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New Latin

New Latin (also called Neo-Latin[1] or Modern Latin[2]) was a revival


in the use of Latin in original, scholarly, and scientific works between c.
New Latin
1375 and c. 1900. Modern scholarly and technical nomenclature, such Latina nova
as in zoological and botanical taxonomy and international scientific
vocabulary, draws extensively from New Latin vocabulary. In such use,
New Latin is often viewed as still existing and subject to new word
formation. As a language for full expression in prose or poetry,
however, it is often distinguished from Contemporary Latin as a
predecessor.

Contents
1 Extent
2 History of New Latin
2.1 Beginnings
2.2 Height Linnaeus, 1st edition of Systema
2.3 Decline Naturae is a famous New Latin text.
2.4 Crisis and transformation
Region Europe
2.5 Relics
3 Pronunciation Era Evolved from Renaissance
4 Orthography Latin in the 16th century;
4.1 Characters developed into
4.2 Diacritics contemporary Latin
5 Notable works (15001900) between 19th and 20th
5.1 Literature and biography centuries
5.2 Scientific works
5.3 Other technical subjects Language Indo-European
family
6 See also Italic
7 Notes Latino-Faliscan
8 References Latin
9 External links New Latin

Early Renaissance Latin


form
Extent Writing Latin alphabet
system
Classicists use the term "Neo-Latin" to describe the Latin that Language codes
developed in Renaissance Italy as a result of renewed interest in
ISO 639-1 la
classical civilization in the 14th and 15th centuries.[3]
ISO 639-2 lat
Neo-Latin also describes the use of the Latin language for any purpose, ISO 639-3 lat
scientific or literary, during and after the Renaissance. The beginning of
the period is imprecise; however, the spread of secular education, the acceptance of humanistic literary norms,
and the wide availability of Latin texts following the invention of printing, mark the transition to a new era of
scholarship at the end of the 15th century. The end of the New Latin period is likewise indeterminate, but Latin
as a regular vehicle of communicating ideas became rare after the first few decades of the 19th century, and by
1900 it survived primarily in international scientific vocabulary and taxonomy. The term "New Latin" came
into widespread use towards the end of the 1890s among linguists and scientists.

New Latin was, at least in its early days, an international language used throughout Catholic and Protestant
Europe, as well as in the colonies of the major European powers. This area consisted of most of Europe,
including Central Europe and Scandinavia; its southern border was the Mediterranean Sea, with the division
more or less corresponding to the modern eastern borders of Finland, the Baltic states, Poland, Slovakia,
Hungary and Croatia.

Russia's acquisition of Kiev in the later 17th century introduced the study of Latin to Russia. Nevertheless, the
use of Latin in Orthodox eastern Europe did not reach high levels due to their strong cultural links to the
cultural heritage of Ancient Greece and Byzantium, as well as Greek and Old Church Slavonic languages.

Though Latin and New Latin are considered extinct (having no native speakers), large parts of their vocabulary
have seeped into English and several Germanic languages. In the case of English, about 60% of said language's
lexicon can trace its origin to Latin and thus many English speakers can recognize New Latin terms with
relative ease as cognates are quite common in said language.

History of New Latin


Beginnings

New Latin was inaugurated by the triumph of the humanist reform of Latin education, led by such writers as
Erasmus, More, and Colet. Medieval Latin had been the practical working language of the Roman Catholic
Church, taught throughout Europe to aspiring clerics and refined in the medieval universities. It was a flexible
language, full of neologisms and often composed without reference to the grammar or style of classical (usually
pre-Christian) authors. The humanist reformers sought both to purify Latin grammar and style, and to make
Latin applicable to concerns beyond the ecclesiastical, creating a body of Latin literature outside the bounds of
the Church. Attempts at reforming Latin use occurred sporadically throughout the period, becoming most
successful in the mid-to-late 19th century.

Height

The Protestant Reformation (15201580), though it


removed Latin from the liturgies of the churches of
Northern Europe, may have advanced the cause of the new
secular Latin. The period during and after the Reformation,
coinciding with the growth of printed literature, saw the
growth of an immense body of New Latin literature, on all
kinds of secular as well as religious subjects.

The heyday of New Latin was its first two centuries (1500
1700), when in the continuation of the Medieval Latin
tradition, it served as the lingua franca of science,
education, and to some degree diplomacy in Europe.
Classic works such as Newton's Principia Mathematica Europe in 1648
(1687) were written in the language. Throughout this
period, Latin was a universal school subject, and indeed,
the pre-eminent subject for elementary education in most of Europe and other places of the world that shared its
culture. All universities required Latin proficiency (obtained in local grammar schools) to obtain admittance as
a student. Latin was an official language of Polandrecognised and widely used[4][5][6][7] between the 9th and
18th centuries, commonly used in foreign relations and popular as a second language among some of the
nobility.[8]

Through most of the 17th century, Latin was also supreme as an international language of diplomatic
correspondence, used in negotiations between nations and the writing of treaties, e.g. the peace treaties of
Osnabrck and Mnster (1648). As an auxiliary language to the local vernaculars, New Latin appeared in a
wide variety of documents, ecclesiastical, legal, diplomatic, academic, and scientific. While a text written in
English, French, or Spanish at this time might be understood by a significant cross section of the learned, only a
Latin text could be certain of finding someone to interpret it anywhere between Lisbon and Helsinki.
As late as the 1720s, Latin was still used conversationally, and was serviceable as an international auxiliary
language between people of different countries who had no other language in common. For instance, the
Hanoverian king George I of Great Britain (reigned 17141727), who had no command of spoken English,
communicated in Latin with his Prime Minister Robert Walpole,[9] who knew neither German nor French.

Decline

By about 1700, the growing movement for the use of national languages (already found earlier in literature and
the Protestant religious movement) had reached academia, and an example of the transition is Newton's writing
career, which began in New Latin and ended in English (e.g. Opticks, 1704). A much earlier example is Galileo
c. 1600, some of whose scientific writings were in Latin, some in Italian, the latter to reach a wider audience.
By contrast, while German philosopher Christian Wolff (16791754) popularized German as a language of
scholarly instruction and research, and wrote some works in German, he continued to write primarily in Latin,
so that his works could more easily reach an international audience (e.g., Philosophia moralis, 175053).

Likewise, in the early 18th century, French replaced Latin as a diplomatic language, due to the commanding
presence in Europe of the France of Louis XIV. At the same time, some (like King Frederick William I of
Prussia) were dismissing Latin as a useless accomplishment, unfit for a man of practical affairs. The last
international treaty to be written in Latin was the Treaty of Vienna in 1738; after the War of the Austrian
Succession (174048) international diplomacy was conducted predominantly in French.

A diminishing audience combined with diminishing production of Latin texts pushed Latin into a declining
spiral from which it has not recovered. As it was gradually abandoned by various fields, and as less written
material appeared in it, there was less of a practical reason for anyone to bother to learn Latin; as fewer people
knew Latin, there was less reason for material to be written in the language. Latin came to be viewed as
esoteric, irrelevant, and too difficult. As languages like French, German, and English became more widely
known, use of a 'difficult' auxiliary language seemed unnecessarywhile the argument that Latin could expand
readership beyond a single nation was fatally weakened if, in fact, Latin readers did not compose a majority of
the intended audience.

As the 18th century progressed, the extensive literature in Latin being produced at the beginning slowly
contracted. By 1800 Latin publications were far outnumbered, and often outclassed, by writings in the modern
languages. Latin literature lasted longest in very specific fields (e.g. botany and zoology) where it had acquired
a technical character, and where a literature available only to a small number of learned individuals could
remain viable. By the end of the 19th century, Latin in some instances functioned less as a language than as a
code capable of concise and exact expression, as for instance in physicians' prescriptions, or in a botanist's
description of a specimen. In other fields (e.g. anatomy or law) where Latin had been widely used, it survived
in technical phrases and terminology. The perpetuation of Ecclesiastical Latin in the Roman Catholic Church
through the 20th century can be considered a special case of the technicalizing of Latin, and the narrowing of its
use to an elite class of readers.

By 1900, creative Latin composition, for purely artistic purposes, had become rare. Authors such as Arthur
Rimbaud and Max Beerbohm wrote Latin verse, but these texts were either school exercises or occasional
pieces. The last survivals of New Latin to convey non-technical information appear in the use of Latin to cloak
passages and expressions deemed too indecent (in the 19th century) to be read by children, the lower classes, or
(most) women. Such passages appear in translations of foreign texts and in works on folklore, anthropology,
and psychology, e.g. Krafft-Ebing's Psychopathia Sexualis (1886).

Crisis and transformation

Latin as a language held a place of educational pre-eminence until the second half of the 19th century. At that
point its value was increasingly questioned; in the 20th century, educational philosophies such as that of John
Dewey dismissed its relevance. At the same time, the philological study of Latin appeared to show that the
traditional methods and materials for teaching Latin were dangerously out of date and ineffective.
In secular academic use, however, New Latin declined sharply and then continuously after about 1700.
Although Latin texts continued to be written throughout the 18th and into the 19th century, their number and
their scope diminished over time. By 1900, very few new texts were being created in Latin for practical
purposes, and the production of Latin texts had become little more than a hobby for Latin enthusiasts.

Around the beginning of the 19th century came a renewed emphasis on the study of Classical Latin as the
spoken language of the Romans of the 1st centuries BC and AD. This new emphasis, similar to that of the
Humanists but based on broader linguistic, historical, and critical studies of Latin literature, led to the exclusion
of Neo-Latin literature from academic studies in schools and universities (except for advanced historical
language studies); to the abandonment of New Latin neologisms; and to an increasing interest in the
reconstructed Classical pronunciation, which displaced the several regional pronunciations in Europe in the
early 20th century.

Coincident with these changes in Latin instruction, and to some degree motivating them, came a concern about
lack of Latin proficiency among students. Latin had already lost its privileged role as the core subject of
elementary instruction; and as education spread to the middle and lower classes, it tended to be dropped
altogether. By the mid-20th century, even the trivial acquaintance with Latin typical of the 19th-century student
was a thing of the past.

Relics

Ecclesiastical Latin, the form of New Latin used in the Roman Catholic
Church, remained in use throughout the period and after. Until the
Second Vatican Council of 1962-65 all priests were expected to have
competency in it, and it was studied in Catholic schools. It is today still
the official language of the Church, and all Catholic priests of the Latin
liturgical rites are required by canon law to have competency in the
language.[10] Use of Latin in the Mass, largely abandoned through the
later 20th century, has recently seen a resurgence, due in large part to
Pope Benedict XVI's motu proprio Summorum Pontificum and its use
by traditional Catholic priests and their organizations.

New Latin is also the source of the biological system of binomial


nomenclature and classification of living organisms devised by Carolus
Linnus, although the rules of the ICZN allow the construction of
names that deviate considerably from historical norms. (See also
classical compounds.) Another continuation is the use of Latin names
This pocket watch made for the medical
for the surface features of planets and planetary satellites (planetary
community has Latin instructions for
nomenclature), originated in the mid-17th century for selenographic measuring a patient's pulse rate on its
toponyms. New Latin has also contributed a vocabulary for specialized dial: enumeras ad XX pulsus, "you count
fields such as anatomy and law; some of these words have become part to 20 beats".
of the normal, non-technical vocabulary of various European languages.

Pronunciation
New Latin had no single pronunciation, but a host of local variants or dialects, all distinct both from each other
and from the historical pronunciation of Latin at the time of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire. As a rule,
the local pronunciation of Latin used sounds identical to those of the dominant local language; the result of a
concurrently evolving pronunciation in the living languages and the corresponding spoken dialects of Latin.
Despite this variation, there are some common characteristics to nearly all of the dialects of New Latin, for
instance:

The use of a sibilant fricative or affricate in place of a stop for the letters c and sometimes g, when
preceding a front vowel.
The use of a sibilant fricative or affricate for the letter t when not at the beginning of the first syllable and
preceding an unstressed i followed by a vowel.
The use of a labiodental fricative for most instances of the letter v (or consonantal u), instead of the
classical labiovelar approximant /w/.
A tendency for medial s to be voiced to [z], especially between vowels.
The merger of and with e, and of y with i.
The loss of the distinction between short and long vowels, with such vowel distinctions as remain being
dependent upon word-stress.

The regional dialects of New Latin can be grouped into families, according to the extent to which they share
common traits of pronunciation. The major division is between Western and Eastern family of New Latin. The
Western family includes most Romance-speaking regions (France, Spain, Portugal, Italy) and the British Isles;
the Eastern family includes Central Europe (Germany and Poland), Eastern Europe (Russia and Ukraine) and
Scandinavia (Denmark, Sweden).

The Western family is characterized, inter alia, by having a front variant of the letter g before the vowels , e, i,
, y and also pronouncing j in the same way (except in Italy). In the Eastern Latin family, j is always
pronounced [ j ], and g had the same sound (usually []) in front of both front and back vowels; exceptions
developed later in some Scandinavian countries.

The following table illustrates some of the variation of New Latin consonants found in various countries of
Europe, compared to the Classical Latin pronunciation of the 1st centuries BC-AD.[11] In Eastern Europe, the
pronunciation of Latin was generally similar to that shown in the table below for German, but usually with [z]
for z instead of [ts].
Pronunciation
Roman
Western Central Eastern
letter Classical
France England Portugal Spain Italy Romania Germany Netherlands Scandinavia

c
before
/k/ /s/ /s/ /s/ // / t / / t / / ts / /s/ /s/
"", "e",
"i", "", y

cc
before
"", "e", / kk / / ks / / ks / / ss / / k / / tt / / kt / / kts / / ss / / ss /
"i", "",
"y"

ch / k / // / t / / t / / t / /k/ /k/ / k /, / x / /x/ /k /

g
before
"", "e", // / d / / d / // / / or / x /
i", "", // / d / // /x/ /j/
"y"

j /j/ /j/ /j/ /j/ /j/

qu
before
/ kw / / kw / / kw /
"a", "o",
"u"
/ k / / kw / / kw / / kv / / kv / / kv / / kv /
qu
before
/k/ /k/ /k/
"", "e",
"i"

sc
/ st /,
before
/ sk /
"", "e", / sk / /s/ / s / // / sts / /s/ /s/
(earlier
"i", "",
/ t /)
"y"

t
before /s/ /s/
unstressed
i+vowel
except /t/ // // / ts / /t/ / ts / / ts / / ts /
initially
or after
"s", "t",
"x"

/b/
v /w/ /v/ /v/ /v/ /v/ /v/ /v/ /v/ /v /
([])

z / dz / /z/ /z/ /z/ // / dz / /z/ / ts / /z/ /s/

Orthography
New Latin texts are primarily found in early printed editions, which present certain features of spelling and the
use of diacritics distinct from the Latin of antiquity, medieval Latin manuscript conventions, and
representations of Latin in modern printed editions.

Characters
In spelling, New Latin, in all but the earliest texts, distinguishes the letter u from v and i from j. In older texts
printed down to c. 1630, v was used in initial position (even when it represented a vowel, e.g. in vt, later printed
ut) and u was used elsewhere, e.g. in nouus, later printed novus. By the mid-17th century, the letter v was
commonly used for the consonantal sound of Roman V, which in most pronunciations of Latin in the New Latin
period was [v] (and not [w]), as in vulnus "wound", corvus "crow". Where the pronunciation remained [w], as
after g, q and s, the spelling u continued to be used for the consonant, e.g. in lingua, qualis, and suadeo.

The letter j generally represented a consonantal sound (pronounced in various ways in different European
countries, e.g. [j], [d], [], [x]). It appeared, for instance, in jam "already" or jubet "orders" (earlier spelled iam
and iubet). It was also found between vowels in the words ejus, hujus, cujus (earlier spelled eius, huius, cuius),
and pronounced as a consonant; likewise in such forms as major and pejor. J was also used when the last in a
sequence of two or more i's, e.g. radij (now spelled radii) "rays", alijs "to others", iij, the Roman numeral 3;
however, ij was for the most part replaced by ii by 1700.

In common with texts in other languages using the Roman alphabet, Latin texts down to c. 1800 used the letter-
form (the long s) for s in positions other than at the end of a word; e.g. ipiimus.

The digraphs ae and oe were rarely so written (except when part of a word in all capitals, e.g. in titles, chapter
headings, or captions) ; instead the ligatures and were used, e.g. Csar, pna. More rarely (and usually in
16th- to early 17th-century texts) the e caudata is found substituting for either.

Diacritics

Three kinds of diacritic were in common use: the acute accent , the grave accent `, and the circumflex accent .
These were normally only marked on vowels (e.g. , , ); but see below regarding que.

The acute accent marked a stressed syllable, but was usually confined to
those where the stress was not in its normal position, as determined by
vowel length and syllabic weight. In practice, it was typically found on the
vowel in the syllable immediately preceding a final clitic, particularly que
"and", ve "or" and ne, a question marker; e.g. idmque "and the same
(thing)". Some printers, however, put this acute accent over the q in the
enclitic que, e.g. eorumq ue "and their". The acute accent fell out of favor
by the 19th century.

The grave accent had various uses, none related to pronunciation or stress.
It was always found on the preposition (variant of ab "by" or "from") and
likewise on the preposition (variant of ex "from" or "out of"). It might
also be found on the interjection "O". Most frequently, it was found on
the last (or only) syllable of various adverbs and conjunctions, particularly
those that might be confused with prepositions or with inflected forms of
nouns, verbs, or adjectives. Examples include cert "certainly", ver "but", Handwriting in Latin from 1595
primm "at first", pst "afterwards", cm "when", ade "so far, so much",
un "together", qum "than". In some texts the grave was found over the
clitics such as que, in which case the acute accent did not appear before them.

The circumflex accent represented metrical length (generally not distinctively pronounced in the New Latin
period) and was chiefly found over an a representing an ablative singular case, e.g. edem form "with the same
shape". It might also be used to distinguish two words otherwise spelled identically, but distinct in vowel
length; e.g. hc "here" differentiated from hic "this", fugre "they have fled" (=fgrunt) distinguished from
fugere "to flee", or senats "of the senate" distinct from senatus "the senate". It might also be used for vowels
arising from contraction, e.g. nsti for novisti "you know", impersse for imperavisse "to have commanded", or
d for dei or dii.

Notable works (15001900)


Literature and biography

1511. Stultiti Laus, essay by Desiderius Erasmus.


1516. Utopia[1] [2] by Thomas More
1525 and 1538. Hispaniola and Emerita, two comedies by Juan Maldonado.
1546. Sintra, a poem by Luisa Sigea de Velasco.
1602. Cenodoxus, a play by Jacob Bidermann.
1608. Parthenica, two books of poetry by Elizabeth Jane Weston.
1621. Argenis, a novel by John Barclay.
16261652. Poems by John Milton.
1634. Somnium, a scientific fantasy by Johannes Kepler.
1741. Nicolai Klimii Iter Subterraneum[3][4], a satire by Ludvig Holberg.
1761. Slawkenbergii Fabella, short parodic piece in Laurence Sterne's Erasmus by Holbein
Tristram Shandy.
1767. Apollo et Hyacinthus, intermezzo by Rufinus Widl (with music by
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart).
1835. Georgii Washingtonii, Americ Septentrionalis Civitatum Fderatarum Prsidis Primi, Vita,
biography of George Washington by Francis Glass.

Scientific works

1543. De Revolutionibus Orbium Clestium by Nicolaus Copernicus


1545. Ars Magna by Hieronymus Cardanus
155158 and 1587. Historia animalium by Conrad Gessner.
1600. De Magnete, Magneticisque Corporibus et de Magno Magnete Tellure by William Gilbert.
1609. Astronomia nova by Johannes Kepler.
1610. Sidereus Nuncius by Galileo Galilei.
1620. Novum Organum by Francis Bacon.[5]
1628. Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus by William Harvey. [6]
1659. Systema Saturnium by Christiaan Huygens.
1673. Horologium Oscillatorium by Christiaan Huygens. Also at Gallica.
1687. Philosophi Naturalis Principia Mathematica by Isaac Newton. [7]
1703. Hortus Malabaricus by Hendrik van Rheede.[8][9]
1735. Systema Naturae by Carl Linnaeus. [10] [11]
1737. Mechanica sive motus scientia analytice exposita by Leonhard Euler.
1738. Hydrodynamica, sive de viribus et motibus fluidorum commentarii by Daniel Bernoulli.
1748. Introductio in analysin infinitorum by Leonhard Euler.
1753. Species Plantarum by Carl Linnaeus.
1758. Systema Naturae (10th ed.) by Carolus Linnaeus.
1791. De viribus electricitatis in motu musculari by Aloysius Galvani.
1801. Disquisitiones Arithmeticae by Carl Gauss.
1810. Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae Van Diemen by Robert Brown.[12]
1830. Fundamenta nova theoriae functionum ellipticarum by Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi.
1840. Flora Brasiliensis by Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius.[13]
1864. Philosophia zoologica by Jan van der Hoeven.
1889. Arithmetices principia, nova methodo exposita by Giuseppe Peano

Other technical subjects

15111516. De Orbe Novo Decades by Peter Martyr d'Anghiera.


1514. De Asse et Partibus by Guillaume Bud.
1524. De motu Hispani by Juan Maldonado.
1525. De subventione pauperum sive de humanis necessitatibus libri duo by Juan Luis Vives.
1530. Syphilis, sive, De Morbo Gallico by Girolamo Fracastoro(transcription)
1531. De disciplinis libri XX by Juan Luis Vives.
1552. Colloquium de aulica et privata vivendi ratione by Luisa Sigea de Velasco.
1553. Christianismi Restitutio by Michael Servetus. A mainly theological treatise, where the function of
pulmonary circulation was first described by a European, more than half a century before Harvey. For the
non-trinitarian message of this book Servetus was denounced by Calvin and his followers, condemned by
the French Inquisition, and burnt alive just outside Geneva. Only three copies survived.
1554. De natur philosophia seu de Platonis et Aristotelis consensione libri quinque by Sebastin Fox
Morcillo.
1582. Rerum Scoticarum Historia by George Buchanan (transcription)
1587. Minerva sive de causis lingu Latin by Francisco Snchez de las Brozas.
1589. De natura Novi Orbis libri duo et de promulgatione euangelii apud barbaros sive de procuranda
Indorum salute by Jos de Acosta.
1597. Disputationes metaphysic by Francisco Surez.
1599. De rege et regis institutione by Juan de Mariana.
16041608. Historia sui temporis by Jacobus Augustus Thuanus. [14]
1612. De legibus by Francisco Surez.
1615. De Christiana expeditione apud Sinas by Matteo Ricci and Nicolas Trigault.
1625. De Jure Belli ac Pacis by Hugo Grotius. (Posner Collection facsimile; Gallica facsimile)
1641. Meditationes de prima philosophia by Ren Descartes. (The Latin, French and English by John
Veitch.)
1642-1658. Elementa Philosophica by Thomas Hobbes.
1652-1654. dipus gyptiacus by Athanasius Kircher.
1655. Novus Atlas Sinensis by Martino Martini.
1656. Flora Sinensis by Michael Boym.
1657. Orbis Sensualium Pictus by John Amos Comenius. (Hoole parallel Latin/English translation, 1777;
Online version in Latin)
1670. Tractatus Theologico-Politicus by Baruch Spinoza.
1677. Ethica Ordine Geometrico Demonstrata by Baruch Spinoza.
1725. Gradus ad Parnassum by Johann Joseph Fux. An influential treatise on musical counterpoint.
1780. De rebus gestis Caroli V Imperatoris et Regis Hispani and De rebus Hispanorum gestis ad
Novum Orbem Mexicumque by Juan Gins de Seplveda.
1891. De primis socialismi germanici lineamentis apud Lutherum, Kant, Fichte et Hegel by Jean Jaurs

See also
Binomial nomenclature
Botanical Latin
Classical compound
Romance languages, sometimes called Neo-Latin languages

Notes

1. "Neo-Latin". The American College Dictionary. Random House. 1966.


2. Oxford Dictionaries, Oxford Dictionaries Online (http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/), Oxford
University Press.
3. What is Neo-Latin? (http://www.mml.cam.ac.uk/neo-latin)
4. Who only knows Latin can go across the whole Poland from one side to the other one just like he was at
his own home, just like he was born there. So great happiness! I wish a traveler in England could travel
without knowing any other language than Latin!, Daniel Defoe, 1728
5. Anatol Lieven, The Baltic Revolution: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and the Path to Independence, Yale
University Press, 1994, ISBN 0-300-06078-5, Google Print, p.48
6. Kevin O'Connor, Culture And Customs of the Baltic States, Greenwood Press, 2006, ISBN 0-313-33125-
1, Google Print, p.115
7. Karin Friedrich et al., The Other Prussia: Royal Prussia, Poland and Liberty, 15691772, Cambridge
University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-521-58335-7, Google Print, p.88
8. Karin Friedrich et al., The Other Prussia: Royal Prussia, Poland and Liberty, 15691772, Cambridge
University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-521-58335-7, Google Print, p.88 (https://books.google.com/books?id=qs
Bco40rMPcC&pg=PA88&dq=Latin+language+szlachta&as_brr=3&ei=J44rR5_XFZXC7AK4xeGVBQ
&sig=3ecP0DjPuCLnTaEdVI76Ck8xSE8)
9. "Before I conclude the reign of George the First, one remarkable fact must not be omitted: As the king
could not readily speak English, nor Sir Robert Walpole French, the minister was obliged to deliver his
sentiments in Latin; and as neither could converse in that language with readiness and propriety, Walpole
was frequently heard to say, that during the reign of the first George, he governed the kingdom by means
of bad latin." Coxe, William (1800). Memoirs of the Life and Administration of Sir Robert Walpole, Earl
of Orford (https://books.google.com/books?id=rVu2kU9VQJwC&pg=PA465). London: Cadell and
Davies. p. 465. Retrieved June 2, 2010.
"It was perhaps still more remarkable, and an instance unparalleled, that Sir Robert governed George the
First in Latin, the King not speaking English, and his minister no German, nor even French. It was much
talked of that Sir Robert, detecting one of the Hanoverian ministers in some trick or falsehood before the
King's face, had the firmness to say to the German "Mentiris impudissime!"Walpole, Horace (1842). The
Letters of Horace Walpole, Earl of Orford (https://books.google.com/books?id=X_IkAAAAMAAJ&pg=
PA70). Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard. p. 70. Retrieved June 2, 2010.
10. This requirement is found under canon 249 of the 1983 Code of Canon Law. See "1983 Code of Canon
Law" (http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG1104/__PW.HTM). Libreria Editrice Vaticana. 1983. Retrieved
22 March 2011.
11. Fisher, Michael Montgomery (1879). The Three Pronunciations of Latin (https://books.google.com/book
s?id=-CkTAAAAYAAJ). Boston: New England Publishing Company. pp. 1011.

References
IJsewijn, Jozef with Dirk Sacr. Companion to Neo-Latin Studies. 2 vols. Leuven University Press, 1990-
1998.
Waquet, Franoise, Latin, or the Empire of a Sign: From the Sixteenth to the Twentieth Centuries (Verso,
2003) ISBN 1-85984-402-2; translated from the French by John Howe.

External links
An Analytic Bibliography of On-line Neo-Latin Titles Bibliography of Renaissance Latin and Neo-
Latin literature on the web.
A Lost Continent of Literature: The rise and fall of Neo-Latin, the universal language of the Renaissance.
An essay on Neo-Latin literature by James Hankins from the I Tatti Renaissance Library website.
CAMENA Latin Texts of Early Modern Europe
Database of Nordic Neo-Latin Literature
Heinsius collection: Dutch Neo-Latin poetry
Latinitas Nova at Bibliotheca Augustana
Hofmanni, Joh. Jac. (2009) [1698]. Lexicon Universale (in German and Latin). Corpus Automatum
Multiplex Electorum Neolatinitatis Auctorum (CAMENA), University of Mannheim.
"Neo-Latin" (in Latin). The Latin Library. Retrieved 12 October 2009.
Patzdasch, Bernd (2008). "PANTOIA: Unterhaltsame Literatur und Dichtung in lateinischer und
griechischer bersetzung" (in German). Pantoia. Retrieved 12 October 2009.
"Seminarium Philologiae Humanisticae". Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. 2009. Retrieved 12 October
2009.
"Society for Neo-Latin Studies". University of Warwick, UK. 2008. Retrieved 12 October 2009.

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