have been
As he looks upon the prey
destroyed in the bombardment of the Second World
That with havoc he devours; War. But it was said that it had been published in
installments in a magazine, Cultura Social of Ateneo
So the noted fighting men University.
With fury and frenzied fright,
Approach the barricades 8. IN MEMORY OF MY TOWN (Un Recuerdo A Mi
Pueblo, 1876)
As they give a headlong assault.
When I remember the days
that saw my early childhood
And the Castiles' lion shakes
spent on the green shores
His forelock wrathfully
of a murmurous lagoon;
And readies his pointed claws
when I remember the coolness,
To spread tears everywhere.
delicious and refreshing,
that on my face I felt
Eight bastions, do surrender
as I heard Favonius croon;
Of the Moros of Jolo
To the furious rattle of Mars
When I behold the white lily
And Urbiztondo's assault.
swell to the winds impulsion,
and that tempestuous element
Ah ! They're the ones, noble Spain,
meekly asleep on the sand;
Like Lepanto's heroes they are,
when I inhale the dear
At Pavia they're the ones
intoxicating essence
Who're the thunderbolt of war.
the flowers exude when dawn
is smiling on the land;
The fire consumes and devours
The castles and palaces
Sadly, sadly I recall
And all the Joloans own
your visage, precious childhood,
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which an affectionate mother to learn; and I pray heaven
made beautiful and bright; your innocence to keep!
I recall a simple town,
my comfort, joy and cradle, Rizal loved his hometown Calamba in Laguna. He fondly
remembered his memories of the said town. In 1876, a
beside a balmy lake, 15 years old student in the Ateneo Municipal de Manila,
the seat of my delight. he wrote the poem In Memory of My Town. The
poem was written to express his love and appreciation
for the place where he grew up.
Ah, yes, my awkward foot
explored your sombre woodlands, 9. INTIMATE ALLIANCE BETWEEN RELIGION AND GOOD
and on the banks of your rivers EDUCATION (Alianza Intima Entre la Religion y la
Buena Educacion, 1876)
in frolic I took part.
As the climbing ivy over lefty elm
I prayed in your rustic temple,
Creeps tortuously, together the adornment
a child, with a childs devotion;
Of the verdant plain, embellishing
and your unsullied breeze
Each other and together growing,
exhilarated my heart.
But should the kindly elm refuse its aid
The ivy would impotent and friendless wither
The Creator I saw in the grandeur
So is Education to Religion
of your age-old forests;
By spiritual alliance bound.
upon your bosom, sorrows
Through Religion, Education gains renown, and
were ever unknown to me;
Woe to the impious mind that blindly spurning
while at your azure skies
The sapient teachings of Religion, this
I gazed, neither love nor tenderness
Unpolluted fountain-head forsakes.
failed me, for in nature
lay my felicity.
As the sprout, growing from the pompous vine,
Proudly offers us its honeyed clusters
Tender childhood, beautiful town,
While the generous and loving garment
rich fountain of rejoicing
Feeds its roots; so the freshning waters
and of harmonious music
Of celestial virtue give new life
that drove away all pain:
To Education true, shedding
return to this heart of mine,
On it warmth and light; because of them
return my gracious hours,
The vine smells sweet and gives delicious fruit.
return as the birds return
when flowers spring again!
Without Religion, Human Education
Is like unto a vessel struck by winds
But O goodbye! May the Spirit
Which, sore beset, is of its helm deprived
of Good, a loving gift-giver,
By the roaring blows and buffets of the dread
keep watch eternally over
Tempestuous Boreas, who fiercely wields
your peace, your joy, your sleep!
His power until he proudly sends her down
For you, my fervent pryers;
Into the deep abysses of the angered sea.
for you, my constant desire

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As the heavens dew the meadow feeds and It humbles barbarous nations
And it makes of savages champions.
So that blooming flowers all the earth
And like the spring that nourishes
Embroider in the days of spring; so also
The plants, the bushes of the meads,
If Religion holy nourishes
She goes on spilling her placid wealth,
Education with its doctrines, she
And with kind eagerness she constantly feeds,
Shall walk in joy and generosity
The river banks through which she slips,
Toward the Good, and everywhere bestrew
And to beautiful nature all she concedes,
The fragrant and luxuriant fruits of Virtue.
So whoever procures education wise
Until the height of honor may rise.
Jose Rizal believed that religion is concomitant with
good education, hence the strong relationship between
education and faith. Accordingly, he wrote the poem From her lips the waters crystalline
Intimate Alliance between religion and good
education at the age of fifteen while he was in Ateneo. Gush forth without end, of divine virtue,
And prudent doctrines of her faith
The forces weak of evil subdue,

10.EDUCATION GIVES LUSTER TO THE MOTHERLAND That break apart like the whitish waves
(Por la Educacion Recibe Lustre la Patria, 1876) That lash upon the motionless shoreline:
Wise education, vital breath And to climb the heavenly ways the people
Inspires an enchanting virtue; Do learn with her noble example.
She puts the Country in the lofty seat
Of endless glory, of dazzling glow, In the wretched human beings' breast
And just as the gentle aura's puff The living flame of good she lights
Do brighten the perfumed flower's hue: The hands of criminal fierce she ties,
So education with a wise, guiding hand, And fill the faithful hearts with delights,
A benefactress, exalts the human band. Which seeks her secrets beneficent
And in the love for the good her breast she incites,
Man's placid repose and earthly life And it's th' education noble and pure
To education he dedicates Of human life the balsam sure.
Because of her, art and science are born
Man; and as from the high mount above And like a rock that rises with pride
The pure rivulet flows, undulates, In the middle of the turbulent waves
So education beyond measure When hurricane and fierce Notus roar
Gives the Country tranquility secure. She disregards their fury and raves,
That weary of the horror great
Where wise education raises a throne So frightened calmly off they stave;
Sprightly youth are invigorated, Such is one by wise education steered
Who with firm stand error they subdue He holds the Country's reins unconquered.
And with noble ideas are exalted; His achievements on sapphires are engraved;
It breaks immortality's neck, The Country pays him a thousand honors;
Contemptible crime before it is halted: For in the noble breasts of her sons

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Virtue transplanted luxuriant flow'rs; Toward the troops of an impious race
And in the love of good e'er disposed Like a lion he dashes eagerly ;
Will see the lords and governors As the radiant sun to the new-born day
The noble people with loyal venture With him goes Don Diego anxiously.
Christian education always procure.
Thus like the fleeing fugitive stag
And like the golden sun of the morn Evading the fleeting arrow
Whose rays resplendent shedding gold, The haughty heart so filled with fright,
And like fair aurora of gold and red The Prophet's armies away go.
She overspreads her colors bold;
Such true education proudly gives But not so the ferocious cavalry,
The pleasure of virtue to young and old As shield its breast it exposes,
And she enlightens out Motherland dear With gallantry it awaits the fight
As she offers endless glow and luster. To attack with utter harshness.

Our national hero, despite his young age, had expressed Boabdil encourages his hordes
high regards for education. He believed in the
significant role which education plays in the progress With wrath and savage fury :
and welfare of a nation as evident in his writing of the His anguish on his face he shows
poem Education Gives Luster to the Motherland.
With grit to the fleeing men speaks he :
"To where art thou led, Oh, Trickless Moors,
Education gives knowledge, knowledge gives wisdom.
Great wisdom benefits everyone. Jose Rizal believed By the fear thee blinds and chases?
that education is a vehicle for a countrys prosperity and From whom do thee flee? With whom, hapless men,
success, hence through the poem he encouraged
Filipinos to acquire education for them to be able to The stout heart to fight refuses?"
fulfill their dreams and to improve their motherland. His
high regards for education was evident in his
determination to seek the best education possible even Said he ; and with menace the trumpet sounds ;
across the shores of his country.
Ours arrive and start the fighting,
And everywhere is heard alone
11. The Captivity and the Triumph: Battle of Lucena
and the Imprisonment of Boabdil(El Cautiverio y el Of flashing steel the rattling.
Triunfo: Batalla de Lucena y Prision de Boabdil,
December 1876)
Don Alonso Aguilar attacks
Them on one flank furious battle.
The proud Abencrage provokes
He wounds, beheads, devastates, and assaults
The soldiers brave of Castilla
As a wolf does, the timid cattle.
Ferociously to humble him
After he had destroyed Montilla.
Alas! The Muslim, stubborn and cruel
Implores his Prophet vainly
The Count of Cabra soon arrives
While against the Christians noble and strong,
In his strong arm he displays his saber,
The spear and the rein tightens he.
Like Death that lugubriously unfolds
Her black wings of death and slaughter.
Amidst the fiery tumult of war

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There did the commander brave die : The face pale, loose his hair,
Into pieces broken: helmets, spears, Tired eyes of frigid gaze,
And horses on the ground lie. Head low, recumbent his face,
The sad Muslim looks at his palaces.
His soldiers now terrified and tired The Muslim looks at them and abundant tears
Flee before the Christian victors ; Bathe his eyes, a-flowing down his cheeks,
Just as away the timorous dear And to the ceiling gilt and arabesque
Run as the lion brave roars. He turns again his weary gaze.
Sand and tearful he remembers then
When the King, abandoned, finds himself The Muslim exploits and the glorious jousts ;
And seeing escape isn't too soon, And comparing the present ills
He gets down his horses terrified, With the combats of past days,
And hides in the woods like a poltroon. "Goodbye, Alhambra," he says; "Alhambra, goodbye,
Abode of joy and abundant happiness ;
Two unconquered Christians found him ; Goodbye, palace full of pleasures,
And by royal symbols detected, Inexhaustible fountain of delight.
Instantly to Don Diego him they took Sad I leave you and now I'm going
Like a royal captive defeated. To cruel exile, of hardships full,
In order not to see your towers high,
There at Lucena the Christians' God Your fountains clear and rich abodes."
Humbled down the arrogant's power He said ; and moaning the costly habiliments
Who wanted to tie with a heavy chain Of the gilded apartments he removes ;
The Spaniard as downcast pris'ner. And of its beautiful decorations stripped
The huge halls, sad he withdraws,
And in the silence of the night
At 12 years old, Rizal was believed to have read El
ultimo Abencerraje, a Spanish translation of
Chateaubriand's. novel, Le Dernier des Abencrages. When the luckless Arabs were asleep,
This is the story of the last member of a famous family When only the hissing of the winds
in the Muslim Kingdom of Granada in the 15th century
which inspired him to compose the above poem as a Through the peaceful city could be heard
student at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila. And crossing the streets
Of that now forsaken realm,
In this poem, he described the defeat and capture of Pale and petrified
Boabdil, last Moorish sultan of Granada.
Bathed in mortal sweat;
Only lamentations deep
MONARCHS INTO GRANADA(Entrada triunfal de los Were heard everywhere,
Reyes Catlicos en Granada, December 1876)
And some doleful voice
Thrown in its wild complaint.
'Twas a quiet and gloomy night
Whose mem'ry hurts the heart,
The king stopped; the towers he saw
A night ago in which the Muslim King
He contemplated those walls;
Treads the Alhambra's beautiful floor.
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The bottles remembered he
That he waged in happy times; "Go my lord, go immediately
But he could not control himself To take hold of those abodes
And he lowered his gazed to the ground By the great Almighty reserved
And mournfully said For your powerful King;
As he bends his head: Allah chastises the Moors;
"Alas! Granada what happened to you? Strip them of their property;
What became of your nights? From their country he throws them out
Alas! Where do your warriors sleep For they did not keep his law."
That your anguish they don't see?
Indeed! I your unhappy King, He said no more ; on his way
To the Libyan desert lands The Mohammedan proceeds
Hurled and with chains And behind goes his faithful band
By fate I also go. In silence and with grief.
"Today I lose everything, everything, Aback they didn't turn their gaze
Kingdom, palace, treasure To contemplate their ground,
And so alone I sadly weep For affliction perhaps would strike
What cruel grief prepares for me; Them with greater vehemence.
There was a time when your tow'rs
Preponderantly ruled And in the distance they see
And they were the havoc and dread The Christians' camp did show
Of squadrons in front." Signs of contentment and joy
He said and the squadrons he sees Upon seeing the celestial Cross
Commanded by Talavera, That on the Alhambra is displayed
As he waves the flag When the city was overrun ;
Of Christian religion; And 'twas the primary sign
Of the race that was subdued.
That by royal order the forts
They were going to occupy And th' unhappy Monarch hears
And to take possession of The voice of "Long live Castille !"
The Alhambra and its rooms. And he sees on their knees

And to Fernando Talavera The Spanish Combatants;

Who rules the knights And from the trumpets he hears
With respect addresses himself Triumphal harmonies.
The unfortunate Boabdil ; And the brilliant helmets he sees
And in manner like this speaks to him The bright sun shining on them.
With mournful stress, His footsteps then he turns
Into cruel anguish plunged
In a thousand anxieties submerged: Toward King Fernando

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Who advances ordering That Queen who's always of God
His troops with majesty; Ought to wear immortal crown.
And as he nears the King,
The Moor gives to him the keys, And as the Muslims hear
The only treasure and sign The cries of festivity,
Of the Mohammedan pow'r. Sonorous beating of drums,
And the singing of delight,
"See there," Boabdil says to him, They lamented their fate,
What I can offer you, The glory they have lost,
And the only thing left to me, Their race that was subdued,
Of the Arabic domain Their country without peer.
My kingdom, trophies, men,
Fields, houses, victories, Their mournful groans
Exalted honors, tow'rs They carefully hide,
And gardens all, now are yours." Their tearful pray'rs,
To be heard they fear
Boabdil thus did speak Would augment the pride
And having paid his respect Of that victory
From that place he withdraws That causes their woe.
A thousand ills he saw
Continuing his slow pace Now the flag of Spain
His warriors sending forth Proudly waves o'er the walls
A thousand doleful groans Of noble Granada now secure !
As they leave the fair Genil. Now the Catholic Kings
From their seat opulent
Now, the warlike clarion Will decree wise laws
Of Fernando sounds th' entry For the children of Genil.
In Granada lovely and fair,
Now Christian with no infidel; Now delightful Granada, proud
The captives of the defeated Moor, Is Christians' dwelling place
Who sadly were dragging chains And Granada belongs
And suff'ring torments and pains To the faithful populace.
With joy came to Isabel.
Now from Heaven God looks down
Like long-suff'ring warriors brave With joy the beautiful tow'rs
The clement King greets them, And merlons all full
His gladness showing on his face Of Trophies and laurel.
'Cause from evil he saw them freed;
And the Queen abundant alms
Distributes with benevolent hand The above poem of Jose rizal relates the triumphant
entry of Ferdinand and Isabella, Spain's "Most Catholic
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Kings," into the city of Granada in 1492. This entry is Oh! Who could calmly contemplate
one of the most powerful symbolic moments in Spanish
history. The iron cold of bloody fate,
That the roar of the wind which resounds

13. THE HEROISM OF COLUMBUS (El Heroismo de In the abyss a sad tomb opes?
Colon, 1877)

What lies beyond? Only death,

Oh tell me, celestial Muse, who in the mind The dark sea that dreadfully terrifies
Of Columbus infused a breath sublime, And infuses fear in the stoutest heart,
Invested with noble courage and faith, Where at each instant darkly appears
To plough the seas of the West? The tempest, with the mariner in doubt
Who gave him bravry whem imposing How to guide his ship in such calamity;
The sea was angered. The wind roared, And the waters bury him in the depth
That in his rage the bad angel called Where a thousand horrible monsters hide.
Against the son of faithful Spain?

But, alas, poor you! Alas, unhappy Spain

In the midst of solemn tranquility If you run in search of land remote!
When languid earth was asleep, I will excite the north winds rage
And the moon its trembling disc And the hatred cruel of all that the ocean holds. . .
Through the diaphanous sky did steer, And ere you step on the foreign shores,
A man contemplates the wavy sea War and discord Ill put within your ship;
Seen painted on his smiling face And Ill not rest until I see your ruin,
So magnificent clemencys powr If divine protection saves you not
Exuding kindness and intelligence.

Hush, deceitful monster, with sonrous voice

The curly whitish waves of the sea Christopher answers him, ignorance.
That bathe the spreading shore,
Like silver reflect the white light Jose Rizal wrote this epic poem in December 1877
To the soft breath of perfumed breeze; during his academic years in Ateneo Municipal de
Manila. This poem praises Columbus, the discoverer of
And while from the shadows strange America.
Around danced winged multitude,
An old man, furious, fierce and grave
Fantastic rose from the sea profound. 14. Columbus and John II (Colon y Juan II)

He hold firm in his strong right hand "Christopher, to you, fame,

A heavy trident aflame And immortal crown and great renown
Homage history pays !
And your audacious heart hopes to subdue Your august name reaches
The fierce seas terrible rage Posterity and is amazed.
That when the fiery tempest roars
In mass it rises gloomy and grave? "Blesses you the world

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In canticles of love and contentment 15. GREAT SOLACE IN GREAT MISFORTUNE (Gran
Consuelo en la Mayor Desdicha, 1878)
All that Lusitania
Holds proclaim instantly
This is a legend in verse of the tragic life of Columbus.
Your faith's noble valor.


"Who, like you, is gentle, Dialogo Alusive a la Despedida de los Colegiales)
Constant, resigned, and gen'rous?
Conquered thou the dreadful This was the last poem written by Rizal in Ateneo
Fury of the wavy sea which again amazed his teachers. It is a poignant poem
of farewell to his classmates, written just before he
And the cowardly, treach'rous mariner. graduated from the Ateneo Muncipal de Manila.

"Hail, illustrious Adm'ral, 17. CHILD JESUS (Al Nino Jesus, November 1875) A
Firm of heart, fiery in the fight ; translation from the Spanish by Nick Joaquin

To your constant valor

Kindly today I offer Why have you come to earth,
Child-God, in a poor manger?
Castles and honors together. Does Fortune find you a stranger
from the moment of your birth?
"I, your voice I shall be
Alas, of heavenly stock
To proclaim before my standards
now turned an earthly resident!
Viceroy of good graces Do you not wish to be president
but the shepherd of your flock?
And above the towers
I shall put your name in royal flags."

During his student days, the 14 year old Jose Rizal wrote
Thus did speak the sov'reign, Al Nio Jesus (Child Jesus), a brief religious ode which
Portugal's Juan the enlightened. expressed his devotion to Catholicism.

Glory great beforehand

And the highest post in his palace
Offers he the veteran. 18. VIRGIN MARY (A La Virgen Maria, to Our Lady of
Peace and Good Voyage)

But . . . hurriedly he flees

Mary, sweet peace and dearest consolation
Columbusfrom the treach'rous deceiver of suffering mortal: you are the fount whence springs
the current of solicitude that brings
Of the palace ambitious;
unto our soil unceasing fecundation.
Runs he, flies to where dwells
From your abode, enthroned on heaven's height,
Isabel the Christian, his benefactress. in mercy deign to hear my cry of woe
and to the radiance of your mantle draw
my voice that rises with so swift a flight.
You are my mother, Mary, and shall be
This poem relates how King John II of Portugal missed my life, my stronghold, my defense most thorough;
fame and riches by his failure to finance the projected and you shall be my guide on this wild sea.
expedition of Columbus to the new world. If vice pursues me madly on the morrow,
if death harasses me with agony:
come to my aid and dissipate my sorrow!

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The above undated poem was another religious writing Through the night benign
Jose Rizal wrote in praise of the Virgin Mary, A La
Virgen Maria (To the Virgin Mary). Frees mortality from pain;

Thou, who by sharp strife

19. TO THE PHILIPPINE YOUTH (A la Juventud Filipina, Wakest thy mind to life ;
November 1879) A Translation from the Spanish by And the memory bright
Nick Joaquin
Of thy genius' light
Makest immortal in its strength ;
Hold high the brow serene,
O youth, where now you stand;
And thou, in accents clear
Let the bright sheen
Of Phoebus, to Apelles dear ;
Of your grace be seen,
Or by the brush's magic art
Fair hope of my fatherland!
Takest from nature's store a part,
To fig it on the simple canvas' length ;
Come now, thou genius grand,
And bring down inspiration;
Go forth, and then the sacred fire
With thy mighty hand,
Of thy genius to the laurel may aspire ;
Swifter than the wind's violation,
To spread around the fame,
Raise the eager mind to higher station.
And in victory acclaim,
Through wider spheres the human name.
Come down with pleasing light
Of art and science to the fight,
Day, O happy day,
O youth, and there untie
Fair Filipinas, for thy land!
The chains that heavy lie,
So bless the Power to-day
Your spirit free to blight.
That places in thy way
This favor and this fortune grand !
See how in flaming zone
Amid the shadows thrown,
To the Philippine Youth
The Spaniard'a holy hand
Unfold, oh timid flower!
A crown's resplendent band
Proffers to this Indian land.
Lift up your radiant brow,
This day, Youth of my native strand!
Thou, who now wouldst rise
Your abounding talents show
On wings of rich emprise,
Resplendently and grand,
Seeking from Olympian skies
Fair hope of my Motherland!
Songs of sweetest strain,
Softer than ambrosial rain;
Soar high, oh genius great,
And with noble thoughts fill their mind;
Thou, whose voice divine
The honor's glorious seat,
Rivals Philomel's refrain
May their virgin mind fly and find
And with varied line
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More rapidly than the wind. Spreading far and wide the fame
Throughout the sphere proclaiming
Descend with the pleasing light With trumpet the mortal's name
Of the arts and sciences to the plain, Oh, joyful, joyful day,
Oh Youth, and break forthright The Almighty blessed be
The links of the heavy chain Who, with loving eagerness
That your poetic genius enchain. Sends you luck and happiness.

See that in the ardent zone,

The Spaniard, where shadows stand, The above is a winning poem in 1879 submitted to the
literary contest held by the Liceo Artistico-Literario
Doth offer a shining crown, (Artistic-Literary Lyceum) of Manila--a society of literary
With wise and merciful hand men and artists. The inspiring poem written by Jose
Rizal at the age of eighteen was said to be of flawless
To the son of this Indian land. form which aimed to implore the Filipinos to rise from
indolence. It is said to be a classical piece of Philippine
literature for reasons that (1) Spanish literary
You, who heavenward rise authorities recognize it as an impressive poem written
in Spanish by a Filipino and (2) it was the foremost
On wings of your rich fantasy,
literary piece to display the nationalistic belief that
Seek in the Olympian skies Filipinos were the fair hope of the Fatherland

The tenderest poesy,

More sweet than divine honey; However, the poem hinted rebellion for the Spaniards.
According to Bantug, one newspaper writer even said
that the poet-doctor had better devote his time to his
You of heavenly harmony, doctoring than to his rhyming.

On a calm unperturbed night,

Philomel's match in melody,
That in varied symphony
Dissipate man's sorrow's blight;

You at th' impulse of your mind

The hard rock animate
And your mind with great pow'r consigned
Transformed into immortal state
The pure mem'ry of genius great;

And you, who with magic brush

On canvas plain capture
The varied charm of Phoebus,
Loved by the divine Apelles,
And the mantle of Nature;

Run ! For genius' sacred flame

Awaits the artist's crowning

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