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DECLARATION

I Birungi Jerome declare that this report is my original work and is a partial requirement for the
award of a Bachelor of Science degree in Telecommunication Engineering. Its as a result of my
industrial training in the recess period from 3rd June 2010 to 6th August 2010.

The material in this report is original and it has not been previously submitted to any academic
institution, college or university for any award.

Signed.

Author: Birungi Jerome

Signed.

Field Supervisor: Mr. Fredo Mukasa

Signed.

Supervisor: Mr. Mwanje Stephen

DEDICATION
I dedicate this report to my parents Dr. Ssengonzi Jerome and Mrs. Birungi Augustina , my
brothers, sisters and friends who have helped me throughout my academic life.
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to thank the management of Bukasa Telecom for having allowed me to train with
them. I am very grateful and would like to thank Mr. Mukasa Fredo and all the technicians who
tirelessly guided me throughout my period of industrial training.
I would like to thank the faculty of technology for its assistance and guidance. I would like to express my
gratitude to my supervisor, Mr. Mwanje Stephen, whose expertise, understanding, and patience, added

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considerably to my industrial training experience. I appreciate his vast knowledge and skill in many areas,
and his assistance in writing this report.

PREFACE
This report includes all that I learnt during my training period with BUKSA TELECOM. Chapter
one contains the introduction to industrial training, its objectives and an overview of BUKSA
TELECOM. The second chapter introduces GSM network, network cables, IP camera, site
Master, antennas, chapter three contains practical work done and this included site survey,
crimping an RJ-45 connector, assembling a battery bank, configuring a nanostation 2 and an IP
came, downloading sweeps from a site master. Chapter four includes the conclusion,
recommendation, challenges during the process of industrial training, references and an
appendix.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
DECLARATION...............................................................................................................................................i

DEDICATION.................................................................................................................................................ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS........................................................................................................................iii

PREFACE......................................................................................................................................................iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS....................................................................................................................................v

LIST OF FIGURES........................................................................................................................................viii

LIST OF ACRONYMS.....................................................................................................................................ix

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................................1

1.1 INDUSTRIAL TRAINING.......................................................................................................................1

1.2 BUKASA TELECOM.............................................................................................................................1

CHAPTER TWO: GSM MOBILE OVERVIEW...................................................................................................4

2.1 GSM..................................................................................................................................................4

2.2 MIROWAVE LINK..............................................................................................................................12

2.3 NETWORK CABLES...........................................................................................................................15

2.4 SITE MASTER....................................................................................................................................19

2.5 IP NETWORK CAMERA.....................................................................................................................21

2.6 ANTENNA BASICS.............................................................................................................................22

CHAPTER THREE: PRACTICAL WORK DONE................................................................................................25

3.1 SITE SURVEYING...............................................................................................................................25

3.2 THE INSTALLATION AND CONNECTION OF THE 1 FEEDER AND THE DIN STRAIGHT
FEMALE CONNECTOR:...........................................................................................................................26

3.3 CALIBRATING THE SITE MASTER.......................................................................................................27

3.4 THE BATTERY BANK........................................................................................................................29

3.5 CONFIGURED A NANOSTATION 2.....................................................................................................30

3.6 INSTALLING A MICROWAVE LINK.....................................................................................................30

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3.7 CONFIGURATION OF AN IP CAMERA........................................................................................32

3.8 CRIMPING AN RJ-45 CABLE.............................................................................................................34

Tools and equipment.............................................................................................................................34

CHAPTER FOUR: CONLUSION.....................................................................................................................35

4.1 CONCLUSION...................................................................................................................................35

4.2 CHALLENGES....................................................................................................................................35

4.3 RECOMMANDATIONS......................................................................................................................35

4.4 APPENDIX........................................................................................................................................36

4.5 REFERENCES.....................................................................................................................................38

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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1: The organisation structure.........................................................................................................3

Figure 2.1: Cellular network.......................................................................................................................6

Figure 2.2: The radio coverage of an area by single cells.............................................................................7

Figure 2.3: SIM card.....................................................................................................................................8

Figure 2.4: Electromagnetic Spectrum......................................................................................................12

Figure 2.5: Microwave link........................................................................................................................13

Figure 2.6: Protected Microwave Radio Link Block Diagram.....................................................................14

Figure 2.7: Optical Fibre cable..................................................................................................................15

Figure 2.8: RJ-45 connector.......................................................................................................................17

Figure 2.9: Parts of a coaxial cable...........................................................................................................17

Figure 2.10: Coaxial cable terminated with connectors.............................................................................18

Figure 2.11: Site master.............................................................................................................................19

Figure 2.12: IP Camera..............................................................................................................................21

Figure 2.13: Sector Antenna.....................................................................................................................24

Figure 3.1: Existing tower Figure 3.2: Roof top Figure 3.3: Green field
.................................................................................................................................................................. 26

Figure 3.4: Steps of making a connector...................................................................................................27

Figure 3.5: Graph of return loss.................................................................................................................28

Figure 3.6: Graph of VSWR........................................................................................................................29

Figure 3.7: Series and Parallel connections of a battery bank....................................................................30

Figure 3.8: installation of a microwave link................................................................................................31

Figure 3.9: Network settings of an IP camera............................................................................................32

Figure 3.10: viewing an image using internet explorer..............................................................................33

Figure 3.11: Tools necessary to crimp an RJ-45 Connector........................................................................34

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LIST OF ACRONYMS
BSC -Base Station Controller
BSS -Base Station Subsystem
BTS -Base Transciever Station
CCTV -circuit television cameras
CDMA -Code Division Multiple Access
dB -Decibels
DRX -Driver Receiver
DTF -Distance-To-Fault
EIR -Equipment Identity Register
GMSC -Gateway Mobile Services Switching Center
GPRS -General Packet Radio Service
GSM -Global System for Mobile exchange
HLR -Home Location Register
IEEE -Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
IMEI -International mobile equipment identity
IMSI -International Mobile Subscriber Identity
IP -Internet Protocol
MS - Mobile Station
MSC -Mobile Services Switching Centre
MSN -Mobile Service Node
NSS -Network Subsystem
OSI -Open System International
OSS -Operation Support Subsystem
RBS -Radio Base Station
RF -Radio Frequency
SIM -Subscriber Identity Module
SMS -Short Message Service
SS -Switching System
TDMA -Time Division Multiple Access
TMA -Tower mounting amplifier
TRX -Transceiver
UE -user equipment
VLR -Visitor Location Register
VSWR -Voltage Standing Wave Ratio
WCDMA -Wide Code Division Multiple Access
Wi-Fi -Wireless Fidelity
WiMAX -Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access

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CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 INDUSTRIAL TRAINING

Industrial Training refers to work experience that is relevant to professional development prior to
graduation and it is one of the requirements for the award of Bachelor of Science in
Telecommunications Engineering. The duration is ten weeks and it is done at the end of every
academic year.
Industrial Training is an essential component in the development of the practical and
professional skills required of an Engineer and an aid to prospective employment. Many
employers regard this period as a chance to vet new employees for future employment. During
this period, one is expected to make considerable effort and give sufficient thought into obtaining
the most relevant and effective Industrial Training

The following are some of the objectives of doing Industrial Training:

To enable the student to acquire basic skills and techniques of the Practical work performed in the
field by the experts. Through co-operating with those already experienced, we are able to develop
our practical capabilities as well.
To allow students to develop the spirit of team work by meeting students in the different
universities and working with them.
To enable the student relate the theoretical knowledge and practical aspects of
Telecommunication Engineering.
To enable students meet experts in the various engineering fields so that they can know what is
relevant of what is taught to them.
To develop an awareness of general workplace behaviour and interpersonal skills.

1.2 BUKASA TELECOM

BUKASA telecom is a private limited liability company incorporated in the republic of Uganda
with its registered office at Ntinda Plot 19 martyrs way road P.O Box 72250 Kampala. It was
formed in January 2004 got registered with the company registrar and went in operation in 2005.
The company offers the community easy and affordable access to telecom services. It provides
full access to email, FTP, Usenet and other Internet applications. BUKASA Telecom will appeal
to individuals of all ages and backgrounds. The company currently deals in radio path profiling,
upgrading and installation of CDMA telecom network, installation of RF and BTS networks,
microwave radio links installation and commissioning of GSM base stations.

It also offers a variety of engineering services essential to project implementation which include
generator installation, air conditioning installation, telephones or public pay phone installation,
base station installation and battery back-up installation.

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It has extensive local and international experience and its major contractors are Plessey Uganda
which sub-contracts BUKASA Telecom for MTN Uganda, Huawei Technologies, which
contracts it projects for Uganda Telecom, ONATEL and TELCEL in Burundi and BUKASA
Telecom is a major contractor for CELTEL Uganda now known as ZAIN.

BUKASA telecom also involves in installation works of Radio and Television broadcasting. The
company currently employs 100 staff of which 35 have bachelors degree and 40 have diplomas.

1.2.1 ENGINEERING SERVICES

Bukasa Telecom International offers a variety of Engineering services essential to project


implementation. Despite being a new company the directors and staff of Bukasa Telecom have
extensive experience in the telecommunication sector both locally and internationally. It is proud
to offer telecommunication solutions to their clients. In this respect installation and
commissioning is a vital core activity for them and is a day to day occurrence. Their staff has
considerable experience in the radio and transmission sector offering services in;

Microwave Radio
GSM Base station

CDMA Base station

WCDMA Base station

Rectifiers and Batteries

Power systems and back up

Switch

BSC

1.2.2 TRAINING

To keep up with the fast growing communication technologies the company makes arrangements
for its technical staff refresher courses that is normally provided by the main contractors.
The company also endeavors to offer training to its non technical staff in the same services and
are also recommended to have some elementary knowledge about the technical section since
they work hand in hand with the technical team

1.2.3 COMPANY VISION


Expanding communication by embracing modern technologies with the aim of providing access
to reliable services at affordable costs to the entire population in Uganda and beyond.

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1.2.5 COMPANY MISSION
To focus on providing quality services and improving the lives of clients by offering affordable
communication services

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1.2.6 THE ORGANISATION STRUCTURE

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Figure 1.1: The organisation structure

CHAPTER TWO: GSM MOBILE OVERVIEW

2.1 GSM

When the acronym GSM was used for the first time in 1982, it stood for Groupe Spciale
Mobile, a committee under the umbrella of Confrence Europenne des Postes et
Tlcommunications (CEPT), the European standardization organization.
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The task of GSM was to define a new standard for mobile communications in the 900 MHz
range. It was decided to use digital technology. In the course of time, CEPT evolved into a new
organization, the European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI). That, however, did
not change the task of GSM. The goal of GSM was to replace the purely national, already
overloaded, and thus expensive technologies of the member countries with an international
standard.

In 1991, the first GSM systems were ready to be brought into so-called friendly-user operation.
The meaning of the acronym GSM was changed that same year to stand for Global System for
Mobile Communications. The year 1991 also saw the definition of the first derivative of GSM,
the Digital Cellular System 1800 (DCS 1800), which more or less translates the GSM system
into the 1800 MHz frequency range. In the United States, DCS 1800 was adapted to the 1900
MHz band (Personal Communication System 1900, or PCS 1900).

The next phase, GSM Phase 2, would provide even more end-user features than phase 1 of GSM
did. In 1991, only insiders believed such a success would be possible because mobile
communications could not be considered a mass market in most parts of Europe. By 1992, many
European countries had operational networks, and GSM started to attract interest worldwide.
Time has brought substantial technological progress to the GSM hardware. GSM has proved to
be a major commercial success for system manufacturers as well as for network operators.

This was possible because today, where Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), Personal
Handy Phone System (PHS), Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT), and other
systems try to mimic the success of GSM, that question comes to mind and is also discussed
within the European standardization organizations.

The following factors were major contributors to the success of GSM:


The liberalization of the monopoly of telecommunications in Europe during the 1990s
and the resulting competition, which consequently lead to lower prices and more
market.
The knowledge-base and professional approach within the Groupe Spciale Mobile,
together with the active cooperation of the industry;
The lack of competition: For example, in the United States and Japan, competitive
standards for mobile services started being defined only after GSM was already well
established.

The future will show which system will prevail as the next generation of mobile
communications. ETSI and the Special Mobile Group (SMG), renamed GSM, are currently
standardizing the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS). Japan is currently
improving PHS. The various satellite communications systems that now push into the market are
another, possibly decisive, factor in providing mobile communications on a global basis.

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2.1.1 The System Architecture of GSM: A Network of Cells
Like all modern mobile networks, GSM utilizes a cellular structure. The basic idea of a cellular
network is to partition the available frequency range, to assign only parts of that frequency
spectrum to any base transceiver station, and to reduce the range of a base station in order to
reuse the scarce frequencies as often as possible. One of the major goals of network planning is
to reduce interference between different base stations.
Anyone who starts thinking about possible alternatives should be reminded that current mobile
networks operate in frequency ranges where attenuation is substantial. In particular, for mobile
stations with low power emission, only small distances less than 5 km to a base station are
feasible.
Besides the advantage of reusing frequencies, a cellular network also comes with the following
disadvantages:
An increasing number of base stations increases the cost of infrastructure and access
lines.
All cellular networks require that, as the mobile station moves, an active call is handed
over from one cell to another, a process known as handover.
The network has to be kept informed of the approximate location of the mobile station,
even without a call in progress, to be able to deliver an incoming call to that mobile
station.
The second and third disadvantages require extensive communication between the mobile
station and the network, as well as between the various network elements. That
communication is referred to as signaling and goes far beyond the extent of signaling that
fixed networks use. The extension of communications requires a cellular network to be of
modular or hierarchical structure. A single central computer could not process the amount
of information involved.

Figure 2.2: Cellular network

2.1.2 The GSM Subsystems


A GSM network comprises several elements: the mobile station, the subscriber identity module,
the base transceiver station, the base station controller, the transcoding rate and adaptation unit,
the mobile services switching center, the home location register, the visitor location register, and
the equipment identity register. Together, they form a public land mobile network .The Figure

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below a view provides an overview of the GSM subsystems. 4 GSM Networks: Protocols,
Terminology, and Implementation

Figure 2.3: The radio coverage of an area by single cells.

Mobile Station
MS is a portable data and or voice communications station which acts as a normal telephone
whilst being able to move over a wide area. A mobile station is typically made up of an antenna,
amplifier, receiver, transmitter, and similar hardware and software for sending and receiving
signals and converting between RF waves and audio signals. Mobile stations have found many
uses in today's world. When paired with a single base station located at a user's own premises,
they are called cordless telephones. When they interact with various, geographically distributed
cellular base stations, they are called cellular telephones. In a mobile telephone communication
system, one or several base stations transmit information, such as voice information, or data, or
both to a mobile station. Each base station supports one or several sectors. In mobile wireless
data communications systems at least one of the data communications stations is a mobile
station. Typically, mobile wireless data communications systems are often comprised of one or
more base stations and one or more mobile stations. A mobile station may provide both a second-
generation mobile communication service and a third-generation mobile communication service.
Multimode terminals may provide a multimedia service as well as a voice service and a data
service.

Subscriber Identity Module


GSM distinguishes between the identity of the subscriber and that of the mobile equipment. The
SIM determines the directory number and the calls billed to a subscriber. Physically, it consists
of a chip, which the user must insert into the GSM telephone before it can be used. To make its
handling easier, the SIM has the format of a credit card or is inserted as a plug-in SIM. The SIM
communicates directly with the VLR and indirectly with the HLR.
The A3 and A8 algorithms are implemented in the SIM. Subscriber information, such as the
IMSI, is stored in the SIM hence making it a database on the uses side. The SIM can be used to
store user-defined information such as phonebook entries. One of the advantages of the GSM
architecture is that the SIM may be moved from one Mobile Station to another. This makes
upgrades very simple for the GSM telephone user.

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Figure 2.4: SIM card

Base Transceiver Station


The base station provides a wireless connection between the mobile communication terminal and
the mobile communication network. The base station controller controls and manages the base
station. The switching center establishes a call connection to the mobile communication terminal.
A cellular mobile radio network includes a plurality of geographically dispersed BTSs. Each base
transceiver station provides radio coverage of a specific geographical area or cell. In a typical
cellular system, pluralities of BTS are deployed at a plurality of remote locations to provide
wireless telephone coverage. Each BTS serves a corresponding cell and when a MS enters the
cell, the BTS communicates with the MS. Coverage over a large area is achieved by placing a
plurality of BTSs on the area. Each BTS includes at least one radio transceiver for enabling
communication with one or more subscriber units operating within the associated cell. The BTSs
are coupled to at least one BSC.

Base Station Controller


The BSC controls communication between and manages the operation and interaction of the base
stations, a switching system, typically including a MSC, to perform call processing within the
system, and a link to the land line.
The GSM base station controller provides the control functions and physical links between the
MSC and the BTS. It provides functions such as handover, cell configuration data and control of
radio frequency power levels in base transceiver stations. A number of BSCs are served by a
single MSC.
This part of the wireless system's infrastructure that controls one or multiple cell sites' radio
signals, thus reducing the load on the switch. Performs radio signal management functions for
base transceiver stations, managing functions such as frequency assignment and handoff.BSC
takes care of all the central functions and the control of the subsystem, referred to as the base
station subsystem. The BSS comprises the BSC itself and the connected BTSs.

Transcoding Rate and Adaptation Unit


A transcoder is a device which converts the voice channel coding between the GSM coder and the
standard PCM in mobile phone communication systems. Although the Transcoding function is as standard
defined as a BSC function, there are several vendors which have implemented the solution in a stand-
alone rack using a proprietary interface. This subsystem is also referred to as the TRAU. The transcoding
function converts the voice channel coding between the GSM (Regular Pulse Excited-Long Term
Prediction, also known as RPE-LPC) coder and the CCITT standard PCM (G.711 A-law or u-law).
In a GSM system, data compression is performed in both the MS and the TRAU. From the
architecture perspective, the TRAU is part of the BSS.
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Mobile Services Switching Center
A large number of BSCs are connected to the MSC via the A-interface. The MSC is very similar
to a regular digital telephone exchange and is accessed by external networks exactly the same
way. The major tasks of an MSC are the routing of incoming and outgoing calls and the
assignment of user channels on the A-interface.
In typical circuit-switched wireless communication systems, the MSC connects the landline
PSTN system to the wireless communication system. The mobile switching center is typically
split into a mobile switching center server and a media gateway, and incorporates the bearer
independent call control (BICC). A mobile switching center includes a first database for storing
location information and the call details of a mobile terminal. The MSC is also connected to a
second database in which information about a subscriber registered in its mobile communication
service is stored. The base stations route the communications to the MSC via a serving BSC. The
MSC routes the communications to another subscribing wireless unit via a BSC/base station path
or via the PSTN/Internet/other network to terminating destination. Between MSCs, circuit
connections provide the handover mechanism that service calls as users roam from one service
zone to another.

Home Location Register


The MSC is only one sub-centre of a GSM network. Another sub-centre is the HLR, a repository
that stores the data of a large number of subscribers. An HLR can be regarded as a large database
that administers the data of literally hundreds of thousands of subscribers. Every PLMN requires
at least one HLR.
The HLR is the main database of permanent subscriber information for a mobile network. The
HLR is an integral component of CDMA , TDMA, and GSM networks. Maintained by the
subscriber's home carrier or the network operator where the user initiated the call, the HLR
contains pertinent user information, including address, account status, and preferences. The HLR
interacts with the MSC, which is a switch used for call control and processing. The MSC also
serves as a point-of-access to the PSTN.

Visitor Location Register


The VLR was devised so that the HLR would not be overloaded with inquiries on data about its
subscribers. Like the HLR, a VLR contains subscriber data, but only part of the data in the HLR
and only while the particular subscriber roams in the area for which the VLR is responsible.
When the subscriber moves out of the VLR area, the HLR requests removal of the data related to
a subscriber from the VLR. The geographic area of the VLR consists of the total area covered by
those BTSs that are related to the MSCs for which the VLR provides its services.

Equipment Identity Register


The theft of GSM mobile telephones seems attractive, since the identities of subscribers and their
mobile equipment are separate. Stolen equipment can be reused simply by using any valid SIM.
Barring of a subscriber by the operator does not bar the mobile equipment. To prevent that kind
of misuse, every GSM terminal equipment contains a unique identifier, the IMEI. It lies within
the realm of responsibilities of a network operator to equip the PLNM with an additional
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database, the EIR, in which stolen equipment is registered and so can be used to bar fraudulent
calls and even, theoretically, to track down a thief by analyzing the related SIM data.
The Equipment Identity Register is a database employed within mobile networks. The database
holds records for 3 types of mobile; namely black, grey and white. When a mobile requests
services from the network its IMEI may be checked against the EIR, to assess which category
of mobile it falls into. Black mobiles are those reported stolen or whose operation on the network
will adversely affect network operation. These mobiles will not be allowed to access the
network. Grey mobiles are classed as non-conforming, but may be used on the network. White
mobiles are those that conform to requirements set down by the network operator.

2.1.3 Fundamentals of a GSM network

The cell
A cell is a part of a large service area which has its own equipment to switch, transmit and
receive calls from any subscriber within its radio coverage area and it has its own RF carrier.
They are considered to have the shape of a bee cell that is hexagonal in nature but in actual sense
they are irregularly shaped depending on the geographical features like mountains, lakes
surrounding them.

Sectoring
With high traffic density, cells are divided into smaller regions called sectors. In most cases cells
are divided into 120 degree sectors as shown in the diadem below. These sectors have the same
cell site.

Bandwidth
This term is used to describe the amount of frequency allocated to one application. The amount
of bandwidth given to an application depends on the amount of available frequency spectrum.
The amount of bandwidth available is an important factor in determining the capacity of a
mobile system that is the number of calls which can be handled.

The frequencies
The frequency used in the cellular network is only a narrow bandwidth. There are two major
frequency bands used for GSM networks and these are;
TAS/GSM or GSM 900
DCS 1800 or GSM 1800

TAS/GSM or GSM 900 Frequency range


The downlink from base station to mobile station uses 953-960 MHz

The uplink from mobile station to base station uses 890-915MHz


The separation between uplink and downlink frequencies 45MHz
The channel bandwidth 200kHz
The bandwidth 25MHz
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To avoid interference with other networks, the first carrier is not used therefore this band uses
124 RF carriers.
GSM 900 is convenient for large coverage since it uses low frequencies. This is possible due to
the fact that lower frequencies translate into longer wavelengths contributing to large area
coverage. For this reason it is used in rural areas which do not have a lot of traffic such that
covering a large area is economical.

DCS 1800 Frequency range


The downlink from base station to mobile station uses 1805-1880MHz

The uplink from mobile station to base station uses 1710-1785MHz

The separation between uplink and downlink frequencies 95MHz


The channel bandwidth 200kHz
The bandwidth 75MHz

To avoid interference with other networks, the first carrier not used therefore this band uses 374
RF carriers.
GSM 1800 is convenient for large capacity coverage since it has more carriers than GSM 900. It
has three times the frequency allocation of GSM 900. For this reason it is widely used in town
centres where there are many subscribers who need to be served and lost calls are much very
likely to be experienced.

2.1.4 CHANNELS
This is the frequency or set of frequencies which can be allocated for the transmission and
possibly the receipt of information. Communication channels of any form can be one of the
following types:

Type Description Examples


Simplex One way only FM radio, television
Half duplex Two way, one way at a time Police radio
Full duplex Two way, both at the same time Mobile systems

A simplex channel such as an FM radio uses a single frequency in a single direction only. A
duplex channel such as that used during a mobile call uses two frequencies: one to the MS and
one from the MS. The direction from the MS to the network is referred to as an uplink. The
direction from the network to the MS is referred to as a downlink.

2.2 MIROWAVE LINK

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2.2.1 Microwaves
A microwave signal is a high-frequency electromagnetic signal, generally ranging from 900
Megahertz to 60 Gigahertz, intermediate between infrared and short-wave radio.These
frequencies are useful for terrestrial and satellite communication systems, both fixed and mobile.
Microwave radiation can be forced to travel in specially designed waveguides. Microwave
antennas are used for transmitting and receiving microwave radiation.

Figure 2.5: Electromagnetic Spectrum

2.2.2 Microwave Link Networks

A microwave link is a communications system that uses a beam of radio waves in the microwave
frequency range to transmit information between two fixed locations on the earth. Broadcasters
use microwave links to send programs from the studio to the transmitter location, which might be
miles away. Microwave links carry cellular telephone calls between cell sites.
Wireless Internet service providers use microwave links to provide their clients with high-speed
Internet access without the need for cable connections. Telephone companies transmit calls
between switching centers over microwave links, although fairly recently they have been largely
supplanted by fiber-optic cables.

One of the reasons microwave links are so adaptable is that they are broadband. Another
important quality of microwave links is that they require no equipment or facilities between the
two terminal points, so installing a microwave link is often faster and less costly than a cable
connection. Finally, they can be used almost anywhere, as long as the distance to be spanned is
within the operating range of the equipment and there is clear path that is, no solid obstacles
between the locations. Microwaves are also able to penetrate rain, fog, and snow, which means
bad weather doesnt disrupt transmission.

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Figure 2.6: Microwave link

A simple one-way microwave link includes four major elements: a transmitter, a receiver,
transmission lines, and antennas. These basic components exist in every radio communications
system, including cellular telephones, two-way radios, wireless networks, and commercial
broadcasting. But the technology used in microwave links differs markedly from that used at the
lower frequencies hence longer wavelengths in the radio spectrum. Techniques and components
that work well at low frequencies are not useable at the higher frequencies hence shorter
wavelengths used in microwave links. For example, ordinary wires and cables function poorly as
conductors of microwave signals. On the other hand, microwave frequencies allow engineers to
take advantage of certain principles that are impractical to apply at lower frequencies. One
example is the use of a parabolic antenna to focus a microwave radio beam. Such antennas can
be designed to operate at much lower frequencies, but they would be too large to be economical
for most purposes.

In a microwave link the transmitter produces a microwave signal that carries the information to
be communicated such as a telephone call, television or radio programs, text, moving or still
images, web pages, or a combination of those media sent by electrical means.
The transmitter has two fundamental jobs:

Generating microwave energy at the required frequency and power level, and modulating it with
the input signal so that it conveys meaningful information.

The second integral part of a microwave link is a transmission line. This line carries the signal
from the transmitter to the antenna and, at the receiving end of the link, from the antenna to the
receiver.

The third part of the microwave system is the antennas. On the transmitting end, the antenna
emits the microwave signal from the transmission line into free space. At the receiver site, an
antenna pointed toward the transmitting station collects the signal energy and feeds it into the
transmission line for processing by the receiver.

Between the links antennas lies another vital element of the microwave linkthe path taken by
the signal through the earths atmosphere. A clear path is critical to the microwave links success.
Since microwaves travel in essentially straight lines, man-made obstacles that might block the
signal must either be overcome by tall antenna structures or avoided altogether. Natural obstacles
also exist. Flat terrain can create undesirable reflections, precipitation can absorb or scatter some
15
of the microwave energy, and the emergence of foliage in the spring can weaken a marginally
strong signal, which had been adequate when the trees were bare in the winter. Engineers must
take all the existing and potential problems into account when designing a microwave link.

At the end of the link is the final component, the receiver. Here, information from the
microwave signal is extracted and made available in its original form. To accomplish this, the
receiver must demodulate the signal to separate the information from the microwave energy that
carries it. The receiver must be capable of detecting very small amounts of microwave energy,
because the signal loses much of its strength on its journey.

This entire process takes place at close to the speed of light, so transmission is virtually
instantaneous even across long distances. With all of their advantages, microwave links are
certain to be important building blocks of the worlds communications infrastructure for years to
come.

Figure 2.7: Protected Microwave Radio Link Block Diagram

Link Planning

The design and construction of a microwave radio link network is based on a number of factors.
These include:

Distance between microwave radio terminals


Terrain properties like water bodies, cliffs, forests, snow
Frequency of operation, often governed by licensing costs, frequency availability,
planned distances and even susceptibility to rain fading.
Fading, dispersion and multipath distortion.
Size of antennas, feed line properties, need for towers and masts.
16
Council and community development permissions governing visual intrusions.
Cost of equipment and cost benefit analysis including equipment maintenance.

2.3 NETWORK CABLES

Cable is the medium through which information usually moves from one network device to
another. There are several types of cable which are commonly used with LANs. In some cases, a
network will utilize only one type of cable, other networks will use a variety of cable types. The
type of cable chosen for a network is related to the network's topology, protocol, and size.
Understanding the characteristics of different types of cable and how they relate to other aspects
of a network is necessary for the development of a successful network.

2.3.1 Optic fibre cable


A fiber optic cable consists of a bundle of glass threads, each of which is capable of transmitting
messages modulated onto light waves. It should be noted that some optic fibre cables are made
of plastic.
Fiber optics has several advantages over traditional metal communications lines:

Fiber optic cables have a much greater bandwidth than metal cables. This means that they
can carry more data.
Fiber optic cables are less susceptible than metal cables to interference.
Fiber optic cables are much thinner and lighter than metal wires.
Data can be transmitted digitally rather than analogically.

The main disadvantage of fiber optics is that the cables are expensive to install. In addition, they
are more fragile than wire and are difficult to splice.
Fiber optics is a particularly popular technology for local-area networks. In addition, telephone
companies are steadily replacing traditional telephone lines with fiber optic cables. In the future,
almost all communications will employ fiber optics.

17
Figure 2.8: Optical Fibre cable

2.3.2 Twisted-pair cable


A type of cable that consists of two independently insulated wires twisted around one another.
The use of two wires twisted together helps to reduce crosstalk and electromagnetic induction.
While twisted-pair cable is used by older telephone networks, most networks contain some
twisted-pair cabling at some point along the network. Twisted pair cable is good for transferring
balanced differential signals.

The advantages of twisted pair cables include;

Improved signal-to-noise ratio.


Better cross talk.
Improved ground bounce that balanced signal transmission brings is particularly valuable
in wide bandwidth and high fidelity systems.
By transmitting signals along with a 180 degree out-of-phase complement, emissions and
ground currents are theoretically canceled. This eases the requirements on the ground and
shield compared to single ended transmission and results in improved EMI performance.

There are two types of twisted-pair cables.

UTP cables
STP cables

The most commonly used form of twisted pair is the UTP. It is just two insulated wires twisted
together. Any data communication cables and normal telephone cables are this type. STP differs
from UTP in that it has a foil jacket that helps prevent crosstalk and noise from outside source. In
data communications there is a cable type called FTP which consists of four twisted pair inside
one common shield made of aluminium foil.

18
The standard connector for unshielded twisted pair cabling is an RJ-45 connector. This is a
plastic connector that looks like a large telephone-style connector. A slot allows the RJ-45 to be
inserted only one way. RJ stands for Registered Jack, implying that the connector follows a
standard borrowed from the telephone industry. This standard designates which wire goes with
each pin inside the connector.

Figure 2.9: RJ-45 connector

Shielded Twisted Pair Cable is used to eliminate inductive and capacitive coupling. Twisting
cancels out inductive coupling, while the shield eliminates capacitive coupling. Most
applications for this cable are between equipment, racks and buildings. Shielding adds usually
some attenuation to the cable compared to unshielded, but usually not because in the case of
balanced transmission, the complementing signals will effectively cancel out any shield currents,
so shield current losses are negligible.

The noise pickup characteristics of twisted-pair cables are determined by the following cable
characteristics:

Number of twists per meter generally more twists per meter gives better performance.
Uniform cable construction, capacitance balance less capacitance difference to ground,
the better.
Cable diameter, the less it is between wires is better and the amount of shielding more
shielding, the better.

19
2.3.3 Coaxial Cables

A coaxial cable has a solid copper or copper-clad-steel centre conductor surrounded by a non-
conductive dielectric insulating material. The dielectric is surrounded by foil shields and
copper braids which form the outer conductor and also shield against electromagnetic
interference (EMI). The outer conductor/shield is encased in a PVC jacket.

Figure 2.9: Parts of a coaxial cable

Although coaxial cabling is difficult to install, it is highly resistant to signal interference. In


addition, it can support greater cable lengths between network devices than twisted pair cable.

The two types of coaxial cable are;


Thin coaxial cable is also referred to as thinnet. 10Base2 refers to the specifications for thin
coaxial cable carrying Ethernet signals. The 2 refers to the approximate maximum segment
length being 200 meters. In actual fact the maximum segment length is 185 meters. Thin coaxial
cable has been popular in
Thick coaxial cable is also referred to as thicknet. 10Base5 refers to the specifications for thick
coaxial cable carrying Ethernet signals. The 5 refers to the maximum segment length being 500
meters. Thick coaxial cable has an extra protective plastic cover that helps keep moisture away
from the center conductor. This makes thick coaxial a great choice when running longer lengths
in a linear bus network. One disadvantage of thick coaxial is that it does

2.3.3 Coaxial Cable Connectors

The most common type of connector used with coaxial cables is the Bayone-Neill-Concelman
(BNC) connector. Different types of adapters are available for BNC connectors, including a T-
connector, barrel connector, and terminator. Connectors on the cable are the weakest points in
any network. To help avoid problems with your network, always use the BNC connectors that
crimp.

20
Figure 2.100: Coaxial cable terminated with connectors

2.3.3 Installing Cable - Some Guidelines

When running cable, it is best to follow a few simple rules:

Always use more cable than you need. Leave plenty of slack.
Test every part of a network as you install it. Even if it is brand new, it may have
problems that will be difficult to isolate later.
Stay at least 3 feet away from fluorescent light boxes and other sources of electrical
interference.
If it is necessary to run cable across the floor, cover the cable with cable protectors.
Label both ends of each cable.
Use cable ties to keep cables in the same location together.

2.4 SITE MASTER


This high performance 1600 MHz cable and antenna analyzer can be used to sweep cables and
antennas at the frequency of operation using the Return Loss and VSWR measurements. The
Distance-To-Fault measurement can easily spot poor connections, contamination, damaged
cables, water penetration, and bad antennas. Site Masters Frequency Domain Reflectometry
techniques break away from the traditional fix-after-failure maintenance process by finding
small, hard to identify problems before major failures occur.

21
Figure 2.11: Site master

2.4.1 FDR Technique


Frequency Domain Reflectometry and Time Domain Reflectometry, have similar acronyms, and
both techniques are used to test transmission lines. But, thats where the similarities end. TDRs
are not sensitive to RF problems: the TDR stimulus is a DC pulse, not RF. Thus, TDRs are
unable to detect system faults that often lead to system failures. Additionally, FDR techniques
save costly, time-consuming trouble shooting efforts by testing cable feed-line and antenna
systems at their proper operating frequency. Deficient connectors, lightning arrestors, cables,
jumpers, or antennas are replaced before call quality is compromised.
The site master uses the FDR measurement technique. FDR is a transmission line fault isolation
method which precisely identifies signal path degradation for coax and waveguide transmission
lines. The FDR technique uses a swept RF signal instead of TDR DC pulses. FDR is far more
sensitive than TDR and can precisely locate faults and degradation in system performance, not
just DC open or short circuit conditions.

2.4.2 Quick, Simple Measurements


Site Master performs various RF measurements aimed at simplifying cable feed-line and antenna
analysis: Return Loss, SWR, Cable Loss and Distance-to-Fault. A single key selection on the
main menu activates the desired measurement mode.

2.4.3 Return Loss, SWR

The Return Loss of a line is the ratio of the power reflected back from the line to the power
transmitted into the line.
Power can be reflected from mismatching at either end, but for lines of a reasonable length, the
matching of the transmitter has more effect on the return loss than the matching of the receiver.
This is because reflections from the far end are attenuated by the line before they arrive back at
the transmitter. Often, high return loss is caused by changes in characteristic impedance at cable
joints near to the transmitter.
22
For maximum power transfer the return loss should be as small as possible. This means that the
ratio PR/PT should be as small as possible, or expressed in dB, the return loss should be as large a
negative number as possible. For example a return loss of -40dB is better than one of -20dB.
Return Loss and SWR system measurements ensure conformance to system performance
engineering specifications. Measurement easily toggles between either one of the two modes and
can be performed without climbing the tower.

2.4.3 Cable Loss


Cable Loss measurements measure the level of insertion loss within the cable feed-line system.
Insertion loss can be verified prior to deployment, when you have access to both ends of the
cable, or on installed cables without access to the opposite end. Site Master automatically
calculates and displays the average cable loss so there is no more guess work or a need to
perform calculations in the field.

2.4.4 Distance-to-Fault

Although a Return Loss test can tell users the magnitude of signal reflections, it cannot tell the
precise location of a fault within the feed-line system. Distance-To-Fault measurements provide
the clearest indication of trouble areas as it tells us both the magnitude of signal reflection and
the location of the signal anomaly. Distance To Fault is a performance verification and failure
analysis tool used for antenna and transmission line service and maintenance. This dual role of
predicting future failure conditions and isolating existing problems makes DTF an important part
of service and maintenance on transmission lines.
DTF displays RF return loss or VSWR data versus distance. The effects of poor connections,
damaged cables, or faulty antennas are quickly identified. Since DTF automatically accounts for
attenuation versus distance, the display accurately indicates the return loss or VSWR of the
antenna.
Distance-To-Fault measurement capability is built into all Site Master models as a standard
feature. Return Loss measurement data is processed using Fast Fourier Transform and the
resulting data indicates Return Loss versus distance. Distance-to-Fault measurements indicating
Return Loss or SWR versus time is available with Handheld Software Tools.

2.5 IP NETWORK CAMERA

A Network IP Camera is a stand-alone device which allows a user to view live, full motion
video from anywhere on a computer network, even over the Internet, using a standard web-
browser. Until very recently, video security and surveillance was accomplished using Closed
Circuit Television or CCTV. This technology included analog cameras, coaxial cable and
video tape recorders. Video security and surveillance started entering the digital age with the
advent of CCD sensors which digitized image capture in the camera. However, transmission
was still analog via coax to analog VCR's. The next step was the introduction of Digital Video
Recorders (DVR's) connected directly to analog cameras, which made storing, searching and
retrieving video much more efficient. PC's were then introduced for display of the images
through a modem or network connection to the DVR.
The entire system has now been digitized with the introduction of Network Cameras
23
incorporating onboard processors and web server software. These Network Cameras can be
connected directly to existing IP networks, eliminating the need for separate and expensive
coaxial cable networks. Images can be viewed and cameras managed from anywhere via a
web browser, plus any hard disk on the network can be set up to record the video output.
IP cameras offer the following features that analog cameras do not:
2 way data or audio - the device can send and receive information to almost any
digital device. This allows users to communicate what they are seeing or warn off
perpetrators via the camera's speakers.
High Resolution - as with digital still cameras, the resolution of IP cameras is
superior to analog cameras and is increasing. There is no cap or restriction on
resolution, as is the case with CCTV cameras which are restricted by the
PAL/NTSC standards.

Smart phone - some, but not all, IP cameras have built-in VoIP function enabling
the device to send and receive phone calls based on events, allowing voice and
video interaction via a smart phone.

Figure 2.111: IP Camera

2.6 ANTENNA BASICS

An antenna is a device used to transform an RF signal, traveling on a conductor, into an


electromagnetic wave in free space. Antennas demonstrate a property known as reciprocity,
which means that an antenna will maintain the same characteristics regardless if it is transmitting
or receiving. Most antennas are resonant devices, which operate efficiently over a relatively
narrow frequency band. An antenna must be tuned to the same frequency band of the radio
system to which it is connected, otherwise the reception and the transmission will be
impaired. When a signal is fed into an antenna, the antenna will emit radiation distributed in
space in a certain way. A graphical representation of the relative distribution of the radiated
power in space is called a radiation pattern.

2.6.1 Common terms used in antennas;

Input Impedance
For an efficient transfer of energy, the impedance of the radio, of the antenna and of the
transmission cable connecting them must be the same. Transceivers and their transmission lines
24
are typically designed for 50 impedance. If the antenna has impedance different from 50 ,
then there is a mismatch and an impedance matching circuit is required.

Directivity and Gain


Directivity is the ability of an antenna to focus energy in a particular direction when transmitting,
or to receive energy better from a particular direction when receiving. In a static situation, it is
possible to use the antenna directivity to concentrate the radiation beam in the wanted direction.
However in a dynamic system where the transceiver is not fixed, the antenna should radiate
equally in all directions, and this is known as an Omni-directional antenna.

Gain is not a quantity which can be defined in terms of a physical quantity such as the Watt or
the Ohm, but it is a dimensionless ratio. Gain is given in reference to a standard antenna. The two
most common reference antennas are the isotropic antenna and the resonant half-wave
di-pole antenna.
The isotropic antenna radiates equally well in all directions. However this is an ideal case.
The resonant half-wave dipole can be a useful standard for comparing to other antennas at one
frequency or over a very narrow band of frequencies

Radiation Pattern
The radiation or antenna pattern describes the relative strength of the radiated field in various
directions from the antenna, at a constant distance. The radiation pattern is a reception pattern as
well, since it also describes the receiving properties of the antenna. The radiation pattern is three-
dimensional, but usually the measured radiation patterns are a two dimensional slice of the three-
dimensional pattern, in the horizontal or vertical planes. These pattern measurements are
presented in either a rectangular or a polar format.

Side lobes
No antenna is able to radiate all the energy in one preferred direction. Some is inevitably radiated
in other directions. The peaks are referred to as side lobes, commonly specified in dB down from
the main lobe.

Nulls
In an antenna radiation pattern, a null is a zone in which the effective radiated power is at a
minimum. A null often has a narrow directivity angle compared to that of the main beam. Thus,
the null is useful for several purposes, such as suppression of interfering signals in a given
direction.

Polarization
Polarization is defined as the orientation of the electric field of an electromagnetic wave.
Polarization is in general described by an ellipse. Two special cases of elliptical polarization are
linear polarization and circular polarization. The initial polarization of a radio wave is
determined by the antenna.

25
With linear polarization the electric field vector stays in the same plane all the time. Vertically
polarized radiation is somewhat less affected by reflections over the transmission path. Omni-
directional antennas always have vertical polarization. With horizontal polarization, such
reflections cause variations in received signal strength. Horizontal antennas are less likely to pick
up man-made interference, which ordinarily is vertically polarized.
In circular polarization the electric field vector appears to be rotating with circular motion about
the direction of propagation, making one full turn for each RF cycle. This rotation may be right
hand or left hand. Choice of polarization is one of the design choices available to the RF system
designer.

Front-to-back ratio
It is useful to know the front-to-back ratio that is the ratio of the maximum directivity of an
antenna to its directivity in the rearward direction. For example, when the principal plane pattern
is plotted on a relative dB scale, the front-to-back ratio is the difference in dB between the level
of the maximum radiation, and the level of radiation in direction 180 degrees.

2.6.2 Types of antennas


A classification of antennas can be based on:
Frequency and size
Antennas used for HF are different from the ones used for VHF, which in turn are different from
antennas for microwave. The wavelength is different at different frequencies, so the antennas
must be different in size to radiate signals at the correct wavelength. We are particularly
interested in antennas working in the microwave range, especially in the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz
frequencies. At 2.4 GHz the wavelength is 12.5 cm, while at 5 GHz it is 6 cm.

Directivity
Antennas can be Omni-directional, sectorial or directive. Omni directional antennas radiate the
same pattern all around the antenna in a complete 360 degrees pattern. The most popular types of
omnidirectional antennas are the Dipole-Type and the Ground Plane.
Sectorial antennas radiate primarily in a specific area. The beam can be as wide as 180 degrees,
or as narrow as 60 degrees.
Directive antennas are antennas in which the beamwidth is much narrower than in sectorial
antennas. They have the highest gain and are therefore used for long distance links. Types of
directive antennas are the Yagi, the biquad, the horn, the helicoidal, the patch antenna, the
Parabolic Dish.

26
Figure 2.112: Sector Antenna

Physical construction
Antennas can be constructed in many different ways, ranging from simple wires to parabolic
dishes, up to coffee cans. When considering antennas suitable for 2.4 GHz WLAN use, another
classification can be used:

Application
We identify two application categories which are Base Station and Point-to- Point. Each of these
suggests different types of antennas for their purpose. Base Stations are used for multipoint
access. Two choices are Omni antennas which radiate equally in all directions, or Sectorial
antennas, which focus into a small area. In the Point-to-Point case, antennas are used to connect
two single locations together. Directive antennas are the primary choice for this application.

CHAPTER THREE: PRACTICAL WORK DONE

3.1 SITE SURVEYING

During the course of training we were given an assignment to survey various sites. This work
was done in groups and one was free to choose any site they wanted. In this field work we were
asked to fill forms from Nokia Siemens networks that were given in soft copy. The following sites
were surveyed.

Site type Location

27
Green field Behind the physics department

Roof top Faculty of technology

Existing tower Makerere tank hill

In order to do the site survey the following tools were used.

Nokia N79 phone Hard copy form of Nokia Siemens

Tape measure Pen

Camera Laptop

There existed four towers owned by ZAIN, MTN, UTL, and ORANGE.

The Nokia N79 was used to obtain the GPS, altitude and latitude readings of the site. A tape
measure was used to measure the plot of land occupied by the fence. The camera was used to
take the various photographs included in the report. After filling in the data onto a hardcopy it,
was then used to fill in the softcopy data sheet provided by Nokia Siemens network using a
laptop. The results that were obtained exist in the appendix.

Figure 3.13: Existing tower Figure 3.14: Roof top Figure 3.15: Green field

28
3.2 THE INSTALLATION AND CONNECTION OF THE 1 FEEDER AND
THE DIN STRAIGHT FEMALE CONNECTOR:

One piece connectors for HELIAX 1 Coaxial cable


Tools required:
Bow saw feeder
File Cable peeling knife
Brush Saw guide or plastic clip
din female connector 2 Adjustable wrenches or non adjustable
wrenches

Procedure
Straightened the cable front to about 200mm.
Used the cable peeling knife to circle and cut the cable outer jacket. The length was
about 76mm
The saw guide was positioned at a length of 36mm from the end of the cable to be
retained.
The sealing surface was inspected to check if it was damaged and good enough, there was
no damage.
The cable flush was cut with a saw guide with help of a saw.
Removed the burrs and copper crumbs on the outer and the inner part of the external
conductor of the cable and burrs on the inner part of the internal conductor cable.
A brush was used to remove the debris or burrs in the inside of the cable.
The foam between the inner and outer conductor was compressed to a depth of about
3mm to ensure proper fitting of the fastening nut of the connector.
The clamping nut on the connector was engaged, maximum turn by hand.
The connector was then pushed on the cable.
Tightened the clamping nut by hand and later a wrench was used to fasten the nut.

29
Figure 3.16: Steps of making a connector.

3.3 CALIBRATING THE SITE MASTER


Steps followed to calibrate the site master.
To calibrate the anristu site master, we switched it on and followed the given instructions.
For Return Loss:

A cable was connected to the site master via a jumper cable


The mode button was pressed and selected Return loss- Freq
A frequency range of 900MHz in uplink was entered on the horizontal of the graph.
On the vertical axis, power ranges of 0-60dB entered which were negative values.
The limit button was pressed and single limit selected to enter the value of the limit
line which was -14dB.
The calibrating tool was connected to the site master and the start CAL button was
pressed to start the calibration. The site master measured SHORT, LOAD and OPEN.
The site master showed Cal On implying that the calibration process was done.
The graph for return loss was displayed on the screen of the site master.
To save the display, the save display button was pressed.
A dialogue box popped up requesting the name of the display which we entered and
pressed enter button to save. The name of the display was given according to the site
name and sector name, whether it is uplink(TX) or downlink(RX) or both(TRX).
To ensure that the display was saved, the Recall Display button was pressed.

30
R e tu rn L o s s
B U K A S A 2010T RX 3

M 1 : - 2 1 .8 5 d B @ 1 7 1 0 .1 0 0 M H z
0

-1 0
L i m i t : - 1 4 .0

-2 0

-3 0
d B

-4 0

-5 0

M1
-6 0
1725 1750 1775 1800 1825 1850 1875
F re q u e n c y (1 7 1 0 .0 - 1 8 8 0 .0 M H z )

R e s o lu tio n : 5 1 7 C A L :O N ( C O A X ) C W : O N
D a te : 0 7 /1 2 /2 0 1 0 T im e : 1 3 :0 5 :5 5
M o d e l: S 3 3 1 D S e r ia l # : 0 0 4 3 3 0 6 0
Figure 3.17: Graph of return loss

For VSWR:
In order to archive this the mode button was selected and then selected VSWR,
On the vertical axis, entered velocity ranges and the limit button was pressed and
single limit selected to enter the value of the limit line which was 1.5.
A calibrating tool was connected to the site master and the start CAL button was
pressed to start the calibration. The site master measured SHORT, LOAD and OPEN.
The site master showed Cal On implying that the calibration process was done.
The graph for VSWR was displayed on the screen of the site master.
To save the display, the save display button was pressed and a dialogue box popped up
requesting the name of the display which we entered and pressed enter button to save.
To ensure that the display is saved, the Recall Display button was pressed.

31
V SW R
B U K A S A 2 0 1 0 T R X 3

M 1 : 1 .1 7 6 @ 1 7 1 0 .1 0 0 M H z

1 .3 0

1 .2 5

1 .2 0
V S W R

1 .1 5

1 .1 0

1 .0 5
M 1
1 .0 0
1725 1750 1775 1800 1825 1850 1875
F re q u e n c y (1 7 1 0 .0 - 1 8 8 0 .0 M H z )

R e s o lu tio n : 5 1 7 C A L :O N ( C O A X ) C W : O N
D a te : 0 7 /1 2 /2 0 1 0 T im e : 1 3 :0 5 :5 5
M o d e l: S 3 3 1 D S e r ia l # : 0 0 4 3 3 0 6 0
Figure 3.18: Graph of VSWR

3.4 THE BATTERY BANK


Tools and equipment required:

Battery cabinet Bus bars


12 batteries 2v each Spanners
Nuts and screws Baffles
Battery cabinet Digital multi-meter

Procedure
A digital multi-meter was used to measure the voltage of the batteries to ensure they were
in good condition.
The batteries were assembled into the battery cabinet and fastened by means of baffles.
The batteries were connected in series using metals.
A digital multi-meter was used to measure the voltage of the battery bank and it was
found to be 25.2 V.
The metal contacts of the batteries were unscrewed and then connected the batteries in
parallel in order to obtain a voltage of 12V.
This was archived by getting a pair of 6 batteries connected in series, then another six
batteries in series and connected the dual min parallel.
After connecting a digital multi-meter at the two end points the voltage was found to be
13V.

Reason for the variations in voltages;


Each of the batteries did not have exactly 12V. They actually had a voltage slightly above 2.

32
Figure 3.19: Series and Parallel connections of a battery bank

3.5 CONFIGURED A NANOSTATION 2

A nanastation2, laptop were used to configure a NANOSTATION 2.


Procedure

Physically connected the NANOSTATION 2 to the laptop using a cable.


In the folder that popped up an it was clicked to obtain the default IP address
192.168.1.20
From Mozilla Firefox browser accessed the default IP address.
A login window appeared and entered ubnt in both username and password.
Then we were able to access the graphical user interface of the NANOSTATION.
The link setup tab was selected to configure the NANOSTATION as a wireless network
access point and as a station to block access to it from a wireless network.
Network set up tab was selected and then bridge selected to specify the distance of
transmission of the NANOSTATION.

3.6 INSTALLING A MICROWAVE LINK


Tools and Equipment Required:
Pulley Jumper cable
Rope Microwave antenna
Feeder cable Indoor Unit
Connectors Fully installed RBS
Outdoor unit Spanners

Steps followed to install the microwave link at Kamwokya.


33
The pulley and rope were taken up and connected to the mast ensuring that they are firm.
The ODU was fixed onto the antenna by means of screws and nuts.
The antenna was firmly tied to the rope and tactically taken up by means of the rope and
pulley.
The antenna was tightened to the tower at a height as specified by the work plan from the
site owner (MTN in this case).
A connector was made on the jumper cable for easy connectivity to the Indoor Unit.
A feeder cable was connected to the microwave antenna, through to the Indoor Unit via a
jumper cable.

Figure 3.20: installation of a microwave link

3.7 CONFIGURATION OF AN IP CAMERA

A USB cable, an RJ-45 Ethernet cable, IP camera, laptop accessing internet were used to
configure the IP camera.

Procedure

Connected the IP camera to the dc in socket.

The IP camera was connected to a network with an internet connection using an RJ45
Ethernet cable.
Started the software of the camera on the laptop.
The update button was clicked to scan for the camera.
The IP camera had a default IP address with LAN: 192.168.0.100, for wireless:
192.168.0.20
34
A Mozilla Firefox browser was stared.
The IP address of the IP camera was fed into this browser.
A dialog box popped with a default username was admin and it had no password. OK
was clicked and the interface of the IP camera was displayed.
Then the images that were in the view of the camera were seen..
Clicked snap image to save the image shown and also record AVI was clicked to
record a video clip.

Figure 3.21: Network settings of an IP camera

35
Figure 3.22: viewing an image using internet explorer

3.8 CRIMPING AN RJ-45 CABLE

A cat5 cable, RJ 45 connectors and crimping tool were used.

Procedure

Cut the CAT5 cable to the desired length. Striped it to about 2 inches of jacket off one
end of the cable hence exposing the color-coded wire pairs within.
Reorganized the color-coded wires.

Standard B; The following order was followed. White- orange, Orange, White- green, Blue,
White- blue, Green, White- Brow, Brown.

Flattened and aligned the color-coded wires, then cut them in a straight line at a length of
between about 1/2 inch

Placed an RJ 45 connector on the end of the cable with the prong on the underside.

Pushed the connector onto the wires until the copper ends of the wires are visible through
the end of the connector.

Placed the RJ 45 connector in the crimping tool. Crimped the connector by squeezing the
crimping tool to force the contacts through the insulation.

36
Figure 3.23: Tools necessary to crimp an RJ-45 Connector

37
CHAPTER FOUR: CONLUSION

4.1 CONCLUSION

Training with bukasa telecom has equiped me with the various skills related to GSM technology
and I am looking forward to sharing my practical experience with all those who did not get that
opportunity to train with Bukasa telecom.
I would love to thank Bukasa telecom for allowing me train with them and also their continued
support in this training.

4.2 CHALLENGES

A lot of the practical work done was done far away from Bukasa telecom offices in ntinda
so this meant a lot of expenses espencially making it to Entebbe each day for a period of
about two week.
Also their teaching staff to student ratio was so small. It made it difficult to reach out to
every student all the time.
A lot of we were taught and most of the equipment assembled was totally new.
There was a problem of lack of working gear for the students during the times of field
work.
Most sites are located on hills and in very remote areas especially Entebbe and kamyokya
sites. These were hard to acess or even locate.

4.3 RECOMMANDATIONS

The faculty should help students and assign them industrial training placements.
All government students should be given facillitation fees especially during training.
Students should be allocated to companies that deal in what they have studied during the
year.

38
4.4 APPENDIX

Site survey

Green field

Site name Makerere


Physical Site Address Behind the physics department
GPS Site Coordinates: Gps (N) 00 2012.71"

Gps(E) 032 33' 55.28"

GPS Altitude 1214m

Land Usage Institutional

Property Owner Uganda

Local Government Authority Kampala City Council

Tower Type Hole tube(4 legged)

Fencing/Walling Required? Yes ,Wire mesh fencing

Type of Supply New AC connection required, 400V 3-phase

Provider Umeme

Existing tower

Site name Makerere


Physical Site Address MAKERERE TANK HILL

GPS Site Coordinates: GPS (N) 00 2019.78"

GPS(E) 032 33' 53.74"

GPS Altitude 1267 m

Land Usage Institutional

Property Owner Uganda

Local Government Authority Kampala City Council

Tower Type Hole tube(4 legged)

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Fencing/Walling Required? No, exits Wire mesh fencing

Type of Supply 400V 3-phase

Provider Umeme

Roof top

Site name Makerere


Physical Site Address Faculty of technology

GPS Site Coordinates: Gps (N) 00 2011.4

Gps(E) 032 33' 52.19"

GPS Altitude 1245 m

Land Usage Institutional

Property Owner
Uganda

Local Government Authority Kampala City Council

Building Type / Use: university

Building Age: 35 Years

Building Condition fair

No. of Floors: 6 floors

Roof Type Flat slab

Describe Roof Condition: Very old

Type of Supply 400V 3-phase

Provider Umeme

4.5 REFERENCES
http://www.electronics-manufacturers.com/products/wireless-communication/

http://www.argospress.com/Resources/gsm/gsmbstatiocontro.htm

http://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/481625
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http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid7_gci773757,00.html

http://www.argospress.com/Resources/cdma/cdmvisitolocatiregist.htm

http://www.mpirical.com/companion/mpirical_companion.html#GSM/EIRRegister.htm

http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/Microwave_Link_Networks

http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/twistedpair.html

http://www.answers.com/topic/

http://fcit.usf.edu/network/chap4/chap4.htm

http://communication.howstuffworks.com/fiber-optic-communications/fiber-optic.htm

http://www.accesscomms.com.au/reference/coax.htm

http://www.maxim-ic.com/glossary/definitions.mvp/term/vswr/gpk/815

http://www.trendcomms.com/multimedia/training/broadband
%20networks/web/main/Copper/theme/Chapter2/Return%20Loss.html

http://www.wisegeek.com/

http://www.wifinotes.com/what-is-wifi.html

http://www.otherpower.com/otherpower_battery_wiring.html

Gunnar Heine, GSM Networks: Protocols, Terminology, and Implementation, 1999


ARTECH HOUSE, INC.
Terrestrial Microwave Antenna Installer Training, Bulletin10326, Copyright 1999 Andrew
Corporation.

Site Master S311D Cable and Antenna Analyzer, 25 MHz to 1600 MHz, Catalog No. 11410-
00419, 2009 Anritsu Company.

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