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Verbe Modale in Engleza

Verbele: can, may, must, ought, shall, will si partial need si dare formeaza grupul de
verbe modale. Aceste verbe nu formeaza infinitivul cu particula 'to'.
can - a putea, cu intelesul de a fi in stare. In vorbirea curenta mai ales in intrebari
se foloseste in locul lui 'may' (vezi mai jos) (inseamna si conserva si 'to can' = a
face conserva)
may - a putea, cu intelesul de a avea voie. (inseamna si luna mai). In plus se
foloseste in urari, de exemplu poate fi tradus prin 'fie' .
must - a trebui, a fi necesar (inseamna si must- suc de struguri), poate fi tradus
uneori si prin probabil (sau 'trebuie ca')
ought to- ar trebui, ar fi cazul
shall - este o intarire a unui ordin daca este spus apasat. Altfel formeaza viitorul
persoanei intai. In acest ultim caz deobicei se inlocuieste cu 'will' (vezi mai jos).
will - formeaza viitorul, particula 'voi' din romaneste. I will come = Voi veni. Se
foloseste si la formarea viitorului.(deasemeni inseamna testament. Inseamna si
vointa).
need - a trebui, cu intelesul de a avea nevoie
dare - a indrazni, a provoca pe cineva

Mai jos cititi exemple in care se folosesc aceste verbe


Este binecunoscuta propozitia: I know I can - Stiu ca pot dintr-o poveste pentru
copii in care o locomotiva isi tot repeta aceasta cat se straduieste sa urce un
deal.
They eat what they can and they can what they eat - Mananca ce pot si pun
in conserva ceea ce mananca.

May I have this dance? (Pot sa am acest dans) - Imi acordati acest dans?
May the force be with you! - Fie ca forta sa te insoteasca! din filmul
StarWars, adica sa ai noroc.

If you must, you must - Daca trebuie, trebuie.


I must be dreaming - Trebuie ca visez (probabil ca visez)

Cele zece porunci date de Dumnezeu lui Moise in Biblie se spun in engleza cu
shall pentru intarire. De exemplu: You shall not kill = Nu vei omori (sa nu
omori)
We shall overcome = Vom invinge este un cantec muncitoresc american, to
overcome inseamna a depasi un moment greu.
I will survive = Voi supravietui este binecunoscutul cantec al Gloriei Gaynor
Intr-un cunoscut cantec Que sera, sera o fetita isi intreaba mama ce va fi cand
va fi mare:

I asked my mother what will I be? Am intrebat-o pe mama, ce voi fi


Will I be happy? Will I be rich? Voi fi fericita? Voi fi vesela?
My mother said to me: Mama mi-a raspuns:
Que sera, sera Que sera, sera
Whatever will be, will be Ce va fi, va fi
The future is for us to see Viitorul este pentru noi de descoperit
Que sera, sera Que sera, sera

Verbele modale need si dare in cele mai multe cazuri se comporta ca verbe obisnuite.
Sunt insa si situatii cand ele capata proprietati de verbe modale

Need I go on? - E nevoie sa continui? In engleza moderna e mai probabil sa


se zica: Do I need to go on? caz in care need nu mai este verb modal.
How dare you talk like this! - Cum indraznesti sa vorbesti asa!

Caracteristicile generale ale verbelor modale

1. Nu accepta particula to pentru infinitiv, nu au participiu si nici forma cu ing. Din


aceasta cauza multe timpuri lipsesc acestor verbe.
2. Foarte important: Verbul care urmeaza unui verb modal nu are to in fata. Adica,
pe romaneste spui: Trebuie sa mananc sau mai arhaic Trebuie a manca In
englezeste se spune I must eat. (Daca spui: I need to eat - need aici nu e verb
modal).
Din exemplele de mai sus vedem ca aceasta regula a verbelor modale e
respectata: I know I can (fara 'to'), May I have this dance? (fara 'to') etc
3. Forma negativa nu cere do. Adica in cazul celorlalte verbe se pune un do not sau
does not pentru negatie. I eat meat - Mananc carne. I do not eat meat - Nu
mananc carne. Daca insa spui I can not eat meat - Nu pot sa mananc carne,
particula do cade.
4. Forma interogativa nu cere do. Do you eat meat? - Mananci carne? folosind
verbul modal can devine Can you eat meat? - Poti sa mananci carne?.
Folosind must spunem: Must you eat meat? - Trebuie sa mananci carne?.
5. Aceste verbe nu se schimba dupa persoana: I can, you can, he/she can etc.
Adica persoana a treia singular nu primeste 's'.
6. Aceste verbe se pot contracta cu particula not din propozitii negative. can't =
can not, mustn't = must not, won't = will not sunt verbele modale care
folosesc cel mai mult aceasta regula.
7. Pentru formarea celebrului 'nu-i asa' din engleza e necesar folosirea acestor
verbe. Forma 'nu-i asa' depinde de verbul modal folosit in prima parte a intrebarii.
I can go, can't I? - Pot sa ma duc, nu-i asa? sau He will go, won't he? - Va
merge, nu-i asa?

VERBELE MODALE
can, could, may, might, must, need, should, ought to, shall, will, would

Caracteristici generale
Nu primesc to naintea lor i dup ele: Can is a model verb. I can do this. (Pot s
fac aceasta.) Spre deosebire de: I want to do this. (Vreau s fac aceasta.)
Nu primesc s la persoana III singular, prezent. He can speak English.
Nu formeaz negativul i interogativul cu to do. He cannot (cant) speak
English.
Nu au toate timpurile. Se folosesc nlocuitori.

Can
1. Are sensul de a putea, a fi n stare:
I can make this traslation.
Can = infinitiv, prezent
Negativ: cannot, cant
I cannot (cant) make this translation.
Interogativ: Can I? Can you? etc.
Can you make this translation?
Could Past Tense, condiional prezent al verbului can
Negativ: could not (couldnt)
Interogativ: Could I? Could you? etc.
I couldnt come to you yesterday. (N-am putut s vin la tine ieri.)
Could you help me? (Ai putea s m ajui?)
Pentru conditionalul trecut se folosete could + infinitivul trecut
He could have been here in time. (Ar fi putut s fie aici n timp.)
Pentru celelalte timpuri se folosete nlocuitorul to be able to.
I will be able to come to you tomorrow. (Voi putea veni la tine mine.)
I havent been able to ring you up this week. (N-am putut s-i telefonez sptmna
aceasta.)

2. Arat o anumit abilitate fizic sau intelectual. Se traduce cu a ti s.


I can swim. (tiu s not.)
I can speak English. (tiu s vorbesc engleza.)
Cu acest sens, timpurile se folosesc ca la punctul 1 (could pentru Past Tense i
condiionalul prezent, nlocuitorul to be able to pentru celelalte timpuri.)
I will tbe able to drive a car after I have taken a few lessons. (Voi ti s conduc
maina dup ce voi lua cteva lecii.)
n vorbirea familiar, can poate fi folosit cu sensul lui may de a avea permisiunea.
Father, can I take your car? (Tat, pot/am permisiunea s iau maina ta?)

3. Cant/couldnt nu se poate s, nu e posibil s.


It cant/couldnt be 9 oclock. The sun hasnt set yet. (Nu se poate s fie ora 9.
Soarele nu a apus nc.)
Pentru a reda ideea de trecut cu acest sens, se folosete infinitivul trecut.
You cant/couldnt have seen John in the street. He is abroad. (Nu se poate s-l fi
vzut pe John pe strad. El e n strintate.)

May
1. Are sensul de a putea, a avea permisiunea:
May I smoke in this room? (Pot/am permisiunea s fumez n aceast camer?)
Yes, you may. (Da, poi.)
Negativ: may not, maynt
Interogativ: May I? May you?
May = infinitiv, prezent
Cu acest sens exist timpul might care red ideea de trecut, dar se folosete numai
dup un alt verb la trecut (vorbire indirect).
He said I might smoke in that room.
Pentru celelalte timpuri se folosesc nlocuitorii: to be allowed to, to be permitted
to.
I was allowed/permitted to smoke in that room. (Am putut/mi s-a permis s fumez
n camer aceea.)
I will be allowed/permitted to smoke in that room. (Voi putea/mi se va permite s
fumez n camera aceea.)

2. May/Might s-ar putea s:


Take your umbrella. It may/might rain. (Ia-i umbrela, s-ar putea s plou.)
Ring up John. He may/might be at home now. (Telefoneaz-i lui John. S-ar putea s
fie acas acum.)
Cu acest sens, ideea de trecut este redat prin adugarea infinitivului trecut.
Why didnt you take your coat? You may/might have caught a cold. (De ce nu i-ai
luat haina? S-ar fi putut s rceti.)

3. May/might pot exprima un repro.


You may/might help me when I am in need. (Ai putea s m ajui cnd sunt la
nevoie.)
Pentru redarea ideii de trecut, se adaug infinitivul trecut.
You might have written me a letter when you were in England. (Ai fi putut s mi
scrii o scrisoare cnd erai n Anglia.)

Must
1. A trebui:
Its got late. I must go home. (S-a fcut trziu. Trebuie s plec acas.)
Negativ: must not, mustnt
Interogativ: Must I? Must you?
Must = infinitiv, prezent
Nu are alte timpuri.
Se folosete nlocuitorul to have to.
I had to finish the traslation yesterday. (A trebuit s termin traducerea ieri.)
I will have to finish the translation tomorrow. (Va trebui s termin traducerea
mine.)
Trebuie menionat faptul c nlocuitorul lui must, to have to formeaz interogativul
i negativul cu ajutorul auxiliarului to do.
I didnt have to finish the translation yesterday.

2. De asemenea, poate avea sensul probabil c:


It must be late. Lets go home. (Probabil c e trziu. Hai s mergem acas.)
John must be at home now. Lets call on him. (Probabil c John e acas acum. Hai
s-l vizitm.)
Cu acest sens, ideea de trecut se red prin adugarea infinitivului trecut.
I was asleep when you arrived home last night. It must have been late. (Eu
dormeam cnd ai venit tu asear. Probabil c era trziu.)
Need
Exist dou verbe:
To need: verb obinuit, noional, cu sensul de a avea nevoie:
He doesnt need this book. (El nu are nevoie de aceast carte.)
Need: verb modal, cu sensul de a fi nevoie:
Ca verb modal, need se folosete numai la interogativ i negativ.
Need I be here at one oclock? (E nevoie s fiu aici la ora 1?)
No, you neednt. (Nu, nu e nevoie.)
Pentru a rspunde afirmativ la ntrebarea de mai sus, se folosete verbul must.
Need I be here at one oclock? Yes, you must! (Da, trebuie!)

Pentru exprimarea ideii de trecut a verbului need, exist 2 posibiliti:


Dac aciunea nu era necesar, dar a fost fcut, se folosete neednt +
infinitivul trecut.
You neednt have watered the flowers. Couldnt you see it was going to rain?
Nu era nevoie s uzi florile. N-ai vzut c urma s plou?
Dac aciunea nu era necesar i nu a fost fcut, se folosete didnt need +
infinitivul
We didnt need to do this exercise. The teacher told us it was too easy for us.
Nu a fost nevoie s facem acest exerciiu. Profesorul ne-a spus c e prea uor
pentru noi.

Not: Nu trebuie confundat need not cu must not. Need not se traduce
cu nu e nevoie. Must not se traduce cu nu trebuie.
You neednt drive so fast; we have enough time. (Nu e nevoie s conduci att de
repede; avem destul timp.)
You mustnt drive so fast; there is a speed limit here. (Nu trebuie s conduci att
de repede; aici e limita de vitez.)

Should, Ought to
Ambele verbe indic o aciune corect, o obligaie moral, o recomandare. Se
traduc cu: ar trebui s, ar fi cazul s, ar fi bine s.
You should/ought to help your mother with housework. (Ar trebui s o ajui pe
mama ta la treburile casei.)
Pentru a reda ideea de trecut, se adaug infinitivul trecut.
You should not/ought not to have been so rude to him. (Nu ar fi trebuit s fii att
de nepoliticos cu el.)
Shall
Folosit cu persoana I, shall indic viitorul. Folosit cu persoana I, interogativ, poate
indica, de asemenea, solicitarea unui sfat, o ofert sau o sugestie.
Which dress shall I buy? (Ce rochie s cumpr?)
Shall I wait for you? (S te atept?)
Shall we meet at one oclock? (S ne ntlnim la ora 1?)

Folosit cu persoanele II i III, shall poate arta o promisiune, o obligaie sau o


ameninare care provin de la cel care vorbete.
Mother to child: You shall have a bicycle if you pass the exam.
Mama spune copilului: Vei avea o biciclet dac vei lua examenul.
Mother to child: You shall not get any pocket-money if you dont pass the exam.
Mama spune copilului: Nu vei mai primi nici un ban de buzunar dac nu vei lua
examenul.

Will, Would
Formula de politee, cerere politicoas:
Will you/would you sit down?
Will you/would you help me with my translation, please?
A voi (cu sens extins la obiecte):
This child will/would not do what I say. (Acest copil nu vrea s fac ce-i spun.)
This radio wont work.
Aciune repetat:
- n perioada prezent
My mother will sit for hours watching TV. (Mama mea obinuiete s stea ore
ntregi privind la televizor.)
- n trecut
When I was a child, my mother would read me fairy tales. (Cnd eram copil, mama
obinuia s-mi citeasc poveti.)
Presupunere: se traduce n limba romn cu o fi.
This girl looks very much like Jane. (Aceast fat seamn foarte bine cu Jane.)
She will be her sister. (O fi sora ei.)

Se poate folosi cu infinitivul trecut:


He will have reached Paris by now. (O fi ajuns la Paris pn acum.)
Not: n afar de would, ideea de aciune repetat n trecut se poate
exprima cu used to.
When I was a child, my mother used to read me fairy tales.
Used to eate un verb semi-modal, care are numai form de trecut.
Un alt verb semi-modal este dare (a ndrzni) care se conjug la afirmativ ca un
verb obinuit, n timp ce la interogativ i negativ se poate conjuga att ca un verb
obinuit ct i ca modal.

EXERCIII cu verbe modale:

1. Trecei urmtoarele propoziii la Past Tense Simple i Future


Tense Simple, folosind nlocuitorii verbelor modale respective, acolo unde este
necesar:
1. He can swim very well.
2. I must go soon.
3. You may leave earlier.
4. She can lend you that book.
5. This child may have another cake.
6. You may not smoke in this room.
7. I cannot translate ten pages a day.
8. Can you help me?
9. You mustnt do this .
10. May I walk on the grass?
11. He may not come in wearing dirty boots.
12. I must learn English.
13. You may not speak to your mother like that.
14. I must look up the words in the dictionary.
15. She can play the piano very well.
16. Can Jane type very quickly?
17. Can you speak Chinese?
18. Everybody may borrow books from this library.
19. Must you be so rude?
20.She can read and write at the age of five.

2. Redai ideea de trecut n urmtoarele propoziii folosind infinitivul


trecut n loc de infinitivul prezent:
1. John must be ill.
2. It cant be too late.
3. It might rain.
4. He must be delayed at the office.
5. You might write to me more often.
6. You should visit your sick friend in hospital.
7. He ought to tell me the truth.
8. You might change your mind about that.
9. He may be at home.
10. It cant be easy to learn Chinese.
11. He should go to school everyday.
12. You cant be pleased with this piece of news.
13. You might pay more attention to your work.
14. You neednt do this.
15. You cant see a bear in this part of the country.
16. He neednt buy milk; there is plenty in the fridge.
17. He must be in the garden at this time of the day.
18. It must be difficult to climb this mountain.
19. You shouldnt go to bed so late.
20.John could be a winner.

3. Completai spaiile goale cu can sau cant:


1. Man travel through space now. 2. He reach the Moon and walk
there. 3. He even drive on its surface. 4. But one still breathe without extra
oxygen and one certainly stay there very long. 5. When we fly there as easily as
we fly to other countries of the world, holidays will be very different.

4. Reformulai urmtoarele propoziii folosind must + infinitivul


prezent sau infinitivul trecut:
Model:
He probably speaks English well.
He must speak English well.
You probably forgot to lock the door.
You must have forgotten to lock the door.

1. He probably thinks I am wrong.


2. He is probably older than he looks.
3. You probably left your umbrella in the shop.
4. She is probably a very good doctor.
5. It probably took a long time to finish this translation.
6. He probably came home very early.
7. This is probably the best Romanian film of the year.
8. You probably knew the lesson very well to get a 10.
9. He was probably late.
10. You have probably forgotten his address.

5. Reformulai urmtoarele propoziii folosind may + infinitivul


prezent sau infinitivul trecut:
Model:
Perhaps it snows in the mountains.
It may/might snow in the mountains.
Perhaps it snowed in the mountains.
It may/might have snowed in the mountains.

1. Dont wait. It is possible for her to be very late.


2. I have bought his latest book; perhaps it is a good one.
3. Take your umbrella; perhaps it will rain.
4. It is possible that I come home early.
5. I think she was angry with you.
6. A good knowledge of English is likely to help you a lot in your career.
7. It is possible that he was right but I dont think so.
8. Perhaps he has done the exercise correctly, but I doubt it.
9. Perhaps she has returned the book to you and you have lent it to
someone else.
10. Perhaps she was out when you rang her up.

6. Reformulai urmtoarele propoziii folosind cant + infinitivul


prezent sau infinitivul trecut:
Model:
I dont believe you are right.
You cant be right.
I dont believe you were right.
You cant have been right.
1. I dont believe it is his fault.
2. I dont believe it was his fault.
3. I dont believe that he has passed the exam.
4. I dont believe she has got so fat.
5. I dont think the weather will change.
6. I dont think he is at the office so late at night.
7. I dont believe she has learnt English in two months.
8. I dont believe she has married that awful man.
9. I dont think this is a true story.
10. I dont think you will miss the train if you hurry.

7. Completai spaiile goale cu mustnt sau neednt:


1. You take an umbrella. The sky is clear.
2. I return the books before the 1st of September.
3. You make a noise or the baby will wake up.
4. Youwater the flowers, it will soon start raining.
5. The visitors feed the animals in the Zoo.
6. People speak during the concert.
7. One buy a ticket for a slow train in advance.
8. One travel by bus without paying the fare.
9. You take sleeping pills too often; they are addictive.
10. You worry about money. Ill give you as much as you want.

8. Completai spaiile goale cu should sau would:


1. You not go to bed so late at night.
2. you help me solve this problem?
3. When I was young, I wear my hair long.
4. I hurry up in order not to miss the train.
5. My child play with the cat for hours on end.
6. you be so kind and pass me the salt, please?
7. He always made mistakes because he never take any advice.
8. You not eat so many sweets if you dont want to get fat.
9. You not expect everybody to obey you.
10. When I was a teenager, I read one book a day.

9. Completai spaiile goale cu shall sau will:


1. He read for hours on end.
2. you tell me the truth, for once?
3. This be Johns house.
4. Go to sleep, I promise you not be disturbed.
5. If you win the contest, youget a nice present.
6. You do this whether you like it or not.
7. She write an article for this magazine every week.
8. This door not unlock.
9. you correct my exercise, please?
10. This letter is full of mistakes; you re-type it.

10. Completai spaiile goale cu didnt need to sau neednt have +


forma III a verbului:
1. I (answer) the questions, which was very convenient.
2. I (answer) the questions, which would have saved me a lot of work.
3. I (buy) a new map of London as I already had one.
4. You (lend) him so many books; he will never read them all.
5. We (wait) too long; he was back soon.
6. I (see) him for that. I wrote him a letter.
7. I (get up) so early today, but I forgot it was Sunday.
8. You (wait) for me. I am sorry you wasted your time.
9. The student (write) such a long composition, because the teacher
wont have time to read it all.
10. You (buy) so much bread. Itll get stale.

11. Completai spaiile goale cu must, cant sau neednt + infinitivul


trecut:
1. It (rain) here; the road is dry.
2. I havent got my bag with me; I (leave) it on the bus.
3. The child (leave) home. I locked the door and took the key with me.
4. You (see) Anna yesterday. She is away.
5. John (do) such a thing; he is a nice boy.
6. He (swim) across the Danube; he is a very poor swimmer.
7. I didnt hear the phone. I (be) in the garden.
8. You(lend) him your text book. He has one of his own.
9. He (be) at home. The light was on in his room.
10. It (take) you a long time to knit this dress.
12. ncercai s gasii un sens urmtorului dialog:
Do you think he will?
I think he might.
His family consider he should.
Yes, but he himself believes he neednt.

13. Traducei n limba englez, folosind verbe modale sau nlocuitori


ai acestora:
1. Toi studenii pot i trebuie s scrie aceast lucrare.
2. Va trebui s m ajui mai mult astzi.
3. Sunt sigur c voi putea gsi timp s te ajut.
4. Profesorul mi-a spus c pot s lipsesc de la ora urmtoare.
5. tiam s cnt la pian cnd eram copil.
6. Nu tiu s croetez.
7. Ai putea s-mi telefonezi mai des cnd tii c sunt bolnav.
8. Ar trebui ca toi copiii s fac treburi n cas.
9. Ar fi trebuit s citesc bibliografia pentru acest seminar.
10. Toat lumea s fie prezent la edin.
11. Va trebui s plec curnd.
12. Nu e nevoie s-i cari singur bagajul n gar; te-ar putea ajuta un
hamal.
13. Trebuie s-mi schimb pantofii cnd intru n cas pentru c sunt plini de
noroi.
14. E nevoie s urcm la caban pe jos?
15. Nu, putem lua autobuzul sau telefericul.
16. Nu a fost nevoie s-i telefonez lui Jane ca s vorbesc cu ea pentru c
urma s vin la mine peste o jumtate de or.
17. Nu era nevoie s-mi faci cafea, am but deja dou astzi.
18. Nu a fost nevoie s spun mulumesc cnd am aflat ora exact
formnd 958 ntruct tiam c informaia e nregistrat pe band.
19. Nu se poate ca profesorul s fi fost mulumit de acest rspuns.
20.Nu se poate s fi fost acas asear. i-am telefonat i nu a rspuns
nimeni.
21. Probabil c eram nc la facultate.
22.Am cerut s vorbesc cu directorul, dar el nu a vrut s vin la telefon.
23.Ar fi trebuit s insiti.
24.De ce ai vorbit att de tare?
25.i promit c vei avea cartea mine.
26.Nu se poate s fi gsit ua deschis, o ncuiasem chiar eu.
27.Unde mergem acum?
28.Mine va trebui s pun scrisoarea la pot.
29.Vrei, v rog, s atepi cteva minute?
30.Nu avei voie s vorbii n timpul examenului.

Modal Verbs Exercise 1


Gap-fill Exercise
Complete the sentences using the words listed in the box below. Some gaps may have
more than one correct answer.
can could have to must might should
1. Ted's flight from Amsterdam took more than 11 hours. He be exhausted

after such a long flight. He prefer to stay in tonight and get some rest.

2. If you want to get a better feeling for how the city is laid out, you walk

downtown and explore the waterfront.

3. Hiking the trail to the peak be dangerous if you are not well prepared for

dramatic weather changes. You research the route a little more before you

attempt the ascent.

4. When you have a small child in the house, you leave small objects lying

around. Such objects be swallowed, causing serious injury or even death.


5. Dave: you hold your breath for more than a minute?

Nathan: No, I can't.

6. Jenny's engagement ring is enormous! It have cost a fortune.

7. Please make sure to water my plants while I am gone. If they don't get enough water,

they die.

8. I speak Arabic fluently when I was a child and we lived in Egypt. But after

we moved back to Canada, I had very little exposure to the language and forgot almost

everything I knew as a child. Now, I just say a few things in the language.

9. The book is optional. My professor said we read it if we needed extra

credit. But we read it if we don't want to.

10. Leo: Where is the spatula? It be in this drawer but it's not here.

Nancy: I just did a load of dishes last night and they're still in the dish washer. It

be in there. That's the only other place it be.


11. You take your umbrella along with you today. The weatherman on the

news said there's a storm north of here and it rain later on this afternoon.

12. we pull over at the next rest stop? I really use the bathroom and

I don't know if I hold it until we get to Chicago.

13. Oh no! Frank's wallet is lying on the coffee table. He have left it here last

night.

14. Ned: I borrow your lighter for a minute?

Stephen: Sure, no problem. Actually, you keep it if you want to. I've given up

smoking.

15. I believe she said that to Megan! She insult her cooking in

front of everyone at the party last night. She have just said she was full or had

some salad if she didn't like the meal.


16. Do you chew with your mouth open like that? Geez, it's making me sick

watching you eat that piece of pizza.

17. Mrs. Scarlett's body was found in the lounge just moments ago, and it's still warm!

Nobody has left the mansion this evening, so the killer be someone in this

room. It be any one of us!!!

18. Ted: I don't know why Denise starting crying when I mentioned the wedding.

Pamela: It have been what you said about her brother. Or, perhaps she is just

nervous. After all, the big day is tomorrow.

19. you always say the first thing that pops into your head? you

think once in awhile before you speak?

20. I was reading the book last night before I went to bed. I never took it out of this

room. It be lying around here somewhere. Where it be? be

swallowed, causing serious injury or even death.

Modal Verbs Exercise 2


Gap-fill Exercise
Complete the sentences using the words listed in the box below. Negative and past
forms are also used in this lesson. Some gaps may have more than one correct answer.
must have to
1. I be at the meeting by 10:00. I will probably take a taxi if I want to

be on time.

2. You submit the application if it has not been completely filled out. Check

that the name, address, and background information are correct. If the form is not

accurate and complete, you will be rejected and you will reapply at a later

date.

3. Tina: Look at these flowers - they're beautiful! But, there's no card. Who could have

sent them?

Stephanie: It have been David. He's the only one who would send you

flowers.

4. You forget to pay the rent tomorrow. The landlord is very strict about paying

on time.

5. You be so rude! Why don't you try saying "please" once in a while.
6. If you are over 18 in California, you take a driver training course to get a

driver's license. You can have a friend or a family member teach you instead. But

remember, you still get your permit before you start practicing.

7. You be rich to be a success. Some of the most successful people I know

haven't got a penny to their name.

8. Ed: My car broke down in Death Valley last week. I have it towed more than

a hundred miles to the nearest mechanic.

Lilly: That have cost a fortune!

9. While hiking in Alaska, you keep an eye out for bears. If you see one, you

approach it. They are beautiful animals; however, they are wild and

unpredictable in nature. You be afraid of them, but educating yourself about

the dangers can help keep you safe.

10. I go to work tomorrow because it is Memorial Day. The best thing about

a day off from work is that I get up at 6:00; I can sleep in till noon if I want to.
11. Yesterday, I cram all day for my French final. I didn't get to sleep until after

midnight.

12. Nate: Oh no! I completely forgot we were supposed to pick Jenny up at the airport.

Barbara: She still be sitting there waiting for us.

13. Ingrid received a scholarship to Yale University which will cover 100% of the tuition.

She worry at all about the increasing cost of education.

14. When I was a child my grandmother was continually correcting our manners. She

always used to say, "One eat with one's mouth open." Or, she would correct

us by saying, "One rest one's elbows on the table." And every time I wanted

to leave the table, she would say, "One ask to be excused."

15. I've redone this math problem at least twenty times, but my answer is wrong

according to the answer key. The answer in the book be wrong!

Modal Verbs Exercise 3


Gap-fill Exercise
Complete the sentences using the words listed in the box below. Positive and negative
forms can be used. Some gaps may have more than one answer.
might must should
1. Nancy said you didn't need to buy her anything for her birthday, but I really think you

at least get her some flowers or a nice bottle of wine.

2. Debbie said she was really busy this week, but I think she show up at the

party if she doesn't have to work overtime on Friday.

3. Nina said she would come over right after work, so she be here by 6:00.

4. Oh my God, he's unconscious. Don't move him - he have internal injuries.

Somebody call an ambulance.

5. You be kidding! That can't be true.

6. Dan: Where's the remote control? I want to change the channel.

Fiona: I don't know. It be under the couch. Or, perhaps I absent-mindedly took

it into the kitchen. I'll check in there.


7. For most people, learning a language is a challenging undertaking. Experts agree

that to make the most of your language learning experience, you practice the

language regularly and push yourself to maintain old vocabulary while acquiring new

words and expressions.

8. New research suggests that exercise can reduce the chance of heart disease as well

as cancer. That's why I told my father that he start walking once a day.

9. We should invite Sally and her husband to come to the picnic on Saturday. We

haven't seen them in weeks, and they really enjoy a nice day at the beach.

10. Tim: While I was a student, I spent a year and a half studying Pygmy culture in the

Central African Republic. My research focused on unique aspects of the their social

structure and religion.

Simona: That have been absolutely fascinating!

11. We had better call Tony to see if he's at home before we go over to his house. He

be there and we don't want to drive all the way over there for nothing.

12. At first, my boss didn't want to hire Sam. But, because I had previously worked with
Sam, I told my boss that he take another look at his resume and reconsider him

for the position.

13. You worry so much. It doesn't do you any good. Either you get the job, or

you don't. If you don't, just apply for another one. Eventually, you will find work.

14. I would love to go on the cruise to Tahiti with Robin and Michelle. But such a

luxurious trip cost a fortune. I doubt I could afford something like that.

15. The book recommends adding fresh soil and using plant food to make your garden

flowers grow. Since some people might be allergic to chemicals in artificial plant foods,

the book says that you use an organic brand to avoid skin irritations.

Modal Verbs Exercise 4


Multiple Choice Exercise (Atenie! Pe sgeat n jos gseti
variantele!)
Choose the correct answer for each gap below.
1. Unfortunately, James and Michelle had already made plans, so they

come with us to the exhibition at the Museum of Contemporary Art.

2. They have had several major snow storms in the mountains during the last month.

We had better call the highway patrol to check road conditions. The road to Smithsville
be passable.

3. We should call Tim before we go over to his house; he be there. I don't

want to drive all the way there for nothing.

4. In order to win the pie eating contest, Norman would have to eat sixteen pies in ten

minutes. He possibly eat that many pies - he would explode!

5. I know Eve wants to go to the ballet with us, but we'd better call her before we get her

ticket. She works Wednesday nights, and she be able to get time off that

evening.

6. Susan hear the speaker because the crowd was cheering so loudly.

7. It be a bad idea to take some snacks along while we're hiking. Last

time, we got so hungry we had to come back early without finishing the hike.

8. Jerry might be angry, or he . You never really know with him because

he's so temperamental.
9. Jerry be angry at me. I've never done anything to upset him.

10. The lamp be broken. Maybe the light bulb just burned out.

11. When you were a child, you could swim from here to the little island in the middle of

the river, you? At least, that's what your father told me.

12. She possibly be the winner of the talent show! The other acts were

much better than hers.

13. Frank and Sarah get tickets to the concert. The concert was sold out

a little over an hour after tickets went on sale.

14. I heard that band is really popular, and tickets sell out quickly. You get

tickets if you wait too long.

15. That concert has been sold out for weeks. You get tickets even if you

knew the band personally. It's impossible!


16. It be a bad idea to get a car alarm for your new sports car. New cars

tend to attract thieves.

17. That possibly be Mr. Jones. He's lost so much weight that he looks

like a completely different person.

18. You do the job if you didn't speak Arabic fluently.

19. Jane and Bill have gotten the invitation to the party. Perhaps, that's

why they didn't show up. I doubt they would actually skip your birthday party - they're

your best friends!

20. I have left my keys at Simon's house. I wouldn't have been able to

drive home if I had done that. They must be somewhere here in the apartment. Let's

keep looking.

Modal Verbs Exercise 5


Gap-fill Exercise
Complete the sentences using the words listed in the box below. Some gaps may have
more than one correct answer.
may had better have got to shall
1. I know it's rather rude, but I ask you where you purchased that pocket

watch? I have been looking for one like that for my father.

2. You look good for your interview if you want to get the sales job. You

wear the white shirt and the maroon tie. I think that'll look really professional.

3. I be at work tomorrow by 7:00. I give a marketing presentation to

one of our clients.

4. It's pretty hot in the desert at this time of year. If we are going to do some hiking, we

take at least two or three quarts of water with us. Actually, it be

hotter than we expect out there - maybe we should take a gallon or more.

5. You leave the table once you have finished your meal and politely excused

yourself.

6. I can't stand these people - I get out of here. I'm going to take off for awhile

while you get rid of them. When I get back, they be gone.
7. I try a little of your Black Forest cake? It looks absolutely delicious - I

taste it!

8. You take along some cash. The restaurant not accept credit

cards.

9. You take along some cash. The restaurant doesn't accept credit cards.

10. we move into the living room? It's more comfortable in there and there's a

beautiful view of the lake.

11. I'm not really sure if Susan is going to go snowboarding with us or not. She

decide to stay here and study for her Japanese final. She get a

good score on the test if she wants to qualify to study abroad in Tokyo next semester.

12. I have a look at that necklace there in the display case. It's exactly what

I've been looking for.

13. We no longer suffer the injustice of oppression. We never give


up the struggle for freedom!

14. You be joking! If you think I'm going to give you a tip after you mixed up

the meal orders, spilled wine on me and insulted my wife, you get your head

examined!!!

15. Ian, Evelyn and Deborah will be attending the conference. I be attending

as well.

Modal Verbs Exercise 6


Multiple Choice Exercise
Choose the correct answer for each gap below. Some gaps may have more than one
correct answer.
1.

Donna: If I won the ten million dollar lottery jackpot, I afford to quit my job

and travel the world.

Sam: Where you go if you had that much money?

Donna: I don't know, I choose to spend a year in Paris - or perhaps I


go to Kenya.

Sam: How often do you buy lottery tickets?

Donna: Never... I guess if I want to win the lottery, I try buying some tickets.

Sam: That help.

2.

Waitress: Hi, my name is Sandy - I'll be your waitress tonight. What can I get for you?

Tony: I haven't decided yet. Is there anything you recommend? Is there

anything you think I try?

Waitress: You try the Cajun catfish - or perhaps the Gumbo. They're both

delicious.

Tony: That sounds wonderful, but that be a little too spicy for me. Actually,
the prawns sound good. Umm, I have the barbecued prawns?

Waitress: Sure, you like a salad with that?

3.

Jan: What we look for in a candidate when we vote in a presidential

election?

Peter: I think citizens vote for a President who has the ability to improve the

quality of life in the United States.

Jan: What you do if you were President of the United States?

Peter: I focus on reducing environmental pollution.

Jan: Every candidate always says he's going to do that, but it's a really complicated

problem - it's not one which is easily solved. What makes you think you

actually stop pollution?


Modal Verbs Exercise 7
Multiple Choice Exercise
Choose the correct answer for each gap below.
1. I'm not really sure where Beverly is. She in the living room, or

perhaps she's in the backyard.

2. Doug the video we rented on his way to work. It was on the

table, but now it's gone.

3. You the air pressure in your tires. You don't want to get a flat

tire on your trip.

4. The computer isn't working. It during production.

5. The package tomorrow afternoon. It was sent by express

mail this morning.

6. You the tickets for the play in advance - they sell out quickly.

7. You can't mean that! You .


8. If Debbie hasn't come home yet, she for us in the coffee

shop.

9. Mike decided not to join us for lunch. He at work to finish

the marketing report.

10. If I had gone with my friends to Jamaica, I on a white sand beach

right now.

11. If I had gone with my friends to Jamaica, I come to work this

week.

12. If I had gone with my friends to Jamaica, I scuba diving

lessons.

13. Margaret agreed to meet us at the entrance to the theater. She

for us when we get there.

14. It Sam who called and didn't leave a message on the answering
machine. He said he wanted to get together with us this weekend.

15. The machine on by flipping this switch.

16. She . That could have been why her eyes were so red and

swollen.

17. If she was crying, she very upset.

18. That painting by Picasso. It could be a forgery.

19. Your diving equipment regularly if you want to keep it

in good condition.

20. If I hadn't taken a taxi, I for you at the train station for

hours.

Modal Final Test


Multiple Choice Exercise
Choose the correct answer for each gap below. (Atenie! Pe sgeat n jos gseti
variantele!)
1. Ted's flight from Amsterdam took more than 11 hours. He be

exhausted after such a long flight.

2. The book is optional. My professor said we could read it if we needed extra credit.

But we read it if we don't want to.

3. Susan hear the speaker because the crowd was cheering so loudly.

4. The television isn't working. It damaged during the move.

5. Kate: hold your breath for more than a minute?

Jack: No, I can't.

6. You be rich to be a success. Some of the most successful people I

know haven't got a penny to their name.

7. I've redone this math problem at least twenty times, but my answer is wrong

according to the answer key. The answer in the book be wrong!


8. You do the job if you didn't speak Japanese fluently.

9. You worry so much. It doesn't do you any good. Either you get the

job, or you don't. If you don't, just apply for another one. Eventually, you will find work.

10. You be kidding! That can't be true.

11. You leave the table once you have finished your meal and politely

excused yourself.

12. Jenny's engagement ring is enormous! It a fortune.

13. we move into the living room? It's more comfortable in there and there's a

beautiful view of the lake.

14. If I had gone white water rafting with my friends, I down the

Colorado River right now.

15. At first, my boss didn't want to hire Sam. But, because I had previously worked with
Sam, I told my boss that he take another look at his resume and

reconsider him for the position.

16. You take along some cash. The restaurant may not accept credit

cards.

17. The machine on by flipping this switch.

18. I can't stand these people - I get out of here. I'm going to take off for

awhile while you get rid of them.

19. You forget to pay the rent tomorrow. The landlord is very strict

about paying on time.

20. Do you always have to say the first thing that pops into your head.

you think once in a while before you speak?

21. Terry and Frank said they would come over right after work, so they be

here by 6:00.
22. Yesterday, I cram all day for my French final. I didn't get to sleep until

after midnight.

23. We no longer suffer the injustice of oppression! Freedom shall be ours!

24. If I had gone to the University of Miami, I participated in their Spanish

immersion program.

25. The lamp be broken. Maybe the light bulb just burned out.