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SC/EES/BIODIVERSITY/2010/REV

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WHAT IS BIODIVERSITY ?

what is

 


 
Z La biodiversit, ou diversit biologique, dsigne lensemble des
formes de vie sur la Terre. Ce concept recouvre la grande varit du
vivant, dont chaque lment dispose de caractres gntiques uniques :
des virus microscopiques aux plus grands mammifres de la plante
comme la baleine bleue, des plantes telles les algues au squoia gant,
en passant par les vastes paysages offrant une diversit dcosystmes.
Lhumanit fait partie intgrante de cette biodiversit.


 

   


 
 
Si la diversit des animaux et des plantes vivant sur notre plante
nous est familire, nous sommes moins conscients du rle crucial de
la biodiversit dans le maintien de notre cadre de vie commun,
ou pour notre bien-tre, quil soit physique ou spirituel.

Vous dcouvrirez ici quel point nous sommes lis la nature


et pourquoi la conservation de la biodiversit sur la Terre est
fondamentale pour lavenir de lhumanit. Cest une invitation
agir ds maintenant pour rduire la perte de biodiversit pour les
gnrations futures.

Cette exposition vous montre que la biodiversit est la partie


vivante de la nature, la biodiversit est notre vie.

Z Biodiversity or biological diversity is the variety of life on Earth.


It comprises all living things including their unique genetic make-up and
ranges from microscopic viruses to the largest animals on the planet such
as the blue whale, small algae and big plants such as the giant sequoia,
and the expansive landscapes comprised of a variety of ecosystems.
Humans are also an integral part of biodiversity.

Biodiversity as a concept is both simple and challenging. We are familiar


with the wide range of animals and plants that share our planet but are
less familiar with the vital role biodiversity plays in maintaining our
mutual life support system, and in both the physical and mental aspects
of our well-being.

This exhibition will help uncover the extent of our links with the natural
world and why conserving the Earths biodiversity is fundamental to a
 
 

healthy future for humanity. It will also introduce what we could do to


reduce biodiversity loss for future generations.

This exhibition will show you that Biodiversity is the


living part of nature. Biodiversity is our life.

kLes baleines bosse kLa Terre, plante kCompacte en kCette cyanobactrie est kLa Cte oublie , au sud-est kIn Winter, humpback kThe Earth is a living kCompacted in kThis cyanobacteria kThe forgotten coast
sont observes chaque vivante o interagissent chromosome, toute le plus petit organisme de la Nouvelle-Caldonie, whales swim off the planet where all living chromosomes, all the is the smallest in the South-East of New
hiver au large des ctes lensemble des formes linformation gntique photosynthtique (un est un lieu dun grand intrt East Australian coasts things, the atmosphere, genetic information of an photosynthetic organism Caledonia is of great
est-australiennes o elles de vie, latmosphre, dun individu est contenue demi-micromtre) et le en raison de la richesse de sa to breed and give birth. hydrosphere and individual is contained in (0.5 micrometer) but interest for the richness
viennent se reproduire lhydrosphre et la dans lADN, dont la plus abondant sur Terre. biodiversit, caractrise par sa lithosphere interact. DNA, whose variability also the most abundant  
  
et mettre bas. lithosphre. variabilit peut tre   may cause functional on Earth. biodiversity.
lorigine danomalies anomalies.
fonctionnelles.


     
  
 
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variety of life, at




 

 




Z La biodiversit se considre plusieurs niveaux : la diversit des
gnes, des espces et celle des cosystmes dessinant les paysages.

La biodiversit sexprime dans la variation gntique 


 


  
   



  



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pour la rsistance et la capacit dadaptation aux changements

   

   



 



 
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La biodiversit inclut la notion despce, de plantes comme le baobab,
danimaux tel le panda ou de microorganismes comme le plancton marin.
La biodiversit comprend les cosystmes - des associations
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dans dtroites interactions avec les autres espces et avec le

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rcifs coralliens.

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et de groupes dcosystmes comme des terres cultives,

  

 


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tous les niveaux.

Z Biodiversity is made up of all the genes, species, ecosystems


and landscapes that comprise our world.

Biodiversity includes genetic variation



 


nature of any living thing and brings about differences between any two
individuals within a species. For example, genetic variation in rice
is vital for resilience and its ability to adapt to changing climatic and soil
conditions. Humans have used genetic variation to breed thousands of
varieties of food crops as well as domesticated animals.
Biodiversity includes species of plants such as the baobab, animals
such as the panda and microorganisms such as marine plankton.
Biodiversity comprises ecosystems - dynamic groupings of animals,
plants and microorganisms, in close interaction with each other, and
the physical environment in which they live, for example, wetlands
 

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or coral reefs.
Biodiversity includes landscapes, with mosaics and clusters of
interacting ecosystems such as farmland, forests and lakes.

Biodiversity is therefore constantly interacting at all levels.

kHoa Lu, surnomme kLa diversit gntique kAu nord-est k Lalle des baobabs ou kIn Hoa Lu (Vietnam), kWhether cultivated kNorth-East of kThe famous trees of the
la baie dHalong des riz, cultivs ou dAntananarivo, ces Renala, dont larbre also know as Halong Bay or wild, the genetic Antananarivo baobab avenue, known
terrestre, o les rizires sauvages, caractrise leur dlimitations de parcelles fait la renomme tou- on land, rice terraces diversity of rice    as Renala, in the
faonnent le paysage rsistance aux maladies, suivent la courbe de ristique de la rgion de shape the landscape. varieties offers disease plots follow the contour Morondava region
(Vietnam). ladaptation au milieu niveau sans individualiser Morondava (Madagascar). resistance, adaptation lines without reference (Madagascar), attract
et climat, leur richesse les cultures, to environmental to ownership. many tourists.
nutritive... dans une et limitent lrosion. and climate change, This prevents soil erosion.
rizire thalandaise et nutritional value... in
en culture in vitro. Thailand or in vitro.

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WHAT IS BIODIVERSITY ?

communities and


 



 
Z Tous les tres vivants peuplent des cosystmes dynamiques o ils
partagent le mme habitat et les conditions physiques dun mme
milieu, lis dans une toile de la vie. Dans cet environnement partag,
leurs vies sont entrelaces dans un tissu de relations rgles par
la coopration, la comptition, la prdation, la symbiose ou le
parasitisme. Lquilibre fragile de cet ensemble dinteractions rpond
aux besoins de nourriture et dhabitat, aux transferts dnergie et
la reproduction. Chaque membre de la communaut joue un rle
essentiel dans le maintien du dlicat quilibre de ce systme.

Les tres humains font pleinement partie de la biodiversit. Quel que


soit lloignement apparent de notre environnement naturel dans
nos modes de vie de plus en plus urbains, nous restons intimement
connects la biosphre, ses cosystmes et leurs fonctionnements
par nos activits, nos loisirs, lutilisation des matires premires,
de leau et de bien dautres ressources.

Z All living things inhabit dynamic ecosystems where they share


the same habitat and physical conditions linked through a web of life.
In this shared environment their lives are interwoven in a web of
relationships regulated by cooperation, competition, predation,
symbiosis or parasitism. This delicately balanced interconnected system
provides food and shelter, cycling of energy, and reproduction.
Every member of this community plays an essential role in keeping
this web in balance.

People are very much part of biodiversity. No matter how far removed
we may seem from the natural environment in our increasingly urban
lifestyles, we remain intimately connected with ecosystems and their
processes through our diets, recreational activities, use of materials,
water and much more.

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kCette crevette kLa disparition dune kLa production de la soie kComptition entre une kCes gupes parasites kThis Periclimenes shrimp kThe extinction of a kSilk production is kCompetition between kThis parasitic wasp lays
Periclimenes vit abrite espce peut entraner exploite linteraction ponge et des coraux dans pondent leurs oeufs dans une lives within the tentacles species may lead to based on the interaction sponges and corals in Nosy its eggs in caterpillars and
dans lanmone Anemonia celle de nombreuses entre la chenille et le les eaux de Nosy Be chenille en injectant of host anemone several other extinctions between caterpillars Be waters (Madagascar). simultaneously injects
viridis   autres qui lui sont lies murier. Dvidage des (Madagascar). simultanment des parti- Anemonia viridis because of links between and mulberry leaves. viral particles to delude
cohabitation sans lui dans la toile de la vie. cocons aux environs de cules virales pour contourner and enjoys peaceful them in the web of life. Unravelling the silk To meet their nutritional the hosts immune defence
nuire (France). Pkin (Chine). Pour subvenir ses les dfenses immunitaires cohabitation (France). from a cocoon in Beijing needs, carnivorous system.
besoins nutritifs, une de lhte. Ltude gntique (China). plants trap insects. The A genetic study shows that
plante carnivore pige les rvle quelles ont pitcher of this Nepenthes this wasp domesticated
insectes. Lurne de cette domestiqu ce virus.
  from Brunei the virus.

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WHAT IS BIODIVERSITY ?

understanding its


  


 
Z Les diffrents cosystmes offrent un certain nombre de services,
appels services des cosystmes. Ainsi, les cosystmes marins
rgulent la temprature de la Terre et fournissent nourriture et loisirs
aux populations humaines. La fort tropicale apporte des matriaux de
construction, fournit des ressources alimentaires aux communauts
locales et contribue rduire le rchauffement climatique en
absorbant le dioxyde de carbone dans latmosphre.

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sadapter et dtre plus rsistants aux changements de lenvironne-

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et sappuie sur dautres espces pour assurer sa survie. Si une espce
disparat, lquilibre de cette organisation est rompu, ce qui peut





   

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augmente le patrimoine gntique de cette population et facilite son
adaptation un monde en constante volution.

Pour les espces sauvages comme pour les espces domestiques, la


diversit gntique est la ressource essentielle permettant de rpondre
aux changements environnementaux et aux agents pathognes.

Z The diversity of ecosystems delivers a number of ecosystem


services. For example, marine ecosystems regulate the Earths
temperature, and provide food and recreation for human populations.
A tropical forest provides building material and food for local
communities and helps reduce global warming by absorbing carbon
dioxide from the atmosphere.

Greater species diversity in ecosystems results in ecosystems that are


more adaptable and resilient to changing environmental conditions.
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species for its survival. The web of life loses its balance when a species
disappears, eventually affecting the ecosystem services we enjoy.

A greater number of individuals in a population of a particular species


increases the genetic pool in the population for better adaptation in a
changing world.

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Genetic diversity is the basic resource that enables species to respond


to environmental change and pathogens, both in wild and
domesticated species.

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WHAT IS BIODIVERSITY ?

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Z La diversit du vivant est partout sur la Terre, dans des environne-
ments polaires extrmes, dans des roches profondes sous la surface,
dans des fosses abyssales ou dans des nuages levs de latmosphre.
La biodiversit sexprime dans des territoires sauvages, des rserves
 

 


 


  
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fermes, plantations forestires et villes.
Diffrents modles de biodiversit sont rpartis dans le monde entier,
alors composs en rgions bio-gographiques reconnues partageant une
histoire climatique et une volution similaires. On value entre 10 et
100 millions le nombre total despces sur la Terre, dont seulement
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de groupes comme les mammifres, les oiseaux, les amphibiens et les
conifres est bien tudie, pour dautres comme les espces de haute
mer, les moisissures ou
les microorganismes, nous manquons de connaissances.
Certains lieux sont le sige dune diversit leve et dun fort end-
misme des espces. On compte 34 points chauds, principalement
concentrs dans des rgions isoles ou la topographie variable (les,
hautes montagnes ou cordons littoraux) et sont particulirement

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terrestres, ces zones de forte biodiversit reprsentent seulement
2,3 % de la surface de la Terre.

Z Biodiversity can be found everywhere on Earth, from extreme


environments such as the North and South Poles, to deep rocks beneath
the Earths surface, to the deepest oceans and the highest clouds.
Whether found in the wilderness or protected natural areas or even
in areas altered by humans such as farms, forest plantations and cities,
biodiversity surrounds us all.
Distinctive patterns of biodiversity exist around the world, made
up of recognized bio-geographic realms with a shared evolutionary and
climatic history. There are an estimated 10 to 100 million species on
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Only some groups of species, among them mammals, birds, amphibians







  
    

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We lack knowledge about many others, including deep-sea species,


fungi or microorganisms.
Some geographical regions are centres of both high species diversity
and endemism. These 34 hotspots represent only 2.3% of the Earths
 
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terrestrial vertebrates. They are frequently concentrated in isolated
or topographically variable regions (islands, mountains, peninsulas)
and are particularly vulnerable.

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WHAT IS BIODIVERSITY ?

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la biodiversit sest dveloppe dans ses formes, sa diversit et dans
son abondance.

Certaines espces ont volu pour survivre et prosprer, dautres


populations ont diminu ou se sont teintes en raison de changements
environnementaux majeurs. Les changements climatiques, lactivit
volcanique ou limpact dastrodes sur la Terre ont contribu aux
grandes volutions de la biodiversit de la plante. Les cosystmes ont
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Nous avons connaissance par leurs traces fossiles de cinq extinctions


majeures affectant la biodiversit dans lhistoire de la Terre.
La plus connue est celle des dinosaures, qui ont disparu la
 
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Cependant, au cours du demi-sicle pass, les activits humaines ont
considrablement augment le taux dextinction des espces qui est
de 100 1000 fois suprieur au taux naturel dont tmoigne lhistoire
gologique et bien plus lev que le taux permettant de nouvelles
espces dapparatre. Il en rsulte une perte nette de biodiversit.

Il nous appartient dsormais darrter lrosion de la biodiversit.

Z The Earth is estimated to be 4.6 billion years old. Scientists estimate


 
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continued to evolve in its nature, variety and quantity ever since.

Due to drastic changes in the Earths environment, species have


evolved to survive and thrive, some have decreased or become extinct.
Climatic changes, volcanic activity and the impact of asteroids
on the Earth have led to major evolutionary changes in the Earths
biodiversity. Ecosystems have, as a result, changed over time.

  
 
 

 
   
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biodiversity in the Earths history. The most well known is the


extinction of dinosaurs during the Cretaceous-Tertiary period about
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human activity has sharply increased the natural extinction rate,
calculated at 100 to 1000 times that of the geological record,
and much greater than the rate at which new species arise resulting
in a net loss of biodiversity.

Halting biodiversity loss is now in our hands.

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HOW DOES BIODIVERSITY SERVE US?

biodiversity, spring of


 
 






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et daction.

Z Our well-being depends on the state of our physical and


emotional welfare. When we live healthy, contented, and secure lives,
and when our social needs are met, our way of life and sense
of community belonging add to the value we attach to our world.

Biodiversity contributes to key aspects of our well-being, which


we cannot live without and include:
Basic goods 
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contribute to the social cohesion of the community as well as to
individual and collective freedom of choice and action.

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et nombre dautres bienfaits. Notre bien-tre dpend de la capacit
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and in particular to the conservation of biodiversity.

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HOW DOES BIODIVERSITY SERVE US?

Provisioning

 

  

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Z Les cosystmes nous fournissent les lments de base pour la vie
 

   



 

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services dapprovisionnement des cosystmes. Ils sont essentiels pour
  
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sant des communauts en toute scurit comme leur bien-tre.


 


    




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ou lhabitat. La biodiversit est la base dune grande partie des
conomies locales et internationales. Prs de 2,6 milliards de personnes
dpendent directement de la terre nourricire, tant par lagriculture,
llevage, la sylviculture ou la pche.
Les mdicaments, issus des soins traditionnels comme de lindustrie
 
 

 

   
 




 
 
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Avec laccroissement de la population mondiale et la progression de la
demande de nourriture, la pression sur les cosystmes a gravement

  




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demi-sicle pass.

Z Ecosystems provide us with the basic elements for life including food,



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and cultural products. These services are provided by biodiversity, which
forms the basis of the provisioning services of ecosystems. They are
essential for sustaining and securing livelihoods, and they ensure the
health of communities, their security and well-being.
Humans have directly used, and domesticated, many species of wild
   
 

1
 %  
  
for a large part of local and international economies. About 2.6 billion
people rely directly on agricultural systems, be it farming, livestock
  
%  
%
Medicines, including traditional medicines and the pharmaceutical
industry greatly rely on plant biodiversity, which is a valuable source
of genetic resources.
As the human population grows, together with an ever-increasing
demand for food and other resources, pressure on ecosystems
 


%

 
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which has worsened over the past 50 years.

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HOW DOES BIODIVERSITY SERVE US?

regulating

 

 



Z Le bon fonctionnement des cosystmes dans leur processus de
rgulation pondrent notre climat et de nombreux aspects de notre
environnement naturel. Les forts et les ocans rgulent le climat et
combattent le rchauffement climatique en absorbant des gaz effet
de serre de latmosphre.

Des cosystmes en bonne sant et leur biodiversit maintiennent la


 
  
 
 
 


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de dangers naturels, de lrosion, des invasions parasitaires et des
maladies.
Par exemple, la biodiversit unique des milieux humides aide au
traitement naturel de leau, les arbres en ville rduisent la pollution
atmosphrique tandis que les mangroves et les rcifs coralliens
protgent les littoraux et leurs habitants de lrosion, de la force des
tsunamis et de la violence des ouragans.
Le couvert vgtal empche des glissements de terrain et le
ravinement des sols. La propagation de maladies comme le
cholra est maitrise par une ressource en eau saine, qui rsulte de
services cosystmiques.

Les services de rgulation contribuent aux quilibres naturels de notre


!

    






Z Healthy ecosystems through their regulating services help regulate


our climate and other aspects of our natural environment. Forests and
oceans regulate climate and moderate global warming by absorbing
greenhouse gases from the atmosphere.

Healthy ecosystems and their biodiversity help maintain air quality,


purify water, treat waste, and protect us from natural hazards, erosion,
pests and diseases.
For example, the unique biodiversity of wetland ecosystems assists
 
    


 


  
and mangrove forests and coral reefs protect coastal communities and
their coastlines from erosion and the full force of tsunamis and storm
surges. Vegetation cover helps prevent landslides and soil erosion.
The spread of diseases such as cholera is controlled by access to clean


/ 

water, a product of ecosystem services.

The regulating services of ecosystems therefore make an important


contribution to the natural equilibrium of our planet, which in turn


 
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HOW DOES BIODIVERSITY SERVE US?

supporting

  

  

Z Les services de soutien tel le cycle des nutriments sont les proces
sus fondamentaux, souvent invisibles, dont dpendent tous les autres
services cosystmiques, y compris lapprovisionnement en eau, en
nourriture et la rgulation climatique. Ils crent les conditions de base
pour la vie sur la Terre.

Par exemple, la production alimentaire dpend de la formation des


sols




   



processus chimiques et biologiques, tels les bactries et champignons
microscopiques qui dcomposent les dchets organiques et les
transforment en substances nutritives disponibles pour des cultures.
Les cultures vivrires utilisent le CO2 dans lair au cours de la
photosynthse pour produire les sucres et la biomasse que nous
consommons comme nergie. Ces processus dpendent du cycle
de leau et de celui des nutriments&
 
     


 
 
 

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 #

La rduction de la biodiversit induite par lhomme perturbe le


fonctionnement des cosystmes, dgradant leur viabilit et celle



#





 




Z The supporting services of ecosystems such as nutrient cycling are


the fundamental but often invisible processes, on which all the other
ecosystem services depend, including the production of food and water,
and climate regulation. They create the basic conditions for life
on Earth.

For example, food production depends on soil formation, which itself


greatly depends on climatic conditions as well as chemical and biological
processes carried out by bacteria and fungi, which decompose waste
and make nutrients available to food crops.
Food crops use CO2 in the air during photosynthesis to produce
the sugars and biomass that we consume for energy. These processes

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depend on nutrient and water cycling  &



 

  
   
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ecosystem processes function causing the supporting ecosystem


 
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! kCollection and kIguau Falls on the k
  kA scientist accessing the k;  #
 % !  1  %    valles troites et 1  
 
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 4%    !    \ 4  narrow deep valleys of
       7 
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   '9    9     ! '4#-   #  and Argentina are a 9 \ 7 7 !#  
amliorer la connaissance une merveille naturelle couvertes dune fort pour linventaire de la rique et contribuent au =\      [68/G<
   tropical rainforest* biodiversity of the forest and contribute to the
des sols forestiers. inscrite au patrimoine tropicale humide. biodiversit de la fort maintien de la fertilit Heritage site. of Guyane. maintenance of soil
#   '[68/G< guyanaise. (Philippines). fertility (Philippines).

. -15 )+  - 

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HOW DOES BIODIVERSITY SERVE US?

cultural


  
 

Z Les services culturels sont les bienfaits immatriels que les cosys
tmes nous procurent travers lenrichissement spirituel, le dvelop


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os croyances spirituelles et religieuses comme nos coutumes sont


souvent lies la nature. Les rcits lis la biodiversit faonnent
nos lgendes et fondent notre sentiment dappartenance un lieu ou
une communaut. Nombre de communauts dans le monde ont un
lien spirituel avec la nature. La biodiversit a fortement model et
inspir les cultures, lhistoire et les arts. Notre hritage culturel, nos
connaissances et nos valeurs ducatives prennent racine dans notre
environnement naturel.

La biodiversit a une valeur conomique mesurable dans les domaines


des loisirs et de lcotourisme, mais la valeur de lenrichissement
spirituel et du plaisir esthtique quelle apporte est inestimable.

Z ;  


 



 

 
from ecosystems through spiritual enrichment, cognitive



 
&
 

 







Our various spiritual and religious beliefs and customs are often
connected to nature. Stories around biodiversity shape our legends and
ground our sense of belonging to a distinct place or community. Many
communities around the world have a spiritual relationship with nature.
Biodiversity has greatly contributed to, and inspired our cultures,

  8))< %48&=+9+)>

history, and arts. Our cultural heritage, our knowledge and


educational values are all rooted in our natural environment.

Biodiversity has measurable economic value in relation to recreation


and ecotourism, but its value in terms of spiritual enrichment and
aesthetic enjoyment is beyond measure.

kPrparation dun kAutour dun damier kViolon chamanique k_ ' 


'
[# k96==


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=   kA Huichol shamanic k@[# k96==

attelage dolgane.     +
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Lensemble des }    '
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 }  quotidien des Touaregs et /
 
  '
 based on the reindeer the everyday world of @  /
 \9 =
est fond sur le renne se rfre essentiellement de crnes est un trophe 9 = and its multiple uses. the Tuareg mainly to   =

!  1 '  de chasse (Indonsie). 9||#Y = hunting trophy
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alarming rate of



 


 
Z Nous perdons des espces une vitesse alarmante. LUnion Internatio
nale pour la Conservation de la Nature (UICN) rapporte quune espce
doiseau sur 8, 1 mammifre sur 4, 1 conifre sur 3, 1 amphibien sur 3,
et 6 tortues marines sur 7 sont menacs dextinction. De plus, 75% de
la diversit gntique des cultures agricoles ont t perdus et 75% des
pcheries mondiales sont entirement exploits ou surexploits.
La croissance dmographique, le dveloppement conomique et
laspiration de meilleures conditions de vie ont des effets sur lenvi
ronnement. La perte de biodiversit est cause par des facteurs directs
comme la destruction des habitats, les changements dutilisation des
sols, le changement climatique, les espces envahissantes, la surexploi
tation et la pollution ; ainsi que par des facteurs indirects comme les
lacunes en matire de gouvernance et de cadres juridiques et institu
tionnels en faveur de la conservation. Toutes ces causes interagissent
entre elles.
La biodiversit est un lment central pour les services que les
 % !

 


 
 


 

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 % !
   
    



essentiels dont nous dpendons, notamment leau douce propre,
lalimentation, la rgulation climatique et la formation de sols fertiles.
La dgradation des cosystmes et la rduction du nombre despces
rodent le capital naturel et les ressources gntiques desquels nous
tirons nos cultures et nos levages et amoindrissent la rsilience et la
facult dadaptation aux futurs changements environnementaux. La
perte de biodiversit conduit aussi une perte de diversit culturelle.

Z We are losing species at an alarming rate. The International


Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) notes that 1 species of bird out
of 8, 1 mammal out of 4, 1 conifer out of 3, 1 amphibian out of 3,
and 6 marine turtles out of 7, are all threatened with extinction.
In addition, 75% of genetic diversity of agricultural crops has been lost
JK\ 
   


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With increasing population, aspirations for better living conditions and
economic development leading to environmental changes,
biodiversity is being lost through direct causes such as habitat loss and

#

#
  
 



  

&+%8
and pollution, and underlying causes such as poor governance and legal
+&+%8
and institutional frameworks with respect to its conservation. All these
causes interact with each other.
100
Biodiversity is a central element to the services the Earths ecosystems
  
 

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Earths ecosystems have reduced their capacity to deliver the vital
ecosystem services on which we all depend, including the provision of
clean fresh water and food, the regulation of climate and the formation
of fertile soil.
49 ?'@@A#%B

Degraded ecosystems and a fall in the numbers of species erode the 50

natural capital and the genetic resources from which we derive all our
crops and domesticated animals, leading to lesser resilience and an
inability to adapt to future environmental changes. 31%
35%

Loss of biodiversity also leads to loss of cultural diversity.


22%

14%

0
Bird Amphibian Mammal Conifer
Oiseau Batracien Mamifre Conifre

%+DEEF1

kUn bernard-lhermite kPourcentage despces kLrosion dorigine kLes mangroves comptent kLe charanon rouge kHermit crab in Thailand kPercentage of species kErosion from agricultural k Mangroves are among kThe red palm weevil,
en Thalande sadapte en danger de disparition. agricole dtruit 10 parmi les cosystmes des palmiers, originaire with a glass bottle top in danger of extinction. practises destroys 10 mil- the most fragile eco- native to Asia, has
avec une capsule comme Les oiseaux, les amphi- millions dhectares de les plus fragiles de notre dAsie, a envahi le as shell. Birds, amphibians, lion hectares of cropland systems of our planet invaded the Middle East,
coquille. biens, les mammifres terre arable par an sur la plante (Venezuela). Moyen-Orient, puis, www.seethebiggerpicture.org mammals and conifers on the planet per year (Venezuela). and from 1992, the shores
www.seethebiggerpicture.org et les conifres sont les plante (Laos). partir de 1992, are the only groups (Laos). of the Mediterranean
seuls groupes connus et les rivages des pays known and evaluated in countries (Egypt).
valus dans leur totalit, mditerranens (Egypte)* their entirety, but it is
mais on estime que la estimated that the threat
menace est similaire is similar to other groups
pour les autres groupes of species.
despces.


  
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Habitat



6
Z La scheresse, les maladies, le feu, les volcans, les sismes,
de lgres variations de tempratures ou des intempries saisonnires
sont des causes naturelles de perte dhabitat ; mais les principales
raisons de la fragmentation des habitats, de leur dgradation voire de

      
      
   

activits humaines telles que lagriculture, llevage, le dveloppement
des infrastructures, lexploitation forestire, minire et lurbanisation
rapide. Les terres agricoles occupent plus de 25 % de la surface
terrestre, lexclusion de lAntarctique.

Ces derniers temps, la surface sur Terre des forts a t rduite de


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de leurs ressources gntiques.

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barrages et des canaux. La population utilise 45 % de leau qui alimente
les rivires. Par exemple, la Mer Aral, autrefois la 4e plus grande mer
intrieure au monde, pourrait disparatre dans la dcennie venir.

Z *      %  # # 





volcanoes, earthquakes, slight changes in seasonal temperature or
rainfall, but it is the changes in land use through human activities
particularly agriculture, but also cattle rearing, construction of
infrastructure, logging, mining and rapid urbanization, which are the
main drivers of habitat fragmentation, deterioration and loss. Croplands
account for more than 25% of land surface excluding Antarctica.

/

  
 
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of millions of species and their genetic resources.

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was once the fourth biggest lake in the world. It is now predicted
to disappear within the next decade.

8+

kBateau abandonn dans kDchets accumuls au kDe grandes surfaces de kDforestation au nord kLa coupe de parcelles kAbandoned boat in what kWaste accumulated on kLarge areas of rainforest kDeforestation to the kLogging of whole areas
ce qui tait autrefois large des zones urbani- la fort amazonienne sont de Cacres, dans le Mato entires dagrofort lie was once one of Europes the shore near urbanized are cleared for pasture. north of Caceres, of agroforests due to the
lune des zones humides ses que les courants en dfriches en pturages. Grosso (Brsil). linstallation de scieries in- most important wetlands, areas. The Mediterranean The Brazil nut tree, even Mato Grosso (Brazil). installation of industrial
les plus importantes Mditerrane contribuent Les chtaigniers du Brsil dustrielles... o de jeunes now almost dried, currents contribute to its protected, dies when mills... while cocoa
dEurope, aujourdhui dissminer sur de vastes mme protgs, meurent plants de cacaoyer tmoi- Las Tablas de Daimiel spreading over large areas isolated from the forest seedlings indicate a
presque sec, le Parc tendues (France). isols de la fort (Brsil). gnent dun changement Spanish National Park (France). (Brazil). radical change of land
national de Las Tablas de radical de gestion (Spain). management (Indonesia).
Daimiel (Espagne). (Indonsie).


   1 1#C+/&  "  +/%< ,%&>1



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# 
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Climate


 


Z La biodiversit est perturbe par le changement climatique ; llva


tion de temprature moyenne saccompagne dvnements mtoro
logiques extrmes plus frquents, affectant le bon fonctionnement des
cosystmes et de fait, la fourniture de services cosystmiques et le



   



&
  #





espces domestiques sont sensibles aux facteurs climatiques telles la
temprature et lhumidit. Llvation de la temprature des ocans


  

    
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longues et la pression sur lhabitat dj fragilis rendent les lphants
trs vulnrables aux changements climatiques. En Asie, la hausse du
niveau de la mer pourrait causer la disparition des forts de mangrove,
menaant leur viabilit et lconomie locale.
Les variations de temprature affectent le cycle de vie des cultures




{&  
   

vgtaux dcales dans le temps comme le glissement des priodes de
reproduction ou de migration impactent les espces tant sauvages que
domestiques. Des pratiques culturelles lies au calendrier agricole sont
aussi perturbes.

Z Biodiversity is being affected globally by climate change as the average


temperature on Earth becomes warmer, with more frequent extreme
weather events negatively affecting biodiversity, ecosystem functioning
and ultimately the provision of ecosystem services and human


#
The distribution of wild and domesticated animal and plant species is
sensitive to such climatic conditions as temperature and humidity. Due to
increases in ocean temperature and changes in sea water chemistry due
 

 "  
 1 
6


 
K\  # %^[K[/" 

 


#%
vulnerable to climatic change with longer dry periods and
shrinking habitats. In Asia, projected rises in sea levels could result in
the disappearance of mangrove forests, threatening livelihoods.
+

 
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%
  


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affect both wild and domesticated animals. Cultural practices linked to
-  15-GG9

the agricultural calendar are also ultimately affected by climate change.

kEtude des larves des kUne des Mille-les du kLa rtractation des kContamination de lair kStation mtorologique kStudy of aquatic larvae kOne of the Thousand kThe shrinkage of sea kAir contamination in k Weather Station in
moustiques vecteurs Lac Ontario qui spare le glaces de mer o les Mexico, en grande dans les vignobles de of mosquito vectors of Islands of Lake Ontario ice on which bearded Mexico, largely due to the the vineyards of the
du paludisme. Le Canada des Etats-Unis. phoques barbus lvent partie due aux industries la rgion du Cap, malaria. Climate change which separates Canada seals raise their young industries located in the Cape region, to study
changement climatique leurs jeunes menace aussi implantes dans la valle pour tudier lvolution will increase distribution from the United States. also threatens their main valley (Mexico). trends in and impact of
augmente la propagation leur principal prdateur, (Mexique). et limpact du of these diseases predator, the polar bear. the evolution of global
de ces maladies lours blanc. Phoque rchauffement climatique (Burkina Faso). Bearded seal lazing on an warming (South Africa).
(Burkina Faso). barbu paressant sur un (Afrique du Sud). iceberg near Spitzbergen
iceberg prs du Spitzberg (Norway).
(Norvge).

 15% 


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WHY ARE WE LOSING BIODIVERSITY ?

Invasive alien




 

Z Lintroduction - accidentelle ou intentionnelle - despces enva-
hissantes vgtales, comme la jacinthe deau sous les tropiques, ou
animales, comme lcureuil gris en Europe, peut avoir un impact
dvastateur sur les espces naturelles et domestiques ainsi que sur les
cosystmes.
Aprs la perte dhabitat, les espces envahissantes sont la seconde
cause dextinction des espces. Elles interfrent dans lorganisation
des relations entre espces et perturbent les services fournis par les
cosystmes, particulirement dans des cosystmes isols comme les
rivires et les les.
La frquence de lintroduction despces invasives et les risques quelle

  # 

 #
 

!


  
des activits humaines et de la croissance dmographique, tout comme
la possibilit pour ces espces de se rpandre, en raison du dveloppe-
ment des transports, du commerce et du tourisme.
Les cots conomiques et humains peuvent tre considrables. Aux
Etats-Unis, le cot de ces invasions est valu 137 milliards de
dollars par an, soit un cot plus lev que celui de toutes les autres
catastrophes naturelles. Lintroduction de la perche du Nil dans le Lac
Victoria en Afrique a caus lextinction de 200 espces de poissons
endmiques. De fait, les pratiques culturelles lies la pche tradition-
nelle des espces aujourdhui teintes ont aussi t perdues.

Z The introduction, whether accidental or intended, of alien invasive


species of plants, such as water hyacinth in the tropics, or animals
such as the grey squirrel in Europe, can have a devastating impact on
natural and cultivated species and ecosystems.
After habitat loss, invasive alien species are the second most important
driver of species extinction. Invasive species interfere with the web
of relationships and distort the services provided by the ecosystem
particularly in isolated ecosystems such as rivers and islands.
The rate and risk associated with the introduction of alien species have


 %
  # %


  #  
and activities, as well as the opportunities for species to spread due
to travel, trade and tourism.
The economic and human costs can be considerable. In the United States,
the economic costs of non-native species invasion exceed US$ 137 billion
each year, more than the combined total of all other natural disasters.

   12&

The introduction of the Nile perch in Lake Victoria in Africa caused




  ^[[ 
  

#  
   
  


    # 

   



kLe pissenlit, introduit kLe dragon rouge est une kLalgue Caulerpa kLa teigne de la pomme kLcrevisse de Louisiane, kDandelion, introduced kThe red dragon, an kThe seaweed Caulerpa kPotato ringworm k;"
 7
dans les Iles Kerguelen espce endmique au lac taxifolia, dorigine de terre, originaire introduite en Europe, est into the Kerguelen Islands # taxifolia, native of native to Central America introduced into Europe,

@e sicle, est Sentarum Borno australienne, a envahi les dAmrique centrale considre comme une in the late nineteenth Lake Sentarum (Borneo) Australia, has invaded the (Ecuador). is considered an invasive
une espce envahissante menace dextinction ; fonds marins mditerra- (Equateur). espce envahissante qui century, is an invasive is endangered. It is Mediterranean seabed. species that disrupts

 - il est lobjet dun nens. Ce sont des zones perturbe lcosystme species that takes the subject of an IRD These are areas of the ecosystem of local
ments des conditions programme de lIRD pour de comptition avec des espces locales. advantage of changing programme on the competition with species.
climatiques. la reproduction lherbier Posidonia climatic conditions. reproduction of Posidonia oceanica,
de lespce. oceanica, qui constitue the species. which is one of the
p
lune des composantes major constituents of the
principales de lcosys- Mediterranean ecosystem.
tme mditerranen.

 1" 1

 -
 ,


  - %     + 
WHY ARE WE LOSING BIODIVERSITY ?

over-exploitation

  



 
Z La surexploitation de la biodiversit par des activits de
prlvement, telles la chasse, la pche et lextraction de matires
premires, augmente lempreinte cologique, qui value notre pression
sur les cosystmes. La surexploitation rode ce capital naturel,
perturbe les relations dans lcosystme, diminue le nombre despces
et la richesse du potentiel gntique et peut mener lextinction
despces.
On estime quau taux actuel dextraction, toutes les espces de
poissons actuellement commercialises dans le monde seront teintes
  ^[]~

"  


  -
tives au monde, est maintenant value moins d1% de sa capacit
originelle avec des effets dvastateurs sur les communauts locales.
Lexploitation du bois pour la construction en Asie dtruit de grandes
tendues de la biodiversit particulirement riche des forts tropicales.
La chasse, notamment en Afrique, rduit la diversit des espces des
grands animaux comme llphant, le rhinocros et la girafe.
On caractrise une pollution lorsque les hommes mettent plus de


 
 % !
  
  

son fonctionnement. Les gaz effet de serre, les engrais, les rejets
agricoles et les dchets toxiques perturbent les cycles et relations au
sein de lcosystme et affectent ngativement la biodiversit. Ainsi,
les rejets agricoles conduisent leutrophisation des cours deau et
lasphyxie de nombre despces aquatiques.

Z The over-exploitation of biodiversity on the Earths ecosystems


%   #  
 # # 

  
raw material is increasing the ecological footprint, a measure of human
demand on the Earths ecosystems.
Over-exploitation erodes the natural capital, disrupts the relations
in the ecosystem, decreases the number of species and the
diversity of the genetic pool and can lead to species extinction.
At the current rate of extraction, it is estimated that the worlds

 
  



  %^[]~
+
"   
%
 
     
 
estimated at less than 1% of its original capacity with devastating effects
on local communities. Logging of tropical timber in Asia is destroying

  . /-8+

large tracts of biodiversity-rich tropical forests. Animal hunting,


particularly in Africa is reducing the numbers of megafauna such as the
elephant, rhinoceros and giraffe.

Pollution occurs when humans emit more waste than the absorption
capacity of the ecosystem. Greenhouse gases, fertilizers, agricultural
and toxic waste all disturb interactions impacting on biodiversity. For
example, agricultural waste leads to the eutrophication of rivers and




   



kCes dchets rejets en kBaleine grise apporte kCampagne de pche aux kUn cygne dans la kBanc de balistes kWaste dumped at sea is kGray whale brought kFishing for tuna kA swan in the polluted k/    
mer ne sont que la partie au village yupik pour thons (Seychelles). rivire pollue Segura en Canthidermis maculatus the visible part of the to a yupik village for (Seychelles). Segura River in Murcia, Canthidermis maculatus
la plus spectaculaire de son dpeage Novo Espagne. sous une pave naturelle pollution along the coast. butchering. Traditional Spain. in a wreck
la pollution rsultant de Tchaplino, Tchoukotka. www.seethebiggerpicture.org (Ocan Indien). whale hunting is www.seethebiggerpicture.org (Indian Ocean).
lurbanisation du littoral. La pche traditionnelle sustainable.
respecte la ressource Novo Tchaplino,
(Sibrie). Chukotka. (Siberia).

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WHY ARE WE LOSING BIODIVERSITY ?

underlying causes of



 





 
Z Les causes directes de la perte de biodiversit que sont la perte
dhabitat, le changement climatique, les espces envahissantes, la
surexploitation et la pollution sont les consquences dautres causes
 

  




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la croissance dmographique et conomique, du contexte social et
 



  
 

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et religieux.
On prvoit une augmentation de la population mondiale, qui devrait


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do la pression croissante sur les cosystmes et la perte de biodi-
versit. Lactivit conomique pourrait tre multiplie par 3 6 dici
2050, or ltat de la biodiversit ne samliorera que si la croissance

 

 

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des ressources.
Les socits dmocratiques dans lesquelles les communauts locales,
notamment les femmes et les communauts vulnrables, sont impli-
ques dans la prise de dcisions, et qui investissent dans les sciences
et la technologie, en particulier dans lenseignement des sciences,


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mis en place pour la gestion des cosystmes, ainsi que les services
quils nous rendent.

 

 

 

  
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la faon dont nous consommons et sur limportance que nous donnons
la protection de la biodiversit.

Z Biodiversity loss is directly caused by habitat loss, climate change,


invasive species, over-exploitation and pollution, which are the
consequences of other root or underlying causes which ultimately drive
biodiversity loss. These include population and economic growth, the
 
  
 
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religious factors.
+
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9 billion by 2050 is increasing pressure on ecosystems with a projected
loss of biodiversity. While economic activity is expected to multiply by
a factor of 3 to 6 by 2050, the status of biodiversity will improve only if
 

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Democratic societies in which local communities, especially
women and vulnerable communities are involved in decision-making,
and where there is an investment in science and technology, particularly



   
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arrangements for ecosystem management as well as rights over


ecosystem services.
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in which we consume and the importance we attribute to biodiversity
conservation.

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 kBidonville rsultant de k La mgalopole de Los kClipperton, lle de La kBoutique de substances kScientists estimate kSlum resulting from kThe megalopolis of Los kClipperton, called Island kShop with substances
estiment entre 10 et la croissance et de la Angeles en Californie Passion, a t le site utilises dans la pharma- between 10 and 100 growth and urban Angeles, California (USA). of Passion by the French, used in traditional
100 millions le nombre sgrgation urbaine, dans (Etats-Unis). dune expdition scien- cope traditionnelle, en million the number segregation in the \  medicine, particularly
despces restant la plaine inondable de 
OQQX
 particulier le ginseng, of species yet to be   #
 !OQQX ginseng, in Shanghai
dcouvrir. Ici au jardin la Yamuna New Delhi raliser linventaire de sa Shanga (Chine). discovered. Botanical in New Delhi (India). conduct an inventory of (China).
botanique (Orto Botanico) (Inde). 
  Garden (Orto Botanico),  
 
de Padoue (Italie). Padua (Italy).

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BIODIVERSITY, ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT

the economic value



 


 
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Z To estimate the value of biodiversity is a challenge, particularly


the economic value in terms of the ecosystem services to which it
contributes, such as the provision of food, the regulation of climate,

         
 

Studies such as The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB)


 
   



 
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They estimate the total value of biodiversity and its services at
90}}[[[%
   
 
 
 
 
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We can estimate the economic value of services such as food,


wood and pharmaceutical products by taking into account their market

 



 
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forest, but how can we measure other valuable ecosystem services such
  

 

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and food sources for local communities? These services, if diminished,




 

 
 
 
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kNgoce de rsine damar kCoccinelle sur une kLa diversit chromatique kCulture du th dans le kAbeille domestique kTrading superior quality kLadybird on a leaf in kThe chromatic variety k;   k Honey bee visiting the
de qualit suprieure feuille Jork, Allemagne. 
#|    site Mountain Railways 

 damar resin extracted Jork, Germany. of corn is the pride of Mountain Railways \    
produite par les arbres www.seethebiggerpicture.org des indiens huichol et class au patrimoine pommier. from trees Shorea www.seethebiggerpicture.org the Huichol Indians, World Heritage Site Pollen sticks to its
Shorea javanica. Rgion constitue une ressource mondial (Inde). Des pelotes de pollen sont javanica. Krui region and constitutes a (India). hind legs.
de Krui (Indonsie). gntique. Cependant, la formes sur les pattes (Indonesia). genetic resource; but
culture dautoconsomma- postrieures. consumption patterns
tion tend diminuer au are tending to go over to
   #| commercial maize meal,
commerciales, issues de from transgenic plants.
plants transgniques. San Andrs Cohamiata
San Andrs Cohamiata Tatei Kie (Mexico).
Tatei Kie (Mexique).


  
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the production of environmentally-friendly goods and services that
are more sustainable in the long-term and can thus moderate climate
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US$ 10 000 to US$ 60 000 per hectare/year, while the conservation
  
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kLa baie de Parana- kPche artisanale des kLa Grande barrire de k Fort basse sur sols kDes fruits du palmier kThe bay of Paranagu kArtisanal growing of kThe Great Barrier Reef kLow-lying forest on kPalm oil is extracted
gu (Brsil) o deux hutres se dveloppant corail (Australie). granitiques (Monts Elaeis guineensis est (Brazil) where neighbo- oysters on mangrove (Australia). granite soils of Mount from the fruit of Elaeis
cosystmes voisins, sur les racines de paltu- dArawa, Guyane). Cette extraite lhuile de palme. ring ecosystems, coastal roots. Collected by Arawa (Guyana). The guineensis. By a natural
les vasires littorales, viers. Collectes par les fort clairire illustre Par un procd naturel #
   women, dried and sold forest glade illustrates process of bioconversion,
souvent recouvertes de femmes, les hutres sont   
 de bioconversion, lIRD with prairies, and man- in local markets, their   7 IRD is studying the
prairies, et la mangrove, sches et vendues sur milieux rares et fragiles. tudie la transformation groves coexist. A possible shells are processed into of rare and fragile transformation of resulting
coexistent. Un ventuel les marchs locaux, leurs des dchets issus de major climate change lime for use in homes or environments. waste into innovative uses
changement climatique coquilles sont transfor- lextraction pour des will result in expansion or exported to the Gambia including aquaculture
de grande ampleur se mes en chaux destine usages innovants, comme regression of vegetation (Senegal). (Indonesia).
traduirait par lextension aux habitations ou laquaculture (Indonsie). belonging to one of these
ou la rgression de la exporte vers la Gambie two areas.
vgtation appartenant (Sngal).
lun des deux domaines.

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BIODIVERSITY, ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT

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study where modern engineers, scientists and architects are turning to

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kDress sur ses pattes ar- kLes pattes du gecko kCet insecte, le kImitant les oiseaux kLuniversit de Leicester kStanding on its hind kThe paws of a gecko k Insect Tenebrio molitor kSimilar to sea birds kThe University of
rire, le dos face au vent, possdent le meilleur Tenebrio molitor, combat marins (ici, un fou de possde un immeuble legs, back to the wind, have the best-known 
= 7#   (here, a gannet), the Leicester owns a building
ce coloptre capture adhsif connu. Ce petit rapidement linfection Bassan), lAirbus A350 surmont par des chemines this beetle captures fog adhesive. This small infection, and then, for Airbus A350 aircraft uses topped by 13 feet high
leau des brouillards quil reptile de la taille dun microbienne, puis produit utilise des sondes, situes de 13 mtres de haut pour moisture... imitating reptile, the size of a several days, produces an alpha probes located at chimneys to ensure its
boit imitant la nature, lzard peut dvelopper pendant plusieurs jours au niveau du nez, pour assurer sa climatisation selon nature, a fog net can lizard, can develop a antimicrobial agent. the nose to detect gusts air conditioning like a
 1 
   une force de contact de un agent antimicrobien. anticiper des rafales le principe dune termitire. collect water in the force of contact of Research could be ahead of the wing, which termite mound.
permet de rcolter leau plus de 100 kg. La recherche pourrait et dployer des volets Namib Desert. over 100 kg. inspired for medical allows deployment of
dans le dsert du Namib. sen inspirer pour des mobiles sur les ailes, treatments to reduce the movable control surfaces
traitements mdicaux, offrant une surface plus development of multi- on the wing, delivering a
qui rduiraient le dve-   resistance to antibiotics. #   
loppement de multi-rsis-
tances aux antibiotiques.

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BIODIVERSITY, ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT

biodiversity and

 





Z Les populations les plus pauvres, en particulier dans les zones rurales,
dpendent pour la plupart directement de la biodiversit pour prs
de 90 % de leurs besoins, incluant lalimentation, lnergie, les soins,
lhabitat et le transport. On change les produits de la chasse, de la
pche et de la cueillette contre des articles de base comme du savon,
des vtements et de lquipement scolaire. La conservation de la biodi-
versit assure ces populations une scurit de revenu court terme
et leur offre les matires premires ncessaires leur dveloppement
long terme.

La biodiversit peut tre lorigine dindustries locales comme celle du


parfum Madagascar fonde sur lylang ylang, le vtiver, la vanille et
une orchide forestire locale (Angraecum). La perte de la biodiversit
#
  
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et llevage et menace la scurit alimentaire dun milliard de
personnes issues des populations les plus vulnrables.
On estime que la perte de biodiversit, la perturbation des services
cologiques et les effets du changement climatique seront lorigine de
200 millions dco-migrants dici 2050.

La conservation de la biodiversit est une assurance pour les popula-


tions les plus pauvres.

Z Most of the worlds poorest people, particularly in rural areas, depend


directly on biodiversity for as much as 90% of their needs including food,



 

    1 
   
products are traded to obtain such basic items as soap, clothing and
school equipment. Conserving biodiversity is just one way of providing
these communities with income security in the short-term, and the raw
materials for development in the long-term.

Biodiversity is the basis on which to build local industries such as the


perfume industry in Madagascar which uses ylang ylang, vetiver, vanilla
and a local forest orchid, Angraecum. Losing biodiversity also means
losing genetic variability in crops and livestock, which threatens the food
security of one billion of the worlds most vulnerable people.
It is predicted that the loss of biodiversity, the disruption in ecosystem
services, and the effects of climate change will result in 200 million
# 2/L

eco-migrants by 2050.

Biodiversity is thus an insurance policy for the worlds poorest


communities.

kVente de bananes sur le kLes femmes ont souvent k Sur cet important k Essentielle pour kLa ville de Hababa, une kSelling bananas on the kWomen are often the kOn this important kEssential for the kCity of Hababa, a
march (Vietnam). la charge du micro-com- march de pommes de lconomie islandaise, la escale pour les caravanes. market (Vietnam). main actors in local trade market for potatoes and Icelandic economy, stopover for caravans.
merce (Sngal). terre et de lgumes pche commerciale est Larchitecture millnaire (Senegal). a variety of vegetables, ##   Thousand year old
divers, la plupart des soumise des limitations surplombe la grande most sellers are farmers been subject to quotas architecture overlooks
vendeurs sont des paysans de captures depuis 1983. citerne o la popula- of the Quechua ethnic since 1983. Adapted to the large tank where the
de lthnie quechua Sadaptant ces fortes tion vient puiser leau group (Ecuador). large reductions in sea population comes to draw
(Equateur). rductions de prises, la (Ymen). catches, the population water (Yemen).
population dveloppe des is developing innovative
approches innovantes ways to live the sea
de la mer (Islande). (Iceland).

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# 2/L

1!. & 
BIODIVERSITY, ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT

biodiversity and the millennium


 



Z Les Objectifs du Millnaire pour le Dveloppement (OMD) ont t


tablis par les Nations Unies en 2000 pour promouvoir le dveloppe-

   ^[@K  

  



Dans le 7e objectif - assurer la durabilit environnementale - la cible


  

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de biodiversit pour 2010. Mais la biodiversit est essentielle la
ralisation des autres objectifs pour le dveloppement.
La suppression de lextrme pauvret et de la faim (OMD 1) dpend
de lagriculture durable et productive, o les varits des cultures, de
la qualit des sols et de leau fournies par des cosystmes sains sont
disponibles. Par exemple, seuls les cosystmes sains des mangroves
et des rcifs coralliens avec leur biodiversit intacte peuvent fournir
le poisson aux communauts ctires.
Les OMD 4, 5 et 6, qui visent lamlioration sanitaire et lassainisse-
ment, exigent les ressources deau propre adquates, services rendus
par des cosystmes sains. La prservation des cosystmes et de
la biodiversit, en assurant la proximit du bois-nergie et de leau,
contribuent lmancipation des femmes et lgalit des sexes - OMD 3

Z The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were established by the


9
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areas of human well-being.

5  #
  
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rate of biodiversity loss by 2010 the 2010 Biodiversity Target.
Biodiversity is also an important factor in achieving the other
development goals.

Eradicating extreme poverty and hunger (MDG 1) depends on sustainable


and productive agricultural practices, whereby crop varieties, fertile
soils and abundant water provided by healthy ecosystems are available.
For example, healthy mangroves and coral reefs with their biodiversity
    
    


MDGs 4, 5 and 6, aim to improve health and sanitation, which require


adequate supplies of clean water that can be provided from healthy
 1   (%.8&

ecosystems. Securing resource access and rights and recognizing the


important role that women play in managing biodiversity resources,
such as water and fuel woods, contributes to the empowerment
of women and gender equality. (MDG3)

kEnfant portant du bois kLa production durable kCampagne contre kAgriculture tradition- k Artisanat local kG  7 K\ kSustainable timber kCampaign against kTraditional agriculture kLocal crafts based on
lancien site agricole de bois Giam Siak Kecil. le sida ralise par nelle en Bolivie. sappuyant sur la at the World Heritage Kuk production in Giam Siak AIDS organized by South in Bolivia. traditional natural dyes;
de Kuk, class au Bukit Batu, Sumatra APT ARTWORKS en recherche de pigments Early Agricultural Site Kecil. Bukit Batu, Sumatra African artists from the commercial activity
patrimoine mondial. (Indonsie). 1996, par des artistes naturels traditionnels ; (Papua New Guinea). (Indonesia). APT ARTWORKS in 1996.   #
(Papouasie-Nouvelle- sud-africains. lactivit commerciale Batho, Bloemfontein fair-trade tourism (Togo).
Guine). Batho, township de  
 Township. (South Africa).
Bloemfontein. tourisme quitable
(Afrique du Sud). (Togo).


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BIODIVERSITY, ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT

Reconciling biodivers ity conservation

  
 





Z Lanc par lUNESCO au dbut des annes 1970, le Programme sur
lhomme et la biosphre (MAB) vise rconcilier les tres humains
et la nature ; par les sciences environnementales et sociales,
en incluant les connaissances des communauts locales et autochtones,
il promeut le dveloppement durable et le bien-tre humain.
Le programme MAB encourage la conservation de la biodiversit, le
dveloppement conomique et social ainsi que le respect des valeurs
 

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montagnes, terres arides, forts tropicales, systmes urbains, zones hu-
mides, les et cosystmes marins comme savanes. Son rseau mondial
de rserves de biosphre permet le partage de connaissances, sur la
recherche et la surveillance, lducation et la formation ou la prise de
dcision participative.
Les rserves de biosphre sont des sites dapprentissage qui innovent

 
 
 

 

 
 

la biodiversit et du dveloppement durable. Ils sont sous juridiction
nationale souveraine mais partagent leurs expriences et leurs ides
lchelle nationale, rgionale et internationale grce au rseau mondial
de rserves de biosphre de lUNESCO. Ce sont au total plus de 550
rserves de biosphre rparties sur une centaine de pays.

Z UNESCOs Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) launched in the


early 1970s aims through the ecological and social sciences, including
the knowledge of indigenous and local communities, to reconcile
humans and nature by promoting sustainable development and human
well-being.

The MAB programme promotes biodiversity conservation, economic and


social improvement, and respect for cultural values. Sub-programmes
   
  

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tropical forests, urban systems, wetlands, island and marine and coastal
1
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ecosystems and savannas. It uses its World Network of Biosphere


Reserves as vehicles for knowledge-sharing, research and monitoring,
education and training, and participatory decision-making.

Biosphere reserves are learning sites that innovate and demonstrate




 
 
 %
   

development. They are under national sovereign jurisdiction yet share
their experience and ideas nationally, regionally and internationally
within UNESCOs World Network of Biosphere Reserves. There are over
550 biosphere reserves in over 100 countries.

kFuerteventura, seconde kSi la ville de Betancuria kTourisme dans le site na- kFaune des Lagunes de kJeunes de Bliesgau ; la kFuerteventura, an island kBetancuria which was kTourism on Fraser kWildlife in the Lagunas kYoung people at Bliesgau
le de larchipel des a t la capitale de lle turel de lle Fraser, avec Montebello. La rserve coexistence de lhomme et of the Canaries archi- the capital of the island Island with its freshwater of Montebello, the where the coexistence
Canaries, inclut un large jusquau XIXe sicle, elle ses lacs dunaires deau stend sur une zone hy- la nature, et lintgration pelago, includes a wide until the nineteenth cen- dune lakes, inscribed on reserve is spread over of man and nature, and
ventail dcosystmes reste lun des principaux douce inscrits sur la Liste drologique dune grande troite avec les rgions range of ecosystems from tury, remains one of the UNESCOs World Heritage a hydrological zone of the close integration
depuis le dsert et attraits touristiques de du patrimoine mondial de richesse en diversit
   desert or semi-desert main tourist attractions List. Great Sandy high biological diversity with urban regions, gives
les zones semi-arides Fuerteventura (Spain). lUNESCO. Great Sandy biologique (Mexique). de cette rserve de areas to coastal and ma- of Fuerteventura (Spain). (Australia). (Mexico). this biosphere reserve its
jusquaux habitats ctiers (Australie). biosphre (Allemagne). rine habitats (Spain). 7* #7
et marins (Espagne).

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kArt parital sur le kVillage Himba dans kRcolte par un kSoins dune mre sa kLe bissap Hibiscus sabdariffa kRock art from the World kHimba village in the kResearcher collects the kA mother takes kBissap Hibiscus
site de Tsodilo class la rgion de Kaokaland chercheur des corces  
xooc est trs pris en Afrique. Heritage Site of Tsodilo region of Kaokaland bark of a shrub rich in care of her daughter sabdariffa is very popular
au patrimoine mondial (Namibie). dun arbuste riche en dom (maux de tte) et Le feuillage au got acide (Botswana). (Namibia)* alkaloids suffering from xooc dom in Africa. The bitter-tasting
(Botswana). alcalodes de cer ke sum (corps  

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(Nouvelle-Caldonie). chaud). Le breuvage et comme nourriture, condiment sum (body heat). The are used as food, condiment
le massage sont base et boisson. Riche en vitamine C, beverage and massage are and beverage. Rich in vita-
de diffrentes plantes, son infusion est rpute pour based on different plants, min C, the infusion is known
dont des feuilles de neem faciliter le transit et faire baisser including leaves of neem to facilitate intestinal transit
(margousier) qui couvrent la pression sanguine (Sngal). (Azadirachta indica) that and lower blood pressure
sa tte (Sngal). cover her head (Senegal). (Senegal).

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kFemme moken ramas- kLagriculture tradition- kAutorits aborignes k La fort sacre de kLes plantes constituent kMoken woman harvests kTraditional agriculture kLocal Aboriginal k The sacred forest kPlants form an important
sant des oursins dans nelle renforce la biodi- locales travaillant en Kpass (Bnin) est un lment important de urchins from the favours biodiversity; authorities at work in of Kpass (Benin) is part of traditional medicines,
lestran sur les les Surin versit ; ici des cultures collaboration avec un protge de lexploi- la mdecine tradi- intertidal zone of the here crops of potatoes collaboration with an protected from logging   #  
(Thalande). de la pomme de terre en anthropologue. tation forestire et de tionnelle, telles ces Surin Islands (Thailand). (Ecuador). anthropologist. and over-use. It has gathered by a herbalist.
Equateur. la pression foncire. feuilles recueillies par become a recognized Traditional knowledge of
Elle est devenue un lieu un herboriste ougandais. tourist site and cultural medicinal plants is actively
touristique reconnu et un Ces connaissances heritage for the people sought after by scientists
patrimoine culturel pour traditionnelles des of Benin. working on ethnopharmacology
les Bninois. plantes mdicinales sont (Uganda).
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kLa culture sur brlis kRunion de formation kLe recours au feu pour faonner les paysages de kTransmission dun kSlash and burn kTraining session on the k;
    k9 #
tait autrefois trs criti- sur le plan de gestion de savane et accrotre leur biodiversit est une pratique pcheur de Vao (Nouvelle- agriculture was once Management Plan for heighten their biodiversity is an age-old practice (New Caledonia) teaches
que. De nos jours pour- la Rserve de biosphre ancestrale matrise par de nombreuses cultures tradi- G 1K  highly criticized. Today, the Pendjari Biosphere mastered by numerous traditional cultures. While his grandson the art of
tant, il est reconnu que de Pendjari (Bnin).   
  
 la technique de fabrication it is recognized that Reserve (Benin).   \#7 making a net using the
de nombreuses pratiques t lente venir, aujourdhui la gestion autochtone par '
 1 '  many systems of shifting 
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agricoles itinrantes le feu est devenue dans certains cas, partie intgrante mesure kwa. La plaquette agriculture contribute to become part of State conservation policy. wood tool gives the
contribuent maintenir de la politique de gestion de lEtat. de bois a la taille souhaite the maintenance of high desired size of the mesh.
une grande diversit bio- des mailles. biological diversity. Here Northern Territory, Kakadu Park
logique. Ici sur la rserve Parc national de Kakadu, Territoire du nord (Australie) in the Bosawas Biosphere Kruger Park (South Africa)
de Biosphre de Bosawas Parc national du Kruger (Afrique du Sud) Reserve, Nicaragua. Forests of Luberon (France)
au Nicaragua. Forts du Lubron (France). > \    
=>
Floraison aprs lincendie (Burkina Faso).

 
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HOW IS BIODIVERSITY LINKED TO THE WORLDS CULTURES?

creating

 


 
Z Les communauts locales et autochtones ont une connaissance
approfondie et de nombreux savoir-faire fonds sur le monde vivant.
Leur lien troit avec les fonctionnements de la biodiversit gntique
leur a permis de crer et de conserver un incroyable nombre de
varits de plantes, de races animales voire de cultures bactriennes.

Les clones de taro et digname qui foisonnent dans les jardins


 




 #

    

monde grce diffrentes bactries, et les centaines de varits de riz
cultives travers lAsie en sont quelques exemples. En Amrique du
Sud, les peuples des Andes sont les gardiens de milliers de varits de
pommes de terre, docas, de mashuas, dollucos et de quinoa.

Cette biodiversit sert des intrts la fois pratiques et symboliques.


9
# 

 
 
#   

 

&
-
lit face aux changements climatiques, tandis que certaines varits ne
sont cultives que pour des festivits ou des vnements rituels.

Z Indigenous and local communities have in-depth knowledge


and know-how about the living world. Their intimate understanding
of genetic biodiversity has allowed them to create and maintain
an astounding array of plant varieties, animal races and
bacterial cultures.

5

 
  %
  
horticultural gardens, the thousands of cheese types sustained around
the world through the discerning application of bacteria, the hundreds
of rice varieties cultivated throughout Asia.
The peoples of the South American Andes are guardians of thousands of
varieties of potatoes, ocas, mashuas, ollucos and quinoa.

This biodiversity serves both practical and symbolic ends. A higher


 1   (%.8&


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of climate change, while some varieties are cultivated exclusively
for use in festivities or rituals.

kVaches devant le k Lhomme a slectionn par la domestication les kViticulture dans la k Vue densemble de kCows in theBenedictine k?
# 7# kVineyards in La Geria k< \  \
couvent bndictin de  % 

   '- valle de la Geria      G /^    #   Valley, Lanzarote, Canary    
Saint-Jean Mstair,  @   Lanzarote dans les varits de crales : Mstair, a World Heritage #  ?    ?  Islands (Spain).     
 
site class au patrimoine classs au patrimoine mondial : Canaries (Espagne). catalogue varital des Site (Switzerland). Sites:   # \ 
mondial (Suisse). Paysage archologique de Tamgaly, Kazakhstan bls tendres dhiver et 9   " ;# 7~4= wheat to barley.
Mont Athos, en Grce des orges, Mount Athos, Greece La Minire (France).
Parc national Sangay, en quateur La Minire (France). Sangay National Park, Ecuador
Tsodilo, au Botswana. Tsodilo, Botswana

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HOW IS BIODIVERSITY LINKED TO THE WORLDS CULTURES?

biodiversity, ecosys tems and

 
 

   

Z Les visions du monde de nombreux peuples autochtones sont fondes


sur la coexistence de lhomme et de la nature o les relations de
rciprocit et de respect caractrisent les cosystmes et les systmes
sociaux. Cette diffrence fondamentale par rapport aux philosophies
de conservation occidentales qui tendent sparer les humains de la
nature, mrite dtre reconnue comme une mthode vers une gestion
des cosystmes collaborative et russie.

Les paysages rsultent de linteraction avec les hommes et des liens qui
les unissent. Les communauts locales confrent un statut particulier
aux espces animales et vgtales, aux montagnes, aux lacs et aux
  


  
 
   4  
 
 

diversit gntique par le nombre despces quils abritent, ces lieux
sacrs, protgs par des conservateurs locaux, deviennent souvent
des lots riches en biodiversit noys parmi des paysages dgrads. Ils
offrent une aide prcieuse aux cosystmes pour les protger contre de
futures dgradations.

Z The worldviews of many indigenous peoples are founded upon


relationships of reciprocity and respect that traverse the
boundaries between people and nature, and interlink ecosystems
and social systems. This fundamental difference from Western
conservation philosophies, which tend to separate humans and nature,
deserves recognition as a pathway towards successful
collaborative ecosystem management.

 

&
  

    
   
create them. Local communities may confer special status on animal
and plant species, mountains, lakes or forest groves by identifying
them as sacred sites. These sacred places, protected by local custodians,
often become islands of high biodiversity in otherwise degraded
environments. They may serve as important reservoirs of genetic
49  

and species diversity, which can help protect ecosystems from future
environmental degradation.

k"##K
 k89 
 '  1 k Le gabba est une tapis- kSupposes avoir t un kG 
 #  k;\   k@9    kThe Gabba is a kPresumed to have k9
   
lle de Siberut, situe palabre est un arbre     ancien site de recherche dans la baie de Lamen    /
 tree is a sacred tree,   7  at Lamen Bay (Vanuatu)
louest de Sumatra, sacr, dont le bois, dcorative reprsentant agronomique o les (Vanuatu), impose un \  whose wood, bark, decorative embroidered agricultural research  
vivent en troite '   
   des scnes de la vie quo- Incas pratiquaient des tabou : la zone est Sumatra, live in close 
 tapestry depicting scenes where the Incas  

7#   3
##   tidienne et tmoignant de expriences laide de  #1 3 7#\   seeds serve many uses   77   experimented with   
Leur mode de vie relve ont de multiples usages la richesse du patrimoine plantes apportes de tout raison du dcs dun ;   7  (Senegal). rich biodiversity heritage   
 # member. There is a
dune adaptation (Sngal). de la biodiversit au lempire, les terrasses membre du clan. Dans 

  &= throughout their empire, \  

 
remarquable un Pakistan. de Moray sont en cours &
#  a harsh environment.    7  practices relating to
 #   de restauration, avec de pratiques culturelles being restored, with new natural resource use
nouvelles expriences, ici sont lies lusage des experiments, here on  &
sur le quinoa (Prou). ressources naturelles. quinoa (Peru).

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HOW IS BIODIVERSITY LINKED TO THE WORLDS CULTURES?

biodiversity and


 



Z Prs de la moiti des 7000 langues parles dans le monde risque de


disparatre au cours de ce sicle. Les langues servent non seulement
transmettre les connaissances mais galement exprimer la manire
dont on peroit le monde. Lorsquune langue meurt, cest toute une
connaissance pratique de la biodiversit transmise par une terminologie
souvent complexe qui se perd.

Ltude de la vitalit et de la diversit des langues autochtones





 

  
     
  

biodiversit de la conversation. De manire globale, on remarque une
imbrication visible entre les zones de mgadiversit biologique et les
zones de forte diversit culturelle et linguistique. Entre autres, parmi
les 9 pays regroupant 60% des langues parles, 6 sont des centres de
diversit culturelle et comptent un nombre exceptionnel despces
vgtales et animales uniques.

Depuis 2002, le statut et lvolution du nombre de personnes parlant


des langues indignes et des diversits linguistiques sont dsormais
inscrits comme indicateurs utiliss pour lObjectif 2010 dans le cadre
de la Convention sur la diversit biologique.

ZNearly half of the 7000 languages spoken in the world today are
in danger of disappearing during this century. Languages are vehicles
for knowledge transmission, but they also demonstrate the way the
speaker views and understands the world. Useful and meaningful
knowledge of biodiversity may be carried in complex terminology
that will be lost when a language dies.

By monitoring the vitality and diversity of indigenous languages,


we may be able to identify trends in traditional knowledge relevant to
biodiversity conservation. There is a visible overlap between the global
mapping of the worlds areas of biological megadiversity and areas
of high cultural and linguistic diversity. For example, in 9 countries,
which together account for 60% of human languages, 6 of these are
centres of cultural diversity and contain exceptional numbers of unique
plant and animal species.

Since 2002, the status and trends in the numbers of speakers of


indigenous languages and linguistic diversity has been designated as
1
%)%

a 2010 Biodiversity Target Indicator in the framework of the


Convention on Biological Diversity.

k"'
  kPetit march de plantes kGurisseuse nganga kLe camlon, animal kPrparation du poison k8
    k/# # =  k96   kThe chameleon, an k&     
dans la langue berbre, mdicinales de la rgion assise devant ses usten- emblmatique du groupe pour les armes de chasse the Berber language, medicinal plants in the displaying the implements emblematic animal use with hunting weapons
 de La Paz dans le cadre siles rituels (Congo). bassari au Sngal. La sur lle de Siberut ; 7  "&4
 she uses in rituals     
   /

par les anciens, alors que '
   
  
 %  (Indonsie). elders, while instruction       (Congo). in Senegal. Tradition (Indonesia).
linstruction en arabe traditionnels (Bolivie). la vertu de changer de in Arabic is provided by a products (Bolivia). recognizes its power to
est donne dans lcole couleur pour se protger. local scholar at a school change color to protect
dun campement voisin Sous sa protection, le in a camp in the region    #
(Niger). peuple bassari sinterdit (Niger). their protection, the
de le tuer. Bassari people take care
not to kill them.

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WHAT CAN WE DO TO HALT BIODIVERSITY LOSS?

the convention on biological


 



 7

Z Durant le sommet de la Terre Rio en 1992, les dirigeants mondiaux


   
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Z At the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, world leaders agreed on


a comprehensive strategy and the legal instruments needed to achieve
sustainable development. One of the key instruments established
at Rio was the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) which has three
main objectives:
- the conservation of biological diversity;
- the sustainable use of its components;
 
 
 
  # 


   


of genetic resources.

Today, the CBD has near universal acceptance around the world.
Over 190 countries and one regional economic organization have
 
 
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is to integrate the three main objectives into decision-making, not only
in environment ministries, but also across all sectors of national
government and relevant stakeholders.

In 2000, the CBD adopted a supplementary agreement known as the


Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety which seeks to protect biological
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with adequate information to make informed decisions about the
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WHAT CAN WE DO TO HALT BIODIVERSITY LOSS?

financing

  


 
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Z In order to achieve the three objectives of the Convention on


Biological Diversity (CBD) and the 2010 Biodiversity Target, it is
estimated that funding of between 10 to 50 billion US$ dollars per year
will be needed.

+
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their commitments to the CBD. The GEF has provided US$ 2.8 billion
in grants and attracted US$7.6 billion more from other sources in support
of 750 biodiversity projects in 155 countries. It has invested
over US$ 1.5 billion in the creation and management of 2 300 protected
areas covering 632 million hectares and supported 100 million hectares
of land outside protected areas to advance biodiversity conservation.
The GEF supported projects has helped countries to incorporate
biodiversity conservation into national plans, including agriculture,
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122 countries improved their biosafety capacities.

Countries and concerned organizations are also encouraged to explore



  

   

 
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Z Protected areas are havens for biodiversity and an effective method


for its conservation. These are forests, mountains, wetlands, grasslands,
deserts, lakes, rivers, coral reefs, and oceans that are managed to
maintain biodiversity. Protected areas are managed for multiple,
yet compatible uses, including biodiversity conservation, recreation,
  

 
   

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protected areas in the world support livelihoods and the economies of
local communities. Nearly 1,1 billion people depend on protected forest
areas for their livelihoods.

The Convention on Biological Diversity Programme of Work on Protected


Areas is a comprehensive framework for the establishment of protected
-# .

area systems.

The GEF has been recognized for its substantive contribution to the
#


  
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protection. For instance, with the support of the GEF, Namibia has


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more than 300%, based on the favorable return on investment achieved
through nature-based tourism. Capacity for protected area management
has been strengthened and gaps in geographic coverage of important

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WHAT CAN WE DO TO HALT BIODIVERSITY LOSS?

biodiversity

 


    

Z Lorganisation des Nations Unies pour lalimentation et lagriculture


estime que prs de 40% de notre conomie globale est bas sur lutili-
sation des ressources biologiques. Lutilisation durable des ressources
biologiques permet de promouvoir la prservation de la biodiversit,
puisque dans bien des cas, elle incite sa protection et son dvelop-
pement du fait des avantages sociaux, culturels et conomiques que
les populations en retirent.

Par exemple, la Gorgie dispose de plus de 350 espces de crales, de


quelque 100 types de fruitiers, noix et baies sauvages et 500 varits
de raisin. Au cours du sicle dernier, les techniques agricoles


 

  # 


 

de nombreuses varits locales de plantes fut ainsi abandonne entrai-
nant une perte de cultivars intressants. Grce au soutien du FEM,
les fermiers gorgiens ont repris la culture de ces espces locales
et ont ainsi augment leurs revenus. Des coopratives de fermiers
locales se sont cres pour distribuer des graines de varits
autochtones plus rsistantes aux parasites et plus nutritives,
rpondant ainsi la demande du march et des consommateurs.
9
  # 








  
aux changements climatiques.

Z The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that


at least 40 % of our global economy is based on the use of biological
resources. Sustainable use is a valuable tool to promote conservation
of biodiversity, since in many instances it provides incentives for
conservation and restoration because of the social, cultural and



   



  

For example, Georgia has over 350 local species of grain crops, more
than 100 species of fruit-trees, nuts and wild berries, and 500 local
varieties of grapes. During the past century, introduction of modern
#  
  




#     
As a result, the cultivation of many valuable local plant varieties has
been abandoned, with the loss of important native cultivars. With the
support of the GEF, farmers in Georgia have resumed the use of local
plant varieties, and in the process increased their income. Local farmer
cooperatives have been formed to distribute seeds of local varieties
which are more pest resistant and nutritious, adding to their market
 

3

    
 

that crops are better adapted to climate change.
 -O'-8

kPour la restauration, kAvec lappui du FEM, kLa protection dun kGroupe dans la rserve de kY 7  k;=*8>
  k;   kY

 
la prservation et les agriculteurs gorgiens site naturel ouvre sur % & ==K; 7 and sustainable farmers in Georgia natural site opens up  Y  
lutilisation durable de cultivent des varits de nouvelles possibilits use of Georgias 
    new and increasing & ==K; 7
la diversit biologique   
 conomiques, comme 9
 
     7*8>   \ economic opportunities,
agricole en Gorgie, sont plus nutritives et lcotourisme, qui seulement ce que nous aimons. grants near $ 0.9 million, are more pest resistant =
# @\\  
>8 % mieux rsistantes aux ra- croissent rapidement. Nous naimons que ce que nous #  and nutritious, adding     7\\  
0,9 million de dollars, vageurs, augmentant leur 
1    comprenons. Nous comprendrons Cluster of cereal crops # =
#   Y   7\\
 
1

  
 #  %   seulement ce quon nous aura \    #  
 (Canada). \ 
  7\
de 1,7 million. Bouquet le consommateur, en plus (Canada). enseign. Georgia*   # \ 

de cultures des varits daccrotre leurs revenus Baba Dioum, > !  Baba Dioum,
locales de Gorgie. (Lin et semences de environnementaliste sngalais. seeds). Senegalese environmentalist.
fveroles en Gorgie).

 -O'-8  -O'-8

1
 -* .


 

 + +,


WHAT CAN WE DO TO HALT BIODIVERSITY LOSS?

for fair and equitable sharing



  


7 



Z Les ressources gntiques dorigines vgtale, animale, issues de
champignons ou de microorganismes peuvent tre utilises pour une
varit dusages, dont la mdecine et la cosmtique. Les revenus


 


 




  ! 

   

 




 

 
formation, lducation, les rsultats de recherches, ou le transfert de
technologies.

  !

 
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lignes directrices de Bonn et les conditions internationales daccs et
de partage (ABS) encouragent les fournisseurs et les utilisateurs de ces

 
# 
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rsultant de leur utilisation.
Avant toute utilisation de ressources gntiques, un utilisateur se doit
de rechercher un consentement clair auprs du pays fournisseur et
den ngocier les termes et conditions. Les pays fournisseurs doivent
faciliter laccs une utilisation cologiquement saine de leurs
ressources gntiques.
5/

5  
  
! 

 #


 

gntiques de la biodiversit par ladoption de rgles et de procdures
appeles Loi sur la diversit biologique nationale. LInde pourra ainsi



 

 


 
# 


vue de leur prservation.

Z Genetic resources of plants, animals, fungi, and microorganisms can


be used for variety of purposes, including medicines and cosmetics.

 %

 
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% # 
 %

 
include training and education, research and development results,
or the transfer of technology.

+
  
 
 
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1


 
 

 
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Sharing (ABS) encourage users and providers of genetic resources
 

 

   
 

 

and fair way.

Users of genetic resources should seek the prior informed consent from,
and negotiate the terms and conditions with, the provider country for
their use. Provider countries should create conditions to facilitate access
to their genetic resources for environmentally sound uses.
72WH1 +

+
5   
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sharing of genetic resources from biodiversity by establishing laws and
procedures under Indias National Biological Diversity Act. India will




 

  #


 

are to be managed by providing incentives for its conservation.

kPour renforcer lappli- k 


!

! kGros plan sur des pois k"
% kBien adapts au climat k/  k> \ # = k>
^' k*=  k K
cation de la Loi sur la pices en Inde. larme de Job (Coyx la- sont ncessaires aux andin, patates, ocas, # #  in India. ; Coyx lacrimajobi).    7 9 #
diversit biologique et crimajobi). Ces pois sont politiques de conservation ollucos et autres    7 ;  \ conservation policies; potatoes, ocas,
les rglementations en cultivs en Inde et en de la biodiversit ; ici capucines tuberculeuses 
\ 
 India and Asia for several  # #  
 
mettant laccent sur les Asie depuis plusieurs mil-
# %## sont autant de ressources 9  # } 7 cassava encapsulated and tuberiferous crops offer
'%  /  encapsul et in vitro gntiques (Prou). /  *8>  
  #= in vitro (Montpellier). #7 

  >8 utiliss pour la fabrication (Montpellier).  [/`X#  = Z
# (Peru).
 %`X#  de colliers ; consomms, [/ 7K
  
 ils ont des proprits 6,2 million. Vegetable properties, creating a
de 6,2 millions en Inde. K
1 ' -   # =  # =  #[/
Vendeuse de lgumes sur '
 #  ?@
# ? amricain.

-#  ! 2  

1
  2
%

-#  !


WHAT CAN WE DO TO HALT BIODIVERSITY LOSS?

future



 
Z Vous faites partie intgrante de la nature et votre destin est intime-
ment li la biodiversit qui fournit nourriture, eau, nergie, soins
mdicaux et autres services vitaux essentiels. Cependant, du fait de
lactivit humaine, cette diversit se perd une vitesse alarmante.
Cette atteinte aux systmes vitaux de la Terre, dont nous dpendons,
affaiblit sa capacit rpondre aux changements climatiques, la perte


 

 

2010 est lAnne internationale de la biodiversit. Nous devons nous


atteler rduire la perte de biodiversit.

Exemple dactions travers le monde :


Inspirs par le succs du Groupe dexperts intergouvernemental sur
lvolution du climat (GIEC) dans la sensibilisation aux changements cli-
matiques, les gouvernements envisagent la cration dune Plateforme
intergouvernementale sur la biodiversit et les services cosystmiques
/150 




 
    

services cosystmiques et le bien-tre humain, et fournir une aide la
prise de dcision.

Linitiative allemande Lifeweb mobilise des ressources pour la cration


de zones protges travers le monde.
En 2010, les gouvernements vont accepter un nouveau plan strat-
#
 ;31




     


biodiversit est protge pour le bien-tre humain et limiter limpact
du changement climatique.

Z You are an integral part of nature, and your fate is intimately linked
to biodiversity to provide you with food, water, fuel, medicine and
lifes other essential services. Yet this rich diversity is being lost at an
alarming rate due to human activities. The Earths life support system,
on which we depend, is weakening its ability to respond to such threats
 
#

 % 

 

2010 is the International Year of Biodiversity. We have to work to reduce


biodiversity loss.

Actions around the world include:


Inspired by the success of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change (IPCC) in raising awareness about climate change, governments
are now considering the creation of an Intergovernmental Platform on
Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) to evaluate biodiversity loss
and its impact on ecosystem services and human well-being and as
an aid to decision-making.

The Lifeweb Initiative of Germany is mobilising resources for the


#&O*&)
!#OO

creation of protected areas worldwide.

In 2010, governments will agree on the new strategic plan for the CBD,
and set new targets to ensure that biodiversity is protected for human
well-being, and to buffer the impacts of climate change.

kImaginer kCultiver k tudier kSur la rserve de kSensibiliser k;# k; \ k;


7 k<& \ k; \ 
Immeuble innovant dans G# 4 % La biodiversit des rcifs % & \ Randonneurs dans le Parc ?  Y   ; 7    Y   = &
  
>
=
= Y %  ctiers offre un potentiel &  national de Picos de Europa, 
 &  
 Regensburg, Bavaria reefs offers a potential &  8
6 & =
(Japon). (Allemagne). de ressource gntique.
  %   >
=
=^ * #7 genetic resource.   Y 
6
 Hypselodoris Renforcer Asturie (Espagne). 6
 Hypselodoris ;  Asturias (Spain).
apolegma dans les eaux Mise en culture de plants apolegma<=\ Culture of plants to
'<=\^ pour renforcer Prefecture (Japan). consolidate
la mangrove. # 

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WORLD HERITAGE (and the International Year of Biodiversity)

caring for our






 

Z Le concept de patrimoine mondial est fond sur la conviction que
certains sites dans le monde ont une valeur universelle telle quils sont
considrs comme faisant partie du patrimoine de lhumanit.
Ils ncessitent donc une protection internationale.
La Convention du patrimoine mondial est le seul instrument lgislatif
international assurer lintgrit, la protection et la gestion des sites.

;  

 

 
international et joue un rle essentiel pour la protection
de la biodiversit.

Quatre critres concernent les sites naturels [(vii)(Viii)(ix)(x)] dont deux


directement relatifs la biodiversit :
(ix) reprsentatif des processus biologiques et cologiques
(x) pour les habitats naturels reprsentatifs pour la conservation
de la biodiversit.

A ce jour, 81 pays se rpartissent 201 sites classs patrimoine mondial,


naturels ou mixtes, protgeant ainsi 177 millions hectares de terre
et de mer, soit presque la moiti de la surface de lEurope !
Beaucoup de ces sites se situent sur des points chauds de biodiversit.

Z The concept of World Heritage is based on the conviction that certain


sites in the world are of such outstanding universal value that they
form part of the common heritage of humankind and thus require
international protection. The World Heritage Convention is the only
international legislative instrument that regularly monitors sites
to ensure integrity, protection, and management. The World Heritage
Committee has the intergovernmental mandate to intervene and plays
an essential role in biodiversity protection.

  

   
     


 %

 
{; 


  # ##
ecological and biological processes. Criterion (x) refers to biodiversity
conservation and their associated threats.

Today, 201 natural and mixed World Heritage sites in 81 countries


protect over 177 million hectares of land and sea, or about half the
size of Europe! Many of the World Heritage sites are situated
N- /(+

in biodiversity hotspots or regions.

k Les les subantarctiques kPoints chauds et zones kG   }
1  kLe panda gant :
de la Nouvelle Zlande de biodiversit du "6
 KG >  symbole emblmatique kThe New Zealand kPresence of World kFive good reasons to care. From L to R: k;*&
ont un haut niveau de patrimoine mondial. [critres (vii)(ix)(x)] de la protection de la Sub-Antarctic Islands Heritage sites in the " 6\G >  emblematic symbol for
biodiversit, avec une &  ~#@ biodiversit. have a high level of worlds biodiversity [criteria (vii)(ix)(x)] biodiversity protection.
densit et un endmisme [critres (vii)(x)] Sanctuaires du grand biodiversity, wildlife hotspots and regions. ~#6 & =@ /
*&
levs. >+  '<
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G population densities [criteria (vii)(x)] /
 G
[critres (ix)(x)] 6 7 + 6 % [critre (x)]. and endemism. 6 \>+ ]*  +  [criterion (x)].
[critres (vii)(viii)] [criteria (ix)(x)]. 6 7 + 6 \7
/ =^ [criteria (vii)(viii)]
[critres (ix)(x)] / =^
Y 8@ / # [criteria (ix)(x)]
[critre (ix)]. 8Y / #@ 
[criterion (ix)].

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WORLD HERITAGE (and the International Year of Biodiversity)

living with threats, coping

 


 





Z Face aux crises et problmes environnementaux affectant la
biodiversit, tels que le changements climatique, la dforestation ou
les espces invasives, nous pourrions facilement nous sentir dmunis.
Fort heureusement, en sa qualit de secrtariat de la Convention du
patrimoine mondial, le Centre du patrimoine mondial de lUNESCO agit
en fonction dinformations collectes par les missions de surveillance,
les rapports priodiques, les ONG ou mme les rapports non comman-
dits dans le but dimpliquer les gouvernements et de les aider faire
face aux diffrentes menaces qui psent sur les sites classs.

La Liste du patrimoine mondial en pril est utilise pour la sauvegarde


des sites et aide la prise de conscience politique tout en encoura-
#
 



 



 

remet en cause lintgrit et la valeur naturelle dun site,
le changement climatique, conjugu avec dautres facteurs,
peut considrablement affaiblir sa valeur universelle exceptionnelle.

Limmense popularit des sites classs permet dattirer lattention


des mdias et de galvaniser le soutien du public lchelle nationale
et internationale.

Z With environmental issues and crises affecting biodiversity, whether


its climate change, deforestation or invasive species, we could easily
feel helpless. Fortunately, the UNESCO World Heritage Centre, as
Secretariat to the World Heritage Convention, acts on information
gathered from monitoring missions, periodic reports, NGOs or even
unsolicited reports to engage with governments and help tackle threats
to World Heritage sites.

The List of World Heritage in Danger is an instrument used in the




  
{ 
  
 
  

 #

#




 ;
#
 
example (together with other stress factors) may eventually 2008 2009
undermine the characteristics of a site, affecting its natural 90
78
#

#  %    #
 
 80
67 65 65
70
1
  4+

The widespread appreciation of listed sites can attract media attention


60
and galvanize public support both nationally and worldwide to greater 49
50
impact. 36
40
30
20 23 20
20 12
10
0
Development Other human Natural events Management Other issues
and activities and disasters and legal issues
infrastructure

kPatrimoine mondial en k Pourcentage de biens k Leffet combin du kLe Sanctuaire de loryx kLes effets du changement kWorld Heritage in k Percentage of properties kThe combined effect k;9 < 7! kThe effects of climate
pril : perte dhabitat, affects par chaque changement climatique  <# '
 climatique se ressentent }    affected by each primary of global climate change /
 7<# change are being felt
  groupe primaire de global et des change- 
!
1 +

'
!/
 
 poaching and armed group of threats (in 2008 and changes in local one of only two delisted in The Sundarbans
arms menacent le gorille menaces (2008 - 2009). ments de pratiques tre retir de la Liste, le Bangladesh avec la perte   and 2009). practices have caused sites (the other being (Bangladesh) with rising
des montagnes du Parc Source : rsum locales a entrain une deuxime tant le site '
1 '  mountain gorilla in Source: analytical an 82% reduction of the the cultural site of the sea levels and habitat
national des Virunga, analytique de ltat de diminution de la couche culturel de la Valle de du niveau de la mer. 
6 & = summary of the state of ~ #+ K } 8  7 loss.
Rpublique dmocratique conservation des biens 
~ #+  '8 1}  }# Y
   conservation of World (United Republic of * #7; 

G du patrimoine mondial : en Tanzanie (1993 et (Allemagne). Sa zone G Heritage properties: main Tanzania). In 1993 and area had been reduced
principales menaces 2002). protge a t rduite threats affecting the 2002. by 90%.
pesant sur les biens. de 90%. properties. Trends for
Tendances 2008-2009. 2008-2009 .


-%%%
&#8 

1
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1
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WORLD HERITAGE (and the International Year of Biodiversity)

forging Partnerships for



   

 
 
Z Une coopration entre les gouvernements, les institutions
internationales, les ONG et les entreprises prives est essentielle pour
la sauvegarde du patrimoine mondial. Luniversalit de cet hritage
encourage toute la communaut agir pour le bien de la biodiversit,
qui est aussi le ntre.
Cette campagne internationale est essentielle pour atteindre
lObjectif 2010 pour la biodiversit et ne pourra russir quau prix
dune action commune.
/  


   
 
-
tion, lance en 2002 par le Comit du patrimoine mondial compte
J[

  
 

  9


La coopration existe dj sous forme consultative et technique, avec


9/9;

935 

  
  

 
multilatraux, tels que le Groupe de liaison pour la biodiversit, ou
  
!
 
  



 


Les programmes ducatifs du patrimoine mondial tels que la srie de
dessins anims Patrimonito (8 pisodes) ou le kit Le patrimoine
mondial entre les mains des jeunes , disponible en 32 langues,
ciblent la jeunesse.

Z Cooperation with governments, international institutions, NGOs


and private corporations is crucial to safeguard World Heritage. In a
sense, the universality of this common heritage is driving the global
community to act for biodiversitys sake, and ultimately our own.

This worldwide campaign is essential in order to achieve the 2010


Biodiversity Target; work that cannot be accomplished without

 
+
) *
 #
 
  ;
 /  


in 2002, involves more than 70 partners; all adhere to the universal
principles of the UN Global Compact. Cooperation exists on an
   % 
 % /9;935 

Multilateral Environmental Agreements including the Biodiversity
   %
%##  


+
) *
 #
5  # 
  #
%   
 
1


such as the World Heritage in Young Hands Resource Kit


(in 32 languages) and the Patrimonito cartoon series (8 episodes).

kScne de k"'  ^ K"- k[


   kLes gestionnaires de k""  
}  k A scene from episode 7. k#=  kThe Business Planning k World Heritage site k;} 8
Patrimonito en G
  '@   de gestion dvelopp sites du patrimoine  '
} Patrimonito in Australia: ^ K"G
  ; =K  # \ = }G[
Australie : le Changement Herald Tribune simpli- en partenariat avec la mondial travaillent en (Royaume-Uni) a attir Climate Change and the The International with the Shell Foundation Tubbataha Reefs Marine ~# 
climatique et la Grande quent dans le programme Fondation Shell aide les collaboration avec le dimportants fonds sup- Great Barrier Reef. Herald Tribune show helps site managers & =&   
Barrire (pisode 7). marin du patrimoine  1 > &6[}K*8> plmentaires aprs son their committment improve on sustainability. increase environmental funding following
mondial. Le Parc naturel amliorer la durabilit pour responsabiliser inscription. Un fonds, le to the World Heritage 98 \ awareness among the designation, and the
du rcif de Tubbataha aux 
!KG  les populations locales ^
G;
 Marine Programme. research and learning local population with ^
G;

Philipines a reu des fonds recherche et dducation voisines du Parc naturel cr pour renforcer ces The Tubbataha Reef centre in Malaysian funds from WWF and was created to further
provenant dune vente aux 8 \1   du rcif de Tubbataha partenariats.  & =&  Borneo. [6}&K*8> strengthen partnerships.
enchres organise par Malaisie. aux Philippines. received funds from an
^ K"G
  auction organized by
^ K"G
 

& )8+ 1


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WORLD HERITAGE (and the International Year of Biodiversity)

biodiversity MAking

 




 

Z Classer un site patrimoine mondial, accroit son attrait touristique.


;

  






 
faut savoir quilibrer dveloppement et conservation. La popularit
engendre une augmentation des dpenses des touristes, amliore les
opportunits commerciales et demploi, les infrastructures publiques,

  
 

#



 

Le programme Tourisme du patrimoine mondial permet dassocier


conservation de la biodiversit et tourisme durable en travaillant
avec les communauts locales et les gestionnaires de sites pour une
protection de lhabitat adapte un tourisme croissant.
"# 

   
#  
 


illgale et lintroduction despces psent sur la biodiversit unique
des les et compromettent les efforts de conservation.

Responsabiliser les communauts locales envers leur patrimoine


mondial est la seule solution pour prenniser la diversit naturelle
et culturelle de notre plante.

Z World Heritage listing certainly enhances properties as tourist



  / 
# 
 


    

balancing act between conservation and development. Popularity brings
increased tourist spending, enhanced commercial and employment
opportunities, improved public infrastructure, and often, community
prestige and pride.

The World Heritage Tourism Programme links biodiversity conservation


and sustainable tourism by working with local communities and site
managers to balance the boon in tourism with habitat protection.

In the case of the Galpagos, the growing number of migrants impact


 

  
 /
#  #   
 

introduced species compete with the islands unique biodiversity,
hampering conservation efforts.

Only by instilling a deep sense of responsibility among the local


 )-&O

 
   ) *
 #



    

planets cultural and natural diversity will endure into the future.

kFace sa popularit, kVictimes de leur kAvec la Fondation kInformer les visiteurs kTirer les leons du kCoping with popularity. k Too famous for its own kTogether with kInforming visitors of the kLearning from the
le site du Machu Picchu succs ? Les Iles des Nations Unies et des valeurs naturelles chapitre sur le tourisme Machu Picchu (Peru) good? The Galpagos the United Nations natural values that are chapter on tourism in the
(Prou) se bat pour Galpagos (Equateur), lUNESCO, Expedia aide qui sont reconnues dans le kit du struggles to reconcile Islands (Ecuador) a World Foundation and UNESCO, ascribed to a particular World Heritage in Young
concilier tourisme un site du patrimoine linformation des voya- 
1

 Patrimoine mondial tourism and conservation. Heritage site in Danger. Expedia has created World Heritage site is Hands resource kit.
et conservation. mondial en pril. geurs et les sensibilise patrimoine mondial est entre les mains des Friends of World Heritage an important aspect of
sur le tourisme durable. un aspect important de jeunes . to educate travelers and tourism management.
Safari dans la Zone de la gestion touristique. raise awareness about At the Morne Trois Pitons
conservation du Parc national Trois Pitons sustainable tourism. National Park (Dominica).
Ngorongoro (Rpublique- (Dominique). On safari in Ngorongoro
unie de Tanzanie). Conservation Area (United
Republic of Tanzania).





   
  
 
  

     

 

  
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WORLD HERITAGE (and the International Year of Biodiversity)

holistic in name


 



  

Z 9
 
 
  #
;
 





entre patrimoine naturel et culturel, traditionnellement spars.
En 1992, la Convention est devenue le premier instrument juridique

 


  #

% #
 
 

'

  


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#
   
une culture et une identit qui enrichissent la diversit culturelle
et biologique.

;
 % #
 
   

&



 

dutilisation durable des sols, prenant en considration les caractris-
tiques et les limites de lenvironnement naturel, souvent soutenu
  
   

 
;

  


sites naturels sacrs, constituent des aires de conservation de la
biodiversit in situ particulirement importantes.

Certains paysages culturels fournissent galement les bases pour les


rcoltes de demain ainsi que pour les avances mdicales grce leurs
ressources gntiques. Les sites pratiquant la conservation de plantes
ex situ, tel les jardins botaniques de Kew Londres, sont aussi dune
grande importance.

Z 2
 
  # 
  
;
   

 
link between natural and cultural heritage, traditionally considered as

 
/@^ 
;
 

 
 
 
#
instrument to recognize and protect cultural landscapes.
They are places where people, nature and ecosystems interact, thus
shaping culture and identity, and enriching both cultural and biological
diversity.

0
   

&
  


  

land-use that consider the characteristics and limits of the natural
environment with often a spiritual relationship to nature. Together
with sacred natural sites they are therefore important areas of in situ

 &4%.9#* 8& 

biodiversity conservation.

Certain cultural landscapes also provide the basis for the crops of
tomorrow as well as medical breakthroughs because of their gene
pools. Equally important are sites practicing ex situ plant conservation
such as Kew Gardens in London.

kRizires en terrasses des kLes terrasses et les kLe paysage dagaves et k La banque de graines k Lutilisation durable des kRice Terraces of the kThe terraces and the kThe Agave Landscape kKews Millennium Seed kSustainable land-use
cordillres des Philippines chants Hudhud, les anciennes installations du Kew Millenium est le terres et la spiritualit Philippine Cordilleras Hudhud Chants, a and the Ancient Industrial Bank partnership is the and spirituality are
(Philippines). chef-duvre du industrielles de Tequila plus ambitieux projet sont au cur du paysage (Philippines). Masterpiece of Intangible Facilities of Tequila largest ex situ plant at the heart of the
patrimoine immatriel, (Mexique) ont t au monde de conserva- culturel des Kayas. Heritage, are intimately (Mexico) has been shaped conservation project in cultural landscape of
sont intimement lis et faonns par la culture tion de la biodiversit Kaya Ribe dans les forts related and testify to the by the culture of the the world. Royal Botanic the Kayas. Kaya Ribe in
tmoignent de lharmonie de lagave, qui fait partie vgtale ex situ. Jardins sacres Mijikenda harmony between the plant, which is part of the Gardens, Kew (United sacred Mijikenda Forests
entre le peuple ifugao et de lidentit nationale. botaniques royaux de Kew (Kenya). Ifugao people and their national identity. Kingdom). (Kenya).
leur environnement. (Royaume-Uni). environment.

1
 #*%

1
 
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WORLD HERITAGE (and the International Year of Biodiversity)

keeping track of the


 


 

Z Avec un nombre croissant de sites classs, dont 16 sur la Liste en
pril, le Comit du patrimoine mondial travaille darrache-pied pour
amliorer la surveillance et la remonte des informations. Le Comit
sappuie sur les rapports dtat de conservation, sur le mcanisme

  
 
  
   
 


dangers potentiels et den assurer le suivi.

Les rapports peuvent initier des missions de suivi sur les zones o la
conservation semble menace. Lassistance internationale alloue par
le Fonds du patrimoine mondial ainsi que le Fonds de Rponse Rapide
66   
 

  


  -
tants en cas de crises.
En tant quorganisation consultative pour les sites naturels classs,
lUICN joue un rle important pour la recommandation linscription,
particulirement en cas de sous-reprsentation co-rgionale de site
 
 
 
   


Au niveau local, l o les changements prjudiciables sont rapidement


dtects, les gestionnaires de sites patrimoine mondial travaillent avec

2

  
 





conservation globale un niveau local.

Z With a growing number of World Heritage sites, and 16 natural


listed sites In Danger, the World Heritage Committee works hard to
improve monitoring and reporting. The Committee relies on the state
of conservation reports, reinforced monitoring and periodic reporting
to anticipate potential threats and keep track.
Reports can initiate reactive monitoring by requesting monitoring
  

 

 
 %
 +
) 
Heritage Funds international assistance provisions and the Rapid
Response Facility are among the most important mechanisms for
   
 

)+  %+%++#&9

IUCN plays an important role as Advisory Body on natural World


Heritage sites making recommendations on nominations, particularly
 
 


##  
) *
 #
   

  "  






 #



 


) *
 #
 
#
  
communities and NGOs to place global conservation in local hands.
Continent/ Natural N0. of WH Sites Total
Rgion Sites mixed sites in Danger
(Sites (N0. de sites (Sites en
naturels) mixtes) pril)
Asia
33 7 1 38
(Asie)

Africa
(Afrique) 33 3 12 36

North America
(Amrique 25 0 0 20
du nord)

South America
(Amrique 29 3 3 31
du sud)

Europe 40 7 0 31

kDes annes defforts kRpartition des sites kUn projet de drivation kLa rgion arctique est k"'
   kYears of conservation kNatural World Heritage kA river diversion project kThe Arctic Region is one kThe effective use of
de conservation parties du patrimoine naturel de la rivire dans le Parc lune des lacunes de la Liste des sites en pril efforts up in smoke. Site occurrence by in the Royal Chitwan of the gaps on the World danger listing helped
en fume. Lutte contre mondial par continent et national Royal de Chitwan la Liste du patrimoine a accru la volont > 8# continent / region. National Park (Nepal) Heritage List. Ilulissat raise the political
les incendies dans le rgion. (Npal) a t abandonn mondial. Le Fjord glac politique de mieux grer National Park, Cerrado was abandoned following Icefjord (Denmark) is one willingness to deal with
Parc national Emas, dans aprs lintervention du dIlulissat (Danemark) les travaux de voirie Protected areas (Brazil) intervention by the World of only two natural World destructive road works
les Aires protges du Comit du patrimoine est lun des deux seuls dommageables au Parc thanks to RRF funding. Heritage Committee in the Heritage properties north at Iguau National Park
Cerrado (Brsil) grce mondial dans les annes sites inscrits au nord du national dIguau (Brsil). early 1990s. of the Arctic Circle. (Brazil).

#>YY 1990. cercle arctique. The park contains one of
Le parc abrite une des the last populations of
dernires populations single-horned Asiatic
de rhinocros unicorne rhinoceros.
en Asie.

)! \) 4&]+ 4&$

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3P]PUNPU[OL/LHY[VM[OL4LZVHTLYPJHU)PVSVNPJHS*VYYPKVY
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ZLes peuples autochtones Mayangna et
Miskito occupent la plus vaste zone encore
prserve de la fort tropicale humide
dAmrique centrale. Leurs territoires
traditionnels englobent la rserve de
biosphre de BOSAWAS au Nicaragua
et la rserve de Rio Pltano au Honduras.
Leurs pratiques de la culture sur brlis,
de la pche et de la chasse les ont amen
dvelopper une connaissance approfondie
de la biodiversit locale. En 2004, les chefs
Mayangnas ont dcid dinitier un projet
avec lUNESCO pour rpertorier leurs
savoirs, savoir-faire et visions du monde,
avec une attention particulire la diversit
aquatique, notamment celles des poissons
et des tortues.

ZThe indigenous Mayangna and Miskito


peoples occupy the most extensive
remaining area of tropical rainforest
in Central America. Their traditional
territories encompass the BOSAWAS
Biosphere Reserve in Nicaragua and the
Rio Pltano Reserve in Honduras. Due to
their reliance on slash and burn agriculture,
shing and hunting, they have developed
an in-depth knowledge of the local
 


biodiversity. In 2004, Mayangna leaders


decided to launch a project with UNESCO
to record their indigenous knowledge,
know-how and worldviews, with a focus
on aquatic biodiversity, in particular sh
and turtles.

kT" #7 kT"#7 kT_      kT;  7 kT;7!  kT;= # 
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ZLa progression de la frontire agricole
travers toute lAmrique centrale a dtruit
une majeure partie de la fort tropicale.
Depuis 2005, le gouvernement nicaraguayen
a dmarr un processus de transfert de titres
de proprit aux communauts autochtones,
leur octroyant des droits dagriculture,
de pche, de chasse et de cueillette. travers
la dmarcation et la dfense de leur territoire,
les Mayangnas ont frein la progression de la
frontire agricole, protgeant ainsi la diversit
biologique et culturelle qui constitue le cur
du couloir biologique msoamricain.

ZThe advance of the agricultural frontier


across Central America has destroyed
much of the regions tropical rainforest.
Since 2005, the Nicaraguan government
has begun the process of granting
land titles to indigenous communities,
providing them with rights for agriculture,
shing, hunting and gathering. Through
the demarcation and defense of their
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territories, the Mayangna have successfully
stopped the advance of the agricultural
frontier, protecting both the biological
 

and cultural diversities that constitute


the Heart of the Mesoamerican
Biological Corridor.

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ZContrairement la dmarche scientique,
la pense autochtone noppose pas plus le
rationnel au spirituel quelle ne considre
lun meilleur que lautre. Au contraire, ils sont
indissociables. travers leurs philosophies,
leurs comprhensions et leurs savoir-faire
uniques, les Mayangnas ont labor un mode
de gestion de la biodiversit non seulement
efcace, mais aussi riche de sens.
Dans leur vision du monde, laccs et lutilisation
des ressources naturelles sont rgis par des esprits
suprieurs. Les ressources aquatiques et
les cours deau sont sous le contrle de Lwa,
un esprit majeur envers qui le peuple montre
du respect en traitant de manire approprie
les poissons et les tortues quils prlvent.

ZUnlike science, indigenous thought does


not oppose the rational and the spiritual,
nor value one above the other. Instead,
they ow together and are entwined.
Through their unique philosophies,
understandings and practical know-how,
the Mayangna have elaborated biodiversity
management practices that are effective
but also rich with meaning.
In the Mayangna worldview, access and
use of natural resources are ruled by
 


master spirit beings. Aquatic resources and


waterways are governed and owned by the
master spirit, , to whom people must
show respect through their appropriate
treatment of the fish and the turtles they harvest.

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Z En coutant les histoires de leurs proches
et de leurs parents, en les observant et en les
imitant, les enfants mayangnas acquirent un
savoir cologique. Ds leur plus jeune ge, ils
suivent les adultes jusquaux rivires, dabord
en observant, puis en pchant leur tour.
En racontant lhistoire de Kuah, la tortue connue
localement comme tortue blanche et Ahsa,
autrement dit la tortue noire, les parents
transmettent leurs connaissances de ces deux
animaux, qui sont une importante source de
nourriture. Lhistoire explique comment la
tortue blanche et la tortue noire vivent dans
des habitats diffrents et cohabitent chacune
avec un prdateur spcique.

ZBy seeing and doing, and by listening to stories,


Mayangna children acquire ecological knowledge
from parents and relatives. From their earliest
years, they follow adults on the river, rst
watching and then actively shing. By telling the
story of Kuah, locally known as white turtle,
and Ahsa, the black turtle, their parents pass
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on knowledge about these two animals, which


are important sources of food. The story explains
why the white turtle and the black turtle live
in different habitats and in association with
different predators.

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ZLes systmes de savoirs autochtones,
contrairement la science occidentale
ne sparent pas et nopposent pas la nature
et la culture. Les observations empiriques
et les rexions systmatiques font
partie intgrante de leurs systmes de
reprsentation et de valeur uniques.
Les systmes utiliss par les Mayangnas pour
nommer et classier le vivant rete cette
double proccupation. De plus, ils dsignent
de diffrentes manires et classient les
poissons et les tortues selon leur apparence,
leur habitat ou leur association avec les
esprits. Les Mayangnas rpertorient trente
types de poissons et six espces de tortues
en relevant de subtiles distinctions entre
des espces qui se ressemblent fortement.

ZIndigenous knowledge systems, quite


unlike Western science, do not separate
and oppose nature and culture. Their
empirical observations and systematic
reections are integrated into their own
unique systems of representation and
value. Mayangna systems for naming
and classifying living things reveal this
dual preoccupation. Thus there are several
different ways to name and classify sh
 


and turtles based upon their appearance,


habitat or association with master spirits.
The Mayangna classify and name thirty
types of sh and six types of turtles,
making subtle distinctions between
species that strongly resemble
one another.

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ZLes hommes et les femmes mayangnas
possdent chacun un large ventail de
savoirs et dexpertises. Ils ont galement
leurs propres spcialits et leurs techniques
de prdilection. Une pche russie rside sur
une connaissance approfondie du poisson et
de son habitat selon les lieux et les saisons.
Les femmes pchent principalement pendant
la saison des pluies laide dhameons sur
des lignes tenues la main. Les hommes
pchent plutt durant la saison sche laide
darcs et de ches.
De nombreuses pratiques culinaires varient
selon les diffrents types de poissons et de
tortues et en fonction de leur texture, got,
couleur et quantit de graisse.

ZBoth Mayangna women and men possess


extensive bodies of knowledge and skills.
But they have their own areas of expertise
and their own favoured techniques.
Successful shing relies on specialized
knowledge of sh and their habitats
in different places and seasons.
Women do much of their shing during
the rainy season using handheld lines and
 


sh hooks. Men sh more in the dry season,


using techniques such as the bow and arrow.
A wide range of culinary practices are
associated with different types of sh
and turtles, depending on their texture,
taste, color and amount of fat.

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International Year of Biodiversity exhibition
organized by UNESCO in partnership with 8ZcigZHX^ZcXZhOrlans, France

78
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UNESCO
CBD
GEF
UNEP
G86;Y8/G@86G8/

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GEF
MINISTRE
DES
AFFAIRES TRANGRES
Netherlands Funds in Trust
ET EUROPENNES
French Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs

Z 3  
  
CNRS
Fundacin Biodiversidad
@6Y9
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MNHN
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
NASA
Our Place
Airbus

Graphic design by Vincent BURILLE, Orleans -France


Printed by API, Saint-Denis-en-Val - France
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