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Truck and Bus

Fundamentals of Truck & Bus


DECEMBER 2005 Printed in Japan


This training textbook describes some basic knowledges of construction/operation for truck & bus. The
purpose of the textbook is to provide simple technical information for staff who is not in charge of service
activities, such as part staff, sales staff and administration staff in distributors/dealers. The mentioned
staff are required to acquire the knowledges described in the textbook to achieve successfully the
assigned tasks.
All information in the textbook is current as of the time publication. We, however, reserve the right to
make changes at any time without prior notice or obligation.
December 2005


All rights reserved. This textbook may not be reproduced or copied,
in whole or in part, without the written permission of Mitsubishi Fuso
Truck & Bus Corporation.
Table of Contents

- General -
1. Truck -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
2. Truck tractor --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4
3. Bus--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7
4. Mitsubishi Fuso products in Japan market---------------------------------------------- 10
5. Part names of truck--------------------------------------------------------------------------- 14
6. Drive train of truck and bus ----------------------------------------------------------------- 15

- Engine -
1. Types of engines ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 21
2. Engine performance-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 22
3. Power generation mechanism ------------------------------------------------------------- 24
4. Operation of diesel engine------------------------------------------------------------------ 26
5. Emission control for diesel engine -------------------------------------------------------- 30
6. Combustion chamber of diesel engine -------------------------------------------------- 33
7. Structure of engine body -------------------------------------------------------------------- 35
8. Accessories that enhance the engine performance ---------------------------------- 37
9. Fuel system------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 42
10. Air intake and exhaust system------------------------------------------------------------- 50
11. Engine oil---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 53
12. Engine cooling system----------------------------------------------------------------------- 55
13. Engine electrical------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 57
14. CHECK SHEET <Engine section> ------------------------------------------------------- 59

- Chassis -
1. Clutch -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 60
2. Transmission ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 63
3. Final reduction gear -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 75
4. Differential gear-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 77
5. Steering system ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 79
6. Brake system----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 83
7. Tire------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 95
8. Suspension ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 99
9. Battery ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 102
10. Warning and indicator lamps ------------------------------------------------------------- 104
11. Air conditioner-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 105
12. Cab and frame ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 106
13. CHECK SHEET <Chassis section> ---------------------------------------------------- 109


(1) Classification of trucks according to G.V.W.

Mitsubishi Fuso's trucks for general export can be classified into small, medium and large size
as shown below according to G.V.W.
1. FB, FE, FG, etc. Pet name is Canter. (Small truck)
2. FH, FK, FM, FN (medium truck)
3. FP, FV, FU, FS (large truck)
Small truck
G.V.W. 3,500 kg-8,000 kg

Medium truck
G.V.W. 8,500 kg-15,100 kg

Large truck
G.V.W. of 15,100 kg or more

See below for detailed model lineup.

G.V.W.: Gross Vehicle Weight

Gross vehicle weight of a single truck =
Empty Vehicle weight + Weight of crew +
Maximum loading capacity


(2) Classification of truck with cargo deck shape

There may be differences in the cargo deck (body) shape or structure placed on the chassis
depending on the purpose, cargo type and shape. There are various names for trucks accord-
ing to cargo decks.

Cargo Dump

Refrigerated Van Tanker

Fire Engine

(3) Classification of truck with cab structure

Cab-over truck Bonnet truck

The engine is placed under the cab. At Engine is placed in front of the cab, and the
present, all major models of Mitsubishi Fuso hood covering the engine is protruding for-
trucks are built with this structure. ward. This is represented by NW419 and
NV216 models of Mitsubishi Fuso trucks that
are super-heavy item carrier.


(4) Chassis and body

The structure of a truck can be classified into the

major categories of chassis and body. The assembly
of systems to drive a truck is called the chassis.

(Built by body manufacturer)

(Manufactured by
Mitsubishi Fuso)

A body of a passenger car refers to a complete vehicle. A body of a truck

refers to the equipment (installation device or special equipment) such as
cargo, dump, mixer, crane, etc. depending on the purpose of customer
use. The body is installed by an expert manufacturer (body manufac-
In a word, chassis refers to a truck without the body.
The chassis completed by Mitsubishi Fuso has all equipment required for
driving. This chassis is called a bare chassis (or nude chassis). It can run
by itself to go to a body manufacturer.
Then, a body is installed on a bare chassis at a body manufacturer, and
the truck is completed as a vehicle. In most cases, a bare chassis is used
for overseas export.
Since the chassis is the basic structure of the truck. It is important to
understand this.


The part that tows the loaded vehicle is called a tractor, and the loaded vehicle to be towed is
called a trailer.
A truck tractor that shares a part of the weight of the trailer is called a semi-trailer truck tractor
(semi-trailer in common) and the one that does not share the weight is called a full trailer truck
tractor (full trailer in common).

Semi-trailer truck tractor

Full trailer truck tractor

Semi-Trailer Truck Tractors

Mitsubishi Fuso has lineup of FP and FV semi-trailer truck tractors.

FP515GR (4X2)

FV515HR (6X4)


Check it for your reference.

Lineup of basic models


Check it for your reference. You will learn how the model code is applied.

Model coding system for trucks

Normal control cab style

In general, it is called a bonnet type.


3. BUS

Similar to trucks, Mitsubishi Fuso bus is also classified into small bus (BE, Rosa bus in com-
mon), medium bus (MK) and large bus (MP, MS) according to G.V.W. In addition, there is a bus
chassis (BM, RK and RP) without the body.




Bus chassis (RK)


Check it for your reference.

Lineup of basic models


Check it for your reference. You will learn how the model code is applied.

Model coding system for buses



A various number of Mitsubishi Fuso models
including large, medium and small trucks
and buses is available to meet customer
requirements. Specifications to customer's
content including combinations of wheel-
base, engine, transmission, reduction gear, 6. FF 6X2 Over 4 tons
Super low floor vehicle with rear 2-axles. Air sus-
etc. can be selected. pension is used for the second drive axle. 8 tons
for the gross vehicle weight is achieved.

(1) Canter and Canter Guts

7. FG 4X4 2 to 3 tons
Part time 4WD truck

Canter Guts
1. FA 4X2 1.5 tons
Truck using LPG as fuel. Low engine noise is suit-
able for driving in urban areas or residential areas.
2. FB 4X2 1.5 tons
Excellent in tight turning ability. It is suitable for FG type full-time 4WD truck is the on-road type
collection and delivery in short distances. low floor vehicle most appropriate for collection
3. FD 4X4 1.5 tons and delivery.

4WD truck in the small size vehicle category.

(2) Fighter Mini-Yon

Canter 1. FH 4X2 4 to 4.5 tons

4. FC 4X2 2 to 3 tons Excellent in tight turning ability. It is compatible
Truck in the small size vehicle category using with all special equipment vehicles as well as col-
LPG as fuel, similar to FA type. Low engine noise lection and delivery vehicles in urban areas.
is suitable for urban areas and residential areas.
5. FE 4X2 Over 2 to 4 tons
There are many variants to meet requirements of spe-
cial equipment vehicles as well as collection and deliv-
ery vehicles for short distances.

- 10 -

(3) Fighter

4. FK-R 4X2 Truck tractor

1. FK 4X2 4 to 7 tons FK class semi-tractor
Compatible with all special equipment vehicles as
well as collection and delivery vehicles for medium

5. FN612 6X2 Over 8 tons

FN612 type is the low floor vehicle with rear 2-axles.
Air suspension is used for the second drive axle. 14.5
2. FL 4X4 8 tons tons for the gross vehicle weight is achieved.
FK class 4WD vehicle

6. FN622 6X4 10 tons

FN622 type is the low floor vehicle with rear 2-axle
FL type full-time 4WD achieved unprecedented low
drive. It is suitable for transportation of heavy items
floor in the conventional medium size 4WD trucks
like construction materials.
with the use of the center drop front axle. It is the
on-road type low floor vehicle compatible with vari- (4) Super Great
ous installation of special equipment.

1. FP 4X2 8 tons
Suitable for driving on general roads and compati-
3. FM 4X2 7 to 8.8 tons ble with special equipment.
Vehicle handling is equivalent to FK vehicle and the
available loading capacity is 8.8 tons. It is compati-
ble with all special equipment vehicles as well as
collection and delivery vehicles for short and
medium distances.

2. FY 6X4 9.75 to 10 tons

Low floor is applicable to light or tall items or vehicle

- 11 -

(5) Super Great snow removing vehicle

3. FS 8X4 11.35 to 11.75 tons

Low floor and lightening are applicable to transpor- 1. FR 4X4
tation of tall items on good roads. Excellent in terms 7-ton class all wheel drive high-speed snowblower
of safety for flat tires.

2. FW 6X6
4. FT 6X2 11.5 to 12 tons 10-ton class all wheel drive high-speed snow-
Applicable to good road, high speed and long dis- blower
tance transportation. The chassis weight is lighter
than that of FV vehicle. (6) Super Great truck tractor

5. FU 6X2 11.35 to 12 tons 1. FP 4X2

Multi-purpose use. Compatible with all special Semi-tractor for high speed and long distance
equipment vehicles. It is suitable for good road, transportation
high speed and long distance transportation.
The vehicle with air suspension has small vibration
on the cargo deck, and driving comfort is good.
Height control system facilitates unloading of cargo.

2. FV 6X4
Applicable to transportation of heavy items with
rear 2-axle drive and excellent in stability for bad
road and snow road.
6. FV 6X4 11 to 11.5 tons
Applicable to transportation of heavy items with
rear 2-axle drive and excellent in stability for bad
road and snow road. Various engines with features
of fuel economy, torque, etc. are available.

- 12 -

(7) Super Great full tractor (11) Aero Star

1. FT-P 6X2 1. MM 4X2

Cargo can be divided into truck side and trailer Large class short body. It is suitable for short dis-
side. It is convenient when the sort, destination and tance route for the capacity of 70 passengers.
quantity of load are varied. 2. MP 4X2
(8) Super Great pole trailer Large class short and medium distance route bus
(12) Aero Bus

1. FV-P 6X4
Used for transportation of long items. 1. MM 4X2
(9) Rosa Large class short body. It is suitable for small
group tour of short and medium distances.
2. MP 4X2
Suitable for sightseeing of short and medium dis-
3. MS 4X2
Body that is excellent in aerodynamics is used.
1. BE 4X2 Suitable for long distance sightseeing.
Short body (capacity of 26 passengers) and long (13) Aero Queen
body (capacity of 29 passengers) are available.
2. BG 4X4
4WD vehicle of BE class
(10) Aero Midi

1. MS 4X2
This represents the Mitsubishi Fuso large sightse-
eing bus. We have always met new requirements
exemplified by the front wheel independent sus-
1. MJ 4X2 pension system. It is suitable for long distance
The overall length is 7 m or less. It is positioned sightseeing or a long distance regular bus.
between BE class and MK class. The horizontal
rear engine and the T-drive method are used.
2. MK 4X2
This is main model for medium size class.

- 13 -


Before studying the truck in detail, learn the part names first.
(1) Appearance


Door glass Protection post bar

Windshield wiper

Outside mirror Side gate

Cargo deck
Outside handle

Front garnish

Front turn
signal lamp

Front grille
Rear combination lamps
Front bumper
Clearance lamp Front fender

(2) Interior parts

Air outlet
Instrument panel

Meter cluster


Air conditioner
control knobs

Glove box
Steering wheel

Driver's seat

Shift lever

Combination switch
(Windshield wiper, Exhaust brake)

- 14 -


(1) What is the drive train?

Let's check the parts that are necessary for driving a truck.
A truck runs by turning the force generated from the engine into rotation of tires as shown
below. These parts are called the Drive train.

Drive axle Differential gear

It is the shaft (axle) that trans- It is the part that automatically
mits the power from the propel- adjusts the difference of the
ler shaft to the tires through the outer and inner tire rotations for
differential gear. smooth turning on a curve.
It turns ON and OFF the transmission
of the engine power to the tires.

The rotation of
tires on the
ground from the
engine power
can drive a truck.

Propeller shaft
It is a "rotating shaft"
that transmits the
Transmission power from the trans-
A combination of gears in various mission to the rear
sizes allows effective transmission wheels.
It generates the power to drive a of the engine power. It has the
truck. How the power is gener- same function as the bicycle
ated and how the power is trans- "gear".
mitted are explained later in

- 15 -

(2) Drive system

The drive system is classified as follows according to the engine position and the drive wheel
1) Front engine rear drive system
The engine is placed at the front of the vehicle, and the vehicle is driven with the rear wheels.
It is called FR vehicle for short.

2) Rear engine rear drive system

The engine is placed at the rear of the vehicle, and the vehicle is driven with the rear wheels.
It is called RR vehicle for short.
In this system, the driver's seat is distant apart from units including the engine. It is necessary
to remote control the operation mechanism with a rod or wire. The mechanism tends to be
It has the advantages of large floor space and a low floor. The system is used for large buses.

(3) Total number of wheels x number of

drive wheels
Usual reference of 4 x 4 (four by four) repre-
(total number of wheels X number of drive

- 16 -

<Comprehension check quiz>

Within 10 minutes
If you fully understand general information
about trucks and buses, please answer the
questions in the following quiz.

Question 1
Write the appropriate terms in ( ) for the classification of trucks according to G.V.W.

( ) truck ( ) truck
G.V.W. 3,500 kg-8,000 kg G.V.W. 8,500 kg-15,100 kg

( ) truck
G.V.W. 15,100 kg or more
Question 2
Write the appropriate names of truck in ( ) of the figure below.

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( )

- 17 -

Question 3
Write the appropriate terms that represent the truck structure in ( ) of the figure below.

( )

( )

Question 4
Write the appropriate names of truck tractors in ( ) of the figure below.

( )

( )

Question 5
Write the appropriate part names of truck in ( ) of the figure below.

( ) ( )

( )

( )

- 18 -

Question 6
Write the appropriate part names of truck in ( ) of the figure below.

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

Question 7
Write the appropriate names of major parts that consist of the truck drive train in ( ) of the
figure below.
( ) ( )

( )

( )

( )

( )
( )

- 19 -

Question 8
Write the appropriate names that represent the drive system in the figure below.

( ) system ( ) system

Question 9
The figure below is Mitsubishi Fuso FV truck and its rear wheel 2 axles are drive wheels. What
is <Total number of wheels x Number of drive wheels> for this vehicle?

( )( )

- 20 -

An engine shows its shape with the piston arrange-
ment and the number of cylinders containing pis-

Cylinders in a row are called the in-line type, and the V-shape viewed
from the front is called the V type.
4 cylinders make a 4-cylinder engine, and 8 cylinders make a 8-cylin-
der engine.
V-type 8-cylinder engine means that 8 cylinders, 4 on each side, are
assembled in a V shape.
Mitsubishi Fuso has a number of engine types. Engine examples for
each shape are as follows:

4D34<In-line 4 cylinders 3,907cc> 6D14<In-line 6 cylinders 6,557cc>

6D24<In-line 6 cylinders 11,945cc> 8DC9<V type 8 cylinders 16,031cc>

- 21 -

The engine is the source that generates the power to drive a vehicle.
In other words, it is a heart of the vehicle.

(1) Measurement method of engine performance

The engine performance is indicated as follows according to the measurement method:
Gross indication
Method to measure an individual engine without accessories such as a radiator, fan, muffler,
Net indication
Method to measure an engine on the vehicle with a muffler and fan assembled.
The measurement with the net indication method results in reduction of power by about 10%
from the gross indication.

(2) Engine performance curve

The engine power and torque are shown on the vehicle brochures in a diagram. This diagram
can inform you about the engine performance of a vehicle.
Torque kgf-m (Nm)
Power PS (kW)

Engine speed (rpm)

Power curve
Torque curve

- 22 -

Power refers to the horsepower. It acts on the
maximum speed of the vehicle.
One horsepower is the force needed to lift the
weight of 75 kg to 1 m for one second. Usually,
the vehicle power is indicated by amount of
work PS (horsepower) performed by the
engine for the specified time.
For example, the meaning of maximum output
210 PS/2,900 rpm is that 210 horsepower is
achieved at 2,900 engine revolutions per
Conversion of unit:
1PS = 0.7355kW

Torque is the rotational force performed by the
engine. It acts on hill climbing ability or start-
up of a vehicle.
Torque (kgf-m) is indicated by the number of
kg force at 1 m from the crankshaft center.
The maximum torque of 180 kgf-m/1,200 rpm
means that the maximum torque of 180kgf-m
is obtained at 1,200 engine revolutions per
Conversion of unit:
1kgf-m = 9.80665Nm

- 23 -


An engine generates power by burning fuel such as gasoline or

diesel oil.
However, just burning the fuel does not generate a large amount
of power.
Various motions and mechanisms are incorporated in the engine
to generate power. Let's take a look at the system to generate the
engine power from a general 4-cycle gasoline engine.

Intake stroke Compression stroke Combustion stroke Exhaust stroke

(1) Intake stroke

When the piston goes down, the intake valve opens and air-fuel mixture is drawn into cylinder.
(2) Compression stroke
When the piston goes up, air-fuel mixture in the cylinder is compressed.
(3) Combustion stroke
The piston comes to the top. The ignition plug fires when the air-fuel mixture is compressed to
the maximum, and the compressed air-fuel mixture burns (explodes). This force moves the
piston, resulting in the engine power.
(4) Exhaust stroke
The exhaust valve opens to discharge burned gas in the cylinder when the piston goes up.

What is 4-cycle?
A 4-cycle engine accurately refers to a 4-stroke 1-cycle
With 4 strokes (stroke: upward/downward movement of
piston) of intake, compression, combustion and
exhaust, 1 cycle is completed to generate the power. In
general, this is called a 4-cycle engine for short.
In addition to the 4-cycle engine, a 2-cycle engine is
available. Due to emission control, only a 4-cycle engine
is used for trucks.

- 24 -

Changing the upward/downward motion of the piston to rotating motion

Since the piston moves upward/downward, it cannot be directly linked to the rotating motion of
tires. The parts that change this upward/downward motion to rotating motion are the con-rod
and the crankshaft located underneath the piston.
Take an example of moving bicycle pedals for the function of the con-rod and the crankshaft.
Although the leg moves up and down, the pedal rotates in a circular motion.
In an engine, when the con-rod, which is equivalent to "leg" connecting this upward/downward
motion to the rotating motion, moves up and down, the crankshaft is designed revolve.

In engine revolution, there is a term of "low revolu-

tion" and "high revolution". This refers to revolu-
tions of the crankshaft.
For example, 3,000 rpm means that the crankshaft
revolves 3,000 times a minute. Surprisingly, this is
50 revolutions a second.
Briefly, the piston moves up and down 50 times a
An engine is operating very busily.
Therefore, highly accurate manufacturing tech-
nolgy is required.

- 25 -


Engines are classified into gasoline engines using gasoline as fuel and
diesel engines using diesel oil. Basically, both are the same for the 4-cycle
engine, but there are differences in the operation principles of intake, com-
pression and combustion strokes.
In the intake stroke of a diesel engine, only air without fuel is taken in.
Diesel oil, as fuel, is injected in the air that is compressed in the compres-
sion stroke, and combustion occurs by self-ignition of the diesel oil.

Intake stroke Compression stroke Combustion stroke Exhaust stroke

(1) Intake stroke
When the piston goes down, the intake valve opens and air is drawn into the cylinder.
(2) Compression stroke
When the piston goes up, air in the cylinder is compressed.
(3) Combustion stroke
When the piston comes to the top at which air is compressed to the maximum, high-pressure
diesel oil is injected from the injection nozzle. Self-ignition of diesel oil occurs due to com-
pressed temperature of air (500 to 700 C), resulting in combustion and expansion.
(4) Exhaust stroke
The exhaust valve opens to discharge burned gas in the cylinder when the piston goes up.

<Comparison of gasoline engine and disel engine>

- 26 -

<Advantages and disadvantages of a diesel engine>

zNoise and vibration have recently been
zNoise and vibration improved.
zManufacturing cost zMuch daily maintenance is not required.
is high zDiesel oil is inexpensive.
zHeavy zFuel consumption is low.

Origin of name:
The diesel engine is named after Dr. Rudolph Diesel, a German, who developed
the 4-cycle engine in 1897.
The 4-cycle gasoline engine was invented by Nicholas August Otto in 1876.

What is the engine compression ratio?

It is the ratio that the capacity combining area A and area B (total intake) is compressed to the
capacity of area A.
When the compression ratio is 10, it means that the compression of intake air or air-fuel mixture
is 1/10.

Piston stroke

Compression ratio =

- 27 -

Obtain the compression ratio using the 4D34 engine on the Canter as an example.

The cylinder diameter (cylinder bore diameter) of the 4D34 engine is 10.4 cm, the piston stroke
is 11.5 cm and the capacity of the combustion chamber (capacity of area A on the previous
page) is 59.2 cc.
1. First, obtain the capacity of area B, where the piston moves from the bottom dead center (the
lowest position) to the top dead center (the highest position).
Capacity of area B = (Cylinder bore diameter) (Cylinder bore diameter) circle ratio 4 x (piston stroke)
= 10.4 10.4 3.14 4 11.5
= 976.4 cc
2. Put the capacities of A and B in the calculation formula to obtain the compression ratio.
Compression ratio = (A + B) A = (59.2 + 976.4) 59.2
=17.5 is thus obtained. Do you remember the circle ratio?
What is the cylinder capacity?

What is the total displacement?

Engine size is usually indicated by the unit of cc.

This refers to the total displacement of the
engine, which can be obtained by Cross-section
area of the cylinder Piston stroke Number of
For example, the total displacement of the 4-cyl-
inder engine with the a piston diameter of 104
mm and a stroke of 105 mm is:
52 52 105 4 1000 = 3566cc

- 28 -

What is ignition point? What is flash point?

The flash point is the temperature that starts burn-
ing by approach of fire.
The ignition point is the temperature that starts
burning by itself.
A feature of the diesel engine is the self-ignition system. The reason for a higher compression
ratio of a diesel engine than a gasoline engine is the self-ignition system using the compression
heat. Diesel oil used as fuel has a lower ignition point (firing at a lower temperature) than that
of gasoline.
A high compression ratio also means a large expansion in combustion.
This makes the heat efficiency better, resulting in a synergy effect of less consumption of fuel
as well as large power.

For your reference

What is diesel oil?
Diesel oil is obtained after taking gasoline and kerosene from crude oil. It is a light yellow or light
brown liquid with a specific gravity of 0.80 to 0.86.

Refining of oil:
First, water or soil is removed from the crude oil. Then, the oil is put through the normal or
reduced pressure distilling system to fraction into gasoline, kerosene, diesel oil, etc. using the
difference of boiling point.
In fraction distillation, oil distillated at 30 200 C is generally gasoline, oil distillated at 160
280 C is kerosene, and oil distillated at 200 350 C is diesel oil. Heavy grade oil that cannot
be distillated can be obtained from the bottom of the distilling system.
Further distillation of heavy grade oil at reduced pressure can be fractioned into materials such
as various gear oil, wax, heavy oil that is fuel for boilers, etc.

- 29 -


Harmful gas discharged from automobiles is exhaust gas and blowby gas as shown in the
figure below.

Discharge location of
harmful substance

Blowby gas is the gas that goes In general, major harmful substances contained
from the clearance between the in exhaust gas of the diesel engine are:
piston and the cylinder to the zCarbon monoxide (CO)
crankcase. Components of this zHydrocarbon (HC)
gas are burned gas and unburned zNitrogen oxides (NOx)
zParticulate matter (black smoke and
gas of the air-fuel mixture. The
unburned hydrocarbon)
main harmful substance is HC.

The air-fuel mixture and combustion temperature

affect these generation of harmful substances.
In particular, the higher the combustion tempera-
ture is, the more NOx (generated from oxygen
O2 and nitrogen N2) is generated.
To prevent generation of NOx, the combustion
temperature should be reduced. This causes
poor fuel economy or generation of black smoke.
It is a difficult problem for finding a solution.

- 30 -

Influence of harmful substance on human body

1. CO (carbon monoxide)
CO is a highly toxic gas without taste, odor and color generated from incomplete combustion of carbon or
carbon compound. The gas has an affinity to hemoglobin in blood 250 times the oxygen. When it is absorbed
in a human body, transferability of oxygen in the body becomes poor, causing anoxic conditions.
Table 1 shows the poisoning symptoms for CO hemoglobin concentration in blood.
Hemoglobin Red pigment protein that transfers oxygen in blood. It is also called blood pigment.

Table 1
2. HC (hydrocarbon)
It is a generic name of an organic compound consisting of carbon and hydrogen. HC here refers to unburned
gas or fuel vapor gas due to misfire or incomplete fuel combustion. HC at a low concentration only gives
irritation to the respiratory system. If oxidation is insufficient, HC may become aldehydes, giving strong irri-
tation to mucous membranes or eyes.
It reacts with NOx or ozone in the atmosphere, resulting in photochemical smog.

3. NOx (nitrogen oxide)

NOx is a generic name of nitrogen oxide. NOx here
refers to a substance generated from oxidation of
nitrogen in the air and nitrogen in fuel at high temper-
ature in the engine combustion stroke. 90% or more
of the NOx discharged from automobiles is NO. It
becomes NO2 in the atmosphere, and the human
body is exposed to the effects listed in Table 2.

Table 2
4. PM (suspended particulate matter)
This is discharged mainly from diesel engines. The main component is black smoke, so-called diesel smoke,
which is a carbon particulate.
Combustion heat made this carbon in the fuel loose. When it is discharged in the atmosphere, it becomes
suspended particulate matter and makes visibility poor. The PM also contains soluble organic fraction (SOF),
sulfate, etc.
Suspended particulate matter is said to contain a trace of carcinogens.

- 31 -

Various measures are taken to reduce discharging harmful substances. The figure below is a
summary of these measures. The basic policy is as follows:

1. Achieve combustion status that minimizes harmful substances with modification of parts
including the engine.
2. Control the injection volume, injection timing, etc. to the most appropriate status with an
electronic control fuel injection system.
3. Seal the crankcase opening to prevent the blow-by gas from escaping to the atmosphere
and return it with intake air to the combustion chamber for re-combustion.
Appropriate valve timing
Modification of inlet manifold
Modification of pre-combustion
EGR device chamber (swirl chamber type)

Modification of main combustion

chamber (direct injection type)

Blow-by gas passage

Modification of intake air passage

Modification of swirl flow of air


Modification of fuel injection Modification of injection pump

- Injection timing
- Injection volume
- Injection pressure
- Extent of vaporization
- Distribution status of oil particles

This is a summary of regulations in North

America, Europe and Japan for emission
control of the PM and NOx contained in
exhaust gas emitted from large trucks.

- 32 -


A diesel engine utilizes various ideas to
achieve complete combustion.
Shapes of the combustion chamber can be
classified as shown in left:
chamber type
Currently, the direct injection method is the
main method used.

(1) Direct injection type

Since the bottom of the cylinder head is flat and the upper part of the piston is concave, com-
pression is performed together with vortex of air in the compression stroke. The injection nozzle
has 5 to 6 holes. Radial injection of fuel into the vortex gives good mixture with air, facilitating
zSimple structure with limited failure
zHigh compression ratio,high heat efficiency and
low fuel consumption
zGood start ability
zSince direct injection is provided to the highly
pressurized combustion chamber, high perfor-
mance is required for the injection pump and noz-
zle. The price is high.
zSensitive to change of fuel quality or operation
(2) Swirl chamber type
It is a 2-stage combustion method with a sub-chamber (swirl chamber) that can easily create a
vortex. In the compression stroke, fuel is injected into the air vortex that goes from the main
combustion chamber to the swirl chamber.
Fuel is mixed well with air for combustion, and combustion is smoothly transferred from the swirl
chamber to the main combustion chamber.
Glow plug Advantages
Injection nozzle zSince the combustion speed is quick, the
engine revolution can be high. It is suitable for

Main combustion Swirl chamber high-speed driving.

chamber zSince the pressure of the fuel injection pump
can be low, a simple nozzle may be used.
zStructure is complicated.
zFuel economy is not as good as the direct
injection type.
- 33 -

<Comprehension check quiz> Within 5 minutes

If you fully understand engines learned so far, please check
with the following quizzes.

Question 1
Write the appropriate terms that indicate each stroke in the figure below.

( ) stroke ( ) stroke ( ) stroke ( ) stroke

Question 2
What are harmful gases A and B emitted from automobiles in the figure below?


A: ( )
B: ( )

- 34 -


The engine body consists of a cylinder head, crankcase

(including piston, crankshaft, etc.), oil pan, etc.

Cylinder head

(cylinder block)

Oil pan

- 35 -

<What is Valve?>
Valves are classified into an intake valve and exhaust valve.
Valves open and close with the motion of the engine, and they are driven by the camshaft.
An engine has camshaft located next to the crankshaft, and its only valves are placed above
the cylinder, the engine is called OHV (overhead valve) type.
An engine has the camshaft and the valves above the cylinder, it is OHC (overhead camshaft)
type engine.



OHC type

Push rod


OHV type

- 36 -


A "turbocharger" or "intercooler" is installed to enhance the

performance of the diesel engine.


Intake device

Injection pump

Intercooler Intake device

Exhaust device


- 37 -

(1) Turbocharger
zEffect of supercharging
You may understand that an engine with a large displacement has
larger power than the engine with a small displacement.
This is explained by the fact that a large intake of air into the cylinder
provides an injection of a large amount of fuel, resulting in a large
explosion force.
However, the expansion of the engine body size to increase the
displacement is limited, considering engine space or weight.
Without changing the engine size, compression of intake air is used
to obtain a large explosion. "Supercharging" is thus invented.
The compression of the intake air and the concentrated density of
intake air can burn a lot of fuel. The same effect for a larger engine
displacement can be obtained.

zOperation principle of turbocharger

A turbocharger turns the turbine wheel with
exhaust gas. The compressor wheel con-
nected to the turbine wheel takes and com-
presses air and feeds it to the cylinder. It is a
supercharging system.
It is an excellent system that can achieve high
power, fuel economy, etc. with the compres-
sion of the intake air.

<The engine viewed from above.>

- 38 -

(2) Intercooler

zOperation of intercooler
When air is compressed, its temperature increases. However, the
density of air becomes low at high temperatures.
Even though air is compressed with the turbocharger, a large effect
cannot be obtained due to the low air density.
The intercooler reduces the air temperature compressed with the tur-
bocharger to increase the air density.
It is a super machine that achieves high power output, fuel economy
and low pollution at the same time with the improved turbocharger
function by cooling air.

The temperature of air compressed with

the turbocharger is about 150 C.
The intercooler cools this air down to
about 50 C.

- 39 -

(3) Inertia supercharging system


To exhaust pipe
From air cleaner

Engine main body


Inertia supercharging pipe


zPurpose of inertia supercharging

In a turbocharged diesel engine, it is difficult to increase the turbocharger revolution at a low
engine speed and the intake air volume tends to be insufficient, resulting in a problem of insuf-
ficient torque at a low engine speed.
To compensate for this, the inertia supercharging system is used.

zOperation principle of inertia supercharging

When air intake into the cylinder starts, air in the intake pipe naturally starts moving. When air
in the intake air almost uniformly reaches the maximum speed just before the intake valve
closes, sufficient air is fed with its force (this is called the inertia effect).
When the intake valve closes, the air flow cannot be stopped. The area around the intake valve
is dense due to inertia force of air. The air in the intake valve vibrates, generating compression
To allow sufficient intake of air at a low engine speed, the intake pipe length and diameter are
determined so that the compression waves generated between cylinders may be amplified after
resonance in the two divided intake pipes.
Then, dense air should be taken in when the intake valve opens. Together with the inertia effect,
a lot of air can be taken into the cylinder.
Action of inertia supercharging can increase torque at a low engine speed, improve start-up and
reduce the emission of black smoke.

- 40 -

<Comprehension check quiz> Within 5 minutes

If you fully understand engines learned so far, please check
with the following quiz.

Question 1
Write the appropriate names of the engine body parts in ( ) of the figure below.

( )

( )

( ) ( )
( )
( )

( )
( )

( )
( )

( )

- 41 -


Injection nozzle Water separator

Fuel filter


Injection pump Feed pump

Fuel tank

Take a look at the fuel system to the engine.

Diesel oil in the fuel tank is raised with the feed pump through the
suction hose (fuel pipe) and filtrated in the fuel filter after removing
water contained in fuel with the water separator. Then, fuel is fed to
the injection pump and injected in the engine combustion chamber
from the injection nozzle at the appropriate timing. Excess fuel that
was not injected returns to the fuel tank through the return hose.

Overflow valve
Fuel tank

Injection pump Excess fuel

(Pressurized fuel)
Water separator
Excess fuel
(Removal of water)

Injection nozzle
(Injection of fuel to each cylinder
Feed pump according to the injection order)

Fuel filter Combustion chamber

(Removal of dirt, dust)

- 42 -

(1) Water separator

It separates water that is contained in fuel.
Since separated water accumulates at the
bottom of the container due to the difference
in the specific gravity from diesel oil, it is dis-
charged by loosening the drain plug at the bot-
tom after the specified amount is reached.

Drain plug

Air bleeding plug

Priming pump Fuel filter

Feed pump

(2) Feed pump

It is the pump used to feed fuel from the fuel tank to the injection pump. It also controls the fuel
pressure to prevent any unusual status. It is also designed to bleed air (see the frame).

(3) Fuel filter

It is a filtering system used to feed clean fuel to the engine by removing the dirt that is contained
in fuel. It has an air bleeding plug.

Air bleeding
When fuel runs out, air comes into the fuel system. If the fuel is replenished later, the
engine cannot be started. In this case, bleed air in the fuel line.
After loosening the air bleeding plug on the fuel filter, loosen the priming pump on the feed
pump. Pump (move up and down) it to purge air in the fuel system from the air bleeding
When air bubbles do not come out with the fuel, air bleeding is completed.
Then, tighten the air bleeding plug and press down the priming pump to return to the
original condition.

- 43 -

(4) Injection pump

Now, take a look at the injection pump (fuel injection unit), which is
particularly important in the fuel system.
The injection pump is the system that applies pressure to fuel to be
injected in the combustion chamber or that uniformly injects the
appropriate amount of fuel at the most appropriate time (the func-
tion of timer) according to the engine revolution.
zOverall view of injection pump
The injection pump feeds fuel like an injection syringe.
Two types of injection pump are available: the in-line type that feeds fuel to one cylinder with
one injection syringe in the injection pump and the distribution type that feeds fuel to all cylin-
ders with one injection syringe.
The in-line type is used for many trucks. The
<In-line type> distribution type is used for some of the small
Feed pump diesel engines.
The injection pump consists of the governor
Timer (speed control unit) that controls the engine
revolution, the timer (injection timing control
unit) that controls injection timing of fuel and
the feed pump (fuel feed unit) in addition to the
main pump.

Injection nozzle
zStructure of injection pump
The injection pump has a camshaft that is
interlocked with the engine crankshaft, and it
is designed to pressure and feed the fuel to
each cylinder using the camshaft revolutions.
Inside the injection pump, there are compo-
nents of the plunger that feeds pressurized
Injection pump Plunger
fuel, the camshaft that provides the plunger
Fuel filter with vertical motion interlocked with engine
revolutions and the unit that controls the fuel
Feed pump injection amount of the plunger. They are
manufactured with a precision control mecha-
Fuel tank


- 44 -

Mechanism to control fuel injection amount

zPlunger mechanism - Core of injection pump Plunger barrel

<Mechanism that feeds pressurized fuel while
changing delivery amount>
By upward/downward movement with cam, the plunger Fuel
mechanism sucks the fuel from the fuel intake/exhaust Plunger
port, and it pressurizes and discharges the fuel to the
Fuel intake/
combustion chamber through the injection nozzle. exhaust port
It also has a function to change the fuel injection amount
and the engine output through the control rack that is
interlocked with the accelerator pedal.

zOperation principle of plunger

There is an oblique groove, which is called the lead, on the side of the plunger.
Since this lead is connected to the vertical hole at the center of the plunger, pressure feed of
fuel is allowed while changing the amount of fuel.

Fuel suction Pressure feed of fuel Pressure

feed ends

Fuel intake/
exhaust port


When the plunger goes When the plunger goes up When the plunger goes up fur-
down, fuel is taken into the and the fuel intake/exhaust ther and the lead of the plunger
plunger barrel from the fuel port is closed, pressure reaches the fuel intake/
intake/exhaust port. feed of fuel starts. exhaust port, fuel in the
plunger barrel starts reverse
flow from the vertical hole at
the center of the plunger to the
fuel intake/exhaust port
through the lead. Pressure
feed of fuel is completed.

- 45 -

Plunger barrel Operation of plunger

Fuel intake/
exhaust port The amount of one fuel injection depends
Control rack on the distance (effective stroke) from when
the upper surface of the plunger closes the
fuel intake/exhaust port of the plunger barrel
to when the lead of the plunger reaches the
fuel intake/exhaust port of the barrel.
When the plunger is turned, the oblique lead
changes the effective stroke, resulting in a
change of the fuel injection amount. The
function of the control rack that is operated
with the accelerator pedal and the governor
is to turn the plunger.

(5) Injection nozzle

The injection nozzle injects high-pressure
fuel, which is pressure fed from the injection
pump, into the combustion chamber.
A throttle type nozzle is used for the swirl
chamber type engine, and a hole type nozzle
is used for the direct injection type engine.

Throttle type Hole type

- 46 -

(6) Governor
The governor settles and controls the engine revolution so that stable idling revolution is main-
tained or that the engine revolution does not exceed the allowable revolution due to excessive
effort on the accelerator pedal.
The governor controls the control rack position so that the plunger deliver the necessary
amount of fuel for each engine speed.
Due to the difference in mechanism, the following types of governors are available:

zMechanical governor
Revolution is mechanically con-
trolled with centrifugal force of
flyweight (weight). When the
engine speed is too high, the
revolution of the camshaft that is
interlocked with the engine
crankshaft increases. The fly-
weight at the end of the camshaft
goes outward with the centrifugal
force. This motion returns the
<Principle of a governor>
control rack to reduction of fuel
based on the principle of lever-

zElectronic governor
It is the latest electronic control system that determines the optimum injection amount by taking
into consideration not only the engine speed, but also information such as the engine load,
coolant temperature, etc. by processing them in the computer.
Control rack The figure on the left shows the actuator
Control rack position sensor
of the electronic governor assembly. It
consists of the linear DC motor, link and
control rack position sensor. This actua-
tor electrically operates the control rack.

Linear DC motor

Coil assembly

- 47 -

(7) Timer
The timer controls the injection timing of the injection pump together with the outward move-
ment of the flyweight, using the centrifugal force of the flyweight (weight) mounted on the
engine revolution shaft.

When the engine revolution increases, the revolution to drive the injection pump goes faster.
Then, the flyweight moves outward with the centrifugal force while compressing the timer
The camshaft of the injection pump revolves faster for this to make the injection timing earlier.

- 48 -
(8) Common rail fuel injection system
Mitsubishi Fuso's engine employs the computer controlled common rail
type fuel injection system to reduce NOx or PM (particulate matter) and
to achieve the optimum combustion.
The common rail fuel injection system pressure feeds fuel, with the
application of super-high pressure with the supply pump, to the accumu-
lator (common rail) and injects the high-pressure fuel from the injection
nozzle (injector). It promotes atomization of injection fuel in the cylinder
and achieves the optimum air-fuel mixture.
In addition, the number of fuel injections, timing and injection amount are controlled in detail,
incomplete combustion is eliminated to reduce NOx or PM and ideal combustion is achieved
from the low speed to high speed range.
Engine performance and ease of driving as well as fuel economy are also improved.

Why is PM reduced with the common rail?

In conventional engines, the fuel injection pressure was
low and the fuel injection grain diameter was not able to
be made smaller. Therefore, the outer fuel grain that is
directly exposed to air is burned, but the inner grain is not
completely burned. Combustion of the outer grain
steamed the inner grain with high temperature, which
resulted in the generation of "soot". Adhesion of residual
fuel or lubricant around this soot resulted in "PM".
Since the common rail fuel injection system can make
the fuel grain diameter smaller with a high fuel injection
pressure, generation of "soot" can be minimized with
complete combustion.

- 49 -


As you have learned, air is an indispensable

element for the operation of an engine. Now,
let's study how air enters into the engine
(intake) and how exhaust gas exits (exhaust).

(1) Air intake system

The air intake has a snorkel shape to take
fresh air at a higher place and to prevent entry
of water from the road. It is raised behind the
cab. Since air in the air duct contains dust
including dirt, the direct intake of the air may
damage the inner part of the engine. Foreign
materials are removed through the air cleaner,
and air is distributed to each cylinder through
the inlet manifold.

Dry type air filter element

Guide vane Outside air taken in is rotated with the guide
vane and large dirt is centrifugally separated.
Small dirt is filtrated through the filter element.
In this element, the filter paper element and
the metal mesh element are available.
To engine
Outside air

Wet type air filter element

There is some amount of engine oil at the bot-
tom of the air filter case. Outside air take in is
blown to absorb dirt into the oil.
To engine

Oil bath

- 50 -

(2) Exhaust system

Combustion gas from the engine is collected
at the exhaust manifold. It goes to the muffler
through the exhaust pipe. Since gas dis-
charged from the cylinder has a high temper-
ature and high pressure, direct discharge of
the gas may cause a large noise due to quick
expansion. The muffler is used to gradually
expand the gas, to reduce the exhaust noise
so that it can be discharged as exhaust gas
after cooling.
(3) Engine brake
Vehicle brakes (braking system) are classified into large categories of the foot brake that is
depressed during driving to stop the vehicle and the parking brake (emergency brake = hand
brake) used for parking.
(These brakes are explained in the Chassis section in detail.)

In addition to the above, the engine brake with the engine or the exhaust brake with exhaust
gas is available.
zDoes an engine act as a brake?
When the accelerator pedal is released while driving a vehi-
cle, the engine revolution goes down and the vehicle speed
decreases. This is referred to as engine brake. The braking
effect is better for lower gears. A low gear is used on a long
downhill slope to apply an effective engine brake.

zExhaust brake
It is the system that increases the engine brake effect
using exhaust gas. A valve is provided on the engine
exhaust pipe to increase the engine revolution resis-
tance by closing the exhaust pipe.
In a large diesel engine, the exhaust brake can reduce
the speed about 1.5 to 2.5 times the engine brake.

To prevent fading or vapor lock, which is ineffective braking due to

overheat in braking, the foot brake is used together with the
exhaust brake and the engine brake.

- 51 -

<Comprehension check quiz>

Within 10 minutes
If you fully understand engines learned so far,
please answer the questions in the following

Question 1
Write the appropriate names in ( ) of the figure below indicating the fuel injection system.

( )
( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

- 52 -


The engine is operated with friction of components such as piston, cylinder, crankshaft, cam,
etc. For smooth operation of these components, lubricant is required.

<Great friction is present in the engine>

Friction occurs from contact of objects. To reduce this friction, a
film of oil is placed on the contact surface of metals to develop
liquid friction. This prevents friction between metals.

(1) Flow of engine oil - Lubrication system

Oil in the oil pan is circulating in the engine with the oil pump. Hot and dirty oil is cooled with the
oil cooler and then cleaned with the oil filter. The oil is pressure fed to lubrication areas.

Oil is a hard worker.

The functions of oil are not only the lubrication of parts, but also the cooling of the engine,
sealing to prevent leakage of gas between the piston and the cylinder, and cleaning of engine

Since oil of the diesel engine tends to be con-

taminated, the method combining the full flow
filtration and the bypass flow filtration is used.
Therefore, the full flow filter and the bypass
flow filter having a high filtration rate are com-
bined for the oil filter.

- 53 -
- Engine -

(2) Classification of engine oil

<Classification of viscosity>
The different types of oil are classified by viscosity for the temperature used.
To prevent that oil in the hot region may be too low viscosity or that oil in the cold region may
be too high viscosity, it is important to select the appropriate viscosity according to the area in
which it will be used.
To be compatible with low tempera-
tures to high temperatures, multi-
grade oil with a
wide range of
viscosity is also

<Classification of performance>
The stronger the oil film is, the better the engine oil is.
Oil performance is graded (classified) by a test. It is important to use oil suitable for engine
characteristics. CC grade (CD grade for turbocharger) or better is specified for Mitsubishi
Fuso's engines as shown below.

Diesel Engine Oil API Service Classification

- 54 -


The engine has a very high temperature after combustion. It is necessary to cool it to maintain
the appropriate temperature and obtain sufficient performance.
The system that cools the engine is called cooling system.
The cooling system includes radiator, water pump, oil cooler, thermostat, cooling fan, etc.

Reservoir tank
Cooling fan
Water jacket
(Water channel for coolant)


Water pump

Oil cooler

The methods to cool the engine are water cooling using

coolant and air cooling using air. The air cooling method is
less effective in cooling effect than the water cooling
method. Its cylinder block is thin and engine noise tends to
be transferred. Air cooling is only used for motorbikes or
part of vehicles.

(1) Radiator
The radiator is built with many tubes. Air going
through clearances of these tubes radiates
heated coolant after circulation in the engine
and the coolant returns to the water channel in
the engine.

Do not open the radiator cap before the radia-

tor is cooled. Gushing hot water (coolant) may
cause burns.

- 55 -

(2) Water pump

The belt connected to the crankshaft turns the vane wheel,
generates the hydraulic pressure and circulates the coolant.

Oil (3) Oil cooler

Since the performance of lubrica-
tion oil is poor at high tempera-
tures, the oil cooler is used to cool
Coolant Coolant
the oil with the coolant.
The oil coolers not only cool the
oil, but also warm oil at low tem-

<The engine should not be cooled excessively>

We have learned that the engine should be cooled because a large vol-
ume of heat is generated after explosion in the combustion stroke.
The engine should not be excessively cooled for the best performance of
the engine. The best cooling water temperature for the engine is said to
be 80 C.

To radiator (4) Thermostat

To prevent the coolant temperature from
becoming excessively high or low, the thermo-
stat has a valve mechanism to allow the cool-
Thermostat ant flow to the radiator for cooling if the
From cylinder coolant temperature from the cylinder head is
head high and to allow the coolant flow to the water
To Water Pump pump, not to the radiator, if the coolant tem-
perature is low.

(5) Cooling fan

When a vehicle is idling or at a low speed, the
radiator is not exposed to wind. The cooling
fan is operated to take air and to cool the radi-
At present, the auto cooling fan that controls
the fan rotating speed according to the coolant
temperature is used.
- 56 -


(1) Charging system
It is no exaggeration to say that current vehicles cannot be driven without electricity.
The source for electricity is the alternator (generator) and the battery.
When the engine is operating, the alternator is supplying electricity to the electric system. If the
supply of electricity for the electric system is not sufficient with the alternator only, the battery
compensates for the shortage of electricity.

- 57 -

(2) Starting system

The role of the battery is to start the engine.
The starting system to start the engine consists of the starter motor, starter switch and battery.
When the starter switch is turned on, the gear of the starter motor comes out to engage with
the flywheel. Turning the flywheel with the motor starts the engine. When the starter switch is
turned off, the gear retracts in the starter motor.

Starter switch

Starter motor


- 58 -

14. CHECK SHEET <Engine section> 20 min.

This is final check of the information that you have
learned in the engine section.
Give it a try.
Write the appropriate terms in ( ).

1. Engine with 4 cylinders is called ( ) engine.

2. 4 strokes of the engine is: ( ) Compression ( ) Exhaust.
3. Turning vertical motion of the piston into rotating motion is ( ) and ( ).
4. When explosion occurs in the cylinder, the piston is pressed. ( ) transfers its force to
turn the crankshaft.
5. Description of 210 PS/2,900 rpm means that the horsepower of ( ) is obtained when the
engine rotates 2,900 revolutions per minute.
It is the same as ( ) kW/2,900 rpm.
6. A description of 180 kgf-m/1,200 rpm means that 180 kgf-m ( ) is obtained when the
engine rotates 1,200 revolutions per minute.
It is the same as ( ) Nm/1,200 rpm.
7. The gasoline engine takes in air-fuel mixture for compression, but the diesel engine takes
in ( ) for compression.
8. Among the gasoline engine and the diesel engine, the ( ) engine has the higher
compression ratio.
9. 3 types of combustion chamber are available for the diesel engine; ( ) type, pre-
combustion chamber and swirl chamber type.
10. The diesel engine has OHV type and ( ) type depending on the layout of the valve and
the camshaft.
11. The engine auxiliary using the supercharging effect is ( ).
12. The intercooler is used together with ( ). It cools heated ( ) and improves the
supercharging effect by increasing ( ).
13. In the diesel engine, air contained in the fuel system disables the start of the engine. ( )
is required.
14. In the injection pump, the part that injects fuel is ( ).
15. The part assembled to the injection pump that settles and controls the diesel engine speed
is ( ).
16. ( ) is the device that controls the fuel injection timing.
17. The system that improves the engine brake effect with exhaust gas is ( ).
18. If you continue depressing the brake, the brake is heated and the friction material of the
brake shoe becomes slippery due to seizure. A vehicle will be hard to stop by braking.
This phenomenon is called ( ).
19. The water cooled engine constantly feeds coolant around the cylinder, heated coolant is
cooled by ( ) circulating in the system.
20. To operate the engine smoothly, ( ) for lubrication is supplied to reduce friction resis-
21. The device that charges the battery is the electricity generating system with the engine
revolution = ( ).
- 59 -


It is located between the engine and the transmission. This system trans-
fers or shuts off the engine power to the drive wheels as required.
When the engine is started, the transmission gear is shifted (gear
change) or the vehicle is stopped by braking, it temporarily shuts off the
engine power or smoothly transfers the power at the start.

(1) Principle of clutch

Attachment or detachment of two discs makes
ON and OFF transmission of the power.
When the clutch pedal is depressed, the discs
are detached and the clutch is disengaged.
When the pedal is released, the discs are
attached with the spring force to engage the
The disc on the engine side is called the "fly-
wheel," and the disc on the transmission side
is called the "clutch disc".

- 60 -

(2) Types of clutch

As explained in the "Principle of clutch" section on the previous page,
clutch discs are attached with the spring force.
Spring types of the clutch can be classified into "diaphragm spring type"
and "coil spring type".
The type using one clutch disc is called a single disc type, and the type
using several clatch discs is called a multiple disc type.

The clutch for high output vehicles, including large trucks,

employs the multiple disc type to increase the transmission

zDiaphragm spring type

This type is the mainstream of current clutches. Engagement of the clutch is performed by the
force of the diaphragm spring.
The diaphragm spring is a disc shaped spring. To disengage (detach) the clutch, step on the
clutch pedal. The diaphragm spring is pushed to shut off the power.

- Effort on the clutch pedal can be reduced.
- Applied pressure can be uniform.
- The number of parts is limited, and the structure is simple.
- Even if the centrifugal force is stronger at high-speed revolution, the spring deformation is
limited due to its disc shape, and the stability is high with good balance.

Diaphragm spring

(The condition that (The condition that

the clutch is engaged) the clutch is disengaged)

Flywheel Clutch disc

- 61 -

zCoil spring type

This type is generally used for trucks and buses, the clutch is engaged with the force of the coil
spring (pressure spring).
To disengage the clutch (detach), depress the clutch pedal. The release lever is then pressed
to shut off the power.

- The applied force to push the clutch disc is very strong.

Coil spring


Engine Release lever

Clutch disc
(The condition that the
clutch is engaged)

(The condition that the

clutch is disengaged)

What does "slip of clutch" mean?

Did you ever hear the word "slip of clutch"?
The major cause is worn out of the friction material (clutch facing)
on the clutch disc. The status of insufficient contact with the fly-
wheel is called "slip of clutch".
When the clutch slips, the engine speed only increases with the
accelerator pedal and the vehicle speed does not increase.
Some models have a wear indicator of the clutch disc.

- 62 -


It is the component to transmit the engine power to the propeller shaft

by changing the drive force (torque) and the revolution (speed) with a
combination of gears with a different number of teeth. Two types of
transmissions are available: manual transmission (M/T) that is manu-
ally shifted by a driver, and automatic transmission (A/T) that performs
automatic shift change during driving.

<Role of transmission>
A vehicle must be capable of various uses such as stop, start, low speed, high speed and
reverse driving. The role of the transmission is to use the engine performance effectively to
meet various conditions.
Imagine a bicycle with a gear shifter. Gears are shifted one after another to ease the pedal effort
on an uphill slope and to increase the speed on a flat road.
The transmission is basically equivalent to this bicycle. Gear combinations are changed to
obtain a large amount of power at the start or on an uphill slope and to obtain speed on a flat
road. So-called 1st, 2nd and 3rd speeds (low, second, third) refer to the combination of gears.

- 63 -

<Gear ratio>
It is the ratio between the engine revolution and the pro-
peller shaft revolution.
In the forward gears, the 1st gear has the largest ratio. It
becomes smaller in the order of the 2nd and 3rd gears.
* Even if the engine has the same performance, the drive
force varies on a different gear ratio of the transmission
or different final reduction gear ratio.
The driving performance is usually referred only for the engine performance, but the gear ratio
and the final reduction gear ratio also need to be considered.

Engagement of gears with a different number

of teeth changes the revolution.

As shown on the left, when the small gear on

the left turns 4 times, the center gear turns
twice and the right gear turns once. The revo-
lution (speed) is reduced to 1/4 and the drive
force for movement is multiplied 4 times.

The weight
of 1 rotation
The weight
of 4 rotations
Using the number of gears to be
engaged, their rotation is reversed.

Large force

Small force

- 64 -

<What is overdrive?>
The gear that makes the engine revolution the
same as the propeller shaft revolution is called
direct drive. The gear ratio is 1. When the gear
ratio is smaller than 1, which has larger pro-
peller shaft revolution than the engine revolu-
tion, it is called overtop or overdrive.

Since driving resistance on a flat road is small,

the drive force can afford a margin with the top
gear. By shifted into the overdrive the engine
speed is able to reduce lower than the propel-
ler shaft revolution speed, thus it makes that
driving is quiet with less fuel consumption.

zWhat is overrun?
If you are driving down a steep downhill
slope, the engine revolution increases
without reducing the vehicle speed. It then
exceeds the maximum revolution and a
large noise can be heard. This is called
If you are driving at a high speed, you may
have made a shifting error from 5th gear to
3rd gear. The engine revolution suddenly
increases and overrun occurs, resulting in
damage to the engine. Each shifting gear
has the limit vehicle speed, it is important
to observe the speed.

- 65 -

(1) Manual transmission

In a manual transmission, the synchromesh method is
generally used to change the gear engagement.

Drive pinion



- 66 -

zSynchromesh method
It is called the synchronous engagement method. In this method, a cone-shaped clutch, called
a synchronizer ring, comes in contact with the gear before engagement. When the revolution
is the same, the gears are engaged. It features smooth engagement of the gears.

Shifter fork
Synchronizer ring

4th gear
Drive pinion

Shifting key
Shifting key spring

Synchronizer hub
Synchronizer sleeve

zOperation of the synchromesh method

Synchronizer ring <Neutral status>

The power from the engine is transferred
to the gears of 1234. (Since 4 is
not linked to the propeller shaft, it runs

A: Synchronizer ring
B: Sleeve
C: Hub
1: Main drive gear
2: Countershaft gear (front)
3: Countershaft gear (rear)
4: Mainshaft gear

- 67 -

<Synchronous action>
When the gear shift lever is operated,
gear B moves to the right side.
The fitting (black part) inside gear B
also moves to the right side and
presses gear A to 4.
(At this point, gear B that is moved is
not engaged with A.)
The friction force of A and 4 gradually
starts rotation of 4, A, B and C together.
This action of synchronous rotation with
the friction force is called synchroniza-

<Engagement of gears>
Further operation of the gear shift lever
gives B additional movement.
At this time, gears of B, A and 4 are
already rotating with the synchronous
action described above. Smooth
engagement is made. Now, shifting
gears is completed.
The flow of engine power is:
1234ABC. It leads to the
propeller shaft.

- 68 -

(2)Automatic transmission
In contrast to the manual transmission (M/T) that changes the gear with the hand for driving, it
is the system that automatically changes the transmission gear.
The basic structure of the automatic transmission (A/T) is:
(1) Torque converter that transfers the engine revolution to the next gear mechanism, and
(2) Gear mechanism using the planetary gear.

Planetary gear set

Output shaft

Input shaft Torque converter

ATF zTorque converter

It is located between the engine and the trans-
mission, and it transfers the power through
ATF; (Automatic Transmission Fluid)

Pump impeller Stator Turbine runner

The basic structure is called fluid coupling. As

shown on the left, two fans are placed face to
face. One (engine side) is turned and the
other (transmission side) starts turning with air
flow. In the torque converter, oil instead of air
is used for power transmission.
Principle of fluid coupling

- 69 -

Ring gear zPlanetary gear

It is called planetary gear mechanism, and it
Sun gear consists of the sun gear, carrier and ring gear.
Change of input/output relation to these com-
ponent gears allows shifting of the gear.

zShift pattern
While driving in the D range, the speed is automatically changed from 1st to 4th gear according
to the vehicle speed and the throttle opening (for 4th speed A/T).
The figure below shows how upshifting occurs as the vehicle speed increases.
When the throttle opening is small, upshifting occurs at a low speed. When the throttle opening
is large, upshifting occurs at a high speed.
In the electronic controlled A/T vehicle, the shift pattern can be selected from economy mode
or power mode.
Throttle opening

Power pattern
Economy pattern

Vehicle speed

zAdvantages and disadvantages of A/T vehicle

The engine power is transferred through oil. Start and acceleration is
smooth. There is no concern for engine stall. Gears are automatically
There is no trouble to engage or disengage the clutch. (Clutch pedal
is not required.)
Since the torque converter transfers the power through oil, fuel economy or acceleration is
somewhat worse than M/T. Since the mechanism is complicated, the unit is heavy and the price
is high.

- 70 -

(3) PTO (Power takeoff)

It is the system to provide takeoff power to move the special equipment from the engine or the
3 types of PTO are available; transmission PTO, flywheel PTO and full power PTO. They are
option parts, except for a part of the chassis.

Transmission PTO
It is mounted at the side of the transmission. With
the PTO operation lever, the power takeoff can be
turned ON/OFF through the control unit.
It is used when the vehicle is not in motion.
This PTO is the most popular and widely used.
[Feature] The unit has a low cost and it is easily
[Vehicle] Dump truck, tanker, vacuum car, garbage
truck, simple crane vehicle, lift platform vehicle, etc.

Flywheel PTO
It is mounted on top of the engine flywheel housing.
Since the power is taken directly from the engine,
the equipment can be moved as long as the engine
is on when the vehicle is not in motion or while driv-
In particular, to turn ON/OFF the PTO operation,
use the electromagnetic clutch.
[Feature] Power is taken directly from the engine.
The vehicle models are limited.
[Vehicle] Mixer vehicle, garbage truck, etc.

Full power PTO

There are two types available: the type installed
between the clutch housing and the transmission,
and the other type (small vehicle) installed at the
rear of the transmission.
Since full engine power is used, equipment is used
when the vehicle is not in motion.
[Feature] 100% engine power is taken out, but the
price is high and the vehicle models are limited.
[Vehicle] Fire engine, sludge suction vehicle, etc.

- 71 -

Various PTO structures

Transmission PTO
The transmission PTO is the unit that takes the power from the transmission. It is usually
mounted on a dump truck or various equipment vehicles requiring power when the vehicle is
not in motion.
Shift sleeve
Output shaft

Air cylinder
Shift fork

Flywheel PTO
The flywheel PTO is mainly used for a mixer truck. While the engine is running, the power can
be taken out whether or not the vehicle is in motion.
Flywheel PTO with electromagnetic clutch

Flywheel housing

Flywheel housing
Crankshaft gear

Full power PTO

The full power PTO has the type installed at the rear of the transmission and the type installed
on the drive pinion. Both types can take out the full power of the transmission. It is mainly
mounted on a special purpose vehicle requiring a large amount of power like a fire engine,
concrete pump vehicle, etc.
PTO output shaft

Rear mainshaft
PTO input shaft
- 72 -

<Comprehension check quiz>

Within 10 minutes
Answer the following quiz questions that
check your understanding of the chassis.

Question 1.
Write the appropriate names in ( ) of the figure below.

( ) ( )
( ) ( )

Question 2.
In figures (A) to (F) below, which shows engagement and disengagement of the power?

(A) (B) (C)

Clutch pedal

(D) (E) (F)

Clutch pedal

Engagement of power ( )
Disengagement of power ( )

- 73 -

Question 3.
In the figure below, gear (A) turns clockwise. Complete the following sentences by choosing the
appropriate word in ( ).

In comparison with gear (A), the revolution of gear (C) is (fast, slow) and the revolution torque
is (large, small).
The revolving direction is (clockwise, counterclockwise).

(A) (B) (C)

Question 4.
In comparison to the manual transmission, what are features of the automatic transmission?
Itemize them below.

- 74 -


The final reduction gear changes the power from the propeller shaft perpendicularly and trans-
fers it to the rear axle shafts. It also reduces the speed to increase the torque. From the final
reduction of the speed, it is called final reduction system.
The reduction gear ratio is also called the final reduction gear ratio.
Two reduction gears are available: spiral bevel gear and hypoid gear.
Mitsubishi Fuso is using hypoid gear.

Ring gear Propeller shaft

Reduction pinion

Rear axle shaft

<Hypoid gear>
The centerline of the reduction pinion is engaged offset with the centerline of the ring gear. With
a large twist of the teeth, this gear is widely used.
[Advantage] The gravity center of vehicle is low, and vehicle stability is improved. Since the
gear contact area is large, engagement is wide and the operation noise is quiet.

Reduction pinion
Ring gear

- 75 -

Final reduction gear ratio

First, the transmission reduces the engine revolution at a
high speed (decreases the revolution and increases the
torque with a combination of gears), and then the final reduc-
tion gear reduces the speed to the tire revolution.

Why is a quick reduction not made with the transmission?

Reduction with the transmission only requires many gears. The transmission becomes
very large and heavy. Since the output torque is large, the propeller shaft must be firm
Gear ratio "1st, 2nd, 3rd..." on the brochure refers to the reduction ratio of the transmis-
sion. "Final reduction gear ratio" represents the reduction ratio of this final reduction gear.
The final reduction gear ratio is the value that indicates the ratio of the propeller shaft
revolution and the rear wheel revolution. It is shown by the following formula:

Final reduction gear ratio = Revolutions per minute of propeller shaft / Revolutions per
minute of drive wheel = Number of ring gear teeth / Number of reduction pinion gear teeth

Now, we will study how the vehicle characteristics are changed according
to the change of the final reduction gear ratio.
Obtain the final reduction gear ratio of the following (1) and (2) final reduc-
tion gears.
(1) The number of ring gear teeth is 40, and the number of reduction
pinion gear teeth is 7.
Final reduction gear ratio =
(2) The number of ring gear teeth is 37, and the number of reduction
pinion gear teeth is 6.
Final reduction gear ratio =

In Canter truck, FE515BN4 is using the final reduction gear in (1), and FE515BD4 is using the
final reduction gear in (2).
Both vehicles are mounted with the 4D32 engine and the M015S5 5-speed manual transmis-
sion. With final reduction gears using different final reduction gear ratios, specifications suitable
for the vehicles are obtained.

FE515BD4 that has the final reduction gear ratio in (2) is a dump truck. This vehicle often
carries cargo to construction sites, urban areas or mountain areas at a low or medium speed.
Therefore, driving performance with good response together with large power at start-up and
acceleration is required for this vehicle.
In this way, a final reduction gear with larger final reduction gear ratio is used.
Instead, the maximum speed is low.

- 76 -


(1) Role of differential gear

When a truck turns a curve smoothly, the out-
side tires must run a longer distance than the
inside tires. This means that the revolutions of
the outside wheels needs to be made faster
than that of the inside wheels. On a rough
road, a truck cannot run smoothly without
slight offset of the left and right tire revolutions.
The differential gear automatically provides
the left and right tires with a revolution differ-
ence (differential) for smooth running. It is also
called a differential system.

(2) Principle of differential gear

<Straight driving>
When the same road resistance is applied on the left and right tires, both wheels revolve at the
same speed. The differential pinion gear engaged with the differential gear does not rotate by
itself, and two differential gears have the same turns (revolutions) as that of the ring gear.

Propeller shaft

Ring gear
Reduction pinion

Differencial gear

Differential pinion: does not rotate by itself

- 77 -

<When turning>
When tires at one side have a larger road resistance than the other at a curve, the differential
pinion gear turns to move the outside wheels additionally.
The inside wheels have a larger road resistance than the outside wheels do, and their speed is
The differential pinion gear rotates on the spider and drives the differential gear with smaller
road resistance to give differential action.

Longer distance

Differential pinion: rotates by itself

LSD (Limited Slip Differential)

For example, if a tire on one side is in mud or on ice, a nor-
mal differential gear gives most of the drive force to the tire
with the small road resistance, causing the tire to slip. It is
difficult to move from there quickly.
LSD solves this problem. If one tire starts slipping, the clutch
in the differential gear automatically works to temporarily
stop the differential action.

- 78 -

The steering system changes the moving direction of a
vehicle as desired. By turning the steering wheel, the
direction of the front wheels is changed.
The system has the following three mechanisms:

<Operation mechanism>
Steering wheel Operation force of the steering
wheel is transferred to the gear
Steering shaft mechanism. (Steering wheel, steer-
ing shaft, etc.)
Steering gearbox

Pitman arm <Gear mechanism>

Turning speed of the steering shaft
Drag link is reduced, and the operation force
is increased with the gear. It is
Knuckle arm transferred to the next link mecha-
nism. (Steering gearbox)

<Link mechanism>
This transfers movement of the
Tie rod gear mechanism to the front wheels
and maintains the left and right
wheels at a constant state.

Why is there an angle difference between

the inside wheels and outside wheels?
For example, when turning to the right, a
vehicle is designed so that the right front
wheel may take a sharper turn than the left
front wheel. This is because tracks of the left
and right tires are as shown in the figure.

- 79 -

(1) Steering gearbox

This reduces the turning effort of the steering wheel or increases the operation force.
Two types of the gearbox are available: "Ball nut type" and "Rack and pinion type".

zBall nut type

There are many steel balls on the contact sur-
face of the worm shaft and the ball nut. Fric-
tion of the steering shaft when turning is
reduced with the rolling contact of the balls.
The system allows the transfer of a light oper-
ation force to the ball nut. It is featured by a
light steering force and large durability.

zRack and pinion type

A pinion gear is mounted at the end of the
steering shaft and engaged with the rack gear.
It changes the revolution of the pinion gear to
the horizontal movement of the rack gear. It is
designed to move tires through both ends of
the tie rod.
Since the structure is simple, space can be
saved. Although the steering wheel is subject
to shocks from the road, the turn response is

- 80 -

(2) Power steering

The power steering is a system that has a servo unit that reduces the
operation effort to turn the steering wheel. In general, the engine
power operates an oil pump for the power steering. The hydraulic
pressure generated is used for operation of the power steering. Oil
returns to the oil pump through the reservoir tank for circulation.
DEXRON or DEXRON II ATF (Automatic Transmission Fluid) is used
for oil.

Reservoir tank

Oil pump

Power steering


- 81 -

zVehicle speed sensitive power steering

The steering wheel of a vehicle tends to be light in operation at a high speed.
Considering stability, the power steering should not be effective at a high speed driving.
Vehicle speed is detected with a sensor. Hydraulic pressure to the servo unit is automatically
controlled with electric signals. Then, excessively light operation of the steering wheel is con-
trolled at a high speed driving. This is the vehicle speed sensitive power steering.

Assistance/small Assistance/large

- 82 -


Do you know the basic functions of a truck?

It has 4 functions: Loading, running, turning and stopping.
This "stop" function is one of the important functions of a truck. The brake system is said to be
the most important system in regard to safety.
Therefore, the brake system must be effective, definite for operation, highly durable and easily


Turning Running


<Principle of brake>
The principle of the truck brake is basically the
same as that of the bicycle brake. It stops the
rotation of wheels with friction.
On a bicycle, wheels are stopped with friction
between the rim and the rubber. On a truck,
the drum and the friction material on the brake
shoe are used to stop wheels. This is the drum
brake used in general. When the brake is
applied, the friction material on the brake shoe
comes in close contact with the drum, causing
friction to stop the rotation of the wheels.

- 83 -

(1) Hydraulic brake

To apply the brake, you have to hold the levers of a bicycle. On a truck, larger power is required.
For this purpose, the hydraulic brake is generally used.
The principle is that when you depress the brake pedal, the piston is pushed to increase the
brake fluid pressure in the master cylinder. It is then transferred to the wheel cylinder of each
wheel through the brake pipe. The action is to push the piston of the wheel cylinder to press the
brake shoe against the drum.

Master cylinder (Tandem master cylinder)

Master vac
Brake pipe

Wheel cylinder

If the fluid leaks due to a hole in the brake pipe, the brake may not be
effective. In the hydraulic brake, the hydraulic circuit is divided into
two systems: front wheels and rear wheels. If one brake circuit has a
fluid leak, the other brake circuit functions for safety reasons.

zTandem master cylinder method

The master cylinder is divided into two.
Hydraulic pressure is generated inde-
pendently for the front wheels and the
rear wheels.

Brake fluid
Brake fluid has additives to prevent oxidation and metal corrosion in addition
to glycol ether, which is used as a viscosity control solvent into polyglycol, etc.
Therefore, it is far different from oil, and it is similar to antifreeze. It is appro-
priate to call it brake fluid, not brake oil.

- 84 -

(2) Brake system

The types of brake systems available are hydraulic brake, air-over
hydraulic brake (air pressure and hydraulic pressure combined brake)
and full air brake.

zAir-over hydraulic brake

It is a system that combined the brake valve used for the air brake and the air master. The brake
valve directly connected to the brake pedal controls compressed air from the air tank, resulting
in control of the air master. The mechanism from the air master is the same as the hydraulic
In comparison to the hydraulic brake, the air-over hydraulic brake has the feature of requiring
less pedal effort. It is used for medium-sized trucks and buses.

Air tank
Dual brake valve

Air master

- 85 -

zFull air brake

The brake pedal itself has a valve mechanism.
When the brake is depressed, the brake valve opens. Compressed air in the air tank is sent to
the brake chamber to push the piston in the brake chamber. This presses the brake shoe
against the brake drum, resulting in braking force.
Pedal effort for the full air brake is very low and a large brake force is obtained. This brake is
used for large trucks and buses.

Dual brake valve

Air tank
Compressor Brake chamber

- 86 -

(3) Brake servo unit

Since cargo on a truck is heavy and the vehicle speed is fast, a large brake force is required to
stop the vehicle. The driver must depress the brake pedal hundreds of times a day when driv-
ing, including over a long distance. If brake pedal effort is large, the driver becomes tired.
The brake servo unit provides a large force with a small pedal effort.
If sufficient braking force can be obtained with small pedal effort, the driver's fatigue may be
lightened. The brake servo unit uses a vacuum pump (vacuum) or an air compressor (com-
pressed air) with the pressure difference from the atmosphere pressure.
Now, study the types of the brake servo unit.

zMaster vac
Master vac uses a vacuum. It is integrated
with the master cylinder. When the brake
pedal is not depressed, chambers A and B of
the master vac are always in a vacuum with
the engine power.
When the brake pedal is depressed, air
enters into chamber B, and the atmospheric
pressure moves the large piston in the cham-
ber. It pushes the piston of the master cylin-
der to generate a high hydraulic pressure.
This is mainly used for passenger cars and
the Canter.

zAir master
The air master is a system that uses com-
pressed air. The brake pedal itself has a valve
mechanism. When the brake pedal is
depressed, compressed air builted by the
compressor is directly sent from the air tank,
which generates a high hydraulic pressure.
The capability as the brake servo unit is
higher than the master vac. It is mainly used
for medium-sized trucks.

- 87 -

(4) Wheel brake

This generates the braking force when hydraulic pressure or air pressure
is applied. For the structure, the available types are drum brake and disc

<Drum brake>
The brake shoe with friction material is pressed outward against the brake drum, which is turn-
ing together with the tire, to stop the rotation.
The drum brake has some types of brake shoe arrangement for an effective brake perfor-

zLeading trailing type

Trailing shoe When wheels are rotating forward, one brake

Leading shoe shoe acts on the drum for effective perfor-

mance as if the shoe were pulled into the
drum. This is called leading shoe. In contrast,
the other brake shoe acts as if it were pushed
back. The performance is weak. This is called
trailing shoe. This arrangement is called the
leading trailing type.

zTwo leading type

In contrast with leading trailing type, the two
leading type has made both brake shoes
effective leading shoes.

- 88 -

Dual two leading type

With the two leading type, both brake shoes
are trailing shoes in reverse movement. The
dual two leading type has made both brake
shoes leading shoes in both forward and
reverse movement.

<Disc brake>
Since the drum brake pressed the brake shoes inside the drum, heat tends to be stored. Con-
tinued use of the drum brake for a long time may result in ineffective braking. To improve this
problem, the disc brake system was invented.
It is a system that clamps the disc, which is rotating with the wheel, with pads from both sides
to stop rotation. Different from the drum brake, the disc is exposed to the air. Heat is easily
radiated and stable braking performance is obtained.

Disc Caliper

Pad Pad

- 89 -

Load sensing valve (LSV)

This system maintains the braking force balance between
the front wheel and the rear wheel.
If a truck with a short overall length does not have much
load on the rear wheels without cargo, too easily locking of
the rear wheels may cause the tail to swing.
To prevent this problem, the load sensing valve controls the
braking performance of the rear wheels by sensing the
load. The load on the rear wheels is automatically detected
due to the deflection of the rear spring, and hydraulic pres-
sure or air pressure corresponding to the load is supplied to
the rear brake system.

(5) Parking brake (hand brake)

It is the brake used to prevent movement of a
vehicle when parking. The parking brake is
categorized into the center brake type that
operates the propeller shaft with a wire using
the same mechanism as the brake drum, and
the wheel fixing type with air pressure.

Brake cable

Center brake

Center brake type

Wheel fixing type

- 90 -

(6) ABS (antilock braking system)

If you brake suddenly on a slippery road such as snowy road or wet highway, the tires may lock,
resulting in the loss of steering control. With ABS, a computer detects slippage of a tire and
controls the brake pressure to control the wheel rotating speed and to improve the vehicle
directional stability.
What is tire lock?
The tire rotation stops first with-
out stoppage of the vehicle. The
friction coefficient between the
tire and the road becomes zero.

* ABS is a system that assists braking opera-

Therefore, sufficient reduction of speed is
required before a curve. Unreasonable driving
cannot be controlled with ABS.

What is the effect of ABS?

Vehicle with ABS

The truck was able to maneuver
smoothly through a curve.

Vehicle without ABS

The truck was not able to reduce
its speed sufficiently, and it also
lost its the maneuverability of
the steering wheel, and eventu-
ally it slid off the track.

Vehicle with ABS

Vehicle without ABS

- 91 -

<Comprehension check quiz>

Within 10 minutes
Answer the following quiz questions that check
your understanding of the chassis.

Question 1.
Write the appropriate names in ( ) of the figure below.

( )
( )

( ) ( )
( )

( )

( )

Question 2.
Write the appropriate names in ( ) of the fig- ( )
ure on the right.
( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

- 92 -

Question 3.
Write the appropriate names in ( ) of the figure below.

( )
( )
( )

( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )

( )

( )

( )

- 93 -

Question 4.
Write the appropriate names in ( ) of the figure below.

( )

( ) ( )
( )


( )


( ) ( ) ( )

Question 5.
What are the brake system names of figures (A) and (B) in question 4?

- 94 -

A tire is assembled with the disc wheel, and it supports the total weight of the vehicle. It main-
tains sufficient contact with the road, reduces slip with the road due to drive force or braking
force, absorbs part of the shock from the road and reduces vertical movement of the vehicle
together with the spring suspension.
(1) Structural function of tire
It is the area that has direct contact with the
road. The rubber thickness in this area is the
thickest. It is strong enough to withstand wear
or impact/damage from roads.
It is the frame to hold the air pressure inside
the tire and to maintain the tire shape.
Cord cloths are overlapped with each other.
Cord layer between the carcass and tread.
The portion is between the tread and the side-
wall portions.
It is the side continuing from the tread. The
rubber thickness is thin, and this area is sub-
ject to load impact during driving.
(2)Types of tires It stabilizes a tire on the wheel rim.

Radial tire Bias tire

zRadial tire zBias tire

It is a tire that dissolved cloth in radial pattern It is a tire that dissolved cloth in bias (oblique).
(radius direction of circle). The biggest feature Although the grip on the road is inferior to that
of the radial tire is a firm grip on the road when of the radial tire, it is featured by low price and
driving on a curve. quietness.
[Advantages] - Structurally rigid. [Advantage] - Riding quality is soft.
- Effective for fuel saving. [Disadvantage] - Wear resistance of the tread
is inferior to that of the radial tire.

- 95 -

(3) Tread pattern of tire

The area of the tire that is in contact with the road is called the tread. Grooves are provided to
prevent slippage and to radiate heat. Groove patterns are classified as follows:

< Rib type >

This pattern has circumferential grooves that are appropriate for
driving on good roads and highways. The features are antiskid,
excellent drivability and driving comfort, and less driving noise.
It is often used for trucks and buses, including small trucks.

< Lug type >

This pattern has lateral grooves that are mainly designed for traction
force and braking force. It is appropriate for driving on bad roads or
non-paved roads, but it is not appropriate for driving at a high speed,
with a tendency for side skid and uneven wear.
It is often used for dump trucks and construction trucks, including
small trucks.

< Block type >

This pattern is appropriate for driving on sand, snow or soft land with
good performance of braking force and drive force.
However, it wears off relatively fast due to large movement of the

< Rib-lug type >

This pattern is a combination of the rib type and lug type. A rib is
provided at the center to improve drivability and to prevent side skid.
Lugs are also provided at both shoulders to assist the traction force
that is not obtained from the rib type.
It is mainly used for small trucks.

- 96 -

(4) Nominal designation of tires width of tire
In principle, the nominal designation methods
of tires are classified into the ISO method that
uses the tire dimension (cross-sectional width,
Height of tire
aspect ratio, rim diameter), structure, operat-
ing conditions (load capability index, speed
code, application), and the conventional desig-
nation method that uses the nominal size and
the ply rating. The nominal designation method
of tires has recently been standardized to the Rim diameter
ISO method.

zRadial tire (ISO method)

255/ 70 R 22.5 140/ 137 J

Speed code (100 km/h)
Load capability index: Dual wheels (2,300 kg)
Load capability index: Single wheel (2,500 kg)
Designation of rim diameter (inch)
Tire structure code (radial)
Aspect ratio (70%)
Designation of cross-sectional width (mm)
* Aspect ratio = Height of tire/cross-sectional width of tire 100 (%)
zRadial tire (conventional designation method)

10.00 R 20 - 14PR
Ply rating
Designation of rim diameter (inch)
Tire structure code (radial)
Designation of cross-sectional width (inch)

zBias tire (conventional designation method)

10.00 - 20 14PR
Ply rating
Designation of rim diameter (inch)
Designation of cross-sectional width (inch)

- 97 -

(5) Indication of wear limit

To indicate the tire wear limit, slip signs to indi-
cate that the tire tread groove is worn to 1.6
mm as shown on the left are provided on the
tire circumference. Symbols ( ) to indicate the
positions are provided at the tire shoulder.

(6) Wheel nut

Outer nut In trucks and buses, right-hand screws are
used for wheel nuts on the right side, and left-
hand screws are used for wheel nuts on the
left side.
Inner nut A right-hand screw means that a nut is tight-
ened by turning it clockwise. A left-hand screw
means that a nut is tightened by turning it
counterclockwise. Right-hand screws are
Stamp of L
(Left side) generally used for many mechanical parts.
The reason for using left-hand screws for left
wheels is to prevent loosening of nuts by
applying the centrifugal force of the wheel
Stamp of R
(Right side)
rotation in the tightening direction.

- 98 -


The suspension uses springs between the vehicle body and the tire and
supports the vehicle body, while absorbing vehicle vibration. It has both the
functions of improving driving comfort and improving ground contact, i.e.,
driving stability.
The available structures are the independent suspension type that allows
independent operation of each wheel and the rigid axle suspension type that connects the left
and right wheels with one axle.

<Rigid axle suspension> <Independent suspension>

The left and right wheels are connected with one axle. Since both tires independently absorb shock, good
The structure is simple and the strength is large. driving comfort and driving stability can be achieved.

(1) Parallel leaf spring type suspension

The parallel leaf spring type suspension, which is economical and durable, is mainly used for
trucks and buses. This suspension mounts the left and right leaf springs in parallel to the verti-
cal position and controls the axle position against the frame together with the spring action. One
end of the leaf spring is assembled to the frame bracket with a pin, and the other end is assem-
bled to the shackle with a pin to allow for variation of the length due to deflection of the spring.
The leaf spring has improved strength with several steel sheets, using the elasticity of steel.
The less the number of steel sheets is and the longer the sheet is, the more flexible the spring
is. In other words, the spring is soft for driving comfort. The more the number of steel sheets is
and the shorter the sheet is, the spring is hard.

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Auxiliary spring zAuxiliary spring

If springs are designed for a vehicle that carries
heavy cargo, driving comfort becomes poor when
carrying no cargo. To prevent this, springs are two-
staged. When the load is small, only the main
U-bolt Main spring
spring works. When the load is large, the auxiliary
springs works.

zTrunnion type suspension

In a large truck FV, the rear axle is dual. The rear
wheel suspension, called the trunnion type, is
used. It is particularly excellent in durability and
appropriate for driving on a rough road.
The torque rod determines the position of the rear
axle (axle of rear wheel).
Both ends of the leaf spring slide according to vari-
ation of the load.

- Excellent in durability and appropriate for driving
on rough road.
- Since the spring is strong, it is suitable for trans-
portation of heavy items.

zEqualizer beam type

The front and rear leaf springs are connected with the equalizer beam to bal-
ance an even load. Four radius rods in total at the left and right also reduce the
rotation of the axle.
With this equalizer beam type, the load is transferred to a wide range of the
frame. The overall weight is reduced and driving comfort is improved. The
problem with this type is a tendency for there to be a large distance between
the two axles.

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(2) Air spring type suspension

Air spring with air elasticity is used.
It is used for the rear suspension. It is effective
in protection of cargo or driving comfort.
Since the height of the coupler (connecting
part with the trailer) can be changed for a
trailer, this facilitates connection with the
The air suspension consists of a trailing leaf
extending from the front and a large air spring.
The structure is simple and light.

(3) Shock absorber

Once a spring is compressed, it expands in
reaction. Then, it contracts again. The repeti-
tion is endless. The shock absorber reduces
this vertical vibration.
Oil goes through a small hole of the valve in
the piston. This resistance absorbs vertical

(4) Stabilizer
It is a stabilizing bar mounted to prevent roll of
the vehicle body when turning a corner.
It is often used for front wheels to assist the

Automobile spring
Available types of automobile springs are leaf
spring, which has been used for the horse cart
and rickshaw, spiral coil spring, torsion bar
Coil spring Torsion bar spring spring using torsion of steel rod, air spring
using air elasticity, etc.

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The battery is used as the power source to sup-

ply electricity to the starting system.
When the engine is running, it assists the power
supply from the alternator (power generator) to
the electric parts.
A battery turns electric energy into chemical
energy and stores the energy. When the battery
is fully charged, sulfuric acid in the battery fluid
increases, resulting in a larger specific gravity of
the fluid. In contrast, when the battery is dis-
charged, water content increases, resulting in a
smaller specific gravity of the fluid.

How to read a battery (code)

Quantity of battery
Performance rank The dimention to be connected
of length in series
Width X height Polar position of a terminal

How to read an alternator (code)

The capacity (generating capacity) of the alternator is determined considering the balance of
charge and discharge. If large fog lamps that consume a lot of electricity are installed later, the
alternator and battery need to be replaced with a large capacity type.

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<If the battery is flat>

Use booster cables to obtain the power from the battery of another
vehicle and start the engine. Use thick booster cables with a large
capacity and obtain the power from a vehicle with the same battery

<How to use booster cables>

(1) Stop the engine of the assisting vehicle.
(2) Connect the red clip of the booster cables to the positive terminal of the battery of the failure
vehicle. Connect the other end to the positive terminal of the assisting vehicle.
(3) Connect the black clip of the booster cables to the negative terminal of the battery of the
assisting vehicle. Connect the other end to an area of the frame that is distant from the battery
of the failure vehicle.
The reason why this is not directly connected to the battery is to prevent a fire caused by gas
from the battery with a spark from the connection.
(4) After connection, start the engine of the assisting vehicle and set the
revolutions a little higher than idling. Then, start the engine of the failure
(5) After starting the engine of the failure vehicle, disconnect the booster
cables in the reverse order of connection.
(First, disconnect the black cable from the frame of the failure vehicle.)
When both connecting and disconnecting, it is important to ensure that the
black cable is not connected before handling the red cable.

Handling of battery during charge

During charge, the battery emits hydrogen gas. An inadvertent fire
or spark may result in an explosion. Be careful when working with
the battery.

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The figure below represents a standard layout of the warning and indicator lamps.
The warning lamp shows that a system or unit has a failure.
The indicator lamp shows the operation status of a driver. For example, if a turn signal lever is
operated, the turn signal indicator lamp flashes in the direction operated.

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11. AIR CONDITIONER (1) Principle of air conditioner

In a hospital, you may have felt cool when your
Alcohol is vaporized. skin is wiped off using a cotton pad moistened
with alcohol before an injection.
This is because alcohol removes heat when it
is vaporized (changing from liquid to gas).
The same principle is used in the air condition-
ing system. When a refrigerant circulating in the
system changes from liquid to gas, the sur-
Cotton pad moistened with alcohol rounding heat is absorbed. This is how the air
temperature in the passenger compartment is

(2) Structure and operation of air conditioning system

First, a refrigerant (a substance used for freezing, which is easily vaporized at a low tempera-
ture in order to absorb a large amount of heat) is compressed with the compressor to generate
high temperature and pressured gas. The gas is sent to the condenser and liquefied by cooling
it with ambient air. The liquefied refrigerant flows into the expansion valve after the elimination
of dirt or moisture by the receiver.
Refrigerant is sprayed to the evaporator at a low pressure from the expansion valve. It rapidly
expands and evaporates, absorbing heat from the ambient air through the fin of the evaporator.
Air in the passenger compartment is sent to this evaporator with a fan motor. Cool air is blown
out to the compartment for cooling.
The refrigerant, being a low-pressure gas after absorbing heat from the ambient air with the
evaporator, is taken into the compressor again for compression.

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The chassis consists of the frame, the engine, the drive train, steering system, suspension, cab,
and other systems necessary for driving.
Now, we will study the basic structure and role of cab and frame.

Available types of truck cab are the cab-over type that has the engine
under the cab floor, and the bonnet type that has the engine in front of
the cab.
In the cab-over type, engine vibration and noise are directly transferred
in comparison with the bonnet type. Rubber or spring with fluid is used
between the cab and the frame to improve driving comfort.
Since the overall vehicle length is regulated in Japan, cab-over type,
which can use a large cargo space, is mainly used.

The frame is a combination of two side rails (vertical
member) and several crossmembers (lateral mem-
It has a ladder shape when viewed from above. The
body is mounted on this frame.

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<Comprehension check quiz>

Within 10 minutes
Answer the following quiz questions that check
your understanding of the chassis.

Question 1.
What are the names of tires for (A) and (B) in the figure below?

Tire that dissolved Tire that dissolved

cloth in a radial pat- cloth in a bias (obil-
tern (radius direc- ique) pattern
tion of circle)

(A) (B)

Question 2.
Write the appropriate names in ( ) of the figure below.
( )

( )

( )

( )

( )
( )

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Question 3.
Read the tire code in the figure below and answer the questions.

225/80R 17.5 - 14PR

Tire width: ( ) mm
Aspect ratio: ( )
Rim diameter: ( ) inch

Question 4.
Write the appropriate names in ( ) of the figure below.

( )

( )

( ) ( )

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13. CHECK SHEET <Chassis section> 20 minutes

This is the final check based on what you have
learned in the chassis section.
There is a sufficient amount of time to complete
this check. Please try your best.

Write the appropriate terms in ( ).

1. The frame consists of the side rail and the ( ).

2. ( ) transfers the power from the transmission to the differential.
3. The clutch engages or disengages the ( ) with the flywheel to turn on/off the power transmission.
4. The clutch types that are available are the coil spring type and ( ) type depending on the spring
5. The transmission is the system that transmits the power by engagement of gears with a different
number of teeth while changing the drive force and ( ).
6. The most widely used method of gear engagement for the transmission is the ( ) method.
7. A/T (automatic transmission) consists of the torque converter of fluid coupling and the ( )
mechanism that changes the speed.
8. The function that makes the propeller shaft revolution larger than the engine revolution is called ( ).
9. The system to take out the power to operate special equipment is called ( ).
10. ( ) is called the final reduction unit.
11. The gear that automatically provides the rotation difference on the left and right rear wheels is called
the ( ).
12. Two types of the steering gear are available: ( ) type and rack and pinion type.
13. The types of the brake systems that are available are hydraulic brake, ( ) brake and full air brake.
14. The brake system that has better heat radiation with a more stable performance than the drum brake
is the ( ) brake.
15. If you remove your foot from the accelerator pedal while driving, the vehicle speed decreases.
This is because the ( ) brake is effective.
16. The suspension consists of a spring, stabilizer, shock absorber, etc. The unit to prevent roll of the
vehicle body when turning at a curve is the ( ).
17. The suspension that connects wheels with one axle is called ( ) suspension.
18. ( ) has better driving comfort than the rigid axle suspension.
19. Although the suspension spring absorbs vehicle vibration, a spring in motion repeats the vertical
vibration for a while before returning to the original status.
( ) absorbs this vibration.
20. The suspension for the truck uses the leaf spring and the ( ).
21. Types of tires are classified into large categories of ( ) and radial tire.
22. In tire designation, 80 of 225/80R17.5-14PRLT represents ( ).
23. The aspect ratio of a tire is calculated by tire height/( ) 100.
24. To obtain power from a battery of other vehicle with booster cables, be sure to connect the cable to
the ( ) terminal first.

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