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PROJECT N C-560

MINERA CHINALCO PERU S.A.

TOROMOCHO PROJECT

General Specification N 000-GD-M-003

Mechanical Design Criteria


Aker Metals, Inc. Owner Approval: J. Wigle
333 E. Wetmore Rd. Suite 600
Tucson, AZ 85705 Date: 20th Jan 2009

REV DATE BY CHK APPROVAL DESCRIPTION


A 21/FEB/08 DC FF FM ISSUED FOR INTERNAL REVIEW
B 10/MAR/08 DC FM MW ISSUED FOR CLIENT APPROVAL
REVISED AND REISSUED FOR CLIENT
C 20/MAR/08 DC FM AIH
APPROVAL
0 25/MAR/08 DC FM AIH / JL ISSUED FOR CONSTRUCTION
1 15/JAN/09 EH ML / JA JO / AF REISSUED FOR CLIENT APPROVAL
2 27/JAN/09 RG ML AF REISSUED FOR CONSTRUCTION
REVISED AS NOTED AND RE-ISSUED FOR
3 31/AUG/09 CW DC JHL
CONSTRUCTION

Note: Signed Originals on File


Project No. C-560
General Specification No. 000-GD-M-003
Mechanical Design Criteria
Rev 3

INDEX

PAGE

1 SCOPE ..................................................................................................................................3

2 SPECIFICATIONS AND CODES ..........................................................................................3

3 LAYOUT GUIDELINES .........................................................................................................4

4 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS ...............................................................................................6

5 POWER TRANSMISSION ....................................................................................................7

6 BELT CONVEYORS ...........................................................................................................11

7 FEEDERS............................................................................................................................15

8 SCREW CONVEYORS .......................................................................................................17

9 BUCKET ELEVATORS.......................................................................................................18

10 TRANSFER CHUTES, HOPPERS AND BINS ...................................................................19

11 CRANES AND HOISTS ......................................................................................................21

12 DIESEL ENGINES ..............................................................................................................21

13 TANKS, SUMPS AND SUMP PUMP BOXES ....................................................................22

14 POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS .................................................................................23

15 DUST CONTROL ................................................................................................................24

16 DUST SUPPRESSION ........................................................................................................26

17 FUME CONTROL................................................................................................................26

18 NOISE CONTROL...............................................................................................................27

19 VIBRATION CONTROL ......................................................................................................28

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Project No. C-560
General Specification No. 000-GD-M-003
Mechanical Design Criteria
Rev 3

1 SCOPE

This specification establishes minimum requirements for the mechanical design of the
facilities for the Toromocho project located in central Peru. It applies to the work
performed by engineering contractors, system designers/suppliers and equipment
vendors.

Scope of work includes the following:

Plot Plans, Data Sheets, Standard Drawings and General Arrangement Drawings of
all production facilities.
Assembly and Detailed Working Drawings of all special equipment and of all
interconnection hoppers, chutes and launders in sufficient detail for purchase,
fabrication and assembly.
Equipment list showing all equipment listed in numerical sequence with quantity,
short description of equipment including rating, motor power, reference drawing
number, specification number, purchase order number and contract number.
Specifications for all major mechanical equipment.
Bills of Material for control of items purchased from drawings and/or specifications.
Revisions of mechanical drawings to show significant field changes made during
construction.

Mechanical drawings shall provide information necessary to complete civil, structural,


electrical, piping and instrumentation portions of the design.

Where the requirements of this specification conflict with the requirements of the
applicable equipment specification, the equipment specification requirements shall
prevail.

2 SPECIFICATIONS AND CODES

The following abbreviations are used in this specification to identify applicable standards:

ABMA - American Bearing Manufacturers Association


ACGIH - American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
AGMA - American Gear Manufacturers Association
AISI - American Iron and Steel Institute
ANSI - American National Standards Institute
API - American Petroleum Institute 2
ASA - Acoustical Society of America

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Project No. C-560
General Specification No. 000-GD-M-003
Mechanical Design Criteria
Rev 3

ASTM - American Society for Testing and Materials


AWS - American Welding Society
CEMA - Conveyor Equipment Manufacturers Association
CGA - Compressed Gas Association
CMAA - Crane Manufacturers Association of America
EPA - Environmental Protection Agency
IBC - International Building Code, 2006
MPTA - Mechanical Power Transmission Association
MSHA - Mine Safety and Health Administration
30 CFR 57 Metals and Nonmetal Mine Standards
NEC - National Electrical Code
NFPA - National Fire Protection Association 2
OSHA - Occupational Safety and Health Administration
29 CFR 1910 General Industry Standards
29 CFR 1926 Construction Safety Standards
RMA - Rubber Manufacturers Association
UL - Underwriters Laboratories 2

Plant design shall conform to MSHA standards, OSHA standards and all other
applicable local codes and regulations.

Mechanical design shall conform to all codes and standards indicated on Aker Solutions
Drawings, Specifications and Data Sheets.

In the event of differences between codes and/or standards, the most stringent code or
standard shall apply. Whenever reference is made to a specific code or standard, it
shall be understood that the latest edition of such reference, as of the date of proposal,
shall govern.

3 LAYOUT GUIDELINES

Except where specifically indicated otherwise, all facilities shall be designed in


accordance with process flow diagrams with appropriate surge and/or maximum
performance allowances during normal operations and start-up/shutdown periods.

Layout of all facilities shall allow for safe and ready access for maintenance. Provision
shall be made for inspection, servicing, removal and replacement of machinery and
components. Ladders shall be avoided, wherever it is possible. If ladders are required,
they shall be installed with hoops or cages, according to OSHA standards.

Special consideration shall be given to reliability of process equipment, accessibility and


ease of maintenance.

Special attention shall be paid to the site conditions during the equipment selection,
particularly for electric motors and cooling systems.

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Project No. C-560
General Specification No. 000-GD-M-003
Mechanical Design Criteria
Rev 3

Cover or enclosure shall be considered for equipment and structures as necessary to


protect inside from external contamination (mainly dust) or the environment from process
contaminants.

Instruments and control devices shall be in accordance with the document 000-GD-I-005
Control System Design Criteria

Electrical equipment shall be in accordance with the document 000-GD-E-004 Electrical


Design Criteria

Process buildings to be covered are filter plant and moly hydrometallurgical plant.
Infrastructure buildings covered include truck shop, plant maintenance shop, laboratory,
administration and warehouse buildings.

Maintenance works shall be supported by bridge cranes if necessary or mobile crane


where space and access to the equipment is possible.

Mechanical equipment shall be selected and located with the following considerations:

All equipment shall be located preferably with its main axes oriented according to
the process building axes.
Requirements to meet design production objective of capacity and product quality.
Specific characteristics of material handled or processed.
Equipment reliability.
Mid stream surge capacities for continuous operation of down-stream equipment.
Selection of mechanical equipment proven in the field for similar applications.
Maintenance access platforms and walkways.
Bridge crane shall be included to access major equipment with regular maintenance
duties.
Monorail shall be provided to reach drive system of equipments located in enclosed 2
area, and without crane access.
Personnel safety equipment such as drive guards, splash guards and guards around
moving machinery will be installed.
Pulleys and take-ups of belt conveyors shall be readily accessible for maintenance.
Cooling of hydraulic oil and/or lubricating oil shall be by direct oil to air exchanger. If
cooling by direct air to water heat exchanger is considered as an alternate, prior
Aker Solutions approval is required.
Minimize the extent of on-site welding during installation. Bolted connections should be
used wherever possible during construction at site.

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Project No. C-560
General Specification No. 000-GD-M-003
Mechanical Design Criteria
Rev 3

3.1 SAFETY

Safety and health safeguard provisions shall be a consideration in all plant and
equipment design.

Access to working areas and repair platforms shall be by stairs instead of ladders
where it is possible.
Ladders - cages shall be provided on ladders over 2,500 mm high.
Vertical distance between stairs landings shall be no more than 3,650 mm. Minimum
width shall be 1,000 mm and normal slope of 37. 2
Guards fabricated of expanded metal, woven wire, molded plastic or sheet metal
shall protect personnel from rotating equipment such as shafts, shaft couplings V-
Belt and chain drives, exposed gears, wire rope pulleys idlers and conveyor pulleys.
Walkways used by operators of pendant operated cranes shall be free of all
obstructions and with minimum width of 1,000 mm.
In the crushing plant all platforms where process equipment, feeder or conveyor
could spill material to the floor shall be designed with checkered plate or concrete
slab instead of grating.
Minimum free space of 1,500 mm around equipment shall be considered.
Equipment shall have provision for installation of lock-out devices for maintenance.
Lock-out devices shall completely avoid energization of equipment during
maintenance.
Electric motors, speed reducers or any other drive component shall not be installed
in walkways.
All walkways and elevated platforms shall be provided with handrails, consisting of a
top rail, one intermediate rail, kickplates and posts. The top rail shall be located at
1.05 m minimum height. The intermediate rail shall be spaced at 0.5 m below.
Emergency eyewash and shower stations shall be provided in all areas where
chemical solutions are present. Tepid potable water shall be considered for water
supply, in accordance with ANSI Z358.1.
Tanks higher than 5.0 m shall be provided with standard stairs around the tank
perimeter. Other tanks may consider ladders with cages.

4 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

Structural steel and steel plate shall be ASTM A36/A36M material or equivalent.

Welding of tanks, vessels and piping shall be in accordance with the ASME code. All
other welding shall be in accordance with AWS Standards. Welders (including welding

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Project No. C-560
General Specification No. 000-GD-M-003
Mechanical Design Criteria
Rev 3

operators and tack welders) and welding procedures shall be qualified to ASME / AWS
requirements.

Connecting bolts, unless otherwise specified on the drawings, shall conform to Standard
Specification for Carbon Steel Bolts and Studs ASTM A307.

Unless specified otherwise, conveyor systems shall conform to both Aker Solutions
Standards and CEMA recommended best practices.

Equipment components constituting a physical hazard shall be color coded in


accordance with ANSI/NEMA Z535.1: Safety Color Code.

All equipment shall be designed in accordance with the seismic conditions and
parameters set forth in Appendix A.

5 POWER TRANSMISSION

5.1 DESIGN

Mechanical equipment shall be designed with individual electrically powered drives.


Drives directly coupled to the equipment are preferred; however, suitable speed
reducers, V-belts and sheaves may be substituted when necessary. Interchangeable
parts and standard components shall be used whenever possible.

All drives shall include a device to protect the drive and driven equipment. Common
protective devices are V-belts, torque couplings and shear pins.

All major process equipment shall be designed for continuous operation. All
supplementary equipment shall be designed for the required service.

All geared drives shall have an appropriate AGMA rating, with not less than a Class II
service factor; the basic load shall be considered to be the total connected horsepower.

V-belt drives shall have at least two matched standard belts with service factor of 1.3
minimum. Speed reduction of V-belt drives shall not exceed 4 to1 and belt speed shall
not exceed 24 m/s.

All V-belts shall be of standard V or VX sections, sizes 3, 5 or 8. Other belt sections may
be used only with written approval from Aker Solutions.

All belts, chains, couplings and all exposed rotating parts shall be furnished with suitable
protective guards. Guards shall allow for adjustment of distance between shaft centers
and provide for obtaining tachometer readings on each shaft without removing guards.
Wherever possible, chain drives and gear drives shall be enclosed in oil-tight casings
designed specifically for oil-bath lubrication.

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Project No. C-560
General Specification No. 000-GD-M-003
Mechanical Design Criteria
Rev 3

Casings shall be horizontally-split type (for easy removal) with strategically-located


inspection doors and drain and fill plugs. All guards shall satisfy MSHA and OSHA
requirements. Chain drives are the least preferred and shall only be used for approved
applications.

5.2 SHEAVES

All sheaves shall be cast iron, ductile iron or steel and provided with keyways and
tapered hubs with split compression type bushings. All sheaves shall be provided with
standard size keyways. Square keys are preferred, but flat keys will be accepted in
certain applications. Friction type fasteners, i.e., set screws, are not acceptable, except
when used for fractional horsepower or auxiliary equipment drives. Taper-lock type
compression couplings shall not be used for severe applications.

5.3 CHAINS

All chains shall be standard ASME roller chain with minimum 1.2 service factor.

5.4 SPROCKETS

Sprockets shall be standard ASME steel with hardened teeth and hubs keyed to shaft.
Tapered compression type hubs shall not be used for severe applications. Sprockets
which are not suitable for compression hubs shall have "C" type hubs, with 4 set screws.
Large cast sprockets and miniatures with bored-to-size hubs and keyways may be used
only with prior written approval from Aker Solutions.

5.5 GEAR SPEED REDUCERS

Reducers, unless otherwise specified shall be enclosed, built and rated to AGMA
standards, and shall have cut tooth gears, rolling contact bearings and seals of
appropriate design on shaft extension.

Reducers may be parallel shaft, right angle (spiral bevel), concentric shaft, or hollow
shaft (shaft mounted). The choice shall be consistent with the proposed application and
service requirements. Parallel shaft reducers are preferred and should be given initial
consideration, except for belt conveyors and screw conveyors where the selection shall
be in accordance with Sections 6 and 8 of this specification. Worm gear reducers are
acceptable only for special applications.

Separate motor and gear reducer type drives are preferred. Integral motor-reducers
(motors of special mounting and/or an integral part of the reducer) are acceptable only
for special applications.

Magnetic drain plugs shall be provided to remove any metal particles in the oil.
Each reducer shall have an air-breather, complete with a removable filter for cleaning
and/or replacement. The filter shall be capable of retaining microscopic dust particles.

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Project No. C-560
General Specification No. 000-GD-M-003
Mechanical Design Criteria
Rev 3

Minimum mechanical rating shall equal or exceed the connected prime mover nameplate
horsepower multiplied by the appropriate service factor. Service factors shall be in
accordance with AGMA Standard 6010-E, but shall not be less than 1.25. Service
factors for applications where extreme repetitive shocks occur or where high energy
loads must be absorbed shall be not less than 1.5 times the catalog rating.

The thermal rating of the reducer shall not be less than the nameplate horsepower of the
connected prime mover. The thermal rating is the maximum actual horsepower that the
gear drive will transmit continually for three hours or more without overheating.

The design shall allow for clean fill-up of oil and for clean drainage. Inlets and outlets for
lubricants shall be readily accessible.

All enclosed gearing shall be protected in lubricant during shipment.

5.6 SHAFTING

Drive shafts shall be provided with accurately machined, standard size (preferably
square) key seats for all torque transmitting connections, and where possible all shafts
shall be of suitable tolerance for split-taper bushing mounting of components.
All shafts shall be straight within limits of the tolerance of applicable standards.

Turned down shaft ends shall have fillet radius of at least one forth the difference in
diameters. Turndown shall not exceed one inch of diameter. A stress concentration
factor of at least 1.5 for bending at turndowns shall be used.
To allow the use of bearing end caps, shaft ends shall not protrude from the bearing
unless required for power transmission.

5.7 BEARINGS

Bearings for mechanical equipment shall be dust-tight, self-aligning antifriction roller


bearings of the multi-cylinder, spherical or tapered roller type selected to provide a
minimum L-10 life as indicated in the table below:

Mechanical Equipment Minimum L-10 Life

Trolleys and Hoists 3,000 hours


Bucket Elevators 50,000 hours
Gear Drives and Reducers 60,000 hours
Blowers 60,000 hours
Pumps 60,000 hours
Positive Displacement Pumps 100,000 hours 3
Conveyor Pulley Pillow Blocks 80,000 hours
Conveyor Idlers 60,000 hours
Screens 80,000 hours
Compressors, process fans and turbines 100,000 hours

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Project No. C-560
General Specification No. 000-GD-M-003
Mechanical Design Criteria
Rev 3

Notes:
1. L-10 life is defined by ABMA as the number of service hours, at a constant
speed and rated load, that ninety percent of the bearings will provide before
showing evidence of fatigue.
2. In some applications, Vendor/Manufacturers standard equipment is specified.
If Vendor/Manufacturers standard is not specified, the above table for
minimum L-10 life shall apply.

Bearings exposed to the atmosphere shall be equipped with grease purged labyrinth
(taconite) seals.

5.8 COUPLINGS

Couplings shall be steel, flexible, double engagement, self-aligning type with a minimum
service factor of 1.5 based on motor nameplate horsepower. All couplings on this
project shall be of the same type by the same manufacturer (i.e. Falk Steelflex), unless
integral with purchased machinery.

5.9 HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS

Hydraulic systems shall be designed to conform to the latest issue of (NFPA) B93:
Hydraulic Standards for Industrial Equipment.
Mineral oils are preferred as hydraulic fluids. Fire-resistant fluids shall only be used
when specified in the applicable equipment specification.

If required, hydraulic systems shall have adequate provision for cooling and/or heating to
assure proper operation under continuous duty at the specified extreme ambient
temperature conditions.

All hydraulic units shall be completely wired. All wiring and conduit shall be brought to
properly identified terminals housed in an adequate terminal box suitable for external
connection by others.

All hydraulic units shall have all piping installed. Piping shall be arranged for a minimum
number of external field connections by others. Additionally, piping shall be arranged to
not block equipment maintenance access.

All Vendor-supplied hydraulic systems with carbon steel piping shall have lines cleaned,
pickled, neutralized and sealed before shipment. Stainless steel piping may be
substituted for pickled carbon steel pipe; however stainless steel pipe must still be
cleaned and sealed for shipment.

Equipment with oil-filled compartments shall be provided with means for containment of
spills resulting from overfilling, leaks, expansion, etc. Drain valves shall be easily
accessible and be piped to facilitate catching the oil in a container.

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Project No. C-560
General Specification No. 000-GD-M-003
Mechanical Design Criteria
Rev 3

6 BELT CONVEYORS

6.1 DESIGN

Conveyors shall be designed for continuous 24 hour operation.

Belts carrying ore shall have a maximum slope of 16. Refer to "Classification and
Definition for Bulk Materials" in CEMA handbook for appropriate slopes for specific
materials.

Maximum speed for conveyors shall be determined by the application. Speeds shall be
selected to obtain 80% maximum belt loading based on the conveyor design capacity.

Design capacity shall be based on flowsheet tonnage plus 25 percent unless otherwise
required in the Conveyor Data Sheets. Minimum belt width shall be 600 mm. Drives
shall be designed to start up under full load conditions. However, on drives of 75 kW
and greater a means, such as a hydraulic coupling, shall be provided for controlling the
conveyor acceleration.

All conveyors exposed to weather, including the overland conveyors, shall be protected
with hoods.

In general, all conveyors shall have well-lighted walkways on one side. Clear distance
between conveyor stringers and closest obstruction on the main walkway side shall be
750 mm minimum.

Conveyor idler supports shall be rigidly mounted approximately 900 mm above the
walkways. Deck plate shall be connected to the top side of supporting stringers the full
length of each conveyor.

Adequate clearance for cleanup shall be provided beneath pulleys and idlers. 2
Recommended clearance is 750 mm.

Standardization shall be considered in the selection of components.

Conveyors need to be shop assembled as much as possible to reduce field/site man


hours. Idlers must be installed on trusses and stringers. Head and tail shall be
assembled with chutes, pulleys and scrapers on the frame.

A tapered loading plate shall be installed at the conveyor feed to absorb impact and
center material on the belt.

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Project No. C-560
General Specification No. 000-GD-M-003
Mechanical Design Criteria
Rev 3

6.2 PULLEYS AND SHAFTING

Pulleys shall be of welded steel, drum type, solid end construction with tapered hubs.
They shall be designed to operate at full belt tension, and be attached to the shafts by
split compression type bushings.

Drive pulleys shall be lagged with 20.0 mm minimum of rubber with 6.0 mm herringbone
grooves and vulcanized to the pulley. Belt plows shall normally be used to keep tail and
take-up pulleys clean. Tail and take-up pulleys may be of the self cleaning type if belt
tension permits their use.

Pulley face for conveyors up to and including 1,067 mm (42) wide shall be 100 mm
wider than the belt width. Pulley face for conveyors exceeding 1,067 mm (42) wide
shall be 180 mm wider than the belt width. Pulleys shall be crowned where so specified
and as defined on the Conveyor Specification. Normal crowning is 5.2 mm per meter.
The crowning shall be done on the steel drum, not with the rubber lagging.

Pulley shafts, unless otherwise specified in Conveyor Data Sheets and/or Conveyor
Specifications shall be made of cold finished steel shafting AISI-C-1045 or approved
equal for shafts up to and including 200 mm diameter. Shafts over this size shall be made
from chromium molybdenum alloy AISI-C-4140 steel or approved equal. Shafts shall be
suitable to operate with mounted pulleys at full belt tension. Shaft deflection shall be per
latest edition of CEMA Standard (0.0023 radians for standard pulleys and 0.0015 radians
for engineered pulleys).

6.3 PULLEY SHAFT BEARINGS

All pulley shaft pillow block bearings shall be the heavy duty, four bolt, self-aligning type
with split housing and replaceable grease purged (taconite) seals, each consisting of two
seals with an intermediate cavity with a grease fitting.
All pulley shaft bearings shall be self-aligning heavy duty, double row, spherical roller
type, suitable for the conditions and duty specified. Each pair of bearings supporting a
shaft shall have one fixed and the other floating.

Bearings shall be grease packed prior to shipment.

6.4 IDLERS

Idlers shall be of CEMA Series C, D and E design and construction, with classification as
shown on Conveyor Data Sheet, and be suitable for continuous operation.

Idler rollers shall be a minimum of 150 mm in diameter, of welded construction and


equipped with roller type antifriction bearings lubricated and sealed for life.

Troughing idlers shall have equal length rolls with 35 degree troughing angle, unless
specified otherwise on the Conveyor Data Sheets.

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Project No. C-560
General Specification No. 000-GD-M-003
Mechanical Design Criteria
Rev 3

Rubber disc impact idlers shall be used at all loading and transfer points where the
impact exceeds 5.5 kg.m.

The return idlers shall be as specified on the conveyor data sheet. Return idlers for
conveyors handling abrasive or sticky material shall be the multiple rubber disc self-
cleaning type.

Training idlers shall be used for both carrying and return sides for all conveyors 30
meters and longer. They shall be located within 15 meters of both the head and tail
pulley ends and not more than 30 meter centers thereafter.

Transition troughing idlers shall be used at the tail and head terminals.

Fixed training rolls shall not be used on reversible conveyors.

6.5 BELTING

Selection of belting shall be based on operating and design conditions and on


information specified in Conveyor Data Sheets. The selection of carcass and breakers
shall satisfy maximum tension, minimum plies for load support, maximum plies for empty
belt troughing, pulley sizes, impact and other operating conditions. Standardization for
maintenance and inventory shall be considered in the selection of belting.

Top and bottom cover quality shall not be lower than RMA Grade 2 and top and bottom
cover thickness shall be as shown on Conveyor Data Sheets, but not less than 4.8 mm
and 3.2 mm respectively.

Belts shall be of synthetic fabric and cut edge construction unless otherwise specified.

All splices shall be vulcanized unless otherwise specified.

Belt with rip detection filament shall be provided where a rip protection system is
required.

6.6 TAKE-UPS

Screw take-ups used on conveyors up to 30 meters long, where specified, shall be


heavy duty protected screw type. Take-ups shall be top-angle frame with self-aligning
spherical roller bearings.

Gravity take-ups shall be provided on all conveyors over 30 meters long and on all
conveyors with belt scales, trippers and where so specified regardless of length.
Counterweights shall be steel boxes filled with a combination of concrete and steel
plates or punchings. Minimum tension shall be used for good conveyor operation.

All gravity take-ups shall be guarded from the take-up pulley to ground level. After
2
counterweights have been filled to proper weight requirements, lean concrete shall be

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Project No. C-560
General Specification No. 000-GD-M-003
Mechanical Design Criteria
Rev 3

added to the box to prevent corrosion of steel punchings.

All take-ups shall provide for the conveyor length adjustment recommended for the
specific belt.

6.7 SPEED REDUCERS

Speed reducers larger than 56 kW shall be parallel-shaft or right angle type with anti-
friction bearings throughout and direct-coupled high and low speed shafts.

Speed reducers up to and including 56 kW will normally be shaft-mounted, although


parallel-shaft and right angle are also acceptable. Gear-motor and other types are
exceptions and must be individually approved in writing.

6.8 HOLD BACKS

Holdbacks (backstops) shall be used on inclined conveyors. 2

Drives with motors up to and including 56 kW may have internally mounted holdbacks on
the high speed shaft.

Drives larger than 56 kW shall have externally mounted holdbacks.

6.9 BELT SAFETY DEVICES

To ensure against belt damage caused by lateral movement, limit switches should be
provided at safe limits of lateral travel in locations approaching the head, tripper, take-up,
dual drive and tail pulleys.

Limit switches shall be provided at the maximum position of take-ups.

A rip protection system, of the filament built in belt type, may be considered for
installation where tramp metal is present and may damage the belt.

A zero speed protection switch or sensor shall be provided on all conveyor tail pulleys to
detect belt slippage or breakage from a slow-down in belt speed.

Time delay switches or sensors shall be provided on conveyor systems which are
interlocked for sequential starting and stopping. These devices will insure that the belt is
moving at the proper speed before loading starts and that the equipment on the
discharge end is ready to receive the conveyed material.

Where required by the Project, a tramp metal detecting device and/or tramp collecting
magnet shall be installed.

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Project No. C-560
General Specification No. 000-GD-M-003
Mechanical Design Criteria
Rev 3

6.10 EMERGENCY STOP SWITCHES

All conveyors shall have a continuous pull cord connected to stop switches spaced not
more than 30 meters apart. Switches shall be two direction pull type with no dead end
tie-downs. For conveyors with access on both sides of the conveyor, a continuous pull
cord to the stop switches shall be provided on each side.

6.11 GUARDS

Protective guards shall be provided around drives, take-ups, bend and tail pulleys, take-
up carriages and all rotating drive elements. Idlers shall be guarded where they can be
reached from below (e.g., from stairs). Design and construction shall permit for easy
removal and service of guarded equipment. All guards shall be painted safety yellow.

6.12 CONVEYOR CROSS OVER BRIDGE

Safe crossing points may be provided, where required. 2


6.13 PROTECTION BENEATH CONVEYORS

Conveyors which cross roads and pedestrian paths shall be provided with underside
protection to catch material falling from the belt, unless a gallery or suitable protection
plate is provided.

6.14 BELT CLEANING DEVICES

Belt scraper assemblies shall be the tensioned, multi-blade type.

A belt wash station may be required depending on the application 2

6.15 METAL DETECTORS

No metal decking, cross bracing or return idlers shall be installed between and below
carrying idlers adjacent to the receiver antenna.

Idlers adjacent to metal detectors shall be of the rubber impact type.

6.16 ELECTROMAGNETS

Electromagnets shall be installed in conveyors or feeders according with the Process


Flow Diagrams. Whenever possible, electromagnets shall be installed at the head pulley
of conveyors or feeders. 2

7 FEEDERS

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Project No. C-560
General Specification No. 000-GD-M-003
Mechanical Design Criteria
Rev 3

7.1 GENERAL

Plugged-chute alarms shall be provided to prevent damage to feeder parts and drive.

Variable speed drives shall be considered for control of feed rates.

7.2 FEED OPENINGS UNDER HOPPERS OR STOCKPILES

Draw-down holes shall be as large as possible, with chute or rockbox configurations


designed to minimize direct static load on the feeder.

Feeder discharge openings shall be minimum width of 3 times maximum lump size and
vertical opening 2 times maximum lump size.

Edges shall be protected by wear bars and where necessary, provision made for
blocking off the opening with spile bars or a gate.

When loading a belt, a tapered reclaim slot (increasing in width) with a self-relieving
incline in the direction of feeder travel shall be provided.

7.3 FEEDER LOADS

Surcharge pressures over feeders from material in open stockpiles or enclosed silos or
bins shall be calculated using material flow property principles to determine vertical static
loads on feeders. As a minimum, the vertical static load shall be a column of material
standing from the feeder upward to a point 2 times the feed opening width.

Horizontal loads shall be determined for normal flow conditions and starting (breakaway)
flow conditions using appropriate material shear and friction factors.

7.4 APRON FEEDERS

Apron and pan feeders shall generally be installed horizontally except where design
considerations dictate an incline. To prevent cascading when the feeder is stopped, the
headshaft centerline (projected up to the pan line) shall be located downstream of the
feed opening by 1.5 times the maximum lump size beyond the toe of the material repose
angle.

Feeder skirt boards shall be approximately 150 mm higher than the material bed depth
and be located to allow at least 50 mm or manufacturer's recommended clearance within
pan flanges on either side. The skirt boards shall be heavily reinforced and provided 2
with AR liners.

All apron feeders shall have continuous pull cords connected to emergency stop
switches. Switches shall be two direction pull type with no dead end tie-downs.
Emergency stop switches shall be provided on both sides of feeders.

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Project No. C-560
General Specification No. 000-GD-M-003
Mechanical Design Criteria
Rev 3

The discharge chute, heavily reinforced and lined, shall have a cross-section at least 1.5
times that of the material bed depth on the feeder. A dribble conveyor or chute shall be 2
provided to direct fines to subsequent equipment.

7.5 BELT FEEDERS

The design requirements for feed slot, feeder length, skirts and discharge chutes as
described for apron feeders shall be observed for belt feeders.

The belt for the Pioche Gate type or slot-fed belt feeders shall be wide enough to prevent
spillage without using skirts, and be supported preferably on closely spaced picking type
idlers.

All belt feeders shall have continuous pull cords connected to emergency stop switches.
Switches shall be two direction pull type with no dead end tie-downs. Emergency stop
switches shall be provided on both sides of feeders.

A zero speed protection switch or sensor shall be provided on all belt feeder tail pulleys
to detect belt slippage or breakage from an unusual slow-down in belt speed.

7.6 VIBRATING FEEDERS

The skirts shall be tapered away from bottom of feeder for a future increase or decrease
of feeder slope from normal position of 6 degrees.

Skirts and discharge chute shall be reinforced and protected by liners.

When equipped with a grizzly section, the fingers shall consist of manganese bars, self-
relieving in direction of flow.

A minimum 50 mm clearance between the vibrating frame and all discharge chutes or
hoppers shall be maintained.

8 SCREW CONVEYORS

Design capacity shall be based on 45 percent loading of trough cross-sectional area for
non-abrasive material, 30 percent for moderately abrasive material and 15 percent for
highly abrasive material. The latter requires hard-surfaced flights or abrasion resistant
alloys.

Modifications of the basic helical screw shall be used to supplement conveying with
other desired treatment of the load in transit, e.g.: either notched flights or paddles for a
moderate mixing action, notched and folded flights for agitation and aeration, tapering
flights for friable lumpy material or to draw material uniformly from the entire length of the
hopper opening, long pitch flights for rapid conveying of free flowing material, or double-

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Project No. C-560
General Specification No. 000-GD-M-003
Mechanical Design Criteria
Rev 3

flight short-pitch screws to deter flushing of very fluid material. Wherever possible,
intermediate bearings should be avoided.

The screw shaft shall be sized to prevent sagging against the casing.

Screw conveyors shall be fitted with flanged covers, hinged on one side and held down
by a quick release fastener on the other. The covers shall be effectively sealed to
prevent the egress of dust.

Cover design shall permit removal of cover for maintenance without spill-out of residual
material. Access doors shall be flush with the internal casing of the conveyor to
minimize residual material spill-out on opening an emptied conveyor.
Vents shall be provided as required.

Either a removable boot (clear plastic or rubber) shall be provided at discharge of screw
conveyor or a fabricated chute with access opening shall be provided as required or as
shown on drawings.

Screw conveyor speed reducers up to and including 56 kW should normally be shaft-


mounted, although parallel-shaft and concentric shaft are also acceptable.

A zero speed protection switch or sensor shall be provided on all screw conveyor/feeder
shafts to detect drive belt slippage or breakage from a slow-down in screw speed.

9 BUCKET ELEVATORS

Specified bucket elevator design capacity shall be based on buckets filled to 90% of
water level and the minimum specified bulk density of the material.

All components shall be designed for maximum bucket loading at the highest specified
bulk density. The elevator shall be capable of starting with flooded feed chute and fully
loaded buckets at the highest specified density.

Bucket elevators shall be of the continuous discharge type unless otherwise noted.

The head sprocket shall be of the segmental rim type designed for removal of worn
segments without lifting the chain and buckets. All head sprockets shall be keyed to the
head shaft.

The foot sprocket or traction wheel shall be of the segmental rim type designed for
removal of worn segments without lifting the foot shaft and sprockets free from the chain.

Unless otherwise noted, the take-up device shall be internal gravity type.

Bucket elevators shall be dust tight, with inspection doors and adequate dust collection
connections.

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Project No. C-560
General Specification No. 000-GD-M-003
Mechanical Design Criteria
Rev 3

The elevators shall be fully self-supporting vertically with the casing adequate for
supporting the head section.

When specified, a service platform shall be furnished, including safety handrailing, for
servicing the mechanical components of the head section and a hoist frame with
monorail for lifting the chain and buckets. A ladder shall be furnished to the service
platform from the nearest floor level.

A holdback device shall be furnished on bucket elevators and shall be mounted on the
head shaft extension opposite the drive end.

A zero speed protection switch or sensor shall be provided on all bucket elevator drive
shafts to detect drive belt slippage or breakdown of drive train.

10 TRANSFER CHUTES, HOPPERS AND BINS

Steel chutes, hoppers and bins shall be welded construction with bolted connections for
installation and loose flanges where necessary for field fitting and adjustment.

Material shall be mild steel plate of a minimum thickness of 6.4 mm. Connecting bolts
shall be 16 mm diameter and supplied, unless otherwise specified.

Chutes or enclosures which perform a structural function shall be designed in


collaboration with the Aker Solutions structural engineer.

Except with sticky materials, rock boxes shall be incorporated at transfer points where
excessive wear is anticipated. All wear surfaces shall be lined. Where possible, rock
boxes shall be designed to minimize wear bars, etc.

Chute widths shall be standardized insofar as possible for uniform liner sizes. Inside
width of head chutes shall be no less than pulley width plus 100 mm. For sticky
materials chutes and transfer points shall be made extra large to hold blockage to a
minimum.

Conveyor loading chutes handling crushed materials shall discharge onto an adjustable
V-shaped loading plate, inclined at 2 degrees relative to the belt, rising downstream and
set between standard skirt boards. The apex of the V shall be located just ahead of the
calculated trajectory of the conveyor discharge.

At loading points, belt conveyors shall be provided with steel plate skirt boards complete
with adjustable rubber skirts. Skirt boards shall be set at 2/3 of belt width and provided
with top cover plate with dust control hood unless noted otherwise. 2

Bin and hopper discharge openings shall conform to criteria specified in Section 7.0,
Feeders.

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Project No. C-560
General Specification No. 000-GD-M-003
Mechanical Design Criteria
Rev 3

Bins with draw-down openings near the bin walls require local abrasion protection.

All bins shall be designed with live bin capacity based on the bulk material angle of
repose.

Screen undersize chutes and dust hoppers shall have walls with 60 degrees or greater
slope from the horizontal plane. The valley angles of such chutes and hoppers shall not
be less than 55 degrees.

Discharge chutes shall contain an inspection door of minimum size 300 mm x 300 mm
and preferably 400 mm x 400 mm if space allows. The inspection door shall be easily
accessible and shall give viewing to both the chute entrance and the discharge stream of
material. The door shall be effectively sealed to prevent the egress of dust. Access
doors shall be internally flush with chute casing to avoid spill-out of material when
opened.

The top of discharge chutes shall be flanged for dust collection to a size and location as
required.

Belt conveyor discharge chutes shall be designed such that the fines from all scrapers
are effectively directed back to the material stream. Back plates on chutes which
transfer the fines shall have a minimum angle of 60 unless approval is given otherwise
by Aker Solutions.

Design must consider material trajectories so that impact of material on chute walls is
prevented.

10.1 LINING AND WEAR BARS

Ease of replacement of liners shall be considered in high wear areas.

All liners and wear bars shall conform to the tolerances on the drawings and
specifications.

Wear liner materials and design details shall be in accordance with Aker Solutions
standard drawings. Rubber, ceramic and UHMW polyethylene lining material may also
be used, as specified on drawings.

Wear bar materials and design details shall be in accordance with Aker Solutions
standard drawings.

Bolted liners shall be fastened with countersunk flat head bolts, except non-impact steel
wear plate (linings) may be welded.

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Project No. C-560
General Specification No. 000-GD-M-003
Mechanical Design Criteria
Rev 3

Weight of any wear plate (liner) to be handled manually shall not exceed 25 kg and shall
have a minimum of four bolt holes. Liners weighing less than 22.5 kg shall have at least
two bolt holes.

Consideration shall be given to providing lined chutes with at least one side bolted for
removal and access to liners.

11 CRANES AND HOISTS

Electric overhead traveling cranes shall conform to CMAA recommendations.

Maintenance bridge cranes shall be Class C, pendant controlled, with emergency


access to the bridge all along the craneway. Fixed railstops and rubber bumpers are
mandatory.

Underhung cranes of long span may be carried on three rails, but the ratio of total span
to end-truck length shall not exceed 7:1.

Service hoists shall be motorized for lifts of over 3 meters; trolleys may be hand-
operated for short runs or occasional usage. Monorail beams equipped with trolleys for
use with portable hoists shall be supplied where suitable.

Provision shall be made for access to all cranes and hoists, with particular attention to
maintenance and repair for the full range of travel.

All hoist hooks shall be equipped with safety latches. All cranes shall come equipped
with rotating beacon lights and sound (siren) to alert personnel that the crane is in
operation.

12 DIESEL ENGINES

Diesel engines operating at high altitude shall be specified considering the following
aspects:

Derating for altitude: Derating of diesel engine performance is accompanied by a


reduction in the fuel supply to the engine. The engine manufacturer has to
guarantee the fuel metering and injection systems.
Cooling system: The lower heat extraction capability of the cooling system affects
diesel engine performance at high altitude. For this reason air-cooled engines are
generally more severely affected than water-cooled engines, however even water-
cooled engines rely on an air cooling of the water by means of a radiator. Due to the
lower air density at site, it may be necessary to increase the speed of the cooling air
or radiator fan to retain adequate cooling capacity. Each case has to be dealt with
by the manufacturer.

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Project No. C-560
General Specification No. 000-GD-M-003
Mechanical Design Criteria
Rev 3

Low temperature operation of diesel engines: At temperatures below 5 C, a diesel


engine requires modifications, and the observance of certain precautions in order to
facilitate starting and operation of the engine. This applies to fuel system, air intake
system, lubrication system and cooling system

13 TANKS, SUMPS AND SUMP PUMP BOXES

13.1 TANKS

Tanks shall be designed to permit visual checking of tank level, except where safety
dictates that tanks are covered and vented, in which case instrumentation for level
indication is to be provided.

All tank effective capacities shall be calculated without freeboard. The freeboard
required shall be particularly defined for each application. Corrosive conditions may
require use of non metallic materials for tank construction. All tanks shall be provided
with drain and overflow connection pipes. Drain nozzle shall be located such that total
tank content can be completely drained.

Overflow pipes shall be provided with access for clean out. Overflows shall be directed
to containment areas via trenches or sloped finished surfaces.

Tanks handling slurries shall be provided with access to readily remove blockages.
Oversize overflow openings shall be provided on tanks containing adhering liquids or
slurries.

Water storage tanks shall be designed in accordance with standard ANSI/AWWA D100
Welded Steel Tanks for Water Storage or API 650.

Cylindrical FRP tanks shall be designed in accordance with ASTM D3299 Standard
Specification for Filament-Wound Glass Fiber Reinforcement Thermoset Resin
Corrosion Resistant Tanks.

Special reinforcements or supports must be considered for tanks using agitator design
under API codes.

13.2 FLOOR SUMPS

The sump cross-sectional area shall typically be 1m x 1m inside dimension. The sump
height shall typically be 1m. Liquid level in sumps will be kept to a minimum practical 3
level at all times.

13.3 SUMP PUMP BOXES

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Project No. C-560
General Specification No. 000-GD-M-003
Mechanical Design Criteria
Rev 3

Sump pump sump boxes shall be designed to permit visual checking of sump level,
except where safety dictates that sump boxes are covered and vented, in which case
instrumentation for level indication is to be provided.

The sump pump boxes shall have drain ports and an overflow port with pipe extending
down to approximately 300 mm above the floor. 2

Overflow pipes shall be provided with access for clean-out. Overflows shall be directed
to containment areas via trenches or sloped finished surfaces.

Sump pump sump boxes handling slurries shall be provided with access to readily
remove blockages. Oversize overflow openings shall be provided on pump sump boxes
containing adhering liquids or slurries.

14 POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS


3
Positive displacement pumps will be selected for a flexible and continuous operation.
The wetted parts shall be made of materials resistant to the abrasion of paste tailings.

The pumps shall be driven by variable speed electric motor drives with parallel shaft
gear reducers. The pumps and electric motors shall be designed in order to handle any
allowable flow rate (no overload) and be capable of operating at levels 10% higher than
the maximum design capacity. The pumps shall have sufficient torque to handle the full
range of pipeline velocities, from 0 to 100%.

The design of the pumps shall consider a minimum of 8585 hours per year of continuous
operation (over 98% availability), and a lifespan of 30 years.

The suction and discharge of the pumps shall use ANSI B16.5 RF flanges. The pumps
shall be equipped with an alarm system to allow for automatic stop in the event of failure.
All equipment bearings and their components shall have a minimum ABMA L10 life of
100,000 hours. The lubricating system shall be designed to lubricate and cool
adequately during steady-state operation and on full pump load. All pumps shall be air-
cooled, preferably natural convection cooling.

Each pump shall include at least one suction stabilizer pulsation dampener and one
discharge stabilizer pulsation dampener. Their capacity estimation shall be included in
pump manufacturer scope, considering that pulsations shall not exceed 2.0% of the
average maximum pressure in the discharge, and shall not exceed 34 kPa in the
suction. The dampeners shall utilize rechargeable nitrogen filled bladders.

The pumps must be provided with redundant protection systems against overpressure.
Also, all auxiliary equipment required for the operation must be included.

To prevent the transmission of vibrations to the facilities, the use of isolation on pipes,
ducts and other structures will be considered.

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Project No. C-560
General Specification No. 000-GD-M-003
Mechanical Design Criteria
Rev 3

15 DUST CONTROL

Dust control air volumes and velocities shall be established by Aker Solutions criteria
and formulas for given conditions, as shown in Aker Solutions Standards, and shall
match or exceed best practice recommended in American Conference of Governmental
Industrial Hygienists-Manual of Industrial Ventilation (latest edition). Each dust control
system shall be designed to balance without damper throttling. In addition, all such
systems shall meet or exceed the recommendations of EPA.

15.1 LAYOUT

Following are general guidelines for ductwork design which are to be applied unless
indicated otherwise on drawings.

All ductwork runs shall be either vertical or horizontal; sloping ductwork runs shall be
avoided wherever possible, except where precipitation of the dust in the duct is intended.

A 150 mm minimum clearance shall be maintained between ductwork and nearest


obstruction.

Round ductwork shall be used to the greatest extent practical. Square or rectangular
ductwork shall be avoided to the greatest extent possible. However, if rectangular
ductwork is required, it should be as nearly square as possible.

Where indicated on the drawings a blast gate shall be used in conjunction with an
adjustable bleed-in device for system adjustment and flow balancing after installation.
These devices shall be located immediately adjacent to the pick-up hood, preferably in a
vertical ductwork run, with the bleed-in device downstream from the blast gate, and be
positioned for easy accessibility.

Clean-outs for dust collection ductwork shall be provided at the beginning and end of all
major horizontal duct runs, and at intervals not to exceed 12 meters or as shown on the
drawings. Clean-outs shall not be attached to elbows; however, the clean-out at the
beginning of a horizontal run may be created by using a 30 or 45 degree capped branch
entry, rather than a full elbow.

The branch entry to a main ductwork run shall always use a transition piece in the main
duct. The branch duct shall enter the transition at an angle between 30 and 45 degrees.
The transition piece shall be tapered in the direction of flow at a wall angle not exceeding
12 degrees.

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Project No. C-560
General Specification No. 000-GD-M-003
Mechanical Design Criteria
Rev 3

Two branch entry ducts shall never enter the main duct using the same transition piece.
Each branch entry to the main duct run shall have its own transition piece. A branch
entry shall never enter the bottom of a horizontal run.

Multiple entries of ductwork systems into a single dust collector (baghouse) shall not be
allowed. Only one inlet flange shall be allowed for any dust collector.

Use a minimum of two duct diameters for centerline radius of elbows 300 mm and
smaller. For elbows above 300 mm use 1.5 duct diameters.

A Test Port Station (TPS) shall be located in every branch duct, and periodically in main
ductwork runs to allow auditing of branch entry flow measurements; and at the inlet and
outlet of fans. For ductwork 400 mm or less in diameter, a single test port may be used;
otherwise two test ports are required, placed at 90 degrees. TPS shall be positioned in
the ductwork at least 5 duct diameters downstream from any major airstream
disturbance such as an elbow, branch entry, etc. where possible; or otherwise in
accordance with the recommendations of the ACGIH Industrial Ventilation Handbook.
Test ports shall be accessible from a ladder, platform or walkway.

15.2 DUCTS

Ductwork shall be designed for minimum turbulence, friction loss and minimum wear.

Ducts shall be fabricated from mild steel plate or sheet unless high temperature or
corrosion necessitates special materials.

Connections to fans or other vibrating machinery shall be designed to isolate vibration by


using flexible connectors.

The ratio of elbow radius to duct diameter shall be such that pressure drop is minimized.

To keep dust particles in suspension, air velocities shall be 18 to 25 m/s, depending on


particle characteristics.

Ductwork supports shall be adequate to carry the system if plugged with dust as follows:
branches, full; sub-mains, half full; main, one-third full. No load from the ductwork is to
be placed on connected equipment.

Rubber lining may be employed locally at high abrasion zones in dust control systems,
where gas temperatures do not exceed 60C.

15.3 DAMPERS AND GATES

Dust control systems shall be designed to balance within 10 percent without blast gates.
If blast gates are necessary they shall incorporate polyurethane, UHMW polyethylene or
ceramic wear protection. Butterfly dampers shall not be used.

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Project No. C-560
General Specification No. 000-GD-M-003
Mechanical Design Criteria
Rev 3

Louver dampers of the opposing blade type shall be employed for clean air stream
modulation applications.

15.4 EXPANSION JOINTS

Systems operating at other than ambient temperatures shall be analyzed for expansion-
contraction requirements. Expansion joints shall be located so that compound
movement is minimized.

Expansion joints shall be installed between fans and ductwork.

15.5 FANS

When calculating power requirements for fans, temperature and elevation/altitude


variations must be considered to convert m3/h (Normal) to m3/h (Actual).

Power requirements should be calculated for the lowest start-up or operating


temperature expected.

16 DUST SUPPRESSION

Dust suppression system shall be use according with the Process Flow Diagrams.
Preferably, the emission of dust shall be controlled by dry fog systems. The actual
quantity of water and related control system shall depend upon the percentage of fines
in the ore, the absorption of the product, frequency of feed, continuous or intermittent
flows and the distance between the dust emission point and the location of the water
sprays. Air atomized resonating nozzles are preferred because of high efficiency without
use of surfactant.

17 FUME CONTROL

17.1 GENERAL

Where accurate gas flow measurement is desired, a straight run of 4 times the diameter
of the duct ahead of the test point or compensating straightening vanes shall be 2
provided.

Ducts in corrosive service shall be FRP (fiber-reinforced plastic), stainless steel, or


protected by suitable paints or coatings.

Ducts handling hot off-gases shall be constructed of materials suited to their individual
conditions of temperature, corrosion and abrasion.

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Project No. C-560
General Specification No. 000-GD-M-003
Mechanical Design Criteria
Rev 3

Temperature of gases shall be kept above the dew point to preclude corrosion of the
ducts.

18 NOISE CONTROL

Noise level shall be considered when selecting and arranging equipment. The design
shall incorporate noise-level data into equipment specifications. The following MSHA
standards of permissible noise exposure * shall be used as criteria for plant design.

* If the daily noise exposure is composed of two or more periods of noise exposure of
different levels, their combined effect should be considered, rather than the
individual effect of each. Exposure to impulsive or impact noise should not exceed
140 db peak sound pressure-level. (Source: Federal Register, Vol. 37, No. 202,
October 18, 1972, page 22158.)

Duration per day per person:

Hours Sound Level, dbA


8 90
6 92
4 95
3 97
2 100
1- 102
1 105
110
or less 115

The following guides shall be used:

Flat, hard (or large curved) surfaces close to the source of the noise shall be
avoided.
Adjacent areas facing the sound source shall be finished with a sound absorbent
material.
Areas shall be separated with partitions or baffles of sound-absorbent materials only
where required.
Rubber linings, silencers and mufflers suitable for the type of equipment shall be
used where required.
Exhausts shall be extended outdoors and to where there is no personnel.
Noise sources shall be enclosed with low-transmission materials and have seal
connections through the enclosure.

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Project No. C-560
General Specification No. 000-GD-M-003
Mechanical Design Criteria
Rev 3

Areas that will require noise control will be plant air compressors, instrument air
compressors and flotation air blowers.

19 VIBRATION CONTROL

Unless otherwise specified, rotor assemblies of rotating machinery (e.g. centrifugal


compressors, blowers, fans, pumps) shall be dynamically balanced in accordance with
ASA S2.19 (Mechanical Vibration-Balance Quality Requirements of Rigid Rotors, Part 1:
Determination of Permissible Residual Unbalance). The Balance Quality Grade shall be
assigned in accordance with Table 1 of this standard. In cases where rotating
machinery must be located on structural steel supports, care shall be taken to isolate
equipment vibrations from piping, ducting, or other resonating material. Insulation
mounts or flexible points shall be used.
Steel structures shall be designed so that the natural frequencies will exceed the forced
frequencies of any attached rotating equipment.

On critical high speed equipment, remote monitoring and trending shall be provided.
High level alarms and shutdowns are to be incorporated.

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