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Trends in consumer behavior

From mass consumption with production oriented to consumer oriented

Segmented and individualized; postmodern tourist

Shorter time spans between booking and arrival, more holidays

Distinctions between work and holiday diminish

Governance of the Special / Unique

Dominance of packaged tourism - decreasing, but in 1993 in UK 63% of

outbound holidays sold as packages - parallel segments

Product competition to channel competition

From consumer oriented to consumer driven - mass customization; new role of

travel agents
Structure of tourism market


Technologically most advanced sector in the tourism field, with growing

importance due to the tendency to long haul tourism.

Between 1980 and 1992 scheduled traffic grew by 92%, and the capacity by 94%
with falling prices (due to deregulation, growing capacities, increased

Use advanced Yield Management methods. In the USA the number of rates
increased from 400.000 to 7 Mn in the seventies.

Airlines were among the first companies creating worldwide electronic networks,
for the means of selling and distribution, for internal management and operations.

Economic problems in this area. For example, the average load factor on
international services fell from 64% in 1989 to 59% in 1992, which is below that
level at which airlines can break even after interest payment .

In this sector we also include other technologically advanced companies:

Other types of transport suppliers (car rentals, railways, maritime industry)

Enterprises such as credit or media companies (transaction or content).


Conceptually, huge and powerful suppliers the same group as the SME structured
overnight facilities.

This group is situated both on the intermediary as well as the supply side since
many chains represent marketing and operation units, where the accommodation
is owned by a different unit.

This market is dominated by US multinational corporations, which in 1992 owned

13 of the top 20 chains.
These chains focus on the higher priced market segment, with well-established
reservation centers.

They have learned to cooperate. In 1989 70 major hotel brands established

THISCO as a computer switch to provide a common electronic booking interfaces
to their hotel central reservation systems worldwide.

With 18 Mn reservations per year and 3.2 Bn USD in room revenue generated,
they represent 60% of the worldwide market share.

The main function is to purchase and to assemble a large number components

produced by the principals, and to sell these as packaged products.

They act as whole-salers, performing nearly as virtual enterprises since the value
they add to a product is the aggregation process.

They conduct the main marketing and distribution activities and have part of the
financial risk of unsold stocks.


One of the main advantages for suppliers is that tour operators have a good
market access, well known brands and that the financial risk can be passed on, at
least partially.

It is the advantage of the tour operator, and of the consumer, that by the
bargaining power of tour operators lower prices can be achieved.

In Europe, in 1992 one third of total travel expenditures fell into this category. In
Germany and in the UK roughly half of all holidays sold were packaged.

In specific destinations the percentage of packaged holidays is not that high (in
Tyrol, Austria, nearly 70 % of the tourists are direct bookers).

Tour operators show several important features: they own brands well known in
the tourism sector and they have the knowledge about product aggregation and