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UN PARTENERIAT DE SUCCES: INSPECTORATUL COLAR JUDEEAN VASLUI

I INSPECTORATUL COLAR NAIONAL AL REPUBLICII MOLDOVA

Alexandru M
Inspector colar pentru limbi moderne
Inspectoratul colar Judeean Vaslui

1. Demararea colaborrii efective


dintre Inspectoratul colar Judeean Vaslui
i Inspectoratul colar Naional al Republicii Moldova:
curs de formare i semnarea Acordului-Cadru

Pe 21 decembrie 2016 a avut loc primul curs de formare cu profesori din Republica Moldova, la
Inspectoratul colar Naional al Republicii Moldova (Chiinu), pe tema tehnicilor de evaluare
modern prin intermediul Sistemului electronic de gestiune a nvrii (LMS) creat ntr-unul din
proiectele coordonate la Vaslui, Parteneriatul Strategic Erasmus+ KA2 Comics in Teaching
Languages/La BD en classe de langues, laureat al European Language Label 2016. Au
participat profesori i directori de la 15 instituii din Republica Moldova, care au semnat un
Protocol de parteneriat pentru a face parte din Consoriul pentru difuzarea i exploatarea
rezultatelor acestui parteneriat. Formator a fost coordonatorul proiectului, inspectorul pentru
limbi moderne i purttor de cuvnt al Inspectoratului Scolar Judeean Vaslui, iniiator al acestei
colaborri, Alexandru M.
Concretizarea acestei iniiative nu ar fi fost posibil fr contribuia nemijlocit a partenerului
moldovean, Inspectoratul colar Naional al Republicii Moldova, al directorului acestei instituii,
doamna Ana Vivdici, personal, care a antrenat toat echipa instituiei pentru organizarea rapid
i eficient a acestui eveniment. De asemenea, a contribuit exemplar prin punerea la dispoziie a
unui laborator de informatic dotat cu cea mai nou tehnologie, Centrul de Tehnologii
Informaionale i Comunicaionale n Educaie, directorul acestei instituii, domnul Arcadi
Malearovici, implicndu-se activ n desfurarea fr cusur a formrii.
Organizatorii, alturi de participanii la formare comunicativi, calzi, entuziati, participativi,
serioi, interesai de noi tehnologii i de inovarea didactic, au dovedit nc o dat c Moldova
este un trm al oamenilor deosebii
Cu aceast ocazie, s-a semnat de ctre partea moldovean, Acordul-Cadru de cooperare
instituional internaional ncheiat ntre Inspectoratul colar Judeean Vaslui i Inspectoratul
colar Naional al Republicii Moldova. Prin intermediul acestui document oficial, se stabilesc
principiile cooperrii dintre instituia nou-nfiinat n Republica Moldova, Inspectoratul colar
Naional i ISJ Vaslui. Cele dou instituii semnatare ale Acordului-Cadru vor crea aplicaii,
proiecte i programe comune, cu diverse surse de finanare locale, naionale i internaionale, n
vederea motivrii cadrelor didactice din subordine, pentru recunoaterea rolului lor social,
respectarea demnitii i autonomiei profesionale. Programele comune ale Inspectoratului colar
Judeean Vaslui i ale Inspectoratului colar Naional al Republicii Moldova vor urmri
integrarea cadrelor didactice n programe de formare continu, prin proiecte finanate din diverse
surse (locale, naionale, internaionale). Cele dou instituii vor concepe programe comune i n
vederea mbuntirii evalurii, considerat att ca proces complex, viznd verificarea
competenelor elevilor, personalului didactic de predare, personalului didactic de ndrumare i
control, ct i global, la nivelul instituiilor subordonate i pentru propria activitate.
De comun acord, cele dou instituii vor crea i aplica instrumente proprii de evaluare a
colaborrii i a proiectelor realizate n comun, n vederea ameliorrii i dezvoltrii tuturor
aspectelor concrete ale cooperrii bilaterale. Manifestrile concrete de cooperare vor include:
sesiuni comune; un calendar de activiti comun; simpozioane, conferine, congrese; schimburi
de experien; tabere tematice, excursii didactice; cursuri de formare; formare online, pe
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platforma comun a celor dou instituii; proiecte instituionale; proiecte structurale de


anvergur; proiecte n parteneriat internaional; dezvoltarea de instrumente comune de cooperare
n domeniul educaiei i formrii; susinerea activitii comune a asociaiilor profesionale i
culturale naionale i internaionale focalizate pe domeniul nvmntului, cel al culturii i cel al
sportului.
Linkuri (pentru versiunea electronic a revistei):
Evenimentul relatat pe site-ul oficial al Inspectoratului colar Naional al Republicii
Moldova
Evenimentul pe site-ul de socializare al Inspectoratului colar Naional al Republicii
Moldova

2. Vizita oficial a reprezentanilor Inspectoratului colar Naional din Republica Moldova


n uniti colare din judeul Vaslui

n perioada 20-23 februarie 2017 s-a desfurat, n municipiile Vaslui i Brlad, la invitaia
Inspectoratului colar Judeean Vaslui, vizita de lucru a delegaiei Inspectoratului colar
Naional din Republica Moldova, din componena creia au fcut parte directorul instituiei,
doamna Ana Vivdici, directorul adjunct, doamna Adelina Gheu i doamna Eudochia Ceban,
adjunctul Direcei generale inspecie i acreditare.
Aceast aciune complex face parte din calendarul de implementare a Acordului-Cadru de
cooperare instituional internaional ncheiat ntre Inspectoratul colar Judeean Vaslui i
Inspectoratul colar Naional al Republicii Moldova. Prin intermediul acestui document oficial,
se stabilesc principiile cooperrii dintre instituia nou-nfiinat n Republica Moldova,
Inspectoratul colar Naional i ISJ Vaslui. Cele dou instituii semnatare ale Acordului-Cadru
urmeaz s creeze aplicaii, proiecte i programe comune, cu diverse surse de finanare locale,
naionale i internaionale, n vederea motivrii cadrelor didactice din subordine, pentru
recunoaterea rolului lor social, respectarea demnitii i autonomiei profesionale. Programele
comune ale Inspectoratului colar Judeean Vaslui i ale Inspectoratului colar Naional al
Republicii Moldova vor urmri integrarea cadrelor didactice n programe de formare continu,
prin proiecte finanate din diverse surse (locale, naionale, internaionale). Cele dou instituii vor
concepe programe comune i n vederea mbuntirii evalurii i formrii, considerate att ca
procese complexe, viznd verificarea competenelor, ct i global, la nivelul instituiilor din
reelele administrate i pentru propria activitate.
Programul vizitei pentru ziua de mari, 21 februarie 2017 a inclus o ntrevedere la Primria
Municipiului Vaslui, n decursul creia primarul municipiului Vaslui, domnul inginer Vasile
Pavl, a descris disponibilitatea instituiei pentru sprijinirea acestei iniiative; vicepreedintele
Consiliului Judeean Vaslui, prof. V. Mariciuc i prefectul judeului Vaslui, domnul Bogdan
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Isabel au ntmpinat delegaia moldovean, dnd toate asigurrile de susinere i cooperare prin
toate mijloacele de care dispun aceste instituii. Prin amabilitatea doamnei director a Muzeului
Judeean tefan cel Mare, oaspeii de la Inspectoratul colar Naional Chiinu au vizitat
Muzeul Judeean tefan cel Mare Vaslui
n continuare, graie sprijinului i ospitalitii domnilor directori ai instituiilor de nvmnt
vasluiene i brldene, mai multe instituii au fost vizitate i au avut ocazia s-i prezinte
realizrile: Colegiul Economic Anghel Rugin Vaslui (directori, prof. Daniela Popescu i
Andreea Botezatu), Casa Corpului Didactic Vaslui (director, prof. Cristinel Popa), coala
Gimnazial Alexandra Nechita i grdinia Micua Picasso (directori, prof. Vladimir Baban
i Alina Moraru), coala Gimnazial C. Parfene Vaslui (directori, prof. Daniela Nane i
Monica Coman), Liceul tefan Procopiu Vaslui (directori, prof. Gina Cuco, Cristian Alistar i
Silvia Ionacu), Liceul cu Program Sportiv Vaslui (directori, prof. Ramona Pavel i Ionu
Chiochiu).
O edin de lucru s-a desfurat la Inspectoratul colar Judeean Vaslui; au participat
inspectorii colari Gabriela Plcint (inspector colar general), Cristiana Ana Botan (inspector
colar general adjunct), inspectorii colari Alexandru M, Landiana Mihnevici, Monica
Mustea, Constantin Turcu, Anda tefnic, Mihaela Dumitria Bahman, Oana Rusu, Petronela
Nstase, Zoe Popescu, Cristin Ciubotaru, Nicolae Ionescu Eduard Andriescu, Maria Ciulei,
Sorinel Trufia, Irina Dumitracu; discuiile s-au axat pe prezentarea sistemului de inspecie
colar, pe realizarea unei paralele ntre modalitile de responsabilizare a directorilor de coli
din cele dou ri i pe evaluarea profesorilor. Cu aceast ocazie, Inspectoratul colar Naional al
Republicii Moldova a fost prezentat n detaliu, fiind remarcate asemnrile cu instituii din
Romnia cu atribuii n formarea cadrelor didactice i n acreditarea unitilor de nvmnt.
Pe 23 februarie 2017, a fost rndul instituiilor brldene s se prezinte: delegaia moldovean
i-a continuat vizita de lucru la Grdinia nr. 9 Brlad (director, Anioara Munteanu), instituie
care a impresionat prin calitatea activitilor demonstrative, a amenajrilor i prin creativitatea
cadrelor didactice; coala Gimnazial Episcop Iacov Antonovici Brlad (directori, prof.
Mariana Balan i Georgel Bradu), instituie cu tradiie i rezultate excelente; coala Gimnazial
de Arte N. Tonitza Brlad (director, Nua Obreja), adevrat Ateneu al artelor care i-a
ntmpinat oaspeii cu un program artistic complex, prin care s-a demonstrat virtuozitatea
elevilor care studiaz vioara, pianul i flautul; Colegiul Naional Gh. Roca Codreanu Brlad
(directori., prof. Daniela Horoi-Jitc i Mihaela Crjonu) a impresionat, de asemenea, prin
sobrietate, stil arhitectural i pedagogic ir ezultatele excelente; Liceul Pedagogic I. Popescu
Brlad (directori, prof. Gabriela Paca i Daniela Marinescu) a venit cu propuneri concrete de
colaborare, prezentnd o carte de vizit complex, din care fac parte numeroase proiecte
europene i distincii obinute pentru calitatea acestor aplicaii; Liceul Tehnologic Petru Rare
Brlad, (directori, prof. Olimpia Tnase, Ionel Marius Pasat i Florin Chiril) s-a remarcat, de
asemenea, prin modelul de management de succes, prin calitatea produselor realizate de elevii
colii profesionale i prin modul n care reuete, de la an la an, s-i diversifice sfera
preocuprilor.
Un intermezzo cultural deosebit l-a reprezentat vizitarea Centrului Cultural M. Eminescu din
Brlad, acolo unde membrii delegaiei au putut admira exponatele care evoc drumul spiritual al
poetului naional i legturile cu regiunea n care a fost revizor colar, alturi de donaiile dr.
Constantin Teodorescu, personalitate cultural i filantropic de prim-rang a Brladului, ale crui
aciuni de mecenat trebuie cunoscute i apreciate la justa valoare de toate generaiile de acum i
cele care vor urma.
Pe tot parcursul vizitei, reprezentanii presei au fost informai despre activitile propuse
delegaiei, iar postul de televiziune Media TV Brlad a realizat un interviu cu directorul
Inspectoratului colar Naional al Republicii Moldova, doamna Ana Vivdici.
De comun acord, cele dou instituii au stabilit crearea i aplicarea unor instrumente proprii de
evaluare a colaborrii i a proiectelor ce vor fi realizate n comun, n vederea ameliorrii i
dezvoltrii tuturor aspectelor concrete ale cooperrii bilaterale. Manifestrile de cooperare vor
include: sesiuni comune; un calendar de activiti comun; simpozioane, conferine, congrese;

schimburi de experien; tabere tematice, excursii didactice; cursuri de formare; formare online,
pe platforma comun a celor dou instituii; proiecte instituionale; proiecte structurale de
anvergur; proiecte n parteneriat internaional; dezvoltarea de instrumente comune de cooperare
n domeniul educaiei i formrii; susinerea activitii comune a asociaiilor profesionale i
culturale naionale i internaionale focalizate pe domeniul nvmntului.
Sunt impresionat de modul n care Inspectoratul colar Judeean Vaslui reuete s
integreze principiile colii europene n comunitatea academic vasluian i s obin asemenea
progrese vizibile, printr-un management eficient al resurselor, parteneriatelor si relaiei cu
autoritile publice locale.
Apreciez deschiderea i abordarea individualizat a demersului didactic, calitatea resursei
umane, implicarea de care dau dovada echipele manageriale din sistemul de nvmnt
vasluian.
Cred c Inspectoratul colar Naional din Republica Moldova a gsit in persoana doamnei
inspector colar general, Gabriela Plcint, un partener de dezvoltare excelent pentru
consolidarea oportunitilor de schimb de experien i bune practici ntre instituiile partenere
din Romnia i Republica Moldova.
Mobilitile formrii cadrelor i prelurii practicii europene a Romniei constitutie o resurs
demn de valorificat n cadrul acordului dintre inspectoratele noastre.
Mulumesc pentru oportunitatea de a v cunoate!
(Ana Vivdici, director al Inspectoratului colar Naional al Republicii Moldova)

3. Vizita oficial a reprezentanilor Inspectoratului colar Judeean Vaslui n uniti


colare i de formare din Chiinu, la invitaia Inspectoratului colar Naional din
Republica Moldova

n perioada 27-29 martie 2017, delegaia Inspectoratului colar Judeean Vaslui compus din:
prof. Gabriela Plcint, inspector colar general, Alexandru M, inspector colar pentru limbi
moderne i Zoica Popescu, inspector colar pentru educaie timpurie, s-a aflat n vizit de lucru
la Chiinu, n scopul realizrii unui schimb de informaii relevante pentru o mai bun dezvoltare
instituional, promovrii educaiei de calitate, ct i iniierii parteneriatelor ntre instituiile
responsabile de evaluare, monitorizare i implementare a politicilor educaionale din Republica
Moldova.
n cele trei zile, membrii delegaiei, nsoii de Ana Vivdici, director, Adelina Gheiu, director
adjunct i Galina Crainic, director adjunct, Inspectoratul colar Naional, au vizitat 7 instituii de
nvmnt general, diverse ca structur, form i niveluri de nvmnt, ct i Centrul
educaional Pro Didactica(director executiv, Bezede Rima) i Institutul de tiine ale
Educaiei, (director, Lilia Pogola), fiind astfel stabilite relaii de colaborare pe domeniul
formrii continue a cadrelor i discutate posibilitile de iniiere a parteneriatelor instituionale.
Prima instituie vizitat a fost Liceul Teoretic Ion Creang din municipiul Chiinu,
(director, Corneliu Solomon), instituie care a ntmpinat oaspeii cu un program artistic inedit,
un profund mesaj istoric, demonstrnd profesionalism, nalt cultur organizaional i talente
impresionante ale discipolilor i dasclilor acestora.
O alt instituie ce a reuit s demonstreze o excelent organizare instituional i competene
consolidate la o frumoas aniversare de 25 de ani de activitate a fost Liceul Teoretic Mihai
Viteazul din municipiul Chiinu (director, Nelly Berezovschi), instituie ce i-a prezentat
istoria i realizrile prin poezie, cntece i dansuri, mbinate ntr-un scenariu care a evideniat
specificul instituiei i talentele elevilor. Spre finalul vizitei din cadrul LT Mihai Viteazul
oaspeii au plantat brazi, mplinind numeric cifra aniversar a instituiei.
Instituia de educaie timpurie nr. 199 Lstra i-a impresionat apoi pe membrii delegaiei
vasluiene att prin valorificarea talentelor celor mici, ct i prin edificarea educaiei ecologice, n
cadrul instituiei fiind amplasat o grdin botanic, ngrijit de ctre copii mpreun cu
personalul didactic i auxiliar.

O alt instituie de educaie timpurie vizitat a fost Grdinia nr. 26 din Chiinu, (director,
Violeta Surdu), specific prin zona i modul de amplasare ct i reuitele organizaionale.
Liceul Teoretic Elimul Nou din Chiinu, (director, Moga Ecaterina), a fost prezentat ca un
exemplu concludent de bun practic n crearea spaiului armonios de lucru, motivarea elevilor i
a cadrelor didactice spre excelen i multitudinea de parteneriate i proiecte naionale i
internaionale n curs de realizare.
n cadrul vizitei la Liceul Academiei de tiine a Moldovei, instituie situat n municipiul.
Chiinu (director, Iurie Cristea), s-a discutat despre experienele deosebite ale instituiei:
implementarea Planului cadru individualizat, regulamentul intern, buna practic n gestionarea
proiectelor ct i a performanele academice obinute de elevi, ca urmare a eforturilor conjugate a
comunitii educaionale a Academiei de tiine a Moldovei.
Vizitarea Liceului Teoretic Prometeu - Chiinu, (director general, Aurelian Silvestru), a
fost o alt ocazie de a cunoate diversitatea instituiilor de nvmnt general, att ca structur,
tip de proprietate, rezultate colare, ct i din perspectiva managementului eficient i a
transparenei administrrii fondurilor disponibile. Instituia este rodul muncii titanice a
managerului, artist al cuvntului Aurelian Silvestru.
Ca urmare a vizitelor din fiecare instituie de nvmnt, membrii delegaiei Inspectoratului
colar Judeean Vaslui au discutat despre posibilitatea stabilirii parteneriatelor cu instituii
similare din Vaslui.
O alt activitate important n cadrul vizitei de lucru a fost edina comun a membrilor
delegaiei cu ministrul educaiei din Republica Moldova, conducerea Inspectoratului colar
Naional i conductori ai organelor locale de specialitate n domeniul nvmntului. La edin
au fost prezentate att instituiile ca structur i funcionalitate, ct i posibilitile stabilirii
parteneriatelor dintre instituiile din Vaslui i cele din Republica Moldova, n scopul efecturii
schimbului de experien i formrii cadrelor din sistemul educaional.
Corina Fusu, Ministru al Educaiei Naionale din Republica Moldova, a vorbit despre
structurile instituionale responsabile de monitorizarea i evaluarea sistemului educaional,
apreciind nalt sprijinul acordat de Guvernul Romniei n modernizarea educaiei din Republica
Moldova i posibilitile oferite de IJ Vaslui n formarea cadrelor din sistem. Ministerul
Educaiei acord o atenie deosebit evalurii performanelor colii i profesorilor i are toat
ncrederea c mpreun cu Inspectoratul colar Naional vom gsi puni sigure de comunicare cu
Dvs. (OLSD) care suntei reprezentanii, sau cei care asigur calitatea educaiei n teritoriu. a
punctat Ministrul Educaiei n adresarea ctre conductorii organelor locale de specialitate n
domeniul nvmntului.
Prof. Gabriela Plcint, Inspector colar General al IJ Vaslui a exprimat deschiderea pentru
iniierea parteneriatelor cu organele locale de specialitate n domeniul nvmntului, instituii
similare ca structur, angajamente i profil, mulumind totodat Inspectoratului colar Naional
pentru organizarea ntrevederii ntr-un astfel de format. Avem lucruri n comun dar i lucruri
care difereniaz activitatea noastr i tocmai de aceea am discutat cu dna director, Ana Vivdici,
s gsim oportuniti pentru a colabora pe viitor, att pe linia formrii cadrelor didactice ct i pe
cea de stabilire a parteneriatelor ntre instituiile noastre. a comunicat prof. Gabriela Plcint,
exprimndu-i ncrederea c activitile de colaborare vor fi benefice tuturor prilor.
n ultima zi a vizitei de lucru, a fost inclus n programul delegaiei ca punct de referin,
Institutul de tiine ale Educaiei din Republica Moldova, instituie cu care urmeaz s se ncheie
o convenie trilateral din care s mai fac parte Inspectoratul colar Judeean Vaslui i
Inspectoratul colar Naional al Republicii Moldova. Delegaia vasluian a fost primit de
directorii instituiei:confereiar universitar, doctor Lilia Pogola i director adjunct Perfecionare,
confereniar universitar docent Nelu Vicol. Au fost vizitate dotrile deosebite ale acestei instituii
organizatoare de stagii de formare n diverse formate (sli de cursuri, laboratoare, bibliotec, sli
media, hotel, restaurant, baz balneoclimateric de recuperare pentru profesori). S-au pus la
punct reperele strategice ale viitoarei colaborri, care se va cldi pe reciprocitatea stagiilor de
formare i pe invitaia de a participa la toate evenimentele tiinifice organizate de parteneri.

Vizita de lucru n Republica Moldova a delegaiei Inspectoratului colar Judeean Vaslui a


fost, prin urmare, un eveniment deosebit de important pentru consolidarea relaiilor cu
Inspectoratul colar Naional Chiinu, cu Ministerul Educaiei din Republica Moldova i cu
Institutul de tiine ale Educaiei i, de asemenea, cu toate instituiile incluse n programul
vizitei. A fost prezentat un portofoliu cu proiecte propuse de instituiile vasluiene i, n etapa
urmtoare a calendarului comun de activiti, urmeaz ca instituiile din Republica Moldova s
fie puse n contact cu instituii similare din judeul Vaslui.
Urmtorul eveniment major al acestui parteneriat este programat pe 9 mai 2017 Conferina
Internaional Eveniment de multiplicare al Parteneriatului Strategic Erasmus+ KA2 Comics
in Teaching Languages/La BD en classe de langues, conferin intitulat Comics in teaching
languages for a new age of didactic creativity. Vor participa specialiti n didactica limbilor
moderne din 14 raioane ale Republicii Moldova, care s-au nscris n Consoriul de Diseminare i
Exploatare a rezultatelor acestui proiect.
Concomitent cu acest eveniment, vor demara primele stagii de formare n management la
Chiinu, ntr-o formul stabilit de comun acord de parteneri, n cadrul Protocolului de
cooperare instituional.

5 th Transnational Meeting of the Strategic Partnership Erasmus+ KA2

20151RO01KA219014963_1

COMICS IN TEACHING LANGUAGES/LA BD EN CLASSE DE LANGUES


FROSINONE - ITALY SCUOLA MEDIA FROSINONE 3 MEETING REPORT

By Antonis Antoniou
Regional Gymnasium of Livadia
March 2017
Description

5th Project Meeting


Place: Instituto Comprensivo Statale Frosinone 3
Meeting Goals
Presenting Outcomes
New Technologies in Education ( Minecraft, Photoshop, 3D Printing)
21st Century Skills
Sharing Experience and Knowledge
Developing new competences

Description
The project meeting took place between the 19th and 23rd of February 2017. The
meeting had a tremendous influence on the success of our team. In addition to the information
which was shared, the project meeting also strengthened the interpersonal bonds, and helped to

improve communication and teamwork among partners. It also helped us to increase team
morale and satisfaction. We strongly believe that this meeting will help us to enhance team
effectiveness and success in our Erasmus project.
The meeting effectively allowed the coordinator to address the pressing issues succinctly,
informatively, and objectively. During the meeting. participants had the opportunity to form their
own opinions regarding the information and commented when it was necessary. Furthermore, the
attendees were very receptive to information presented and they appreciated the time and effort
which was put into the planning process of this meeting.
In our project, we have students where due to educational disadvantages caused by
personal, social, cultural or economic circumstances, need support to fulfill their educational
potential.
This includes students with low literacy, early school leavers, migrants, and people with
disabilities. To help our students to acquire the key competences they need in order to adapt
flexibly to a rapidly changing and highly interconnected world we have incorporated into the
project's activities the 8 basic key competencies our students need to develop.

Key competences developed during the meeting:

1. Communicating in a mother tongue: ability to express and interpret concepts, thoughts,


feelings, facts and opinions both orally and in writing.
2. Communicating in a foreign language: as above, but includes mediation skills (i.e.
summarizing, paraphrasing, interpreting or translating) and intercultural understanding.
3. Mathematical, scientific and technological competence: sound mastery of numeracy, an
understanding of the natural world and an ability to apply knowledge and technology to
perceived human needs (such as medicine, transport or communication).
4. Digital competence: confident and critical usage of information and communications
technology for work, leisure and communication.
5. Learning to learn: ability to effectively manage ones own learning, either individually or in
groups.
6. Social and civic competences: ability to participate effectively and constructively in ones
social and working life and engage in active and democratic participation, especially in
increasingly diverse societies.
7. Sense of initiative and entrepreneurship: ability to turn ideas into action through creativity,
innovation and risk taking as well as ability to plan and manage projects.
8. Cultural awareness and expression: ability to appreciate the creative importance of ideas,
experiences and emotions in a range of media such as music, literature and visual and
performing arts. (All the activities are related to the 8 Key Competences to be developed)

Cultural Awareness

Cultural awareness as expression has been set as one of the basic key competences in
early education and training. Europe has much to gain from an increased focus on cultural
awareness and expression in education; this key competence deals with many essential aspects of
the societies and cultures of Europe today.
Culture awareness can be developed in a wide range of everyday contexts. i.e Visiting
archaeological sides. This will help students to appreciate the cultural heritage of European
nation-states and also it will help the students to understand the importance of protecting and
preserving the cultural heritage of Europe. However, cultural awareness as a basic key
competency will promote mutual respect among Europeans and it will give the students the
opportunity to understand the relation between history, culture and identity over time.

Teams

10

Regional Gymnasium of Livadia (Coordinator)


Scuola Media Frosinone 3 (Hosts - Organisers)
Agrupamento de Santo Andr (Barreiro)
Kastamonu Vocational and Technical High School
Agrupamento de Escolas de Vialonga (Portugal)

Schedule
Sunday 19th of February 2017
Arrival day of the international participants
20:00 Dinner in Castelmassimo "Aia Antica"
Monday 20th of February 2017
9:00 - Meeting and welcome of the participants in "Scuola Media fr3"
9:15 - Official reception by the Principal the coordinator and the members of the Project team.
9:45 - Partners' Presentations.
11:15 - Coffee break.
12:00 - Short musical exhrbition of the students
12:30 - Workshops - Implementation of the project - technical aspects with the participation
ofthe
cartoonist Alessandra Bracagla. The role of the
Comics - learning Ianguages. Visual, graphic and IinguistIc featuresEvaluation.
13:30 - Lunch time at school ( astng Italian Pizza )
15:30 - implementation meeting: creating History and Comics course;
Good practice: Verol and its ancient iconography, underground
paintings and archeological escavations.
19:30 - Intercultural dinner in Veroli.
Tuesday 21st February 2017
8:15 -Management session -Comics' history through art
Visit Rome.
20:00 - Dinner.
Wednesday 22nd February 2017
9:00 - Meeting at the "Art Academy" of Frosinone.
12 :00 - Official reception at Frosinone Department Prefecture
Official Lunch.
15:00 Meeting at School for Evaluation of the implementetion of the meetings.
16:00 Visit the Abbazia of Casamari .
18:00 Visit to the old castle of Isola Liri and the water fall.
20:00 Dinner at "Ristorarte" In Isola Liri
Thursday 23rd February 2017
Departures

Activities
Sunday 19th of February 2017
Erasmus Eat to Socialise Activity - Italian Cuisine
In this activity we used meals specifically as a means to connect with others in the Erasmus
Group. We developed the skills to participate effectively and constructively in a Social Activity
like eating. We also developed the skills to communicating in a foreign language.
https://sway.com/rYIbBjNAi5TKQ58I
Monday 20th of February 2017
Activity 1A (Opening) : Meeting and welcome of the participants in "Scuola Media Frosinone 3"
- Official Reception https://sway.com/hFCVtPKx7Eq1IOpQ
Activity 1B (Opening Video Presentation) : Video Episode 1 - Opening of the Meeting
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rdzM7NDCYC4&t=209s

11

Activity 2A Photos - Agrupamento de Santo Andr (Barreiro) Presentation


https://sway.com/0IqcAcydu11pdU5F
Activity 2B Video Episode 2 - Agrupamento de Santo Andr (Barreiro) Presentation
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Ed1bfbRW_g&t=205s

Activity 3A Photos - Kastamonu Vocational and Technical High School Presentation


https://sway.com/bmKAJ6p9EpqnFRIl
Activity 3B Video Episode 3- Kastamonu Vocational and Technical High School
Presentation https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mZz_EOgTv_I&t=165s
Activity 4A Photos - Agrupamento de Escolas de Vialonga (Portugal) Presentation
https://sway.com/7PpCgwUQk3pCGNWE
Activity 4B Video Episode 4- Agrupamento de Escolas de Vialonga (Portugal)
Presentation https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wOkoXSh1jvs&t=59s
Activity 5A Photos- Regional Gymnasium of Livadia Presentation
https://sway.com/mtclMarLSqseSDRK
Activity 5B Video Episode 5- Regional Gymnasium of Livadia Presentation
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZIy-n9UtW5U&t=169s
Activity 6A Photos - Awareness Against Racism and Intolerance & Promoting Equality and
Respect https://sway.com/rCimEQxlzLDkp7xi
Activity 6B Video Episode 6 - Awareness Against Racism and Intolerance & Promoting
Equality and Respect
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zurmahG_VNA&t=151s
Activity 7A Photos - Scuola Media Frosinone 3 Presentation
https://sway.com/qetOHpcTqhMKjtwK
Activity 7B Video Episode 7- Scuola Media Frosinone 3 Presentation
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XYOcx6cYImg
Activity 8A Photos - Minecraft in Education
https://sway.com/ZrTUeMKQdVJp5nyg
Activity 8B Video Episode 8- Minecraft in Education
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OD1gm-bJKLw&t=137s
Activity 9A Photos-Erasmus Innovative Students
https://sway.com/MEYXa3GOHJOTPR2n
Activity 9B Video- Episode 9-Erasmus Innovative Students
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NoFDA7z8cT8&t=40s
Activity 10A Photos-21st Century Skills https://sway.com/cFi2vf2Vcuf1I3jO
Activity 10B Video Episode 10-21st Century Skills
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aRgOtQD5uNI
Activity 11A Photos - New Technologies in Erasmus Photoshop
https://sway.com/xXjkGHiallq9hifT
Activity 11B Video Episode 11- New Technologies in Erasmus Photoshop
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BU0Sk_P5sTE&t=68s
Activity 12A Photos - Creating Comics
https://sway.com/TbqZufMQhD18BtXQ
Activity 12B Video Episode 12 - Creating Comics
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5WAtjB99cI4&t=54s
Activity 13A Photos - Writing a Comic Book
https://sway.com/VnYWUHCqpyAL08b7
Activity 13B Video Episode 13 - Writing a Comic Book
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QA3iZB1P8Jk&t=83s
Activity 14A Photos - Writing a Comic Story (The story of Thersites)
https://sway.com/2kO2Vlkh7w1XsVr5
Activity 14B Video Episode 14- Writing a Comic Story (The story of Thersites)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wcPFOK9zRl4&t=20s

12

Activity 15 Video Episode 15 Closing of the Workshops


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SJyLgaQ45xA&t=113s

Monday 20th of February 2017


Activity 1 - Exploring the beautiful Town of Veroli
https://sway.com/E5Yt8NDyLp8H4C3g

Tuesday 21st February 2017


Activity 1A - The History of Comics through Art -St Peter's Basilica
https://sway.com/6wm3EjT0910gHXOD
Activity 1B - The History of Comics through Art -St Peter's Basilica
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lv3id91vVbg&t=127s
Activity 2 - Erasmus Eat to Socialise Activity -Italian Cuisine
https://sway.com/45E7CyDMqbfG7E0D

Wednesday 22nd of February 2017


Activity 1 Interview at Radio Day Live
https://www.facebook.com/radiodayfm/videos/1260112170737563/
Activity 2 Official reception at Frosinone Department Prefecture Photos
https://sway.com/pXYHpLB3ueCIumSk
Video https://youtu.be/Hho1mCE4Ja8
Activity 3 - Abbazia o monastero di Cdi Casamari
https://sway.com/nYRswU8yTk8dQyPo
Activity 4 - Castello Isola del Liri
https://sway.com/411d37xG4QuIBKt1

Conclusion
The meeting was very well organized. It was also very stimulating and memorable
project meeting. It was a fruitful and amazing experience for all the participants. It has been a
great success in all possible respects.
The content was very stimulating, all the activities were very interesting and very
informative. The participants were very charming and enthusiastic. All the partners enjoyed their
chance to present their work, and filled them with pride to be part of such an interesting project
meeting. The presentations were brilliant and thought-provoking and a lot of intellectual
excitement was generated. We had the opportunity to interact with each other and to exchange
ideas and experiences.
The town of Frosinone was very beautiful and very pleasant place to stay. We enjoyed
very much the beautiful surroundings of Frosinone with the beautiful villages, churches,
monasteries and the spectacular natural beauty. Most of all, we enjoyed the superb Italian food
and the excellent Italian hospitality.

USING COMICS AS A TOOL FOR TEACHING ENGLISH


Mehmet anli
Kastamonu Vocational And
Technical High School
Turkey

Our school was opened in 1869 with the purpose of providing vocational training to
orphans under the age of 13. There were tailoring, printing, shoe making, carpentry and rope
making branches in those years.
13

Our current building was built from 1912-1916. After 1927 the name of our school has
changed into Art School and new branches like foundry, fitting, carpentry, forgery and piano
production were opened. The school accepted students from neighbouring cities as well.
Currently our school is a Vocational and Technical High School with its Information
Technologies, Electricity and Electronic, Metal Works, Machine Technology and Furniture
Making and Decorations departments. There are 96 teachers and 763 students today.

The reason of using comics as a tool for teaching english


As English Language teachers we sometimes experience various difficulties that effects
the teaching process in our schools. In my opinion, the biggest barrier in teaching a language is
the lack of motivation in learners. To overcome this problem comic might be a smart and fun
way to follow. Comics can be used as a tool for teaching languages at any age level. There are
various activities that you can combine with comic strips.
You can use comics for all 4 skills areas and you can adapt the exercise according to the
level of your students

Personal experience
Personally speaking, I use comics especially at the production stage in my lessons. After
I teach necessary vocabulary and structures I hand out some empty comic strip templates to
students and want them to draw funny characters and fill in speech bubbles with the structures I
have taught during the lesson.
For example this lesson was about occupations. I gave necessary vocabulary and I used
comic characters to represent different occupations. And we also produced basic sentences using
Simple Present Tense just like He is a butcher, he sells meat.
After that I handed out some empty comic strips to students and asked them to draw
comic characters to represent different occupations. I also told them that they do in fun way and
made up factionary occupations. (e.g. Alien Tour Guide)
I sometimes use comic strips for reading-comprehension exercises. In this exercise I
asked students to find the correct order of the story according to comic. For writing exercises I
hand out comic strips with empty speech bubbles and ask students to fill in the bubbles
according to the structures we learn that day.

CONCLUSION
To sum up I can say that using comics in lessons is a fun way to attract students attention to the
topic.
I observed that comics increases the learners motivation and it is a good way to practice
previously learned structures and skills.

TEACHING ENGLISH WITH COMICS

Prof. Neicu Oana-Olivia


Liceul Teoretic Nicolae Iorga, Brila

Cartoons and comic strips can be used from beginner level to advanced level for a variety of
language and discussion activities.

Cartoons are powerful teaching tools and can:

Tell a complex story in a few images


Provide comment and provoke thought on events and issues in the news
Give an example of vocabulary related to current trends and fads

14

Provide easily identifiable characters to form the basis for sketches
Show culture in action with the ways that men or women are behaving and are expected
to behave
Comment on and illustrate a whole range of issues like racism, teenage relationships,
sexism, ageism, family relationships.
The language used can sometimes be too colloquial and referential for lower levels to cope with.
Choose your cartoons and comic strips with care.
Why Teaching English With Comics?

1. To Use Authentic Material


One of the greatest advantages is that comics and comic strips constitute authentic material.
Although there are now several comic strips that have been written by and for EFL/ESL learners,
most of them are written for other purposes than language learning. Using authentic material in
the classroom has been strongly encouraged in the field of language learning (Drolet, 2012, p.
124; Hadley, 2000, p. 179-188). By using authentic materials, we provide our students with
examples of how the language is actually used in the real word, as opposed to artificial and/or
awkward structures found in EFL textbooks. When working with authentic materials, EFL
learners can also realize that they may need that particular language in the situations presented in
the comics; this will also work towards increasing students motivation.

2. To Have Fun and Motivate


Not all comics are funny, but they generally tend to be. Even more so, single comic strips are
usually structured to lead towards a punch line at the end. Simply read some of the comics
presented here on ComicsEnglish and you will most probably find yourself amused, smiling, or
even laughing at some of these comic strips. Furthermore, if the students find them funny, they
would be much more likely to keep reading. It is not always easy to develop somebody elses
intrinsic motivation, but choosing the right materials can really make a different. Intrinsic
motivation also helps develop students reading skills (Grabe, 2004)

3. To Learn About Different Cultures


Most comics and comic strips are situated in time and place (even though it is sometimes not
stated explicitly, by default, the action takes place in the country where the author resides at the
present time), this provides an opportunity for EFL learners to learn and discover other cultures.
Especially with the development of Webcomics that specialize on certain niches, students can
identify with people with a similar interest. Learners interested in sciences, mathematics, etc, can
most certainly identify well with xkcd comic strips; similarly, learners who like to take pictures
or work as a freelancer will easily relate to What The Duck for example.

4. To Facilitate Vocabulary Acquisition


There are several reasons why it tends to be easier to understand vocabulary with comics:

Most importantly, the visual aspect of the comics generally provides the context and the
visual context of the words that are used. Very often, the words that are used in the
bubbles are illustrated on the canvas. For example, in this comic strip, the word shovel is
mentioned and illustrated at the same time.
Since the input is presented in writing, the learners can take the time they need to pause,
go back, analyze the text again, etc. This is less practical with audio and video materials.

5. To Develop Reading Skills


It goes without saying that more reading helps to develop reading skills, but what is particularly
useful with comic strips is that they rich provide visual contexts that will definitely help the
readers understand the text more easily. The constant visual support also helps the reader follow
the sequence of the story. Several studies have been done to test the fact that reading comics

15

helps students understanding of texts, I will refer you to the annotated bibliography here (under
construction).

6. To Develop Analytical Skills


Reading cartoons is more than just reading text and images. To fully grasp a comic strip, one has
to put the two together and see how they interact to construct the meaning. This encourages
students to closely pay attention to the graphics in relation to the text that is given. By doing so,
students will be better able to understand the use satire, symbolism and humor that is common in
comic strips.

7. To Develop Writing Skills


Reading to develop writing skills? By becoming familiar to the structure of comics, students
develop a better understand of logic and continuity in a narrative. Drolet (2010) also argues that
this using comics can become good prompts for writing topics.

REFERENCE LIST
Drolet, C. A. (2010). Using Comics in the Development of EFL Reading and Writing.
SungKyul University, 123-140.
Grabe, W. (2004). Research on teaching reading. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 24, 44-
69.
Hadley, A. O. (2000). Teaching language in context(3rd ed.). Boston: Thomson.

INTERNET LINKS
www.ucomics.com/comics/ This site has a huge collection of comic links. Everything from Dick
Tracy to Calvin Hobbs.
www.comedyorama.com/index.html There are links here to more US based 'funnies' from the
50s.
http://learnenglishkids.britishcouncil.org/en/make-your-own/comic-strip-maker - LearnEnglish
Kids comic strip maker
www.bitstrips.com/create/comic This site allows you to make your own comic strip

LANGUAGE SKILLS THROUGH DRAMA AND MUSIC

Emanuela Camelia Bbuanu


Liceul Tehnologic Ion Mincu, Vaslui

The use of drama and music in language teaching is neither new nor overexploited and
thus this article aims at developing the subject and showing against all prejudices that having fun
in the classroom is constructive and beneficial for developing language competence and
encouraging fluency in English.
Why drama and music? Simply because current methodological trends support the idea
that all subjects should focus on hands-on, thought provoking, authentic activities, and these two
techniques and means are available to facilitate the connection between the internal, mental
process and the surroundings, resulting in developing competences in real-life context. Drama
does not refer to theatre performance, as music does not imply singing, but the combination of
the two in class creates involvement and stimulates the feelings and imagination of the students,
providing them with a variety of stimuli that leads to a rich learning experience. The aim of this

16

work is to show how drama and music can enhance the effect and quality of the process of
English teaching and learning.
Drama and music can foster the four main language skills like reading, writing, speaking
and listening by creating a meaningful creative and authentic context. First of all both means are
entertaining and fun and can provide motivation to learn. They offer varied opportunities for
different uses of language and engage all students interacting, connecting their emotions and
cognition, making them take risks with language, building a link between thought and action.
Maley1 supports the use of drama by emphasizing its advantages in many points:
1. All four language skills are integrated in a natural way, as to understand the task and
message, careful listening is compulsory and essential for a fluent spontaneous verbal
expression, which is the basis of most of the activities. Many of them also require
reading and writing as input and output.
2. It combines verbal and non-verbal communication, linking both mind and body,
creating a balance between physical and intellectual language acquisition.
3. It emphasizes not only the cognitive domain but also the affective side of the learner.
4. It brings classroom to life through interaction in context, focusing language
acquisition more on meaning.
5. Focusing on whole-person learning with multi-sensory inputs learners capitalize on
their strength and expand their horizons.
6. It helps develop self-awareness and raise motivation, sustained through diversity and
the sense of expectancy created by the activities.
7. It bridges the transfer of responsibility for learning from teacher to students which is
exactly what the ideal is.
8. It promotes a more open, explanatory style of learning in which creativity mixes with
imagination, encouraging risk-taking, the most important barrier to surpass for
effective language learning.
9. It affects positively classroom dynamics and atmosphere, students bonding and
learning together.
10. It is entertaining and low-resource consuming, as all you need mostly is a room full
of people willing to have fun and get rid of inhibitions.
Maley, referring to teaching has also identified ten reasons for using poetry and songs
in English language learning: memorability, rhythmicality, performance/ recitability, ambiguity,
non-triviality, universality, playfulness, reactional language, motivation and interaction2.
And because drama and music influence positively students attitude, they have
according to Krashen3 a weak affective filter, which is optimal for learning. A weak affective
filter means that the learner shows a positive attitude towards learning. A strong affective filter is
related to students not seeking language input and thus, they are not open to language
acquisition. In practice the Affective Filter Hypothesis suggests that teachers must create a
positive atmosphere helpful for language learning. Songs are another way to achieve a weak
affective filter and develop language competence.
Saricoban and Metin4 have listed how songs and music can develop the four skills
areas of reading, writing, listening and speaking by:
Presenting a topic, a language point or lexis
Practising a language point or lexis
Focusing more directly on common learner errors
Encouraging reading extensively and intensively

1
Maley, A. & Duff, A., Drama Techniques: A Resource Book of Communicating Activities for Language Teachers,
Cambridge University Press, 2005, p. 2,
2
Maley, A., Poetry and Song as Effective Language-Learning Activities, Cambridge University Press, 1990, p. 93-
95,
3
Krashen, S.D., Principles and Practices in SecondLlanguage Acquisition, Pergamon Press, 1983, p. 32,
4
Saricoban, A. & Metin, E., Songs, verse and games for teaching grammar, the internet TESL Journal, 2000,
(accessed on 09.06.2015) available online at http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Saricoban-Songs.html
17

Stimulating discussion of attitudes and feelings


Developing creativity and imagination
Creating a relaxed classroom atmosphere
Bringing diversity and fun into learning.
Songs are seen as opportunity to develop automaticity, which is a cognitive reason for
using music during the learning process. Gatbonton and Segalowitz5 say that automaticity is a
component of language fluency which involves both knowing what to say and producing
language rapidly without pauses. They also state that teachers must place students in an
environment in which it is appropriate to use target utterances in a genuinely communicative
fashion6. Songs are usually repetitive and consistent, so they can offer numerous opportunities
to practise tenses or language patterns.
Murphey suggests three other reasons for choosing songs for foreign language teaching
instruction. He sees that most importantly, perhaps, songs are relaxing, therefore they can be
used as a means for teachers to establish a connection and stimulate very positive associations
to the study of a language, which otherwise may only be seen as a laborious task, entailing
exams, frustration, and corrections7
Songs are also excellent sources for colloquial English, which is the language of informal
conversation, most often encountered by students in real life. It is a method of preparing learners
for genuine language they will be faced with. Music in its variety exposes students to authentic
English, which is an important factor in promoting language learning.
Depending on where one listens to, music can fulfil different functions, and Murphey
distinguishes between the reasons for which songs are present in everyday contexts as opposed
to an educational class environment. Accordingly, he lists some purposes for listening to music
daily:
Sing, hum, whistle, tap and snap singers while we listen
Talk about music, lyrics, singers and video clips
Use songs and music to set or change an atmosphere or mood
Use music and song to make internal associations with the people, places and
times in our lives, so they become the personal soundtrack of our lives.
and in a learning environment:
Study grammar
Practise selective listening comprehension
Read songs, articles, books for linguistic purposes
Translate songs
Write dialogues using the words of a song
Do role plays
Dictate songs
Use a song for a gap-fill, cloze, or for correction
Teach vocabulary
Break the routine8
Music has become a trait of character, as when someone asks what kind of music one
listens to, they already label the person and assign certain features. Combining music, which is
so present in our daily life with drama into language teaching may provide an opportunity for
teachers and students to communicate in a more relax conducive to learning environment.
Motivation and success
Everyone has a reason as to why they want to study languages, so teachers main goal is
to find the reason and exploit it to their advantage. Knowing the reason helps teachers prepare

5
Gatbonton, E. and Segalowitz, N., Creative automatization: principles for promoting fluency within a
communicative framework, TESOL Quarterly, 1988, p. 473,
6
Idem: 476,
7
Murphey, T., Music & Song, Oxford University Press, 1993, p. 6,
8
Idem: pp. 9-10,
18

better and make lessons meaningful so that they can meet students expectations. Their
enthusiasm increases if the lessons provide them enough self-esteem and confidence to achieve
the goals they had set for themselves.
Many students want to learn languages because they desire to have a better job, maybe in
the EU countries, or just to be better in the career they wish. Others desire to travel around the
world and explore everything around, or they just long for self-development. All these drive
students into choosing a purpose, so they can be seen as opportunities for the teacher to make the
learning process more effective and successful.
Harmer states that what happens in the classroom will have an important effect on
students who are already in some way extrinsically motivated9. Thus, the use of drama and
music provides the teacher with a powerful tool to influence and affect the intrinsic motivation of
any students. Even those lacking interest at first become immersed in the activity and are
influenced positively by those who take part in learning.
All in all, experiencing success is very important for students confidence and reinforces
their desire to learn, and even if they manifest distrust initially, with constant encouragement and
patience supported with entertaining techniques and allowance of a larger amount of time to
believe in the benefits of drama and music, they gradually overcome any obstacle the might
have.
However, there are a number of reasons for choosing drama and music as means to
develop language skills, but the fact that The Common European Framework of Reference
supports this, should be regarded as enough motivation to bring them in class, not to mention
that they involve all the four skills in a natural way, combine verbal and non-verbal
communication and provide interaction in context. Together with the universal values of
interculturalism, democracy and plurilingualism drama and music raise motivation that finally
leads to success in education and life.
As far as the development of language skills is concerned, speaking and listening are the
most obvious ones to be stimulated, as any drama moment involves and engages students in
meaningful conversations or activities, and any song means first listen, then comprehend and
only afterwards interpret/comment. Neither technique is static, so they require students to relate
and implicate themselves actively in the lesson, put into practice their imagination and feelings
and try to use language as spontaneously as possible. It is like bringing the outside world in
class, and creating a mini world of their own. Using drama and music techniques the teacher can
make students focus on fluency, pronunciation, stress or intonation, etc.
Furthermore, changing a classroom into a different environment and placing students into
a variety of contexts supplies the opportunity to practice a wide range of vocabulary in a variety
of situations, in which grammar can have its place either deductively or inductively but mostly
naturally practiced through dramatic activities.
It is necessary to state that the teachers role in introducing drama and consequently
music into the teaching of foreign language is very important. Many students are very reluctant
when presented with the chance to be involved in such a practice, especially since they are not
used to such an approach. It is the teacher who should put them at ease and help them overcome
this stage. This can be achieved through meticulous preparation, proper introduction, constant
encouragement to build their self-confidence and demonstrating how drama and music can help
them develop their language skills.

Bibliography:

Gatbonton, E. and Segalowitz, N., Creative automatization: Principles for promoting fluency
within a communicative framework, TESOL Quarterly, 1988, vol. 22, Issue 3, pp. 473-492.
Harmer, J., The Practice of English Language Teaching, Essex, Longman Group UK Limited,
1991

9
Harmer, J., The practice of English Language Teaching, Longman Group UK Limited, 1991, p. 5,
19

Implementation of Education & Training 2010 programme, Working group on Basic skills,
foreign language teaching and entrepreneurship; Report November 2003, Annex 2, Note 24, pp.
48-58
Krashen, S.D., Principles and Practices in Second Language Acquisition, Oxford, Pergamon
Press, 1983.
Maley, A. and Duff, A., Drama Techniques: A Resource Book of Communication Activities for
Language Teachers, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Maley, A., Poetry and song as effective language-learning activities, in Wilga M. Rivers,
Interactive Language Teaching, Fourth Printing, USA: Cambridge University Press, 1990.
Murphey, T., Music and Song, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.
Saricoban, A. and Metin, E., Songs, verse and games for teaching grammar, the internet TESL
Journal, 2000, (accessed on the 9th of June 2015) available online at
http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Saricoban-Songs.html.

CHALLENGING SPEAKING ABILITIES BY COMMUNICATIVE


TEACHING METHOD

Prof. Ptran Florentina


Colegiul Auto Traian Vuia Trgu Jiu, Gorj

Challenging speaking abilities needs to be teachers aim and eventually the aim of
communicative method as it focuses on students linguistic needs. This work seeks to list some
ways which can be used by teachers when teaching communication by both acting as a controller
and as a participant in the classroom and by which he can stand as a support for his students.
One of the most important distinctions that can be drawn here is that a student needs to
interact among themselves and learn a lot from what he hears from the teacher or from a tape. He
must become the one who can eventually produce language.
This way, communicative method seems to be an appropriate attitude towards this objective
because it deals with classroom interaction as an important pedagogical principle. Nevertheless,
this concept of classroom interaction has long time been wrongly taken, as it was identified only
with teacher-student interaction.
Teaching English as a foreign language has long determined changes in pedagogical
methods and continues to do so. The most important aspect is that the focus has shifted from
teacher-centered classes to student-centered classes. This aspect has imposed new "rules" and
attitudes, especially for the teacher. The modern pedagogy has understood that the class is a
balanced two-ways relationship between the one who teaches and the one who learns. Thus, the
two parts "negotiate" their importance in the class, in the sense that, for a better learning activity
the one who teaches should become more or less dynamic or implicated. He is the one who knows,
the one who eventually puts things into order and understands the best attitude towards his
partner.
It is said that the most important job of the teacher is to create the conditions in which
learning can take place. I think we should complete this statement by saying that the teacher has to
create the conditions in which the best /earning can take place. Because we aim at optimal activities
in order to obtain the most profitable results. This way, communicative method seems to be an
appropriate attitude towards this objective. It deals with classroom interaction as an important
pedagogical principle. Nevertheless, this concept of classroom interaction has long time been
wrongly taken, as it was identified only with teacher-student interaction.
It is very important for the learner to listen to and to speak with the teacher, as the latter is
the one who may and can decide whether the required level of accuracy has been achieved. The
students always look up at the person teaching them, as a person who has the necessary skills to
observe, understand and most important correct the mistakes. But this is not always the best way

20

to learn, especially when it comes to a foreign language. Alongside with presentation or practice (as
part of the lesson approaches) there is the part of production.
The student learns a lot from what he hears from the teacher or from a tape, but is more
important to become the one who can eventually produce language. One of the problems in
teaching a foreign language lies not only in the process of input, of providing information that is
uttering the words and explaining their meaning. It is also the problem of output, of what the student
is capable of uttering.
Taking into account that the student absorbs the correct picture of the language (or of a
certain vocabulary) by listening to the teacher, we may easily fall into the mistake of dominating the
lesson to the exclusion of any other participant. Thus, one should constantly acknowledge that by
interacting with the teacher, a student is learning to interact with a competent user of the
language. Again, if the only conversation practice learners get is one-to-one with the teacher,
they will get very little time to speak at all (especially if there is, for example, a 25 people class).
An essential lesson that every new teacher needs to learn is that "talking at" the learners does not
necessarily mean that learning is taking place; in many cases, teacher talking time is actually time
when the learners are not doing very much and are not very involved. So, in order to assure a better
acquisition, the teacher should manage talking time as it will become most profitable for the
students.
On the other hand students should interact among themselves as much as possible.
Whether this is done by the way they are sitting, or especially by the manner in which they
communicate one to another, their speaking time should increase compared to that of the
teacher. The latter may as well be only a mediator between them, a facilitator of students'
language production. One of the most important distinctions that can be drawn here is that
between the teacher as a controller and the teacher as a participant, as these two concepts
represent limits of teacher behavior. A controller stands in front of the class and stands out as the
person who governs everything from teaching to the student's possible reactions. He is like a
"puppet-master" observing and deciding whether a certain gesture should be made. On the other
hand, the participant involves not only communicatively but sometimes even physically in the class,
maintaining a low profile in order to allow students to achieve their best from an individual or
group task.
When learning English students are receiving language as language is in some way "put
into" the students (whether they want to receive it or not). But this is not enough: the teacher also
needs to provide opportunities for the students to activate this knowledge and to "produce"
language. Controller teachers should know when and how long they need to allow students to talk
because language production implies rehearsing whilst receiving feedback (from the teacher or from
the students). So it is clearly that there is a great need for communicative output from the students
and also of a feedback. If teachers forget to "get out" from controller position, the students can no
longer practice language therefore their talking skills may suffer greatly.
During the presentation stage, teachers tend to act as controllers, both selecting the
language the students are to use and asking for the accurate reproduction of new language items.
They will want to correct the mistakes they hear and see at this stage fairly rigorously in marked
contrast to the kind of correction that is generally offered in practice and communicative activities.
In order to get the best results in a student-centered class one should make sure that he
gets to them, that he can get their attention. An important reason why learners may not
successfully follow activity instructions (or understand teacher's explanations of something) is that
they didn't actually hear them, perhaps because they weren't fully paying attention when they
were given. Sometimes, as the teacher invests energy in finding the best way to give the
instruction, he may overlook the necessity of getting students' attention before the instruction is
even given. If the students are chattering, or not paying attention, nevertheless how well the
instruction is given, it will have little chances of fulfilment. That is why the teacher should take
into account few tips in order to really focus the activity upon students. First of all he has to make
eye-contact as much and with as many students as possible. Then the teacher might have
established a gesture that means he wants to talk (for example holding the hand up or even a

21

word). Personally, I do the next thing: make eye-contact and then wait, maintaining the eye-
contact. I do not move and do not say a word. I do not look impatient or anxious. I just keep
moving my eyes around the room from person to person. Eventually the students will
understand that attention is required and from that point I can give my instruction.
It is very important for the teacher to know what his role in the class is, especially in pair or
group activities. "Immediately after you have given the instruction for a task and students start
doing it, there is often an immediate need to check to make sure that students are doing the
activity that you asked them to do and have understood the basic instructions and the mechanics
of the activity. You could do this by quietly and relatively inconspicuous wandering around the
room, listening in briefly to snatches from many groups and assuring yourself that students are
doing what they are supposed to. We could call this monitoring to check the mechanics."
In most activities, the aim is that the learners get to work on their own as much as
possible; to speak fluently with the least interference from the teacher. If the teacher is "too
present", then the student will look to him for guidance, correction or vocabulary help, whereas it
might be more useful for them to struggle a little and learn to make use of their own resources.
Thus, the teacher's behavior may vary from monitoring discreetly to vanishing completely form
the activity.
To monitor discreetly means to maintain a certain presence of yourself as a teacher in the
classroom, but not to offer help or to interfere every time something seems wrong. The students
should know that the teacher is there, but that he will not interrupt them. The teacher is there
watching and listening carefully, but unless there is a significant problem or mistake he need not to
intervene. This way, the students will not feel tempted to report every time to the teacher and
they will do the task themselves, producing and using language as much as possible. Even if they
ask for the teacher's help, he should do this swiftly and effectively and then return to the
monitoring position.
Nevertheless, there are cases when the teacher risks to impose his presence too much by
helping the learners and thus to diminish the work that is supposed to be done. "Sometimes the
best option for you is to vanish, i.e. get out of the immediate eyeshot. You could go into a
corner of the room and sit quietly. [...] You need to keep a small percentage of attention on the
room, in order to know when the activity is reaching an end or a crisis point, but otherwise
restrain yourself from doing too much. Relax and stop being a teacher for a while. In a few
specific cases, you might want to emphasize the point that students need to work without your
help, and in such cases even leaving the room for a few minutes may be an option." [1, p. 94]
There is also the case when, if the teacher leaves the room for a few minutes, the students as they
are involved in solving the task may not even notice his absence.
Monitoring actively is more visible for students and allows them to be more aware of the
teacher's presence and of the possibility of asking help from him. A teacher who is actively
monitoring will be walking around, viewing and listening in to many different groups and
frequently offering spontaneous advice and corrections, as well as responding to requests and
questions from students. This method may easily change into participation when the teacher sits
down and joins a group (temporarily or for the whole task). He may be part of that group, but, at
the same time offering help, ideas or even asking questions.
The communicative method resorts to different techniques of teaching students. On one
hand there is the part of restricted practice, and on the other hand is that of free practice. When
talking about restricted task, we aim at exercises (written or oral) which focus on certain language
topics or grammar problems. For example, we can use a written exercise of the "fill in the blanks"
type in order for the students to learn new vocabulary or new grammatical items. At the same
time, an oral exercise may have as the main target the words used in a certain communicational
situation (e.g. booking a room in a hotel or taking part in an interview for a certain job or position
in a company). These types of activities tend to be easier than free practice, as they limit the
students* options to certain topics. When it comes to free practice one should understand the
capacity of the learner to make up a discourse and to sustain logical statements. Generally, this is a
communicative activity which demands from the student the capacity of dialogue, of responding

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and asking questions. It comes as a general truth that for a communicative purpose, this method is
more appropriate than those asking students to only solve exercises with fixed pattern and in
which imagination and the capacity of speaking is not challenged, therefore, not improved.
Challenging speaking abilities both fluency and accuracy is eventually the aim of
communicative method as it focuses on student and on the student's linguistic needs, meeting
clear-cut objectives set by the trainer after the student's needs analysis.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:
1. Harmer, Jeremy, The Practice of English Language Teaching, Longman, 1995;
2. Krashen, Stephen D., Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition, Pergamon Press,
1984;
3. Scrivener, Jim, Learning Teaching, Macmillan Books for Teachers, Oxford, 2005.

MAKING THE TEACHING PROCESS VISUAL FOR THE SCREENAGE STUDENT

Prof. Crian Diana,


Liceul Teologic Penticostal, Baia Mare

It is a truth universally acknowledged that the process of teaching has undergone major
changes mostly due to the influence of technology in our lives. Every part of our daily life is
related to technology in one way or another. In the present globalized world, we are living in the
era of advanced technology and all the different sectors of society are trying to adapt to this
`brave new world` according to their needs and requirements. As a result, education has a major
role to fulfill in society by shaping, creating young people in order to become the pillars of
society, decent, honest and respectable human beings who are able to blend both tradition and
modernity.
Teachers all around the world need to always come up with new strategies of teaching
and learning different subjects that would have something else to offer besides what is found on
the internet or even in the textbooks. This need, this necessity of increasing students motivation
is paramount in order to improve the quality of the teaching and learning process.
One way of promoting intercultural European education is through the medium of
comics, which bear their own cultural background and expression. This innovative way of
communication is mostly used in foreign languages and it enhances critical thinking and
creativity among pupils. For example, while reading comics magazines, watching the drawings
or simply creating graphics for them, one may ask himself (or the teacher can ask pupils) the
following (thus setting into motion the communicated meaning <critical thinking>): 1.
Description What can you see? What does the picture show? Give three adjectives that
describe this picture; 2. People Where are the people in this picture? How do they feel? How
well do the people know each other?; 3. Activity What are they doing? How often do you think
they do this?; 4. Imagine you are in the picture What would you be doing? What would you
say to the other person/people? Would you enjoy being here? Why? Why not? What question
would you like to ask the person/people in the picture?; 5. Time When do you think the picture
was taken? What year is it?; 6. Personalisation What does it remind you of? Have you ever
been in a similar situation?; 7. Comparison How is the place in the picture similar to or
different from where you live? Compare the people in the graphics. Find three similarities and
three differences; 8. Predicting and speculalting What do you think will happen next? What do
you think the person is going to say/do next?; 9. Picture with a text - Look at the picture with
this text. What is the text going to be about? Which part of the text is about the action or place in
the picture?; 10. Re-using the image Imagine this picture is the cover of a computer
game/book.What is the title of the game/book? What king of game/book is it?.

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By looking at all the questions above, teachers can easily use them either with comics or while
they are teaching something else and they have a picture or a set of pictures at hand. These tasks
are required mostly during the speaking activities and because they tend to find out more about
the speakers thought and feelings, they are more likely to ellicit longer answers as opposed to
grammar activities.
Creativity plays a major role in comics even from the very beginning. Not only it allows
pupils to express themselves freely while holding a comic in their hands but also helps them
make connections between the panels, the brief descriptive prose and the written narrative.
Moreover, a passionate reader of comic books would surely know some details referring to the
writing, drawing, and coloring. There are also many technological formulas used to create comic
books, including directions, axes, data, and metrics. Thus, is can be stated that this new strategy
of teaching through comics involves an IT approach that teachers and students alike should
master. And what would be more fun and more engaging than to create your own comic
magazine? This long-term activity would certainly appeal to children of all ages. It would
develop students inventiveness, it would require time, patience and involvement in the task and
the final product would be an authentic form of evaluation.
Also, through comics, pupils would practice digital competencies, and the competences
of reading, writing, grammar and vocabulary.
In a modern world, modern approaches are required. Educators should realise it and
plan their activities accordingly. What is more to this is the fact that comic books and the process
of dealing with them either making them or simply enjoying them- combine traditional
teaching with a more modern approach. One can appreciate a comic for what it is without
thinking about the technological process it involves or, one can be immediately drawn to and
inspired by its digital requirements which takes the teaching-learning process to a whole new
level. The latter can represent either a tool which the teacher uses during lessons or a threat due
to the lack of knowledge in the field of technology. Either way, there are many apps and
programmes for students to start thinking creatively, to share their history, culture and traditions
with others and to collaborate with other students so as to avoid discrimination and racism while
living in a multicultural society. Therefore, students have the opportunity to express their
thoughts and to show their own feelings and send authentic messages to their generation and also
to the future generations by using `Storybird`, `Voki`, `Minecraft etc. , and to practice their
digital skills. All these are very attractive to pupils and it is a perfect opportunity for them to
watch and learn from one another. Even though we live in a modern world governed by
technology that sometimes alienates people, students can break the barries between human
beings by bringing them closer through comics. These can be used to tell someones story, a
students own beliefs, emotions or insecurities, or it could render short stories based on ones
nationality and identity. This is innovating, engaging, fun and also necessary because we need to
adapt to new circumstances and we need to understand students needs and provide them with
what they need for the teaching and learning process. As the title suggests, the screenage student
is connected to whatever is modern and to modernity, in this case to technology.
Through comics, a students comes across a range of vocabulary and grammatical
structures while picturing everything in his mind and later on making it visual on paper, on an
app or on a digital programme. However, the result is overwhelming: not only the student will
love this new approach to teaching, but it will give him the chance to learn at his own pace,
enabling him to think critical, to be open-minded and to become aware of the knowledge he
acquires through the medium of using comics in language classes.
From a teachers point of view it can be said that regarding intercultural education, it is
essential to use active and motivating techniques during the teaching and learning process in
order to achieve the required aims. Thus, pupils learn through cooperation and by descovering
things by themselves, while the teachers allow them to speak their minds and share information
with the educators. One cannot hope to depend entirely on the traditional ways of teaching -
though they are extremely effective at times- but everyone should realize the importance of

24

being up to date regarding the teaching process, find out what are the students needs and make
sure that they get what they feel that enables them to learn languages easier, faster and better.
Through comics, students develop a general understanding of the world, they learn how
to accept people who have different perspectives about life, they become self-confident and less
worried about failure in school and they begin to nurture positive feeling and attitudes towards
teachers.
Last but not least, comics are a good way of teaching students how to communicate to
one another. Maybe a drawing or a sentence captures their attention and thus they feel the need
to enuntiate their thoughts and feelings to others. This brings students together, they share
information, they help each other, they reflect upon something that has been said and they start
thinking critically. All of the above help students know more about the world, about other
cultures and countries and the new knowledge will broaden their minds and they will be fully
equipped in order to live in this modern and constantly changing world.

BIBLIOGRAFIE

Nedelcu Anca, Fundamentele educatiei interculturale, Polirom, Bucuresti, 2008, pg. 28-43, 144-
175.

DEVELOPING INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE AND


LANGUAGE SKILLS IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF CONTEXT

Gheorghita-Schipor Laura-Maria,
Scoala Gimnaziala Nr. 3 Rovinari

We, all human beings, are all different in many ways and can be identified according to
many criteria: gender, age, physical characteristics, sexual orientation, personality, hobbies,
standard of living, beliefs etc.
The concept of intercultural competencies was used in the context of studies related with
efficient intercultural communication, adaptation to other cultures, intercultural learning. This
concept is defined on the intersection of the concept of culture and competence.
Rakotomena (2005) formulate the intercultural competencies as a set of competencies
necessary for a successful interaction in a group of persons from different cultures. Intercultural
competencies are based on:
knowledge about culture in general, own cultural and other cultures in particular;
capacities: behavior, adaptation, conflict management, negotiation capacities;
competencies: flexibility, open mindness, intelligence, empathy, interdependence, optimism,
tolerance;
psychological and emotional resources: motivation, stress management capacities.
Intercultural education in a formal context includes academic programmes and initiatives
that are developed within and from the school. School is, after the family, a principal agent of
socialization through which children get not only an academic education, but also learn much of
their own cultural code. This cultural code needs to be the one that is open to other cultures,
religions and lifestyles. Therefore, without the active support of the school, efforts to introduce
intercultural education are bound to see diminished results, if not outright failure. Intercultural
education demands from the school an important process of opening and renewal, matching
curricula to the reality of multicultural societies. Schools are basing their work increasingly on
the principle that all are equal. In general, the school should make efforts to:
- Try to create equal social and educational opportunities for children from minority
cultural groups;

25

- Raise awareness of cultural differences as a way to oppose discrimination;


- Defend and develop cultural pluralism in society;
- Help children to deal constructively with conflicts, by illuminating different interests and
searching for common goals.
The schools role as an agent of intercultural education is double: towards minority
groups and cultures and towards majority groups and cultures. There are many examples of good
practice around Europe; here are a couple of recommendations:
- Intercultural education should be one of the key factors in training all teachers; one way
for this to have a real, personal impact on teachers would be for them to spend time
working in another culture, with the tools to understand what is happening within
themselves they would then be better equipped to help their pupils learn to practice
active tolerance;
- Textbooks and other teaching materials need to be reviewed taking others as a starting
point, so that school children can learn to accept as normal different viewpoints and
perspectives.
The objectives of informal intercultural education coincide with those of formal
intercultural education. The differences between these means lie mainly in the providers and the
working methods. Informal educators work with young people in youth organizations, guidance
centres, free time activities after school, during youth exchanges etc. Informal education has
several important features which distinguish it from formal education:
- Informal education is voluntary;
- There is a closer relationship with participants and this makes communication easier;
- The contents are adapted with the participants to their reality and needs;
- There is freer choice in the setting of objectives and in matching them with relevant
activities;
- The active and participative methodology makes for greater participation.
Informal could not exist without the presence of formal and there is much room to
improve the compatibility between the two.
In the following, we present some activities with students, which uses multimedia for
developing intercultural competencies. These activities develop complex competencies, beside
the intercultural competencies:

1. Activity: Intercultural message of a photo


Objectives/Competencies
- To read the intercultural message of a photo;
- To formulate intercultural messages;
- To describe feelings related with people from other cultures.
Time 50 minutes
Resources
- A photo (in digital form) with intercultural messages; Laptop, projector.
Steps of the activity:
- The teacher projects the photo, students have to write down the message of the presented photo;
- Each student reads the message;
Reflection and evaluation
- The teacher starts a discussion in the class about comparing the messages written by different
students; The teacher asks students to formulate what is the similarities between the messages
written by different pupils.

Activity 2: Imaginary dialog between persons from a photo belonging to another culture
Objectives/Competencies:
- Empathy to identify with a person belonging to another culture
- Efficient communication skills
Time: 50 minutes

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Resources:
- pictures in electronic format (pictures with 2-4 persons, belonging to another culture, that the
students culture); computer network connected to the Internet
Steps of the activity:
- Ask students to observe the photo, and answer to the following questions:
Who are the people from the picture?
What have they done before the moment of the photo?
What will they do after?
(individual work, each student writes his/her answers on a sheet of paper)
- Ask students to group in teams (the number of people from a team should be equal with the
number of persons from the photo). Ask each team to elaborate a scenario about what happened
before the moment of taking the photo, and after, putting together the ideas of the team members.
(group work, each team writes the scenario in computer in a document)
- Ask each team member to identify with a person from the photo, and then write a short dialog
between the persons on the photo. (group work, each team copies the photo in the document and
add the dialog on the photo)
- Ask each team to send their stories by e-mail to another team. Ask each team to compare their
work with that one of the other team. (group work, each team takes notes about their
observations)
- Ask each team to present the differences and similarities between the two versions in front of
the class (frontal work, a student from each team presents the work of his/her team)
Reflection and evaluation
- Ask each team to discuss which difficulties they had in identifying with the persons from the
photo (team work, discussion)

3. Activity: Dialog between two people of different culture


Focus: communication between cultures
Objectives/Competencies:
- creativity
- communication skills
- interaction skills
- ability to read the message of a film
- sensibility to an intercultural topic
- discovering differences/similarities between cultures
- discovering ways of overcome these differences/similarities
- ability to emphasize with another person
Time: 50 minutes
Resources: a short film with intercultural message (maximum 5 minutes, the film should have
two characters who belongs to different cultures), computer network with Internet connection
Steps of the activity:
- everybody watch the film
- discussion about the intercultural message of the film (frontal, with the whole class)

BIBLIOGRAPHY:
1. ***, Developing intercultural competencies using activities with different media, 2008;
2. ***, Education pack, 2004

27

HAVE FUN WITH STORIES


Garboan-Sopronyi Reka Kinga
Liceul Tehnologic Voievodul Gelu Zalu

Fairy tales are more than true: not because they tell us that dragons exist, but because
they tell us that dragons can be beaten. (Neil Gaiman, Coraline)
In a climate where children spend more and more time in front of televisions, computers
and video games the educational impact of storytelling is augmented as never before. Rather than
passively receiving images, children must actively engage in making images themselves. When
they listen to stories, childrens imaginations are enriched and stimulated. Furthermore, the
ability to make mental images is an important skill for reading because it links the reader to the
text in more personal and memorable ways. Young children are wired to love language and using
storytelling in the classroom cashes in on that expansive love of words and the desire to try out
such language. Telling stories to young children also increases their vocabulary. The language
and literary elements of storytelling are not only merits, however. Through stories children learn
about the cultural values of their society. Young ones begin to appreciate the goodness, humour,
bravery and beauty of the characters in the story before they really know these qualities
themselves.
Not only do children learn about their own culture through stories, but they gain an
appreciation of other cultures as well. Storytelling emphasizes the ties that bind and helps
children see the commonalities of people and communities around the world. As our world
grows smaller, telling stories from around the globe fosters understanding of other people and
places. The folk stories and fairy tales of other cultures teach children to embrace the uniqueness
of different societies. At the same time, the commonalities among the different stories highlight
the deep connection all cultures share. Many of the stories we choose to tell can help young
children deal with their own fears, challenges and difficulties. Fairy tales especially reach
children on a deep level and help them bridge the confusing dimensions of the world. Good and
evil, fear and courage, wisdom and folly, fortune and misfortune, cruelty and kindness are
personified. Through fairy tales children can integrate these elements of our world into their own
and deal better with such trials themselves.
Additionally, stories can be told several times of crisis to help children deal with issues of
death, violence, abuse. As much as we want to protect young ones from such terrible situations,
the reality of our world does not always make this possible. Not only can we tell stories that deal
with such events and make the endings hopeful and happy, but we can encourage children to tell
stories. Giving children the opportunity to do their own storytelling is a rich experience itself
with numerous benefits to the children. Storytelling makes children comfortable with oral
communication and speaking in front of an audience. Students who practice storytelling also
gain experience watching their audience for clues and altering their story accordingly. This sets
the basis for later skills needed in writing.
Storytelling is an art that has mental, social and educational benefits on students. People
of all ages love stories. Students are great fans of stories and love to listen to them. Storytelling
literally means reading out stories to them. Storytelling is a great activity of learning. At each
phase of the development of the story, students ask questions. A proper teller can use tricks to
make them curious and ask questions. Storytelling is the basic training for academic learning.
When they see images in the book and listen to the stories, students learn to associate images and
story and later imagination and visuals. You can increase the memory capacity of children by
asking them to remember stories you have already read for them or ask them to remember where
you stopped the previous day. Always demand students to share their contribution in the stories.
Ask them to narrate a possible climax or encourage them to create a new story with the same
characters in a story. Imagination is the key to creativity and students can be trained to develop
stronger skills of imagination. Another advantage of listening to stories is that students grow in
academic learning. Storytelling introduces a lot of new vocabulary. It is easy to teach the
meanings of the words as students learn faster from the context of a story.
28

Most students are familiar with stories and narrative conventions in their own language
and quickly transfer this into a willingness to listen and participate in stories in English. Stories
provide a natural, relevant and enjoyable context for exposure to language and an opportunity to
familiarize students to sounds, rhythm and intonation of English. The discovery and construction
of meaning is supported through things such as visuals, mime, gesture, voice and
characterization and students also develop learning strategies and thinking skills, such as
predicting, hypothesizing, guessing and inferring meaning. Stories also provide a wide range of
activities which develop language, thinking skills, positive attitudes as well as appreciation of
other cultures or understanding of content from other areas of the curriculum. As students
develop their ability to understand, retell, act out and create their own stories in English, this also
has a positive effect on their motivation, self-esteem and confidence.
Stories can be selected from a wide range of sources. Whatever the source, the most
important thing is that the story you choose is suitable for the children it is intended for. You
need to check that the content is relevant, interesting and if the story is illustrated, that the visuals
are clear and attractive and will support childrens understanding. The language level of the story
also needs to be appropriate and fit in with the syllabus. Other features such as whether the
discourse pattern of the story is repetitive or includes a rhythmic refrain will also influence your
choice. Over time it is important to vary the kinds of stories you use: traditional stories, spoof,
fables, stories with a moral, myths, funny stories, rhyming stories, stories which help children
understand their own feelings, stories from other cultures and which are linked to content from
other areas of the curriculum, biographical stories.
Before telling a story to children for the first time, it is advisable to practice how you are
going to do this, including mime or actions you plan to use to convey meaning, the way you are
going to use your voice for different characters or to create suspense or ask questions to
encourage the children to predict whats going to happen next. When you tell the story you need
to make sure that everyone can see and hear you. You also need to give them time to think, look,
comment, ask or respond to questions and encourage them to join in with you as you tell the
story. At the end ask the children if they have liked the story or have had similar experiences or
feelings to the characters in the story.
In the end, we have to remember that our purpose is to make our students to read and also
to learn something from what they are reading because as Cicero said A room without books is
like a body without a soul.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Seymour, David & Papova, Maria. 700 Classroom Activities, Macmillan, 2003.
Nunan, David. Language Teaching Methodology. A Textbook for Teachers. Phoenix ELT, 1995.
http://www.onestopenglish.com/

USING COMIC STRIPS IN THE CLASSROOM: A POWERFUL TOOL


IN TEACHING AND LEARNING ENGLISH

Prof.Sechei Simona Tamara


Liceul Cu Program Sportiv Avram Iancu Zalu

The process of teaching and learning involves two participants: the tercher, on one hand
and the students, on the other. We, the teachers, tend to complain about our students`lack of
interest and motivation in the learning process.
Over the last 18 years I have raised myself the question: What can we do to motivate
our students to learn?(for it is well known that motivation is crucial in language learning) and I
have had the opportunity to notice the influence of games in a variety of classes. Using games in
my classes was fun and extremely enjoyable for my students but still not enough for them to be
really involved in the class. So I had to bring something new in the class,

29

somethingextraordinary and that was the use of comic strips and cartoons. To my surprise I
have seen a steady increase of interest (greater than that in the case of games)of my students in
English learning since I started to use comic strips. That is why I think it is important to
articulate the value of using comics in the classroom. Over the years, I have discovered several
important reasons which prove that comic strips are a powerful instructional tool.
First of all, comic strips are fun. I have discovered that students enjoy reading comics. I
have never had a student ask: Why are we reading comics? Instead they usually ask:Can we
do this again soon? Comics bring fun and energy in the learning process, but with the focus on
learning. If students learn something in a funny context they will be much more likely to keep in
mind the language that was used.
Comics motivate. They engage students and then motivate them to interact with the topic.
This interaction drives students to demonstrate their undersanding of the topic in a friendly
context where the pressure of learning is lessen. Comics have a story line; therefore they have a
conclusion or at times a punch line. This way the students are motivated to continue reading and
to become more involved in the content than in the language.(Brown 1994,
p.227).Consequently, the students will be eager to know what will happen, what the end of the
story will be(as their curiosity has been aroused) and will remember the words, expressions and
grammatical forms more easily.
Comic strips are authentic language, and by using authentic material we provide our
students with examples of how language is actually used in the real world, as opposed to
artificial or awkard structures found in EFL textbooks. When working with authentic material,
the students can also realise that they may need that particular language in the situation presented
in the comics. If the students comprehend a genuine text successfully , this can motivate them
and build their confidence. It is the teachers job to match the difficulty of the language
presented to the class with the level of the students.
Comics develop reading skills. It goes without saying that more reading helps to develop
reading skills, but what is particularly useful with comic strips is that they provide rich visual
contexts that will definitely help the students understand the text more easily. The constant visual
support also help the students follow the sequence of the story. Furthermore, by reading comics
in class, learners are asked to generate personal responses which necessitate the production of
original discorse.(Hirvela, 1996, p. 128) Consequently, comic strips can be used not only for
reading exercises but also for improving the other three skills. Apart from reading , there are
various types of execises that can be used successfully in EFL classes.
Comics facilitate vocabulary acquisition as they represent a context for a particular piece
of langiage that the teacher wants to be taught. Using that particular piece of languafge in the
context of comics the students will associate the words with that particular context(the words
used in the bubbles are very often ilustrated on canvas) and thus, they can recall and apply them
better than just learning some words with their corresponding meanings. Besides vocabulary,
grammatical competence can be improved as well. With the help of comic strips new
grammatical structures can be introduced and practised, and since these grammatical structures
are embedded in a story with a logical line, the students will be able to better recall them later.
The visual nature of comic strips is another factor that has to be taken into consideration.
Comic strips are drawn, and therefore, they are visual. This caracteristic of comic strips also
helps to increase motivation. And more importantly, if a word, expression or concept is
accompanied by a picture (a visual image in one mind) then the learner will memorize and
recall it more easily.
The fact that comic strips are visual also contribute to improving communicative
competence. In a comic strip, life-like situations and expressions are used in spoken, colloquial
language: for instance , idioms, reduced forms, slang and expressions that require shared cultural
knowledge. Consequently, comic strips help the students to deal with spoken and informal
language, preventing them from sounding bookish , as students might if they are only exposed
to written, formal language. This contributes to communicative competence. Comic strips
generate a great amount of practice and thus, they accelerate the process of learning. The active

30

participation of the students, their oral interaction, plus the visual presentation, all these help the
students keep in mind and remember what they have learnt. Comics can be used as a point of
reference to bridge what students already know with what they have yet to learn.
All these features mentioned above are good reasons for a teacher to choose comic strips
in language teaching. Comic strips can have a significant effect on studentsachievement when
the teacher use them purposefully and thoughtfully. Comic strips can be applied to all skills. A
resourceful teacher can use diffrent materials in a number of fun and engaging ways to help the
students improve their English and to increase their motivation to learn. Either teachers choose to
use comic strips in their class or not, they have to bear in mind the overall aim: not only to
present and to practise a piece of language but also to reach the studentsexpectations so that
they could use that piece of language outside the classroom, too.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Brown, H. D., Teaching by principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy, Upper
Saddle River, N J. Prentice Hall Regents, 1994.
Hadley, A. O. , Teaching language in context(3rd edition) Boston, Thomson
Hirvela, A. , Reader-response theory. ELT Journal 50(2):127-134, 1996.

THE NEW METHOD: COMICS

Prof. Nicoleta Vint (Kerekes),


Colegiul Tehnic George Baritiu, Baia Mare
Prof. Larisa Cordea,
Scoala Gimnaziala Mihai Viteazu, Valea Chioarului

While training to become teachers, students are often told that teaching needs to be
inspiring. Later on, they discover that it can be rather repetitive, and, thus, they need to bring a
breath of fresh air into class, at least from time to time. Comics can serve that purpose precisely.
Why not give that boring grammar a new perspective? Why not introduce that new vocabulary
with the help of our superhero friends? Or, let us make our students the creators of their own
heroes and, thus, improve their writing skills. Perhaps previous generations of teachers would
regard comics as nothing more than easy reading to kill time, but, truth be told, they have gained
a lot of popularity among teenagers and young adult, becoming a form of literature and making
their way into the classroom.
In her article, Manno cites Josh Elder who states that if we are to consider comics an
educational tool, then we should take into consideration his, Three Es of Comics.
Engagement: Comics impart meaning through the readers active
engagement with written language and juxtaposed sequential images.
Readers must actively make meaning from the interplay of text and
images, as well as by filling in the gaps between panels.
Efficiency: The comic format conveys large amounts of information in a
short time. This is especially effective for teaching content in the subject
areas (math, science, social studies, etc.).
Effectiveness: Processing text and images together leads to better recall
and transfer of learning. Neurological experiments have shown that we
process text and images in different areas of the brain: known as the Dual-
Coding Theory of Cognition. These experiments also indicate that pairing
an image with text leads to increased memory retention for both. With
comics, students not only learn the material faster, they learn it better. (
2014)

31

Nonetheless, as teachers we ought to learn to understand the needs of our students, and
using comics can only be beneficial for both sides. Even though the language used in comics is
most of the time colloquial, students can use it in various contexts, that will only help them
enrich what they already know. Comics can be used not only for their humorous aspect. As
previously mentioned at the beginning of this paper, they can be used to teach grammar,
vocabulary, cooperative writing, and even culture and civilization, provided that the teacher
chooses a good type of comic for each activity.
As an introductory activity for a lesson based on comics, the teacher could bring in the
classroom comic strips from newspapers or print them from online sources. The teacher leaves
them on the table and allows the students to pick or choose what they want to read or see.

Figure 1
For instance, the picture above could be exploited in many different ways.
The teacher might cut apart the individual panels of the comic strip and put them in an
envelope. The students (either individually or in groups) then are asked to arrange the pieces into
the proper sequence to tell the story, either in written form or as a speaking exercise. For more
advanced learners, the task can be made more difficult by giving a different panel to each student
in a group and asking students to describe to the rest of the group what is on their panels. The
students should not show their pictures to each other until they have figured out the correct order
for the panels. A follow-up for this exercise could be that the students act out their stories in class.
After acting out a story, they could continue it as a role-play activity.
Another activity might be based on a template where the speech bubbles are already
filled. The students might be asked to draw pictures that match the text. In groups or pairs, they
will present the results to the classroom. (Figure 2)
In order to help the students, the teacher might elicit ideas for the story and write them on
the board. Verbal communication should be used as much as possible.

32

1. A boy reading in his room.


2. He browses some magazines of exotic places. His greatest wish is to travel around the
world.
3. He looks out of his window. He is shocked.
4. He cant believe his eyes
5. The aliens emerge from the spaceship.
6. He has finally got the chance to travel, so he gets in the spacecraft.
7. They are leaving the Earth.

Figure 2 Advanced teacher Training Inc. www.teyl.com

REFERENCE LIST:
Allen, Todd. Online Comics vs. Printed Comics: A Study in E-Commerce and the Comparative
Economics of Content. www.businessofcontent.com/dojo/215/v.jsp?p=/ comics-
ecommerce/index (accessed March 10, 2017).
Alls, Rob. Marvel Press Conference Transcript. Comics Continuum, May 17, 2001,
www.comicscontinuum.com/stories/0105/17/marvelindex.htm (accessed March 12, 2017).
Duncan, Randy & Matthew J. Smith, The Power of Comics. Continuum. London. 2012. Pg 1-20
Manno, M. (2014, August 04). Comics in the Classroom: Why Comics? Retrieved March 19,
2017, from https://teach.com/blog/why-comics/
Wright, Nicky. The Classic Era of American Comics. Lincolnwood, IL: Contemporary Books,
2000. Pg. 24-27

33

THE INTERGENERATIONAL EDUCATION

Prof. Eniser Scrdeanu


coala Gimnazial Pompiliu Marcea, Tg-Jiu, Gorj

Today, more than ever, it seems that a layer of trust descended upon our time allowing
hope in a better future to be seen clearly. We often feel the need of discovering more, of
searching new ways of ruling an easier and safer life. Its not only the young generations
responsibility to train for the future. The attention shown to the youth is deeply consistent with
that of the whole educational system towards them, offering an impressive look with hope to the
future and in this respect, represents the continuity of the humans.
The educational system is not isolated, it is a kind of intergenerational help between past,
present and future. What happened in the past has become an example for todays practice and a
good practice in present can be a handy model for tomorrow.
Young people are not isolated entities. They live in a context in a responsible and united
action of all subjects involved, mainly through the work of educators to be both genuine helpers
to a serious education and practical training. We should take into consideration that young
people are not passive entities. Nowadays they have become responsible and, in the same time,
they are able to make the adults responsible for any mistakes.
It seems like a need for an energetic action at the community level to develop the active
citizenship. Its time to combine school education with family education. It is obvious that what
school cant do, the family can, what a family cant see, school can. And the main goal would be
to link social of family members. Its a must to make family more responsible and involved in
the community and to create an intergenerational cooperation. The European Union militates
for a stronger role of schools in developing a civic partnership.
Studies have proved that intergenerational learning is a way of approaching significant
demographic changes and is also a way to strengthen solidarity between generations through
intergenerational practice. Intergenerational learning is also a way for people of all ages can
learn together and from each other, being important part of lifelong learning, where generations
work together to obtain different skills, values and knowledge. Beyond the transfer of
knowledge, intergenerational learning encourages mutual learning between different generations
and contributes to building social capital and social cohesion in our aging societies.
Applying the intergenerational method, our school has involved and managed to mobilize
almost fifty pupils from the primary school to participate in different activities at Christian
center, a center for disabled people. There they could offer their help and, in the same time, the
best examples in education were applied. The pupils participated in social-educational activities
such as creative workshops when they learned to manufacture paper figurines. These are some of
the precious moments that children spend with other volunteers at the center. We are glad that,
from time to time, we can provide best practices by involving the community for the benefit of
needy people. Best practices in intergenerational learning refers to those measures that combat
barriers to age groups and / or promote age diversity. These measures may entail specific
initiatives aimed at particular dimensions of age management and intergenerational learning.
Also, being involved in more educational European projects (Working together to take care of
our Europe-2003-2006, OMAC-Open minds for active citizenship-2009), I could notice, and
I strongly believe it, that the next generation will require a different way of education, a more
active one and at a higher level.

BIBLIOGRAFIE:
https://prezi.com/user/jid1tqy96s4z/
https://prezi.com/s-jby4zoijca/invatarea-intergenerationala/
http://scoala11.scoli.edu.ro/index.html

34

TEACHING ENGLISH WITH COMICS

Prof Vtu Roxana Maria


Colegiul Gheorghe Ttrescu Rovinari

Why would it be beneficial to teach English with comics or comic strips? Here are some
basic fundamental ideas that are both common sense and also found in the research literature on
the use of comics in the EFL/ESL classroom.
One of the greatest advantages is that comics and comic strips constitute authentic
material. Although there are now several comic strips that have been written by and for
EFL/ESL learners, most of them are written for other purposes than language learning. Using
authentic material in the classroom has been strongly encouraged in the field of language
learning. By using authentic materials, we provide our students with examples of how the
language is actually used in the real word, as opposed to artificial and/or awkward structures
found in EFL textbooks. When working with authentic materials, EFL learners can also realize
that they may need that particular language in the situations presented in the comics; this will
also work towards increasing students motivation.
Not all comics are funny, but they generally tend to be. Even more so, single comic strips
are usually structured to lead towards a punch line at the end.. Furthermore, if the students find
them funny, they would be much more likely to keep reading. It is not always easy to develop
somebody elses intrinsic motivation, but choosing the right materials can really make a
different. Intrinsic motivation also helps develop students reading skills.
Most comics and comic strips are situated in time and place (even though it is sometimes
not stated explicitly, by default, the action takes place in the country where the author resides at
the present time), this provides an opportunity for EFL learners to learn and discover other
cultures. Especially with the development of Webcomics that specialize on certain niches,
students can identify with people with a similar interest..
There are several reasons why it tends to be easier to understand vocabulary with comics:
Most importantly, the visual aspect of the comics generally provides the context and the visual
context of the words that are used. Very often, the words that are used in the bubbles are
illustrated on the canvas
Since the input is presented in writing, the learners can take the time they need to pause,
go back, analyze the text again, etc. This is less practical with audio and video materials.
It goes without saying that more reading helps to develop reading skills, but what is
particularly useful with comic strips is that they rich provide visual contexts that will definitely
help the readers understand the text more easily. The constant visual support also helps the
reader follow the sequence of the story. Several studies have been done to test the fact that
reading comics helps students understanding of texts, I will refer you to the annotated
bibliography here (under construction).
Reading cartoons is more than just reading text and images. To fully grasp a comic strip,
one has to put the two together and see how they interact to construct the meaning. This
encourages students to closely pay attention to the graphics in relation to the text that is given.
By doing so, students will be better able to understand the use satire, symbolism and humor that
is common in comic strips.
Reading to develop writing skills? By becoming familiar to the structure of comics,
students develop a better understand of logic and continuity in a narrative. Drolet (2010) also
argues that this using comics can become good prompts for writing topics.
Josh Elder, founder and president of Reading With Pictures, sums up the strengths of
comics as educational tools with his Three Es of Comics.
Engagement: Comics impart meaning through the readers active engagement with written
language and juxtaposed sequential images. Readers must actively make meaning from the
interplay of text and images, as well as by filling in the gaps between panels.

35

Efficiency: The comic format conveys large amounts of information in a short time. This is
especially effective for teaching content in the subject areas (math, science, social studies, etc.).
Effectiveness: Processing text and images together leads to better recall and transfer of
learning. Neurological experiments have shown that we process text and images in different
areas of the brain: known as the Dual-Coding Theory of Cognition. These experiments also
indicate that pairing an image with text leads to increased memory retention for both. With
comics, students not only learn the material faster, they learn it better.
For example in this single panel from The Secret Science Alliance and the Copycat
Crook, Eleanor Davis challenges the reader to keep up with the characters as they try to figure
out the timing of their next move. Neither of these complicated narrative structures would be
possible with text alone.

In conclusion graphic texts are complex, effective teaching tools because they require
readers not only to passively receive information, but to interact with both text and images to
construct meaning, and that is the key to the magic. Words and pictures work together!

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Drolet, C. A.Using Comics in the Development of EFL Reading and Writing. SungKyul
University,2010
Grabe, W. Research on teaching reading. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics,2004Hadley,
A. O. Teaching language in context(3rd ed.). Boston: Thomson,2000
https://teach.com/blog/why-comics/

36

COMIC AND COMICS STRIPS IN TEACHING ENGLISH

Ptrulescu Corina Elena


Colegiul Gheorghe Ttrescu Rovinari

Comics are a strong tool for teaching English as a second a language. One of the greatest
advantages is that comics and comic strips constitute authentic material. Using authentic material
in the classroom has been strongly encouraged in the field of language learning (Drolet, 2012, p.
124; Hadley, 2000, p. 179-188). By using authentic materials, we provide our students with
examples of how the language is actually used in the real word, as opposed to artificial and/or
awkward structures found in EFL textbooks. When working with authentic materials, EFL
learners can also realize that they may need that particular language in the situations presented in
the comics; this will also work towards increasing students motivation.
Comics and comic strips is also used to facilitate the new vocabulary .There are several
reasons why it tends to be easier to understand vocabulary with comics:
Most importantly, the visual aspect of the comics generally provides the context and the
visual context of the words that are used. Very often, the words that are used in the bubbles are
illustrated on the canvas. For example, in this comic strip, the word shovel is mentioned and
illustrated at the same time.
Since the input is presented in writing, the learners can take the time they need to pause, go back,
analyze the text again, etc. This is less practical with audio and video materials.
Developing reading skills through comic strips is that they rich provide visual contexts that will
definitely help the readers understand the text more easily. The constant visual support also helps
the reader follow the sequence of the story. Several studies have been done to test the fact that
reading comics helps students understanding of texts. So, they can:
-engage readers who learn visually, and who are comfortable with visual media, such as
video games and computer graphics
-increase vocabulary
-encourage readers to explore different genres, and develop an appreciation for different
literary and artistic styles
-teach positive messages, such as helping others, working to ones best ability, working
as a team, and persevering
-open a readers mind to new ways of storytelling, and increase their imagination,
through the unique combination of text and pictures used in comics to convey the story.
Writing comics strips can become good prompts for writing topics. Students develop a
better understand of logic and continuity in a narrative. They can make their own comics strips.
Comics and comic strips can be teaching at all levels.
In conclusion, the benefits of using comics in the classroom are certainly great, both in
increasing literacy and in addressing the educational needs of differentiated learners. As schools
struggle to maintain enrolment and ensure that students are not left behind in the learning
process, teachers must adapt their classroom to the developing needs of their students. This
means utilizing different teaching methods and tools. The application of Gardners theory of
Multiple Intelligences and the use of comics can provide students with greater opportunities for
success, both in the classroom and beyond.
An example is given below:
Let's talk about TV program:
This activity was designed for a conversation class. Students share their opinions about
TV programs. This is a topic that suits different age groups as they always have something to say
about it.
1. Pair work: Students discuss the questions.
2. Individual work: Students complete their lists.
3. Groups of 3: Students compare their lists and jot down new ideas they get from their partners.

37

4. Pair work: Different partners - Students answer the questions about the comic strip.
5. Whole group share: Have a class discussion.

Read this comic strip and answer the questions:

1. What is Calvins opinion the news program hes watching?


2. How much time do you think kids should watch T.V. every day?
3. How goods are T.V. programs for kids nowadays?
4. Give an example of a bad T.V. program and explain why you think so.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Drolet, C. A. (2010). Using Comics in the Development of EFL Reading and Writing.
Sung Kyul University,123-140.
http://samcamilo.pbworks.com/w/file/fetch/50561209/Calvin%20conversation.swf

ENGLISH LANGUAGE-A LIVING EXPERIENCE

Cristina Burghelea
,,Dimitrie Cantemir Agricultural College-Husi, Vaslui County

Nowadays the worlds most commonly used language is evolving rapidly under the
pressures of technology, globalization and immigration. Somehow teaching English language
has become a true challenge for teachers as they should prepare their students for the real world.
It seems not enough to learn it by the book or a la poche, in a world where speakers of
different nationalities interact and manipulate English according to their own needs. If you want
to be a good teacher you must change your style of teaching and be prepared to test new ideas.
There is so much to be taught and few criteria to select what is to be taught. Not to mention that
according to the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) there are more than 600,000 words in the
English Language.
Each of us, of course has the capacity to remember but a fraction. How many exactly?
Depends on whom you ask. A persons vocabulary goes through dramatic transformation in life-
from a handful of words by little children and the jargon-driven repertoire of the teenager to the
displays used by adults in different settings where English is needed (work, friends, surfing the
Internet, etc).In truth the inventory of words is never set. It isnt only that as individuals we are
in constant change but language as such isnt static. The OED, as a historical lexicon keeps on
growing. It includes more entries today than ever. But a vast number of entries-they are called
voices -are archaic, barely used today. All of which points out two opposing forces constantly
at work on English language-ephemerality and durability. Only dead languages are static. For
example Aramaic, which is today limited to scholars of history and religion.
On the other hand many modern languages (for example Spanish, French, Russian and
Arabic) are in flux. To survive, they are constantly reaching out, importing foreign terms while,
38

at the same time, exporting their database to other tongues. The large waves of migration of the
modern world, along with the instant technology we have devised (television, radio, movies, the
Internet) encourage verbal cross-fertilization. How many Germanic words does the English
language contain? And how many Anglicisms are accepted in Spanish? The answer - a lot. A
language cannot be altered so much as to erase its core-but the core alone doesnt make the
language vibrant.
Our development as teachers of English Language must adjust to this vibrant language,
being constantly aware that learning English is getting out of the book and entering into the
real world. Using English abroad gives the opportunity to practice your knowledge in a European
context, by offering you various perspectives of people from different cultures and by teaching
you to accept and cherish diversity.
In 2011 I had the opportunity to participate at a methodological course in London, Great
Britain, organized at a private school, Excel English Language School. During two weeks of
training courses I had the opportunity to rediscover and identify myself in a sea of cultures and
customs that put their mark on my personality and my perspective on what is important in
teaching English language.
While meeting the 12 participant countries (Greece, Bulgaria, Russia, Spain and Lithuania)
I was struck by the resourcefulness of English language. Also interacting with Londons
inhabitants and how English is handled in the real world interaction. A simple ride on the
subway would bring me into contact with dozens of different tongues. The common element was
everyones desire to master English. Yet that desire clashed with the ubiquity of the languages
people brought with them from their places of origin. The result was mishmash, a Babel-like
mix. In other words, no matter where I went, the English I heard was impure contaminated,
always interacting with other codes of communication. The English from the book is totally
different from the English from the street. Some of us might have access to more formal training,
but even so we are shaped by the pervasiness of popular culture. And pop culture doesnt adhere
to strict rules. It enjoys being jazzy, unpredictable, chaotic. Hence, to understand how the
language works through that means to appreciate its freedom.
For me it was not just an opportunity to learn about Great Britain s educational system but
to learn about its culture, its real English and the way other nationalities use it by sinking it
into their own culture. I went there convinced that English language is Shakespeares language
only to find out that it is no more so. English doesnt belong to the well-known good examples of
literature and grammar but to the unknown ordinary people who use it every day.
Teaching English language from books is an essential tool for keeping language in
cohesive form. They are manuals of usage and receptacles of wisdom. They are also memory
boxes containing the way past speakers utilized words, nothing more than a collective heritage.
Yet books must always be up-dated to match the usage of English in reality. Hence, as in the
myth of Sisyphus, book makers have to adjust immediately, incessantly, endlessly. But they will
never fully succeed, for they are attempting the impossible-to contain language, to make it
mangeable. By its nature, a living language has a never-ending energy.
What I have learned while visiting The Tower of London, The British Museum, The
National Galleries is that I must allow my students to enjoy the freedom of the language by
experimenting it more through interaction rather than old stereotyped grammar exercises. I
accept knowing about EFL Approaches to Language Teaching and Learning but I would rather
ask my students to speak only in English during my class, to do some interesting freeze/role-play
writing, some shouting/ whispering dictation or Idioms and slang and Up to date vocabulary
exercises. While the Romanian syllabus is demand to keep my students with their heads in the
book I prefer them watching a good movie in English and commenting together about it.
If we want true diversity and interculture we need to change the way in which we
understand teaching and learning English Language. Being a true European spirit is to
communicate freely and exchange information and experience. Hence, accepting doing things
differently and allowing learners to use the language in a real piece of conversation. Ever since
2011 until now 2017 this experience has shown me the true path I must follow if I want my

39

students to actually use the language for themselves. Learners come to English language from
the outside, they embrace its spelling and pronunciation, its rules and conviction, studying its
rules with a zeal native speakers seldom share. So to the question of which words in English
should I teach my students to be able to manage, my recommended answer is-it doesnt matter
which ones as long as the use it.
English language is about sharing and accepting other identities, because cultural
difference is celebrating diversity, understanding and letting the language live through real
interaction.

SOME INTERACTIVE METHODS


FOR TEACHING ENGLISH LANGUAGE

Prof. Caragea Carmen


coala Gimnazial, comuna Plosca, judeul Teleorman

Language is a way of communication among people. People all over the world mostly
speak at least one language which is their native, but there is a tendency to learn more languages to
be able to communicate with people from different countries. Learners people who learn
languages - need motivation which gives them the energy and desire to spend time on learning.
Communication plays an important role in humans life. In communication, language is
the most important means to be used when interacting with others to exchange information,
knowledge and ideas. Every country has its own language and its citizens are expected to be able to
use the language well. In the globalization era, people are expected to master more than one
language. Besides their own mother-tongue language, they are also expected to master at least a
foreign language, such as English. Since English is used widely in the world today, it is undeniable
that people have to master it. According to some statistics, more than 85% of information in the
world today is abstracted in English.
One of the main principles of education is interaction. In language classes, learners
should have more autonomy to have interactions among themselves as well as with the teacher.
Second language learners are more likely to achieve better levels of comprehension of the new
input in their effort to communicate through interaction. Based on socio-cultural theory, language
has both functions of communicative tool and a psychological tool which mediates meaning
between the individual and the linguistic goal and therefore assists the cognitive development
process.
Sometimes, teachers face some problems in engaging students in the class activities. Teachers
might think that interactive teaching is a small part of the classroom teaching along the other
activities, and interactive teaching requires some extra time which is a wrong conception
(Allwright, 1984). This means that they have mostly been experiencing teacher-centered classes and
have provided less chance for students autonomy and an interactive relationship between the
teacher and the language learners.
Interactive teaching is not limiting the control of the teachers and giving more power to
students. By teaching interactively, teachers can students to activate their prior knowledge of the
content, to use it for their present and future learning tasks. Sometimes, there are some flaws in
what student have learned previously, and by reviewing it teachers can provide corrective feedback
for eliminating those flaws. There are many definitions for teaching. One is that teaching is an
activity, but not any kind of activity. It is an activity which is done consciously, and is designed to
follow a specific objective (Littlewood, 1981). Interaction is necessary for effective teaching.
Teaching has two special characteristics: The existence of interaction and relationship between the
teacher and the learners Goal-oriented activities of the teachers.
40

An interactive method or approach is a modernized form of active methods. The most of
teachers usually understand or mean cooperative action during the lesson. But here attention should
be focused on inner action too. The learners should have inner motivation which involves them into
active work or active participation at the lesson. In interactive method teachers role is to direct
learners activity to getting the aim of the lesson which include interactive exercises and tasks.
Below some types of interactive methods are given:
Brainstorming. It is technique for generating new ideas on a topic. These methods
stimulate creative activity of the learners in solving problems and express their ideas freckly.
Various variants of solving the problem are usually given here. In brainstorming quantity of
utterances is important but not the quality. Teacher should listen to all utterances and not criticize
them. Instead of this he inspire the learners to give as many variants of solving the problem as he
(or she) can. Lacks of criticism create favorable conditions for the learners to express the ideas
freely and these of course motivate them. At the end of brainstorming activity all the expressed
utterances are written and then analyzed.
Discussion. This type of interactive method requires to study teaching material on the
theme before starting discussion. After having learnt the lexico-grammatical material on the theme
the learners may start discussion. This method helps the learners consistently and logically express
their ideas by presenting grounds for their utterances. Here the learners work in small groups and
this improves their activity because every member of the group may express his/her ideas and takes
part in the discussion. The forms of organizing group work are the following: a) a theme is selected
(chosen); b learners must have learnt the chosen problem; c) groups are formed; d) teacher gives
instruction and announces the time; e) controls the activity of learners and if it is needed, helps and
stimulated them. f) at the end of the discussion one representative of each group makes
presentation.
"Write the Past Simple of the verbs in the correct column: finish, start, pass, phone, call, try,
stay, recognize, enjoy, visit, marry, listen, drop, cry, play, hate, wash, climb, live, arrive, look,
stay, ask, travel."

1. + d 2. + ed 3.consonant+ y= ied 4. double consonant +ed


liked walked carried stopped

Cluster. The next innovative method is cluster. It is one of widely used methods in teaching
a foreign languages now. It can be used in all stages of teaching English to both young and aged
learners. In presenting new words a teacher writes a new word on the blackboard. And then learners
tell the words that can be used together with the given word. For ex.: Then teacher gives a task to
make up word combinations with the word book: my book, a good book, an interesting book,
a nice book, etc. This method involves all the learners into active work and forms of motivation. It
can be effectively used in improving monologic speech habits and skills.
Warm no wind snowdrop no clouds no rain hot sunny

spring
summer

green flowers birds


seasons
return holiday school

freezing snow strong lots of rain leaves fall crops


winds

41

winter autunm

Christmas snowman carols birds leave school begins

Role playing. Role playing is also one of the activity used in teaching innovative methods.
They are made to improve the efficiency of teaching. Role playing involves the learners into active
work by positively influencing on their inner activity. This creates favorable conditions for
cooperative work. Such atmosphere creates their motivation, personal potentials of inner activity
and helps to form practical skills and habits. During the role playing such skills as creativity, getting
out of the difficult situations, resourcefulness, self managing are formed and improved. Role
playing has not only educational aim, but also has social aims because some life situation are
modeled here for teaching. When a teacher uses role playing method in teaching the foreign
language he/she should follow the below given instructions:--Creating cordial atmosphere among
the learners who take part in the play;--Learners should feel free themselves and this will help them
to play their role perfectly;--Creating favorable conditions in the teaching process and using pros;--
Taking into consideration the personal features of the learners.
Multimedia learning. This is the next innovative method. It is the combination of
various media types as text, audio and video materials by the help of which teacher presents
information to the learners. By using information technology as an innovative teaching and learning
strategy in a problem based learning teacher tries to motivate learners to active knowledge through
real life problems. Advantages of using multimedia learning: Positively influence on forming
speech habits and skills. An effective conclusion retraces the important elements of the lesson and
relates them to the objective. This review and wrap-up of ideas reinforces student learning and
improves the retention of what has been learned. New ideas should not be introduced in the
conclusion because at this point they are likely to confuse the students.
Teaching is not doing a set of unrelated and one-directional activities, and by
considering the concept of interaction does not include learning from other sources such as
movies, T.V, or books. What is emphasized here is interaction. There are some factors like the
individual characteristics of the teachers, educational, and professional characteristics which are
influential in pre-teaching, in-teaching, and post-teaching of teachers (Burns & Myhill, 2004).
Teachers should have a meticulous, goal-oriented design to make progress in the students learning.
Interactive teaching is referring to those more, and totally learner-centered approaches which are
carefully designed to motivate students to learn and gives more responsibility to the students for
their own learning.

REFERENCES:

1. Allwright, D. (1984). The importance of interaction in classroom language learning. Applied


Linguistics, 5 (2), 156-171.
2. Burns, C., & Myhill, D. (2004). Interactive or inactive? A consideration of the nature of
interaction in whole class teaching. Cambridge Journal of Education, 34 (1), 35-49.
3. Fries Ch. C. Teaching and Learning English as a Foreign Language. Ann Arbor, 1947.
4. Littlewood, W. (1981). Communicative language teaching: An introduction. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press
5. Littlewood. W. Communicative Language Teaching. An Introduction. Cambridge. CUP. 1981.
6. Livingstone H. Card. Role play in Language Learning. 1988.
7. Palmer H. Scientific Study and Teaching of Languages. London, 1922.
8. Richards G. C. and Rodgers Th. S. Apporaches and Methods in Language teaching. USA,1993.

42

COMICS IN TEACHING
Prof. Chitic Emanuel
Colegiul Economic Anghel Rugin

Comics have almost always been primarily an entertainment medium. Their appeal to
people in general and children in particular, has always been associated with a recreational
setting, with only the occasional foray into the didactic. The American superhero comics, whose
life stretches from the thirties to today are pure escapism. In fact, most comics of all genres
throughout the world are clearly indicative of a medium whose main aims are humour,
adventure, and fantasy. As a result, comics within pedagogical contexts have always been
relegated to the affective domain, most often used as attention grabbing elements as signposts
to more symbolically encoded instruction.
The genesis of modern comics was not juvenile, but a mirror of the not-so-pleasant lives
of the late eighteenth and nineteenth century proletariat, serving their aspirations and
denouncements (Kunzle, 1990). Gifford, 1975, talking about Great Britain, insists that:
"When the first comic paper was created by James Henderson [in 1874] children were nowhere
in sight. ... So Henderson designed his comic for adults: the cartoons were political, the Comic
Fancy Page topical and the stories satirical."
But it was not long before the very graphic humour, possible because of the visual-verbal
nature of the genre, attracted the young, and the comics changed to accommodate the younger
age groups. The humour, adventure and fantasy in the comics on both sides of the Atlantic
claimed more and more youngsters. The humour was often black in nature at first, and looked at
from today's perspective, incredibly politically incorrect. But it did attract millions to the comics
format. It instilled in readers a literacy in the unique language, which was made of sequential
storytelling that was primarily visual, but elaborated on by the textual dimension. An interesting
by-product of the nature of the genre is that, though it was complex and elaborate, comics visual
literacy seemed to be more easily acquired by the young than symbolic literacy.
Comics were also not like book illustrations, which according to convention, "should
continue or enhance the narrative or verse that it accompanies ... not overwhelm it, or contradict
it ..." (Whalley & Chester, 1988). They were stories in themselves, conveyed by a unique
language in which the sum total of elements is different from each of the elements themselves.
"In its most economical state, comics employ a series of repetitive images and recognizable
symbols. When these are used again and again to convey similar ideas, they become a language
a literary form, if you will. And it is this disciplined application that creates the 'grammar' of
Sequential Art." Will Eisner (1990)
There has been an ongoing love-affair between children and comics. Admittedly, sales to
children have dropped drastically in almost all countries that offer such information. This is
primarily because of the competition for young attention by so many interactive media that often,
ironically, use cartoons or cartoon language as part of their architecture. But the definite link
between comics and childhood remains.
It is, therefore, quite surprising that one of the most respected of all experts on the design
of instructional text, James Hartley (1994), limits the use of comics in textbook design entirely to
the affective domain:
"Clearly the affective role of instructions is to the fore in comic strips: their aim being to
attract and motivate less-able learners. Often cartoon strips are used to present a simplified form
of instruction, but there has been little research on their effectiveness in this respect. ... The
general picture that emerges from studies of text with cartoon embellishments is that cartoons
often enhance motivation, but they do not often increase comprehension."
Relatively little research has been carried out regarding the possible effect of comics
within instruction. As a result, not much is known about whether it can be applied per se as a
total means of instruction, in the way that non-illustrated or illustrated texts can be.

43

A significant body of research has indicated that illustrations need not necessarily be
important when it comes to the cognitive domain. It is generally accepted that their role is
affective, their function most often a glorified decoration. They are considered an enhancement
to enjoyment and an inducement to the utilization of other elements that would then help
cognition. The prevailing belief is that they are not direct contributors themselves on the
cognitive level, but are utilized only as a stimulus to awareness. Yet, hypothetically, comics
language has the potential to go beyond its use as affective signposting and can communicate the
full pedagogical message.
Though comics have relatively often been the subject of serious critical analysis, the
concentration seems to have been on the ideological and structural nature of comics. When
comics have been examined within an educational environment, the analysis has focused on
using existing comics as a didactic tool, rather than utilizing the "comics format' for instruction
in what traditionally has been the domain of text-filled books.
The pictures are very important: "No serious consideration of the art of the comics can
overlook the narrative function of pictures" (Harvey, 1996, p.3). In comics, illustration is one
part of a symbiotic integration that complements the text and compensates for that text which is
eliminated. The cueing becomes visual, and the peripherals, which would contribute little
anyway to the text on the cognitive level, are excluded in favour of the message that needs to be
communicated and understood.
So, can comics be a cognitive tool as effective as text and illustrated text?
If we were to think in terms of attention stimulation alone, readers are happy when they
were given the" comics treatment". Others indicated lack of interest when handed the picture-less
text. If this is a case whereby "states of affection and acts of cognition are inferred from
psychomotor acts" (Kibler, Cegala, Miles & Barker, 1974, p.34), then there can be no doubt as to
which strategy is best. The indications here are clearly that comics are at a distinct advantage as
attention grabbers and as ways of inducing reluctant students to become interested in and follow
what is usually given to them in a "traditionally" text-based package.
The main thrust of the answers was that the comic told a story in continuously paced
pictures, and that they could see what the characters were talking about. This helped them
remember more than just having pictures that described what was being read but did not tell a
story. Since the comic was short and in black-and-white line, little could be said about colour
and drawn-out narrative, which other (as yet unpublished) research I have carried out on
published comics yielded as the main points of interest. The indications here are that the
sequence, aided by the character treatment, helped associative retention in ways that the stepped
pictures of illustration might not do. As a result of both the quantitative and qualitative enquiries,
it can be stated that the comics medium has in its very nature the tools for knowledge and
procedural recall.
The comics medium can be an important instructional tool that can work within the
cognitive domain. The survey described above is a basic, exploratory study of the subject, but it
has yielded some interesting and heretofore not noted results. It has begun to prove that comics
can actually teach by themselves, and are not just an interesting but redundant insert within an
instructional text that utilizes other channels more traditionally associated with teaching.

REFERENCES
Benton, M. (1993). The Comic Book in America (updated edition). Dallas: Taylor Publishing
Company.
Harvey, R. C. (1996). The Art of the Comic Book: An Aesthetic History. Jackson: University
Press of Mississippi.
Jones, J., & Jacobs, W. (1997). The Comic Book Heroes. Rocklin CA: Prima Publishing.
Whalley, J. I., & Chester, T. R. (1988). A History of Children's Book Illustration. London: John
Murray with the Victoria and Albert Museum.

44

TEACHING ENGLISH WITH COMICS

Elena Bobule
Scoala Gimnaziala nr. 11 Buzau

A teacher has a variety of powerful tools to teach English: realia, flashcards, craft, games,
songs, storytelling One of the most interesting and challenging methods is teaching English
with comics. When comics are taken into consideration a first question that comes in our mind
is: why using comics to teach and learn English? We can mention a series of essential reasons:
comics represent an authentical material, therefore motivating. Although there are now several
comic strips that have been written by and for EFL/ESL learners, most of them are written for
other purposes than language learning. Another reason is that the students creativity is
stimulated. Another benefit is that the language used in comics is the every day language.
Anyway, I consider that the most important advantage is that there are plenty of possibilities of
using comics and the teacher can accomplish all the objectives.
On the other hand there are also shortcomings while using comics in language teaching.
One of them is the fact that the teacher should do a laborious research of the comics because
both the public and the level should be taken into consideration. Of course, a lot of time is
necessary in order to prepare a lesson using comics.
Another essential issue while using comics in teaching languages is: how to use them?
what are the skills to develop?
First of all, comics can be used before, while or after the main activity of the lesson.
Anyway, using comics, teacher can achieve the linguistic objective as grammar and vocabulary
can be approached in another way. Most important, the visual aspect of the comics generally
provides the context and the visual context of the words that are used. Very often the words that
are used in the bubbles are illustrated in the canvas. Since the input is presented in writing, the
learners can take the time they need to pause, go back, analyze the text again This is less
p[practical with audio and video materials. Concerning grammar, the sense of humor that is
present in comics makes grammatical notions be more easily understood and memorized.
Regarding the use of comics, a teacher can have three attitudes: 1. To develop reading
skills, 2. Analyze a comic strip, 3. Make the comic strip.
It goes without saying that more reading helps to develop reading skills, but what is
particularly useful with comic strips is that they rich provide visual contexts that will definitely
help the readers understand the text more easily. The constant visu7al support also helps the
reader follow the sequence of the story.
Just like other types of texts there are several approaches connected to communicative
situations:

Skills Connected to communicative situations


Present the comic strip that a student has just to tell to the class
read
play alone or in teams the roles of the to present a performance.
comic strip

A teacher can also explore the theme of humor by asking students to work in groups and
get them to discuss: what does the cartoon mean?, why is it funny?, ehat techniques are used to
make it funny?
A second mentioned attitude is to develop writing skills. By becoming familiar to the
structure of comics, students develop a better understand of logic and continuity in narrative.
They can also become good prompts for writing topics. Actually, comics can be the starting
point for writing projects from three points of view: 1. they can represent a follow-up activity, 2.
Writing dialogues. The exercise consists in writing the line said by the characters taking into
consideration the visual information (attitudes, dcor, costumes, characters ). The third point

45

of view is to place the action in another place and time making all the necessary changes
(vocabulary, objects ).
It is properly to mention as well that comics represent the best tool in order to introduce
image in language teaching because students can make their own comics. For example, a teacher
can remove speech bubbles from a comic strip. The teacher can cut them up and give out. Ask
them to order them and to imagine what the story or the situation is. Groups can act out their
version for the class. Another activity could be represented by making an information gap using
a photocopied comic strip. Blank out details or change what characters are saying. The teacher
can make sets which are colored differently. The teacher spots the differences with the class and
then leads in to story telling and acting out the comic strip.
A teacher can also exploit characters. (S)he can look at different comic strip heroes, get
suggestions from the class of names: Superman, Asterix, Tintin or others, describe popular
characters for their age range in the UK today (what makes this character special?, have the
characters got special powers?, what are their weaknesses? What are their special interests or
ambitions?. Then, the teacher can ask each group or pair to choose a favorite character and make
a simple situational dialogue which is typical for them. The teacher should ask students to work
in pairs or groups to invent their own character. If appropriate, students can draw the character
and give the character special powers, a name and a special mission. The final stage is to tell an
every day story involving the character.
In conclusion, I would mention that exploiting comics in teaching languages has many
advantages. As far as I am concerned, its greatest advantage (benefit) is interdisciplinerity. While
reading comics, different issues can be approached: geographical study (the place of the action),
historical study (when the action takes place, the characters clothes, the dcor ) and finally the
theatre because comics can be played. It is necessary that the dcor, the costumes are attractive.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:
www.ucomics.com
http://learningenglish.britishcouncil.org.en
www.franc-parler.org
Arnaud Delacroix, pour lire la bande dessine, ed. Boeck-Duculot, Bruxelles, 1992, page 80

COMICS AS MOTIVATING TEACHING AID

Rnc Felicia Mihaela


Gura uii School, Dmbovia

In the area of language instruction, teachers are constantly searching for new and
innovative materials to enhance learning in the formal classroom environment. To meet this
demand, publishers try to promote their material as being authentic, but many teachers (and more
important, students) believe that no matter how appealing texts might be, they still ring of
artificiality and are just a representation of the real thing. A textbook is just that material that has
been altered and simplified for the consumption of the learner. That is not to say that there are
not quality books out there; in fact, the textbook can be used as the core text of any class.
However, other materials too should be introduced into the class that expose students, both
physically and mentally, to the outside world, particularly in EFL settings where authentic
models are scarce.
One authentic material that has been explored over the past few years is the comic strip or
comic book. Before this form of educational entertainment emerged to the foreground, it was
often believed (and still is by some social critics) that "comic books were so educationally
unsound that their use would lead to mental stagnation. (MacGregor, 1996, p. 7). Teachers,
businesses, and publishers, however, have realized that comic strips and comic books have a

46

widespread appeal to all age groups and levels of society because they reflect authentic language
and culture, for example, social commentary, human idiocracy, stereotypes, and life conflicts,
and contain a richness in story content and character development. In fact, it is one of the most
widely read media throughout the world.
The resurgence of interest in this form of entertainment has spawned a host of texts and
magazines seeking to ride the wave on using comics for educational purposes. All of these have
taken advantage of the inherent characteristics that make this medium so attractive as an
educational tool: a built-in desire to learn through comics; easy accessibility in daily newspapers
and bookstands; the novel and ingenious way in which this authentic medium depicts real-life
language and every facet of people and society and the variety of visual and linguistic elements
and codes that appeal to students with different learning styles. Furthermore, many lessons can
be adapted to bring the material within the linguistic reach of different levels of students.
Many native English teachers are assigned listening and speaking classes, with limited
opportunities to teach the other skills areas. There is, however, a general movement on many
fronts to shift this once generic class towards more content-based or ESP courses. The result has
been that English now becomes more than a mere frill to a true vehicle to disseminate one's
ideas. With the emergence of such a need, comics can fill this gap because of its multi-
dimensional nature, combing both words and pictorial images.
Scholars and teachers agree that motivation is crucial in language teaching. One well
known way to arouse students interest can be achieved by bringing something extraordinary and
new into the language class. Especially among teenagers and young adults, comic strips can be
used efficiently for this purpose. Comics are usually funny; therefore, applying them to
methodological purposes will have the same effect as using games in teaching English - it brings
a cheerful atmosphere into the class. Comic strips not only amuse and interest L2 students; there
are plenty of other reasons to use them in education. According to John Oller and his episode
hypothesis, texts (oral or written forms of discourse) which are more episodically organized can
be stored and recalled more easily than less episodically organized material. In other words, it is
easier for students to learn a language if they are given connected sentences that have a logical
structure and a story line, instead of disconnected, randomly organized phrases. Of course it has
been stated many times before that vocabulary and language can be learnt in context; however,
the context in itself is not sufficient (i.e. a simple dialogue). What is essential is that the dialogue
or text should have a logical structure and a logical conclusion. This way the students can follow
the story line step by step and can recall its structure more easily because logic helps them, and
they do not have to rely only on memory. Ollers theory can be applied in the case of comic
strips used in language classes. Comics have a story line; therefore, they have a conclusion or at
times a punch line. This way the reader, in this case the student, is motivated to continue
reading and to become more involved in the content than in the language (Brown 1994, 227).
Consequently, the student will be eager to know what will happen, what will be the end of the
story (as his/her curiosity has been aroused), and will remember the words, expressions, and
grammatical forms more easily.
Comics also can be used to facilitate vocabulary teaching. As Brown points out, the best
internalization of vocabulary comes from encounters (comprehension and production) with
words within the context of surrounding discourse (Brown 1994, 365). This way students will
associate the words with a certain context, and they can recall and apply it better than just
learning a single word with a corresponding meaning. Besides vocabulary, grammatical
competence can be improved as well. With the help of comic strips, new grammatical points can
be introduced and practiced, and since these grammar points are embedded in a story with a
logical structure, students will be able to better recall them later. The visual nature of comic
strips is further supported by the very nature of comic strips, namely that they are drawn, and
therefore visual. This characteristic of comic strips also helps to increase motivation (especially
when the comics are coloured ones); and more importantly, if a word, expression, or concept is
accompanied by a picture (a visual image in ones mind), then the learner will memorize and
recall it more easily. The fact that comic strips are visual also contributes to improving

47

communicative competence. In a comic strip, life-like situations and expressions are used in
spoken, colloquial language: for instance, idioms, reduced forms, slang, and expressions that
require shared cultural knowledge. Consequently, comic strips help students to deal with spoken
and even informal language, preventing them from sounding bookish, as students might when
they are only exposed to written, formal language. Another advantage of the visual nature of
comic strips is that they show the gestures and the body language of the characters. This
contributes to the development of communicative competence, which includes nonverbal
communication.
Comic strips are authentic, and using authentic material is very important in language
teaching and learning. It has several advantages, among which is the fact that if students
comprehend a genuine text successfully, that can motivate them and build their confidence.
However, it should be noted that the difficulty of the language presented to the class should be
matched with the level of the students; otherwise the use of authentic materials will only frustrate
them. Furthermore, by reading comics in class, learners are asked to generate personal
responses to something in the text, responses which necessitate the production of original
discourse. Consequently, comic strips can be used not only for reading exercises but also for
improving the other three skills. Apart from reading, there are various types of exercises that can
be used successfully in EFL classes. Cartoons and comic strips can be used from beginner level
to advanced level for a variety of language and discussion activities: to explore the theme of
humour, to deal with various issues, to tell a story, to exploit characters, to exploit short
sequences for sketches and improvisations. However, the language used can sometimes be too
colloquial and referential for lower levels to cope with. Therefore, cartoons and comic strips
must be chosen with care.
As millions of English Language Learners enter classrooms, they are faced with many
challenges. These challenges can seriously affect learning and language acquisition.
Pronunciation, gender roles, and culture can all discourage language development and
acquisition. Many in the field of literacy have acknowledged the comic to also have important
literary benefits. Comics not only attract reluctant readers, but they are being used to teach
advanced themes in literature and visual literacy. With their bright colours and popular
characters, comics are more appealing than traditional
texts without sacrificing plot or vocabulary. For these reasons, the comic might play a vital role
in language acquisition.
Comics have been around for decades, but teachers and school librarians are now seeing
an influx in their use in educational settings. Many experts see comics and graphic novels as a
gateway for reluctant or struggling readers. Many readers begin with comics and move on to
harder reading. Incorporating text and visuals causes readers to examine the relationship between
the two and encourages deep thinking and critical thinking. Comics and graphic novels have
many attributes that cause them to be appealing. Comics have reduced text, which attracts
reluctant readers. They also have bright colours and popular characters that interest readers and
keep their attention. Many ELLs are reluctant readers because traditional texts seem
overwhelming. Through the aforementioned literature, a strong case can be made for including
comics in the ELL classroom. Comics have visual appeal, less text, and some familiar characters
that will draw students in. Looking beyond the initial appeal, comics can increase literacy and
language acquisition.
Cartoons are powerful teaching tools and can: tell a complex story in a few images;
provide comment and provoke thought on events and issues in the news; give an example of
vocabulary related to current trends and fads; provide easily identifiable characters to form the
basis for sketches; show culture in action with the ways that men or women are behaving and are
expected to behave; comment on and illustrate a whole range of issues like racism, teenage
relationships, sexism, ageism, family relationships. As regards the design and the structure of the
worksheet, they can be created with a clear structure which is not overloaded with pictures and
tasks. For this reason, we decided to use the web tool "MES Comic Stripmaker". With the help
of this tool, teachers can design simple and clearly structured comics. Hence, these comics can

48

be used effectively for teaching purposes since unnecessary pictures and excessive illustrations
do not distract pupils from their work.
Comic strips are not only for fun in a language class, but there are also methodological
reasons for teachers to use them. A text that has a story line and a logical structure is easier to
remember and to recall. Comics strips provide the structure and stimulus to which students
respond, and, as Brown points out, since stories are universal, students from different cultures
can understand their structure and can identify with the characters, which helps them to acquire
vocabulary, grammatical and communicative competence, and provides them with special
cultural knowledge as well.

REFERENCES
BROWN, H. D. 1994. Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy.
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents. p. 227, 365
KOGA, A., & Cane, G. (1995). Using humor in the EFL classroom: Some linguistic and
psychological implications. The Language Teacher, 19(12), 4-7.
KOSSACK, S., & Hoffman, E. (1987). Use the news: A picture's worth a thousand words.
Comprehension processing via the comics. Journal of Reading, 31(2), 174-176.
OLLER, J. W. 1983. Story writing principles and ESL teaching. TESOL Quarterly 17 (1): 39
53.

COMBINING COMICS AND TASK-BASED LEARNING IN TEACHING


ENGLISH TO HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

Maria Bob i Iulia Fundianu,


Seminarul Teologic Ortodox, Cluj-Napoca

One of the key skills an EFL student has to acquire is reading together with listening,
speaking and writing. To a reluctant reader or an English Language Learner, a prose text can be
incredibly daunting; it is a wall of words, overwhelming to start, impossible to finish. The key to
getting these learners to read is to engage their imagination and interest. Comics are a perfect
vehicle. They divide up the text into manageable chunks, which are supported by images. These
images help readers increase their vocabulary through the connection between words and
images. [] The bottom line is getting them to read. Thus, it is better to offer a graphic
adaptation of a prose novel covered in class to those reluctant readers, to allow all students to
participate in discussions and unit work, rather than have some students fall behind and be
unable to participate at all. (Haines)
Since 2012, newsagents have started selling Romanian comics. The first Romanian-
produced comic was Harap Alb continu Banda desenat (HAC! BD), followed by Tineree
fr btrnee (TFB) and by various translations of the uber-famous American Marvel comics.
Even if the Romanian comics have been inspired by fairy tales, their authors have made it
abundantly clear that these are not meant to be read by people under 16. However, due to their
brevity and their colourfulness, high schoolers began preferring these options to the actual
stories.
For the younger readers, the Romanian market had offered comics even before the
publication of the HAC and TFB. Comics, such as those produced by Media Kinder and Mekki,
teach children moral values. Though the colourful depiction of the lives of Saints or of real-life
inspired stories, the authors support parents and teachers in the education of primary school
students.
The Romanian comics market is divided into two very different branches: one with a
very solid religious content but which is more appealing to a young audience and another one
with a very lively content, infused with violence and eroticism and which is directed to an adult
49

audience. Nevertheless, there is an increasing demand for comics and newsagents and book
shops have a whole section dedicated to these publications.
As teachers, we are supposed to adapt to the personal preferences of our students. It is a
well-known fact that students react better to the content we teach if it is taught though means
they like, and comics represent one of these means. Sometimes, we receive some help from
publishers who provide us with ready-made lessons. On other occasions, we have to tailor
comics or graphic novels to fit the needs of our classrooms.
Noting our own students increased interest in comics, we tried to draw their attention to
the possible dangers of the rapid developments in technology and, as an English teacher, our
main purpose was to develop their skills in this field. Using an adaptation of Ray Bradburys
There Will Come Soft Rains,10 we designed a lesson for them.
The lesson is designed using Jane Williss task-based learning (TBL) approach. Tasks are
always activities where the target language is used by the learner for a communicative purpose
(goal) in order to achieve an outcome (Willis J., 2001, p. 23). Due of the complexity of the tasks,
the students are also able to exercise all the macro-skills of the English language (listening,
reading, speaking and writing). Although the lesson might be centred round a text or an audio
material, it does not mean that the lesson will only focus on a single skill.
Jane Williss framework is divided into three major parts: pre-task, task cycle and
language focus. Although she mentions the pre-task is the shortest stage, Willis advocates for a
tailoring of the framework to the teacher and the learners needs. In her opinion, the pre-task is
very relevant since it introduces the topic and the task. It requires some advance preparation
which depends on the students familiarity to TBL and the topic. It is important to choose a topic
that is appropriate to the students age, interests and mastery of language. It is advisable to also
choose some of the topics together with the students or to allow students to choose their own
topic to raise their motivation. Presenting the topic to the students is also essential in this part of
the framework because, if they are aware of this and of the objectives of the lesson together with
what is requested from them during the lesson, they will often arrive at a more positive outcome
of the lesson.
We used this lesson in 2015 with a heterogeneous group of 10th graders with mixt
language levels, ranging from B1 to C1. Throughout the lesson, we paired or grouped the
students so that the more advanced ones could provide help for the others.
During this lesson, the students used the following types of tasks11: listing
(brainstorming), ordering and sorting (sequencing, categorizing), creative tasks (making a quiz,
writing a narrative), sharing personal experiences (personal reactions).
The aims of the lesson were set to help students: 1. improve their summarizing skills, 2.
using the summary as a starting point in expressing their own opinion, and 3. using question
words. All the three aims are subsidiary to the more complex goal of improving reading and
listening comprehension, a perpetual goal throughout the school year.
Pre-task
We introduced the text There Will Come Soft Rains and its author, Ray Bradbury, to the
students. We told them about Ray Bradbury being primarily a SF writer, about his most
prestigious works and about these being adapted into films, comic books etc. since some of our
students are SF fans.
We talked to our students about smart phones and how they differ from regular mobile
phones. We told our students that the story is set in a smart house with multiple household
appliances. Then, we told them about our appliances and asked them to think of some other
appliances that might make our house smarter. Our joined lists included:

10
If you are interested in the full text of Ray Bradburys short story, it is available in an audio version on YouTube.
(Leonard Nimoy reads Ray Bradbury's "There Will Come Soft Rains" from "The Martian Chronicles", 2012).
11
The types of tasks are based on categories identified as such by authors such as Jane Willis (Willis, 2001), N.S.
Prabhu (1987) and Richards (2001, p. 162).
50

an electric oven
an electric cooker
a fridge
a smart TV
a Blu-ray player
a home theatre
a dishwasher
a washing machine
a clothes dryer
a bread machine
a toaster
etc.

Task 1
We asked the students to look at a comic strip adapted from Ray Bradburys story and list as
many appliances as possible from the photos that match the list that we came up with at the
beginning of the lesson. The students were informed that the captions of each drawing are very
similar to the original text of the story.

Figure1:ThereWillComeSoftRainsComicStrip(Wood,1990,p.25)
Planning and reporting 1
The students compared the pictures to the list and came up with a list of their own. The
students worked in dyads and compared their list with another pairs list. Then each group reported
back to the class. The teacher ticked on the board all the students correct answers. Neither of the
answers could be repeated from one team to the other.
First full exposure
The students read the whole text from the comic book for the first time and then they
checked the text for other appliances that were not mentioned in the original list and in the lists
from the task.
Task 2
In pairs, the students were asked to write in chronological order all the fact they remember
about the story as accurately as possible. Then, based on their list, the students were required to
prepare a set of questions that the members of another team can answer.
Planning and report 2
They wrote 8 questions. Every two pairs swapped papers and answered the questions written
on them. The pairs which are working together wrote down one anothers answers.
Second full exposure
The students read the text of the original short story12 to check their answers and also to see
who wrote the largest amount of answers.

12
Ray Braduburys text can be found in his book The Martian Chronicles.
51

Additional possibilities
The students who finished their tasks before the others, had to draw a fishbone diagram on
which they listed advantages and disadvantages of using technology according to Bradburys text
and the comic strips.
Follow up
The students were asked to write a parallel between their point of view about technology
and the way in which Ray Bradbury portrays it.
These are two of their answers:
From the very first lines I was amazed by the astonishing technology that ruled in the
house: a singing clock, a stove cooking by its own, and the weather box, everything pointing to the
time of the day as if revealing the importance of every second. Time was not to be wasted.
Everything had been planned in advance, every moment, every action and people had to submit to
this order like robots.
I suddenly realized that such a life couldn't be a happy one. People being in a rush every
minute must be very stressed and unhappy. I think they had lost the human side of their personality
and this is the very reason why a nuclear disaster took place and destroyed humanity.
The technology only contributed to the alienation of people and it seemed useless. People
lost their sensitivity and their warm human feelings .They had no purpose in life because all work,
all actions were accomplished by machines and people turned into slaves of technology.
The end was tragic. The whole humanity perished, crashed by its super-civilization
(Sorinel Rotaru, Grade 10).
The lessons centred round the topic of technology were very fun and they have fortified my
view on technology, the view that technology is ever evolving and that we must restrain ourselves
from creating an ultra-bot that will exterminate humanity.
Ive enjoyed the short story by Ray Bradbury and the advantages/ disadvantages part of the
lesson because the story gave us a view of what might happen in the future to come and the exercise
showed me what my classmates enjoy in using technology and what they dont, what helps them
and what doesnt (Vlad Felecan, Grade 10).
As identifiable from the lesson presented above, the learners roles within the task are of
utmost importance, Van Avermaet states that it is crucial [] that learners set a goal for
themselves that motivates them to engage in an achievement orientation and in meaningful
interaction, for this is what will promote their language development in the short and the long term
(Avermaet et al., 2006, p. 178).
Based on what could be read in the students testimonies presented above, they played their
part, engaging in the interaction that produced language, in the way that P. Van Avermaet theorised.
Through their reactions to the lessons, our students also ticked Josh Elders checklist about comics.
He says that comics have to be engaging, efficient and effective. (Edmunds, 2014). These students
have also added a forth E to the list, that is: enjoyable.
Although the lesson we presented above is not built solely around comics, it began from
their support so that the students in our mixt ability group could all participate in this lesson
according to their own level. The lesson reached all its goals and a subsequent one as well because
the students had a lot of fun while solving the tasks. As proven through this lesson, when a teacher
delivers the content of a lesson through means that the students find more appealing, their
willingness to participate in the lesson increases. In this respect, the combination of comics and
TBL is very powerful in increasing the personal level of involvement of all students.

Bibliography
Print-Based References
Avermaet, P. V., Colpin, M., Gorp, K. V., Bogaert, N., & Branden, K. V. The role of the teacher in
task-based language teaching, in K. V. Branden (Ed.), Task-Based Language Education:
From Theory to Practice, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006, pp. 175-196,
52

Bradbury, Ray, The Martian Chronicles, Illustrated by Ian Miller, New York: Bantam Books, 1979,
pp. 242-249.
Prabhu, N. S., Second Language Pedagogy, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987,
Richards, J. C., Curriculum Development in Language Teaching, Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 2001,
Willis, J., A Framework for Task-Based Learning, Harlow: Pearson Education Limited, 2001,
Wood, W., There Will Come Soft Rains in Weird Fantasy(2), 1990, November,. p. 25.
Internet-Based References
Edmunds, T., Comics in the Classroom: Why Comics?, 2014, August 04, retrieved March 18, 2017,
from Teach. Make a Difference: https://teach.com/blog/why-comics/,
Haines, J., Why Teach with Comics?, n.d., retrieved March 16, 2017, from Reading with Pictures:
http://www.readingwithpictures.org/2012/04/why-teach-with-comics/,
Leonard Nimoy reads Ray Bradbury's "There Will Come Soft Rains" from "The Martian
Chronicles" [Motion Picture]. YouTube. 2012, June 7. Retrieved March 23, 2017, from
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LzhlU8rXgHc.

THE ADVANTAGES OF USING COMICS IN THE EFL CLASSES


Basarab Daniela
Muntean Iuliana

Col. Na. I.C.Brtianu/


c. Gimn. Aron Densusianu -Haeg

Comic strips can be used from beginner level to advanced level for a variety of language and
discussion activities. They develop students creativity, imagination, fantasy and give them the
opportunity to develop language skills in a funny and enjoyable way. As well as providing
stimulation, variety, interest and motivation, they help students to promote positive attitudes
towards learning English. They also encourage active participation and improve students
confidence and self-esteem. Next we are going to have a brief presentation of the benefits of using
comic strips during the EFL classes.
1. One of the greatest advantages is that comics and comic strips constitute authentic material.
Using authentic material in the classroom has been strongly encouraged in the field of language
learning. By using authentic materials, we provide our students with examples of how the language
is actually used in the real word, as opposed to artificial structures found in EFL textbooks. Comics
can be very motivating for learners as the story-line is reinforced by the visual element, which can
make them easier to understand.
2. Comics present information in a visual manner that both informs and entertains. They are a form
of literature students really enjoy. Therefore, students would be much more likely to keep reading.
3. Most comics and comic strips are situated in time and place. Due to the fact that they are
culturally current, they provide an opportunity for EFL learners to learn and discover other cultures.
Comic strips show culture in action with the ways that men and women are behaving and are
expected to behave. Many comics are used to challenge stereotypes and criticise discrimination.
4. Comics facilitate vocabulary acquisition. The visual aspect of the comics generally provides the
context and the visual context of the words that are used. Since the input is presented in writing, the
learners can take the time they need to pause, go back and analyse the text again. This is less
practical with audio and video materials.
5. More reading helps to develop reading skills, but what is particularly useful with comic strips is
that they provide visual contexts that will definitely help the readers understand the text more
easily. The constant visual support also helps the reader follow the sequence of the story.

53

6. Reading comics can also develop writing skills. By becoming familiar to the structure of comics,
students develop a better understanding of logic and continuity in a narrative. Comics can become
good prompts for writing topics.
Comic strips are powerful teaching tools. Here a few ways to use comic strips in the EFL classes:
a. Cut up the strip into individual boxes and get the students to rearrange them into an appropriate
order;
b. Ask students to rearrange the sentences in a paragraph;
c. Blank out the speech bubbles and ask the students to fill in. Teachers could blank out the speech
bubbles spoken by one character. This activity will provide students with an opportunity for some
creative writing. Groups can act out their version in front of the class;
d. Blank out alternate boxes, so that the story-line is given continuity and the students have to fill in
the speech bubbles in the blank boxes in accordance with what precedes them and what follows
them. By doing this, students investigate the use of dialogue, vocabulary and non-verbal
communication. Students with lower levels of proficiency should be given vocabulary prompts on
the board;
e. Remove the final line in a comic strip story so that the students have to invent and write an
appropriate ending. Artistic students may like to draw the last frame. The class can vote for the best
ending;
f. Rewrite a comic strip dialogue in reported form. This might involve the use of verbs such as ask,
exclaim, protest, realise, wonder and so on;
g. Ask students to bring in examples of their favourite comic strips in their native language and to
translate a brief section into English. This activity could be done in pairs or small groups;
h. Ask students to create and share their own comic books. Designing a comic book provides an
opportunity for students to be creative and to engage in literacy exploration. This activity is an
essential aspect of a holistic approach to EFL learning. It provides opportunities for the
development of students linguistic and visualspatial intelligence as well as for the expanding of
their interpersonal intelligence. Moreover, designing a comic book offers students the opportunity
to refine their research skills. Students learn how to gather and select relevant information. This
activity can be adapted for group project or for individual assignment. Teachers may encourage
students who lack confidence in their drawing ability to use computer clip art;
i. Devise role plays based on comic strips to challenge more advanced learners. Get them to act out
the next sequence in the story.
We can say from experience that the cross-curricular activities suggested above have the
power to enliven the class. Our students have always participated enthusiastically in activities based
on comic trips. It seems that they learn a great deal more from this type of approach than by
traditional teaching methods. Using comic strips may be considered a nontraditional approach, but
we conclude that this additional source of instruction should be used in the EFL classroom as often
as the time allows it.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Howard Gardner, Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century, New York:
Basic Books
Timothy G. Morrison, Gregory Bryan, George W. Chilcoat, Using student-generated comic books
in the classroom, Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 45:8, May 2002
www.onestopenglish.com/.../teaching...using-comic.../14639
https://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/using-cartoons-comic-strips

54

CREATIVE GAMES FOR LANGUAGE LEARNING

Neacu Mdlina
Liceul Tehnologic Ion MincuVaslui

Teaching today has changed a lot over the past years. Once it was all about learners being
passive and listening in the classroom, but today learners are usually much more active in the
classroom, and what better way to be active than by playing games.
There are a number of reasons that games deserve a place in the language classroom. First of
all, they are fun, which is extremely important, because they can help activate students who may
have been inactive before, due to lack of interest. Keeping students active is vital because teachers
will never be able to actually teach students anything unless they can get them to participate in their
own learning process.
Secondly, games also play a big part in helping participants build relationships, and to feel
equal. Playing games in the classroom can also help create a friendly and positive atmosphere
where seat arrangement can differ from game to game, and thus cause diversity from the norm
which can be extremely helpful in keeping an exciting learning environment. Moreover, the reason
most people want to learn a language is to be able to use it in real situations, for example when
travelling. Games can be a very good way to practice this skill because they can easily be used to
reenact various situations from real life and provide students with practice in their fluency. Also, by
using games in the classroom the teacher is giving his students a bigger role, and he himself is
stepping out of the frontline which is a positive thing because it allows students to take on more
responsibility. Also that allows students to do more on their own, and that can very well result in an
increase in their confidence level. What is more, language students need to be exposed to the
language in a variety of situations, which is a need games can fulfill. Language students also need
to be ready to take on the experience, keeping their minds open and being willing participants.
Again, games make this possible.
Last but not least, games are good for shy students and students with low confidence, and that
applies specifically when playing takes place in smaller groups because then they get a chance to
speak in front of fewer audience instead of having to express themselves in front of the whole class.
Also it is sometimes easier to open up and forget the shyness when playing a game because the
atmosphere is not as serious and more emphasis is put on fluency rather than grammatical
correctness.
Painting into poem
In this activity you can have all your students working on the same painting or pairs working
on several different ones. The painting needs to include people doing things of some kind. Ask each
pair to look at the painting and according to what they see in the painting write down twelve
adjectives , eight nouns and six verbs ending in ing. Tell the pairs they are to write a poem using
all the words they have written down and no others except articles, possessive, prepositions, and,
or, but, yes and no. I occasionally allow other words but never extra nouns, adjectives or verbs of
any kind- be as firm as possible. They may only use each word once, unless it is for deliberate
rhetorical repetition. You will find that they write the first few lines quite quickly and easily, but it
is the last few that challenge the imagination, and that is the whole point of the activity.
Grass skirts revision race
Preparation
Make a worksheet with between 10 and 20 questions of what you want to revise. Multiple-
choice, gap-fill (cloze) and short-answer questions are best.
Copy the worksheet on to different coloured paper; one colour per team of 3 or 4. If I don't
have coloured paper I use different coloured markers and draw a line down the left side of the page.
Cut under each question from right to left leaving the left edge of the page uncut. When the
students have completed their question correctly then you can tear off the next question. The result
is what looks like a grass skirt!
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Procedure
Tell the students that they are going to have a competition in teams and that they will be
given one question that they must answer correctly before they get the next question and so on. The
winning team is the team that answers all the questions correctly first.
Put the students into teams of 3 or 4.
Tear off the first question from each different coloured worksheet and place face down in
front of each team. Tell the students to wait to turn over the question until you have given out all the
questions and said "GO!"
Tell the students that they can start and when they have the answer to write it into the blank
or beside the question (depending on the questions you have given them). It is a good idea to have
the answers on hand so you can quickly tell the students whether it's correct or not.
I usually nominate one student per team to run up to me at the front of the class to get the
next question. However, make sure that the students have a clear path free of bags etc. so they don't
trip. If this is a worry then an alternative is to get the students to raise their hands when they have
the correct answer.
If the answer is correct I tear off the next question from their team's worksheet and give it to
them.
If the answer is incorrect I send the student back to their team to try again. If they don't get
the answer the next time I might give them a hint or tell them the answer if they're behind the other
teams.
After there has been a winning team I encourage the remaining teams to continue answering
the questions for second and third places. I try to give enough time for all the teams to finish.
Then I review the questions that the students had difficulty with or didn't get to finish and
take note of errors made to be reviewed in the next class.
Two Truths and a Lie
This getting-to-know-you ESL game is a lot of fun for more advanced students. Each student
must tell the class two truths and a lie about him or herself and have the class guess which statement
is the lie. Students must be able to express themselves orally in order to succeed at this game. This
game allows students to get very creative, which means that they usually have a lot of fun playing.
Be sure to correct them only on grammar and vocabulary that youve covered in class unless they
ask for a word or phrase. Letting students express themselves, even if theyre not 100% correct, is
important for this game. Teachers should not hesitate, however, to correct grammar and vocabulary
points that have been covered already in class.
There are lots of different games out there that can be used in the classroom. Be creative and
have fun! Ensuring your students have the necessary instructions and practice before starting any
activity will make it more enjoyable and beneficial for your students.

1. Using games in teaching English to young learners-Teaching English to children,


from practice to principle, England, Longman, Khan, J.1996
2. The role of word games in second language acquisition: Second language pedagogy,
motivation and ludic tasks, Ojeda, Fernando Artaro.PhD Dissertation, University of
Florida, 2004.

56

TEACHING WRITING SKILLS IN ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

Patrascu Cristina Veronica


Colegiul National Pedagogic Regina Maria Deva

A foreign language can be learnt without being able to write in it and, above that, most of
the people find writing as being the most difficult skill they have to acquire. This is why teachers
have to make it very clear why writing is an important skill for students and what all the hard work
is for, which means emphasizing the purpose of developing writing skills.
In the early stages of teaching a foreign language, with elementary students, writing can be
used mostly for pedagogical purposes such as:
- helping students who do not feel very comfortable learning through oral practice; for such
students writing is an aid to the retention process because it is the means by which they feel at ease
and relaxed;
- written work can be seen as a tangible evidence that they are making progress in language
acquisition, so it has a strong motivating role;
- the use of integrated skills in the classroom is more effective than the use of a single type
of skills; even in elementary classes there are many opportunities of using integrated skills;
- writing can help vary the classroom activities, it can be seen as a break from oral
production and it increases the amount of language contact through tasks that can be seen as
homework;
- testing students through written exercises is widely used among teachers because of
various reasons: the number of students in a class, the amount of time the teacher has to evaluate the
students; some written tests are even appropriate, for example making notes while listening.
It is true that in the early stages teachers have to focus on oral activities, still, an integrated
skills approach helps our students expand knowledge and a good command of language.
If we move forwards to intermediate levels and above, all the mentioned reasons for teaching
writing remain valid, but other skills can be integrated more effectively (e.g. reading); creative
writing, for example, increases language development because it uses grammar, vocabulary,
phonology and discourse and challenges the student to express personal meaning in a unique way,
so the writing process is a very complex and demanding one, but its benefits upon language
development are unquestionable.
Starting with this stage, writing may become a goal in itself. Although is difficult to
predict what type of writing students are likely to use after graduating, they usually have to pass
exams which consist of a written test, too, so this will increase motivation and it will determine
them to involve and care about writing well.
Although there is a complex situation that refers to teaching, in general, and to teaching
writing in particular, it is important for teachers to make their students understand that developing
writing skills in a foreign language is part of the process of learning, helps them improve their skills
and, at the same time, develops their communication abilities, necessary to their future life. So, our
primarily task is to find a way of making our students see the purpose of writing and measure their
progress in order for them to see that their work is not in vain.
When people want to send a message under a written format, they do not normally choose a
certain type or class of writing and then start the process of jotting down ideas according to the
chosen classification, but they do their best to send the message to the reader, using all the
techniques and tools available to them. So, in the pedagogical process of teaching writing it is not of
extreme importance to teach students the classification of the written texts, though they exist.
Along time, linguists have classified writing under different forms, taking into consideration
various aspects of the writing process. The process of classifying writing is not an easy task because
the writer can use more than one mode of writing in a written paper. For example, in a story we can
meet three different modes of writing: creative, descriptive and narrative.
57

Though, there are five basic modes/forms of writing, each of them can be broken into
subcategories:
- descriptive writing
- expository writing
- narrative writing
- persuasive writing
- creative writing.
A piece of writing, like any other piece of work, requires a considerable amount of hard
labour, organization, and discipline. From the very beginning the students have to be aware that the
written work is a way of communicating a message to the known or unknown reader.
Although it takes some time and requires some effort from the writer, the use of pre -
writing activities enables our students explore their ideas, enhance horizon, use a wide variety of
vocabulary (or even improve it), makes the writer aware of the subject and the main ideas from
his/her work.
Writing is a three step process consisting mainly of:
- planning or pre writing;
- drafting;
- revising and editing.
A. PREWRITING
A first step in the writing process is that of Getting Ideas, specifically, to teach our students
several ways to extract ideas from their lives and thoughts. As they practice prewriting techniques,
they will discover the ones that are most effective for them.
An important thing we should encourage our students to do is to keep a WRITERS
NOTEBOOK. In the notebook, they are encouraged to write down perceptions in whatever order
they occur, using single words, phrases, sentences or combination of these. Each entry should
contain enough information to refresh memory when the student returns to it.
Related to a writers notebook is the keeping of an INTEREST INVENTORY. This may
represent a current source of inspiration regarding students talents, preferences, and goals.
Encourage students to read through the inventory occasionally, looking for patterns, similarities,
and differences, they can add or change categories or information as their feelings, tastes, and
interests change.
Another widespread and very prolific idea generator is the use of FREEWRITING activity.
As the word implies, the point of freewriting is to record whatever thoughts come into your mind
without pausing to evaluate either the content or the style of your writing. We have to teach our
students to begin with a word, a memory, a quotation, or a feeling, and write as quickly as they can.
We have to tell them not to worry about organization, sentence structure, grammar, or word choice.
They only have to write down their ideas on the paper, as they flow.
Because freewriting allows us to pursue mental connections, or associations, students may
stray from the original stimulus or they may centre the writing on only one detail. Either approach
can produce interesting results.
Another ideas generating technique is that of BRAINSTORMING. Brainstorming is similar
to freewriting in that it encourages the mind to play spontaneously and freely with ideas and their
associations. This technique can be used either individually or, even better, in pair or group work so
that, besides generating ideas for the topic, they also practice collaborative learning.
Like brainstorming, CLUSTERING encourages our students to capitalize on their minds
ability to produce ideas in association with one another. Instead of creating a list, as with
brainstorming, clustering allows our students to diagram their thoughts, showing their connections
and relationships.
A good way of exploring the ideas the students have got in the previous stage is that of
ASKING QUESTIONS (The Five Ws and How). We should teach our students to ask the questions
Who, What, When, Where, Why, and How in ways that apply to their subject. Asking and
answering these questions will generate information and help to refine their thinking because the
58

questions cannot be answered with a simple yes or no. In addition to drawing out specific detail, the
questioning process can help them to find a new perspective or a unique approach.
CHANGING VIEWPOINTS allows them to see it from a variety of external perspectives.
This technique may even provide them with a unique angle, the one that will turn an ordinary idea
into a fresh and lively writing topic.
MAKING A TIME LINE is a technique that helps our students to explore a subject that has
developed, changed, or occurred over a span of time. They should begin with a line divided into
segments that are appropriate to their subject: hours, days, months, years, or even spans of years;
then, they use points to show relevant events or brackets to show periods of time. If our students
choose to use this activity of Making a Time Line in order to develop their subject, it can help them
recognize patterns but it can also give them a head start on their organization.
B. DRAFTING
Drafting an Essay
The components of an essay are comparable to those of a paragraph: the thesis statement,
like the topic sentence, identifies the limited topic and the focusing idea and it is contained in an
opening paragraph that grabs the readers attention and establishes the tone; body paragraphs, like
supporting sentences, clearly support the focusing idea and follow a logical order, using transitions
as connectors; finally, an essay needs a strong concluding paragraph that, like a concluding
sentence, provides closure and echoes the main idea.
The Thesis Statement
The thesis statement controls and directs an essay the way that a topic sentence rules a
paragraph. Like a topic sentence, it must fit perfectly, being neither too broad nor too narrow to
cover the supporting paragraphs filled with supporting details.
Outlining
An outline is helpful to the process of building an essay like plans or blueprints help
architects to build something as they are the visual representations of what they intend to build, they
show the relationship of parts to the whole.
C. REVISING
The words visible, vision, and visit derive from the Latin verb videre which means
to see. After drafting their paragraph or essay, it is time for our students to re-see or revise their
writing by looking at it in a new way; it is the stage when they have to look at their writing not as
creators, but as critics.
Revising is the time for changes, some of them may be dramatic, our students may delete
entire passages or add new ones, they may move sentences or paragraphs to different locations.
Other changes may be more subtle and specific like changing a verb or an adjective, or making an
adjustment for variety.
The revising process can take place in two different ways: revising on your own and using
peer review.
1. Revising on Your Own
The first thing our students should do, after finishing drafting, is revising their own work. As
they practice more and more, they will develop their objectivity regarding the written work. There
are some strategies which could also help them. They should:
- let their draft settle. It is difficult to shift from the role of writer to that of reader;
- read their writing aloud to develop sensitivity to its sound, and they could also hear
weaknesses that their eyes miss;
- develop efficient ways to make changes. As they read, they should analyse each part of
the paragraph or essay and make notes in the margin of the paper so that they will not forget the
first impressions before they rewrite. Working on a computer would be a great help at this stage.
- deal with broad concerns first, then move to narrower ones;
- use a checklist to make the steps of revising more manageable.
2. Using Peer Review

59

Peer review refers to testing the draft on a trusted reader because a fresh mind and eye can
spot strengths and weaknesses that the writer never suspected were there.
Peer review is highly recommended as revising technique because it develops certain
abilities both to the reader and the writer. Because it is difficult for our students to be objective
about their own work, peer review can make the revising process more efficient and productive. If
our students change drafts among themselves, both of them can get suggestions and by reading
another writers draft, they develop critical skills that they can use when they are revising on their
own.
D. EDITING AND PROOFREADING
After all the hard work from previous stages many students feel tempted to skip the editing
process which is correcting errors in word choice, spelling, and punctuation- and sometimes,
when they are short of time, even proofreading correcting errors in typing or writing of the final
draft.
The students should be aware that the readers final impression is not given only by the
ideas expressed into their piece of writing, but also by its form, so they must avoid misspellings,
faulty punctuation, confusing expressions. At this point a computer would be a great help as most
word-processing programs include a grammar and spell checker. They are not totally reliable, they
do not do the editing part for us, but they can spot some mistakes, and the correction is easy to do.
Writing assignments in school means that the written work will only be read by the teacher
and in case of an examination, by two or three external examiners, and its purpose is to be marked
(which does not happen in real word communication). Nevertheless, students should do their best to
both accomplish the task (express opinion, narrate and so on) and pay attention to the language use
because it represents an important proportion from the marking scheme.

BIBLIOGRAFIE:
1. Wyrick, J., Steps To Writing Well., Boston: Wadsworth, 2011
2. Kane, T. S., The Oxford Essential Guide to Writing. New York: The Berkley Publishing
Group, 2000
3. Brown A. C., et al. English, Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1990
4. http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/making-writing-communicative
5. http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/creative-writing-language-learners-teachers

A STUDY ON THE IMPORTANCE OF LEARNING ENGLISH


AS A SECOND LANGUAGE

Profesor Silvana orop


Colegiul Economic Virgil Madgearu Tg-Jiu

"Language" is considered to be a general term for which linguists have been trying to find a
definition. To understand the value of studying a second language it is important to take into
consideration the definitions, both from a linguistic and a non-linguistic point of view, and thus, you
can check whether certain concepts, such as "ideas", "culture", "traditions", "people" and
"communication" are included. So, language has been defined as: a systematic means of
communication by the use of sounds or conventional symbols. It is the code we all use to
communicate to others. It is a communication by "word of mouth". It is the mental faculty or power
of vocal communication. It is a system for communicating ideas and feelings using sounds,
gestures, signs or marks. Any means of communicating ideas, specifically, human speech, the
expression of ideas by the voice and sounds articulated by the organs of the throat and mouth is a

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language. This is a system for communication. A language is the written and spoken method of
combining words to create meaning used by a particular group of people.
Then, language is something specific to humans; it is the basic capacity that distinguishes us
from all other living beings. Language, therefore, remains a way to express ideas, concepts, moods,
feelings and attitudes.
Some linguists, who based their assumptions of language on psychology, stated that
language is nothing but "habit formation". According to them, language is learnt through use and
practice. In their view, "the more one is exposed to the use of language, the better one learns."
Written languages use symbols or characters to build words. The entire set of words is the
language's vocabulary. The ways in which the words can be meaningfully combined is defined by
the language's syntax and grammar. The actual meaning of words and combinations of words is
defined by the language's semantics.
The acquisition of a second language is seen as a conscious and reasoned thinking process.
Therefore, the learning strategies are special ways through which the students process the
information given. Thus, their comprehension, learning or retention of information is enhanced.
Relevant activities include review and revision, vocabulary, analysis and discussion of language and
topics and learner training. How can we identify the efficiency of teaching English and learning it
as a second language? I want to focus mainly on the following questions: What are the students'
attitudes towards learning English as a second language? What motivates them to learn it? Of
course, there are several factors that contribute to the formation of these attitudes and motivation.
All these factors are believed to form the attitudes and motivation of students studying in schools
and, they can be grouped into three domains:
- the learner;
- the teaching/learning situation;
- the environmental context of the teaching/learning process.
The first domain includes the learner's age, intelligence, personality, interest, parental and
social background; the second one refers to the teacher, curriculum, course, material and methods;
and, the third domain encompasses the second/foreign language situation, the value of and the
opportunity to use the foreign language in that specific environment, the value of the first language,
the political state of the country, conditions of schools and home atmosphere.
It is generally believed that the second language teaching is meant to contribute to the
students' general education as well as knowledge about other cultures, civilizations and traditions.
There are two important values in studying a second language: extrinsic and intrinsic. The former
refers to the practical use of the foreign language, meaning that the students might want to read
books or articles in that language, travel to a country where that language is spoken, get a job where
the knowledge of that language is essential or for just an immediate purpose such as admission or
graduation from college. The intrinsic value is the value of learning the language itself, as knowing
a foreign language has both humanistic and intellectual benefits.
English has gained the prestige of being the international language in a large number of
countries. Moreover, since colonies had different languages, there was a need for communicating
and naturally, English became the language to link the local elites with one another as well as with
the rest of the world.
Another reason is the importance of English speaking countries as markets in world trade.
English is the dominant business language and if people are to enter a global workforce, there is
almost a necessity for them to speak English. English language comes to our aid in our commercial
transactions throughout the globe. It is the language of the latest business management in the world
and it is a means not only for international commerce as it has become increasingly essential for
inter-state commerce and communication. As the British influence has declined a little bit, that of
the United States has increased.
The latest and the most advanced discoveries and inventions in science and technology are
being made in the universities located in the United States of America where English language is
the means of scientific discourse. The world's top films, books and music are published and
61

produced in English, so, if you want to enjoy them you need to know the language. Also, most of
the information provided on the internet is in English.
English language is one tool to establish our viewpoint, too. We can learn from others
experience. We can check the theories of foreigners against our experience. We can also propagate
our theories among the international audience and readers.
We can make use of English to promote our worldview and spiritual heritage throughout the
globe. English has thus become an effective means of promoting the Romanian view of life, and
strengthening our cultural identity in the world.
Eventually, it is said that there is another reason for the importance of learning a second
language - it improves brain function and stimulates creativity. Learning a new language helps you
see connections you did not see before because every language approaches the world in a slightly
different way. As a consequence, learning English may be challenging and time consuming but, it is
very valuable to learn as it creates many opportunities.
In the past, most research on second language learning had been concerned with the
measurement of an ability to learn that language. Nowadays, the study of motivational aspects of
second language achievement started. Thus, the notion of identification differs in second language
learning, but could be extended with more interpersonal or social motives.
People always ask "What is the best way to learn English and why does it have to be so
hard? Isn't there an easier way?" Well, learning any second language is hard. That does not mean
that learning cannot be fun at the same time. The key to learning a new language well is starting at
an early age and providing opportunities while also emphasizing the development of native
language.
Regardless of when you begin learning English, the best way to do so is with engaging
materials, talented teachers and an opportunity to develop everyday conversational ability focusing
on the four skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing.
Generally, Standard English today does not depend on accent but rather on shared
educational experience, mainly of the printed language. Present-day English is an immensely varied
language, having absorbed material from many other tongues. It is spoken by more than 300 million
native speakers, and between 400 and 800 million foreign users. It is the official language of air
transport and shipping; the leading language of science, technology, computers, and commerce; and
a major medium of education, publishing, and international negotiation. For this reason, scholars
frequently refer to its latest phase as World English.

REFERENCES:
1. Anderson, R.C. et. al., (2001) Four types of knowledge
2. Archibald, J., (1977) Second Language Acquisition. In: Contemporary Linguistics.
London & New York: Longman, pp. 503-539
3. The Oxford Illustrated Dictionary, p. 458
4. Gardner, R.C. and Smythe P.C. (1973), Second Language Acquisition: Motivational
Considerations.
5. (1975), Motivation and Second Language Acquisition. The Canadian Modern Language
Review 31:3, pp. 218-230
6. http://www.basicknowledge101.com/subjects/languages.html
7. Chomsky, N. (1968), Language and Mind. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World

62

WHY SHOULD WE USE COMICS IN TEACHING ESL?

Popa Geanina
coala Gimanzial Constantin Brncui, Cluj-Napoca

This is a question that any teacher might find himself asking at some point in his or her
teaching career. We often notice comics present in different textbooks and we most often use them,
especially with beginners in the lower levels of studying English, however we dont really pause to
think about the reasons for using comics in teaching a foreign language.
I will start out my quest of finding out those reasons by looking at the definitions of comics.
Comics, also known as comic strips, are defined as a sequence of drawings, either in colour or black
and white, relating a comic incident, an adventure or mystery story, often serialized, typically
having dialogue printed in balloons, and usually printed in a horizontal strip in daily newspapers
and in uninterrupted block or longer sequence of such strips in Sunday newspapers and comic
books. From this definition we can conclude they are to be usually found in newspapers and comic
books. But then, why are they so often found in English textbooks?
There are many ways in which comics have a positive influence on learners of foreign
language. First of all, they constitute a fun and exciting moment in any lesson. Whenever there is a
comic strip in the textbook, students wait impatiently to read the text and are quite upset that they
dont get to be the next to read. I was often asked when would read a certain comic even though in
was ten pages ahead in the textbook. Comics have a way of rising students curiosity, motivation
and overall engagement in the class.
But their benefits dont stop here. A comic strip is a visual narrative. Like spoken and signed
languages, visual narratives use a lexicon of systematic patterns stored in memory, strategies for
combining these patterns into meaningful units and a hierarchic grammar governing the
combination of sequential images into coherent expressions. As a result, comics have an immense
contribution in developing reading skills, especially in the automatic recognition of words, which is
essential for this skill. Students follow story beginnings and endings, plot, characters, time and
setting, sequencing without needing sophisticated word decoding skills. Images play a great role.
They support the text and give students significant contextual clues to word meaning. Comics act as
a scaffold to student understanding.
Comic strips are authentic language teaching materials and can be used in the classroom
without having students to worry that they might not understand. The main advantage of this
authentic form of input is that you dont have to pre-teach vocabulary. Even though students might
not understand every word, they turn to the visuals for clarification. But comics do not only
represent authentic language learning opportunities for students, but they also offer a unique
perspective into the culture and customs of the people that the comic strip comes from, from day-to-
day speech and expressions to popular food and drink.
Another important reason for using comics in the classroom is that they motivate reluctant
readers. They engage students in a literary format which is their own. Comics speak to students in a
way they understand and identify with. Even after students become good readers, comics give them
the possibility to read something which combines images with text, to express satire and humor in a
way that the text alone cant do.
But comics work well even for accomplished readers. Because graphic novels require
readers to actively decode and comprehend both text and images and the interplay between them,
students must use higher-level thinking skills such as inference and synthesis. The narrative
structures that authors can create using both text and image are often different from and sometimes
more complex than text alone, and while reading graphic texts, students must analyze and

63

synthesize structures both within a page and often as a pattern throughout the book. The graphic
medium also provides for novel uses of metaphor, symbolism, puns, irony and point of view.
Comics enrich not only reading, but also writing and thinking. I have many students that
read fluently, but have great difficulties in writing. They often complain that they dont know what
to write. They have a myriad of ideas, but they lack the skills to create a beginning, follow a
sequence of ideas and end the writing with a logical conclusion. This is where comics come to their
aid. Students frequently ask if they may draw a picture when theyre writing. They are reaching for
images to support their language ideas. This allows them to use words and images which enable
them to solve the problem of writing the actual story which they would not otherwise experience
using words alone. Like in the case of reading, comics provide scaffolding so that students
experience success in their writing.
And if it boosts reading and writing, why not help with speaking? I often give my students
comics which have the conversations erased and I either ask them to think of a story based on the
pictures or to create a short dialogue in a role play activity. Having the images, they find it less
difficult to convey the plot of a story. Students then have to share their story with the whole class
and Im ever so impressed of how imaginative they can be. When they are asked to carry out the
dialogues in front of the class, even the shyer students engage in the conversation and have
something to say. Therefore, comics help organize their thoughts in a logical, progressive manner
and even stimulate higher level thought processes. I most often grade their performance so comic
strips serve as an assessment and evaluation tool.
As far as listening is concerned, the comics found in the textbooks are always accompanied
by an audio version on the CD. Thus the comic strip gets also a funny music and silly voices to
interpret whatever the characters are saying. Especially students in the first years of studies find this
particularly pleasant. They always request to hear the audio material several times, so that they can
imitate the voices themselves and have fun.
Comic strips are a great learning tool for kids with special needs or learning disabilities.
These kids can read through a comic without struggling to read whole pages of plain text. This
boosts their confidence in themselves and their desire to read more. Comics also benefit children
who struggle with literacy and face the embarrassment of having to read it aloud in class, but simply
cant. So by using a comic strip, the teacher can just adjust the level of reading and provide them an
easier material than the others have.
As shown above, there are multiple and diverse reasons for using comics in the ESL lesson.
They encourage a love of reading, they add vocabulary, they increase inference and create
confidence in oneself and they develop a sense of sequence and improve visual literacy. Different
genres match different interests as there are comics in all different genres: realistic, mysteries,
historical, fantasies. Comics ultimately develop an appreciation of art, but most importantly, they
are fun to read.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:
1. Janette Combs, Creating Comics: Visual and Verbal Thinking in the Ultimate Show and
Tell, College of William and Mary, 2003.
2. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English.
3. Jeremy Harmer, The Practice of English Language Teaching, 5th Edition, Pearson Education
ELT, 2015.
4. Scrivener, The Essential Guide to English Language Teaching, Third Edition, MacMillan
Books for Teachers, 2011.

64

TEACHING READING AND WRITING WITH COMICS


-SUMMARY-

Haiduc Alina Livia


Liceul Teoretic Avram Iancu, Cluj-Napoca

The article talks about the fact that students are more likely to be interested and motivated in
learning if the teachers select modern teaching techniques and activities throughout the lessons. In
my opinion teachers need all the resources they can find in order to teach as effectively as possible,
comics being one of these resources most enjoyed by students. Comics can play an effective,
influential role in the English Language classroom, especially in improving their reading and
writing skills, and can have a positive impact on the learning habits of many students because they
consider comics as being a fun activity. However, teachers should keep in mind a few tips before
using comics in the classroom such as selecting a suitable and appropriate comic, teaching students
how to read and analyze comics, be aware and convinced of the benefits of teaching with comics.
The positive aspects of teaching with comics are the following: increase vocabulary, engage
readers who learn visually, teach positive messages, open a readers mind to dealing with different
genres.
The article presents a series of activities used by its author and her students throughout the
lessons: information gap, writing reports, reviews and reading journals after reading comics or
graphic novels, jigsaw puzzle activities to order jumbled illustrations or pieces of text, open cloze
where students have to write their own texts to match the given illustrations, writing a different
ending for the story, describing a character, predicting the title or a characters role in the story,
reading to improve intonation and pronunciation, extensive reading, summarizing the text of a
comic, role playing (students act out a comic) and creative writing (students have to write their own
comic).
In conclusion, comics provide new and exciting ways to increase students motivation in
learning English because comics are modern therefore bringing up contemporary issues face by
students of all ages, gender or nationality.

WHOS AFRAID OF ICT?

Alina Talpalaru
Colegiul Economic Anghel Rugin Vaslui

Pornind de la nevoia colii de a aduce o schimbare i de a adapta modul de predare-nvare-


evaluare la noile standarde educaionale pe plan european, n contextul dezvoltrii accentuate a unui
nvmnt digital, Colegiul Economic Anghel Rugin Vaslui a derulat, n perioada 1 iunie 2015 -
31 mai 2017, Proiectul de mobilitate n domeniul educaiei colare Erasmus+ KA1 cu titlul Whos
afraid of ICT?, aprobat cu numrul de referin 2015-1-RO01-KA101-014427. Proiectul a fost
cofinanat de Uniunea European i a primit o finanare de 50.695 euro.
Scopul proiectului a fost acela de a crea cadrelor didactice care predau diferite discipline
teoretice oportunitatea de a participa la cursuri de formare menite s mbunteasc sau s dezvolte
competene de utilizare TIC n procesul de predare-nvare-evaluare. Finalitatea a fost aceea de a
implementa noi abordri ale educaiei n context european, centrate pe dezvoltarea de competene
cheie n rndul elevilor, crescnd, astfel, atractivitatea orelor de curs.
Astfel, au fost organizate 24 de mobiliti n cadrul a 7 fluxuri, n patru centre de formare
din Spania, Malta, Olanda i Finlanda. n urma participrii la aceste cursuri de formare profesorii au
realizat activiti demonstrative n care au inclus noile metode achiziionate, activiti de mentorat
65

n cadrul crora au instruit i alte cadre didactice care nu au participat la mobiliti asupra modului
n care pot integra mijloacele TIC n activitatea didactic. Rezultatul a fost cel ateptat: elevi
ncntai de leciile desfurate, mai activi n activitile de nvare-evaluare, profesori mai
mulumii de feedback-ul primit din partea elevilor i astfel mai motivai. i acesta este doar
nceputul. Suntem siguri c n urmtorii ani numrul activitilor care includ utilizarea mijloacelor
TIC va crete iar elevii vor fi mai motivai spre nvare.
Produsele finale ale acestui proiect sunt ndreptate att nspre profesori, ct mai ales nspre
elevi. Unul dintre produsele finale este un material didactic auxiliar care include modele de
activiti pentru disciplinele limba romn, limba englez, limba francez, matematic, fizic,
biologie, istorie, geografie, economie. Materialul didactic auxiliar va fi nsoit de un DVD cu
tutoriale care vor ilustra modul n care noile metode propuse de participanii la mobiliti pot fi
utilizate n activitatea curent la clas. Vei gsi modele de activiti pentru disciplinele vizate, ns
activitile propuse pot fi adaptate oricrei discipline pe care o predai. Un sprijin pentru profesorul
modern, iar beneficiarii sunt, n mod evident, elevii.
Produsul final care atrage n primul rnd elevii, ns poate fi oricnd o surs de inspiraie
pentru profesori, este platforma de nvare online pe care o putei gsi la adresa
www.notafraidofict.wordpress.com. Aceasta cuprinde paginile sau blogurile personale create de
participanii la mobiliti. Fiecare pagin sau blog personal conine informaii teoretice la care
elevii pot apela n mod curent sau atunci cnd se pregtesc pentru evaluri, concursuri sau examene.
De asemenea, exist exerciii de nvare sau evaluare ordonate pe nivel de studiu sau nivel de
competen, n funcie de specificul disciplinei vizate.
Considerm c acest proiect a avut impactul ateptat i a adus o schimbare benefic n
activitatea didactic desfurat de profesorii colii. De asemenea, produsele finale realizate de
participanii la mobiliti sunt un instrument util pentru toate cadrele didactice n cutare de metode
alternative de predare sau care i doresc s primeasc un feedback pozitiv din partea elevilor lor.

THE ROLE OF VISUALS IN THE LANGUAGE CLASSROOM

Coropcianu Ramona
coala Gimnaziala Alexandra Nechita

Visual language is a very important means of communication in the modern media society.
It is the media that has also made us change the way to perceive the world and the way we relate to
other people.
We live in the age of information and communication, and as a consequence our lives are
made more and more complex by a growing base of knowledge and increasingly fast global
exchanges. We are all eager for information about our fellow human beings, and have provided
ourselves with the technological means to appease this hunger at any given time. Even if we are
assisted by a multitude of electronic gadgets, language remains our main means of social
interaction, just like it was in the last millennia. It is a well-established fact that we all communicate
visually in the many social situations of our everyday lives. Our eyes are drawn to the faces of
people around us, and we read them, consciously or subconsciously.
We read other people's body language in real life, as well as when we watch films or look at
photographs, because it gives extremely useful hints about their thoughts and actions. Given the
importance of visual communication in real life, discussing the role of the visual in educating the
next generation is a task that needs to be confronted by teachers if English as a subject is to play a
role in the larger context of citizenship education.
Apart from this social responsibility that English as a foreign language has to fulfill, there is
also a very practical one. Being able to describe what one sees is one of the basic skills one has to
66

train when learning a language. It would be easier to achieve significant educational achievements
if everyone learned in the same way, but not everyone does. In schools today there is a growing
diversity of students from a variety of cultural, social, and economic backgrounds with very
different ways of thinking, learning, and behaving. Children of various abilities and disabilities are
in the same classrooms. Children from disadvantaged families learn together with more
economically privileged students. School systems that rely on teaching primarily through the
spoken and written word simply do not reach all these kinds of students. Students with similar
backgrounds may also receive and process information differently. There are students that can learn
effectively by listening, and such students do very well in traditional classrooms where most of the
information is presented orally. On the other hand, students with a visual learning style constitute a
majority. It is important for them to have illustrations, charts, and diagrams along with words and
numbers. Children today are growing up in a highly visual world, surrounded by the images of
television, videos, advertising displays, and other media. The main purposes of teaching through
audio-visual aids are:
- They help to avoid excessive, empty and meaningless verbalization in teaching English.
- They provide direct sense experience to students.
- They help students to form clear and accurate concepts in English.
- They make teaching and learning effective.
- They provide variety to teaching.
- They provide interest and inspiration.
- They create language atmosphere.
- They clarify the subject-matter.
- They create interest for learning in the students.
- They are time saving because they explain the idea easily and precisely.
- They are the sources of a variety of experiences for students.

Using stories and picture based stories in the classroom


Words are the most common medium for conceiving and communicating stories. However,
pictures are by far the strongest means of inferring meaning, stimulating creativity and rising
interest. Picture based stories and stories are central to language teaching. There are benefits in the
classroom from the use of stories or picture based stories in language teaching either creating them
or responding to them:
a. Some people are only involved and only use their full intelligence if they can be creative.
Making and responding to stories is one way of being creative.
By being creative rather than imitative we sharpen our observation and encourage our
curiosity. We see the possibilities of new relationships between bits of information. We learn to be
able to do something about our perceptions and have the confidence in ourselves to do it. We revel
in sharing it with others, confident that they will be open to it if not in agreement with it. By doing
all of this in the foreign language we make it into a second language rather than a foreign language
to be used for real at some time in the future.
b. Making or responding to stories is one of the best ways of developing fluency; fluency is one
of the most difficult skills for the students to acquire and they need reason and opportunity to do so.
c. Stories offer an effective way of introducing new language, making it meaningful and
memorable.
d. Making and telling stories give the students an opportunity to reflect on their own
concerns, perceptions and values.
Stories link verbal language to the languages of voice and body. The voice can be used with
great variety: pace, pitch, volume, rhythm, pause, all used to be clear and to be expressive.
Similarly, the body can be used to help to communicate content meaning and feelings in
conjunction with the words being used. The whole range of students from beginner to advanced can
benefit from the use of stories and in particular the making and telling of stories. Beginners can be

67

encouraged to try to put together the words they have and combining these words with pictures,
drama or music to become 'real' stories.
More advanced students can use English to develop their general story making and
storytelling skills so crucial in social intercourse. Mass media provide students with a lot of
language practice through activities using newspapers, magazines, radio, TV, movies, books,
Internet, etc, and tasks which develop reading, writing, speaking and listening skills. They also
provide students with lots of inside and outside classroom activities, promoting extensive reading
by giving the students the confidence and the ability to continue their reading outside the classroom
and above all they enhance motivation. Media keep us informed about what is happening in the
world, they extend our knowledge and deepen our understanding. Nowadays the information is
abundant, it comes through different sources, but we should try how to benefit from this
information, how to learn about specific issues, how to become aware of problems, opportunities
and resources, how to find issues we are interested in, how to identify the issues that have impact on
us, etc. So, it is easy to get this information but it is difficult to choose and more difficult to bring it
to the classroom.

Using Movies to Teach English


Watching films is very important as it increases pupils visual and critical awareness.
Watching films in the classroom can be realized through recording them or just watching several
film stills. It can be done in a variety ways as setting questions about the film, promoting
discussions in small groups, asking the students to comment on various things, inviting criticism,
etc. We may also stop the film from time to time and ask the students what has happened so far or
guess what might happen next. Another way might be turning the sound down and asking the
students to imagine or make up dialogues. The students may watch the film themselves in the
video-classroom or at home and come the next day and present what they watched and what
happened in the film. Another way of using the films to teach English is that of comparing the film
with the book if the same story appears in both ways.
This kind of activity can be done before or after watching the film, it can be used to adopt or
compare characters, to compare differences and similarities. The book may be used to supplement
and clarify the film, but at the same time the film may be used to illuminate the book. All these
could be done through several activities. We may also give assignments to the students, write about
their favorite film, their favorite characters, their favorite actors, the differences they see if a book
has been made into a film, etc. When a preliminary work is done before watching the film the above
activities may produce interesting writing activities. These kinds of activities also contribute to the
promotion of critical thinking especially in evaluating films and improving language skills. Other
ways of using films in the classroom are: Segmenting the film, pre-watching, while-watching and
post-watching activities, which are very useful as cloze exercises, quizzes, related readings, web
sites, film presentations, discussions, research work, etc. Teachers should be creative and decide
themselves for the procedures that they feel that have worked well.
By using various kinds of visuals in the classroom we can enhance students understanding
and promote it where necessary. The use of audio and video is crucial also in giving feedback and
training, in analyzing and synthesizing, in tracking students progress over time, in editing certain
options, in testing, in peer coaching, etc.
All these aids can help with many issues such as: motivation, clarity, recycling, drafting,
revising, editing, variety, mixed-ability classes, updating information in the textbook, giving life
and color to classroom procedures and methods, thus at the same time helping the students improve
accuracy and fluency.

BIBLIOGRAFIE:

Andrew Wright, Safia Haleem, Visuals for the Language Classroom , Longman, London , New
York 1991
68

Vilma Tafani, Teaching English through Mass Media Acta Didactica Napocensia, volume 2,
number 1, 2009

MULTILINGUISME ET TOURISME POUR UN CITOYEN EUROPEEN ACTIF

Prof. Volocariu Doina


Colegiul Economic Anghel Rugin Vaslui

Dans le programme dapprentissage Tout au Long de la vie, sest droul le Projet


Comenius Bilatral Multilinguisme et Tourisme pour un Citoyen Europen Actif dans la priode
2013-2015, mais les activits continuent sorganiser et se drouler dans les deux coles
partenaires. Le projet a obtenu le Certificat Linguistique Europen, en se classant la deuxime
place, dition 2015. Aussi, il a t rcompens avec le premier prix au niveau dpartemental et le
deuxime prix au niveau national au Concours Made for Europe , dition 2016.
Avec nos partenaires, lves et professeurs dItalie de lcole Istituto di Istruzione Superiore
G. B. Piranesi - IPSAR, Capaccio, nous nous sommes proposs lapprentissage des langues
trangres dans un cadre transdisciplinaire. Auprs laugmentation de la dimension europenne et
de la qualit de lducation offerte par nos coles, le projet a russi avec succs de promouvoir
lapprentissage de la langue franaise, roumaine, italienne et anglaise dans les deux tablissements
scolaires, mais aussi lacquisition dun langage spcifique au domaine tourisme ce qui nous a
permis de dvelopper des comptences cls et a rpondu aux besoins des lves envisageant le
profils de notre cole et le fait qu la fin des tudes les lves doivent tre prpars pour sintgrer
sur le marche national et europen du travail.
Les activits organises ont contribu la promotion des deux langues trangres moins
tudies, litalienne et la roumaine et lacquisition dun langage spcifique au profil tourisme.
Aussi, elles ont enrichi le processus denseignement-apprentissage de la langue franaise, italienne,
roumaine, anglaise et elles ont offert des matriaux pdagogiques pour faciliter la maitrise dun
langage spcifique au profil tourisme et ont promu les valeurs europennes communes.
Dans la priode 3 15 mai 2014, quatre professeurs de lcole Colegiul Economic Anghel
Rugin Vaslui, accompagns par 20 lves, ont particip lchange dlves qui a eu lieu
lcole Istituto di Istruzione Superiore IPSAR G. B. Piranesi, Capaccio, Italie. Pour simpliquer
efficacement dans les activits de lchange dItalie, les professeurs et les lves roumains ont suivi
20 heures de prparation linguistique la langue italienne.
Dans la priode 2 14 mai 2015 les lves et les professeurs italiens ont particip
lchange dlves en Roumanie lcole Colegiul Economic Anghel Rugin Vaslui. Pendant les
deux changes dlves se sont droules plusieurs activits: runions de travail, runions
officielles, participation aux classes, participations aux activits pratiques, visites de documentation
pour la ralisation des produits finaux du projet. Les quipes du projet, professeurs et lves, de la
Roumanie et dItalie ont contribu au droulement du projet, laccomplissement des objectifs et
la ralisation des produits finaux qui facilite le progrs scolaire des lves en assurant lgalit des
chances par linclusion dans le groupe cible du projet des lves appartenant lethnie rrome, des
lves provenant de milieux dfavoriss socio-conomiques et dorientations religieuses diffrentes.
Aussi, les produits finaux peuvent tre utiliss aussi pour soutenir les lves ayant des demandes
ducationnelles spciales pour raliser le progrs scolaire.
Les produits finaux quon a propos et quon a ralis dans les deux ans de projet sont: le
site du projet et une mappe pdagogique qui contient: le Dictionnaire de termes hteliers, la
Brochure touristique de la Province Salerno, le Guide du jeune rceptionniste, la Brochure
touristique du dpartement Vaslui. Ceux-ci peuvent tre intgrs avec succs dans le curriculum et
utiliss dans les activits curriculaires et extracurriculaires de lcole.
Le premier lment de la mappe pdagogique: le Dictionnaire de termes hteliers contient
des nombreux termes de ce domaine, ordonn alphabtiquement, pour chaque langue trangre. Le
69

Dictionnaire de termes hteliers est ralis en franais, roumain, italien, anglais. Ce matriel est trs
utile pour les classes de langues trangres, mais aussi pour les disciplines conomiques spcifiques
au profil tourisme, parce quil contient la majorit de termes de base du domaine htelier. Par
lutilisation de ce matriel dans la classe, les lves auront loccasion dacqurir un langage
spcifique au domaine htelier, dapprofondir les connaissances de langues trangres et ainsi
dtre prpars la fin des tudes pour sintgrer sur le march nationale et europenne du travail.
Un autre lment de la mappe pdagogique est la Brochure touristique de la Province
Salerno ralise en franais, roumain, italien et anglais. Celle-ci est structure en deux parties: la
Province Salerno et Cilento. On commence par une description gnrale de la province, puis on fait
la prsentation pour Salerno et Cilento et pour tous les objectifs touristiques importants. Dans cette
brochure ont t surpris les lments essentiels dhistoire, de culture et de civilisation qui reprsente
la Province Salerno, mais aussi des endroits qui peuvent reprsenter des attractions touristiques.
Cette brochure est utile aux classes de gographie quand il senseigne lItalie, aux classes de
langues trangres, aux disciplines conomiques spcifiques au domaine tourisme, et aussi, elle
peut tre utilise par les agences de tourisme locales.
Le guide du jeune rceptionniste est ralis en franais, roumain, italien et anglais et
structur en deux chapitres. Ce guide peut tre utilis aux classes de disciplines conomiques
spcifiques au domaine tourisme (aux modules Services hteliers et la Qualit des services hteliers
qui sont parcourus au profil tourisme dans la Xme classe), mais aussi aux classes de langues
trangres. Le premier chapitre est organis en plusieurs sous-chapitres qui sont ddis la
typologie des structures daccueil touristiques ayant des fonctions dhbergement et le deuxime
chapitre est organis en plusieurs sous-chapitres qui sont ddis, la fois, aux instruments de travail
contenant des fiches de travail et des activits pratiques.
Un autre lment de la mappe pdagogique est la Brochure touristique du dpartement
Vaslui qui est ralise en franais, roumain, italien et anglais et qui est structure en deux chapitres.
Le premier chapitre est ddi au cadre naturel et contient plusieurs sous-chapitres qui se rfre: la
situation gographique, aux conditions gologiques et aux ressources du sous-sol, au relief, au
climat, lhydrographie, aux rservations naturelles du dpartement Vaslui et au rseau
dhabitations humaines du dpartement Vaslui. Le deuxime chapitre est ddi au tourisme et
contient plusieurs sous-chapitres qui se rfrent aux caractres gnraux, au potentiel touristique
des municipes Vaslui, Barlad et Husi et de leurs aires entourant. Cette brochure contient des
informations essentielles sur notre dpartement et on peut lutiliser ainsi pour promouvoir en offrant
cette brochure aux agences de tourisme locales, mais on peut lutiliser ainsi aux classes de
gographie (surtout que la majorit des lves de notre lyce choisissent lpreuve crite du
baccalaurat cette discipline et la connaissance des informations de cette brochure peut les aider
beaucoup pour obtenir des bonnes notes) et aux classes de langues trangres.

EXERCICES D'EXPLOITATION DE LA BANDE DESSINE


POUR LES NIVEAUX A1-A2

Prof. Chenaru Cristina


coala Gimnazial P. H. Zangopol Buzu

Document exploit : BD Les Blagues de Toto


Objectifs :
Objectifs communicatifs :
- dcrire une bande dessine
- sidentifier un personnage de BD et immaginer ses rpliques
Objectifs linguistiques :
- lexique de la bande dessine
70

- les temps de lindicatif : le prsent, le futur, limparfait, le pass compos


Objectifs socioculturels :
- dcouvrir une BD et le type dhumour

Niveaux A1-A2
Materiel requis
-Fiches de travail
-Photocopies des planches de BD Les Blagues de Toto, ralises par Thierry Coppe, source :
http://francparler-oif.org et http://conseils-astuces.over-blog.com/article-les-blagues-de-toto-en-
b-d-65942056.html
-Connexion Internet

Mise en route
Dcouverte
Cette activit doit se drouler laide de lInternet. Cest un travail en groupe de quatre lves
qui doivent consulter le site suivant :
http://www.bedetheque.com/auteur-8300-BD-Coppee-Thierry.html
Rendez-vous sur le site mentionn. Essayez de trouver :
a. Qui est Toto ?
b. Qui est lauteur des blagues de Toto ?
c. Quelle est la nationnalit de lauteur ?
d. Cest un auteur jeune ou vieux ?
e. Dcrivez physiquement Toto.
Rponses estimes : a- personnage de la BD de Thierry Coppe, jeune auteur belge
Droulement
Travail en groupe. Exploitation de la BD
1. Le professeur donne aux apprenants la premire vignette, sans texte. Consignes :
- Quels sont les personnages de cette image ?
- Combien de personnages sont dans limage ?
- O se passe laction ?
- Imaginez un texte pour cette image.

2. Le professeur donne la deuxime partie de la BD. Les lves doivent relier les textes limage
par des flches.
Reliez le texte limage par des flches.

71

3. Le professeur montre la troisime case de la BD et il demande aux lves de simaginer la fin


de la BD.
Imaginez un texte pour la fin de la BD.

Aprs avoir ralis les trois consignes, le professeur montre aux lves la BD pour comparer les
textes crits par les lves ceux de la BD dorigine.
4. Le vocabulaire de la bande dessin
Reliez les termes leur dfinition et ensuite reliez-les au dessin :
Termes : Dfinition :
le croquis espace rserv aux paroles des personnages
la bulle suite de vignettes
la bande carr o se trouve un croquis
la vignette illustration
Rponses estimes :
le croquis = illustration; la bulle = espace rserv aux paroles des personnages ;
la bande = suite de vignettes ; la vignette = carr o se trouve un croquis.
Comprhension des crits
Observez la BD. Rpondez :
1.Vrai ou faux:
a. Cest le printemps.
b. Linstitutrice pose des questions aux lves.
c. Les lves vont apprendre les temps des verbes.
d. Igor dit que je lisais cest limparfait.
e. Toto a perdu son temps.
2. Observez ce quil y a crit au tableau noir de la BD. Continuez les phrases votre manire:
72

Japprends .................................................................................
Tu lisais .....................................................................................
Nous avons nag ......................................................................
Il mangera ................................................................................
3. Trouvez la proposition qui indique lhumour de la BD.
........................................................................................................................
4. Faites une courte description des personnages de la BD (aspect physique, vtements).
Production orale/crite
1. Organisez un concours dinterprtation. Jouez le rle des personnages de la BD. Lquipe qui va
interprter le mieux possible les rles sera gagnante.
Production orale/crite
1. Organisez un concours dinterprtation. Jouez le rle des personnages de la BD. Lquipe qui va
interprter le mieux possible les rles sera gagnante.
2. Imaginez dautres propositions quon peut crire au tableau noir la place de celles crites par
linstitutrice. Utilisez les mmes temps: prsent, imparfait, futur et pass compos.
3. Donnez un titre convenable la BD que vous avez exploite.

BIBLIOGRAPHIE:
Chenaru Cristina, Exploitation des documents authentiques dans la classe de FLE , lucrare de
gradul I, Galati, 2014 , pag 165, 166
Cadre europen commun de rfrance pour les langues, Conseil de l'Europe, les ditions Didier, Paris,
2001, p.55
73

UNE EXPRIENCE INOUBLIABLE


Calot P. Rodica
Colegiul National Tudor Vladimirescu, Tg-Jiu

Par le biais de cette confession, je veux partager lexprience de l lve Picioiu Maria
Mdlina, XII-e I, du Collge National Tudor Vladimirescu , Tg-Jiu, quelle a eue aux ateliers
mdia au sige de CREFECO, Sofia, pour avoir pris part llaboration des publications
scolaires : La plupart du temps, nous voulons tre seuls, avoir un moment o nous pouvons nous
concentrer seulement sur nous-mmes et pas du tout sur ceux qui nous entourent. Oui, je l'avoue, je
fais partie de cette catgorie. Je me rjouis de ces moments de solitude qui sont justement des
moi successifs. Bien que je sois une nature trs sociable, je cherche les moments de solitude o
je puisse me librer de la pression du monde contemporain. Probablement, vous vous demandez
pourquoi ai-je commenc cet essai comme je lai fait, et je voudrais vous rpondre: parce que, dans
cet essai, je vais vous prsenter une exprience personnelle qui ne m'a pas donn des moments de
solitude ...et par l je veux dire que jai eu, en fait, 0 moments de malheur. Mais au lieu de ces
moments, auxquels jai dsesprment aspir avant, je reois quelque chose de plus prcieux en
retour: des amis.
Toutes les journes ordinaires (la routine tait toujours la mme, l'cole, la maison, les
devoirs, apprendre, et ainsi de suite jusqu' ce que le lendemain recommence) ont pris soudain un
clat singulier, ds que jai appris une nouvelle qui ma ranime.
Mais la rvlation se produisit dans une morne journe habituelle : peine rentre chez moi,
je reus un appel de mon professeur de franais. J'ai eu peur, dabord, en pensant que je devais finir
les items pour lun des multiples concours auxquels madame la professeure nous inscrit, quand jai
ralis que je mtais trompe, car je venais de recevoir la meilleure nouvelle que je pourrais
recevoir pendant ces derniers mois: un mini-cours de journalisme en franais, droul Sofia et jai
t choisie pour participer avec 7 autres lves de mon pays. Honntement, la premire fois je
pensais qu'il tait juste une blague, je n'avais pas autant de chance. Mais alors jai reu la
confirmation de Mme Inspecteur de langues modernes, Marieta Pavel, et jai appris que ce n'tait
pas une blague du tout. Une semaine entire mon cerveau m'a transmis des impulses, en
rverbrant : '' Sofia '', '' Sofia '', '' Sofia '. Cette joie ntait pas seulement celle daller dans un
pays tranger, mais aussi celle davoir t choisie pour reprsenter mon pays aux cts de 7 autres
lves d'autres dpartements. Je ne pouvais pas exprimer en mots la fiert que je sentais, les
penses telles : tu vas reprsenter la Roumanie me rendaient heureuse jusquaux larmes. Le jour
du dpart, je savais dj mes nouveaux collgues, on stait dj dcouvert sur les rseaux de
socialisation, ce qui a rendu la situation moins embarrassante pour nous tous sans doute.
Nous sommes arrivs l'htel, nous avons inspect chaque chambre rserve et je tiens
mentionner que nous avions tous de trs agrables surprises en termes de logement. Ce soir l a t
consacre aux courtes visites aux alentours, pour nous familiariser avec cette contre, occasion
aussi dacheter quelques souvenirs pour les proches et pour avoir des tmoignages de cette
exprience inoubliable. Le lendemain, la crmonie d'ouverture de l'vnement se tient dans l'une
des coles secondaires Sofia. En traversant la cour, je regardais les fentres du btiment o les
lves taient rassembls nous regarder, curieux. Ils nous ont souri et nous ont fait des signes,
comme un souhait de bienvenue, donc nous avons fait la mme chose.
Aprs une crmonie impressionnante dans laquelle les hymnes des pays participants ont
magiquement sonn entre les murs du lyce, les lves du secondaire ont prsent ce qu'ils avaient
prpar en vue de la rencontre : chansons et jeux trs russis, mon avis, linterprtation tant la
hauteur de leurs efforts. Au tourbillon des vnements, nous avons rencontr l'ambassadeur de la
Roumanie Sofia, nous avions t mme invits l'ambassade, mais, malheureusement, nous
n'avons pas eu le temps ncessaire pour donner cours cette honneur). Une des plus mmorables
visites a t celle faite la cathdrale orthodoxe de Sofia, Alexander Nevsky, sur laquelle jai
appris beaucoup de choses : La cathdrale Alexandre Nevski est le plus grand temple orthodoxe en
Bulgarie et l'un des monuments incontournables du patrimoine bulgare. L'glise le nomme "temple-
74

mmorial" de type cathdral, les cathdrales n'tant pas coutumires dans la chrtient orthodoxe.
La seule autre glise cathdrale se trouve Varna. La cathdrale Nevski est celle du patriarche de
l'glise bulgare. La place qui l'entoure porte le mme nom.
Mais ce qui ma rendu fire dtre roumaine cest lapport du peuple roumain voisin la lutte pour
lautonomie du peuple bulgare, comme je lai appris des phrases lues dans une brochure, de mme
que sur une plaque : L'endroit le plus haut de Sofia (pour cette poque) fut choisi comme lieu de
construction ( 552 m d'altitude). Le cot final s'leva 5 millions et demi de lvas. Avec une
superficie de 3 170 m la date de sa construction, le temple devient la premire et la plus grande
cathdrale en activit sur la pninsule des Balkans. En 1924 elle est classe comme monument du
patrimoine, en 1953 elle devient sige du patriarche bulgare et en 1955 elle obtient un statut
national en tant que monument du patrimoine.
Les bombardements allis durant la Seconde guerre mondiale ont partiellement dtrior le temple,
notamment dans sa partie nord-ouest, sans pour autant de subir des destructions majeures.
Fait curieux - malgr que la Russie et ses allis (la Roumanie et la Finlande) repoussrent l'empire
ottoman des terres bulgares, la Bulgarie s'est retrouve face ces librateurs russes et roumains
durant la Premire guerre mondiale. Pour cette raison la cathdrale changea de nom au profit de
Saints Cyril et Mthode. Le nom originel d'Alexandre Nevski fut restitu en 1920.

Aprs cette petite pause dans laquelle nous avons visit la cathdrale Alexandre Nevsky ,
nous sommes retourns l'htel o nous tions logs, en vue de nous prparer pour les ateliers qui
nous devions participer: Atelier de rdaction et mise en page, par groupes. Un groupe de rdaction
et le deuxime damnagement de l'atelier.
Le lendemain, les ateliers ont eu lieu au sige de CREFECO, Sofia, et les groupes ont t
inverss, en faisant partie du groupe 2 studio ditorial, mais aussi du 1-er groupe, celui de la mise
en page. Je me dois de mentionner qu latelier de mise en page, mon groupe a fait une
merveilleuse impression. Notre mission tait de choisir un des droits de l'homme qui constituerait
ensuite le sujet d un petit article, accompagn des images reprsentatives.

75

Nous avons choisi le droit la vie. Dans cette modeste image, on peut dceler ce que nous avons
fait:

76

Sur la dernire page, nous avons dcide de nommer quelques-uns des 'appels l'aide' des
gens de partout dans le monde qui ont besoin d'un coup de main, un espoir que le monde deviendra
un meilleur endroit et que leur monde ne sera pas rgie par les deux t, la tuerie et la terreur. Nos
ides novatrices ont attir l'attention de l'enseignant qui a apprci notre travail, en considrant que
''ctait une excellente ide'' que nous avons choisie dvelopper. Que puis-je dire ... O lon est
nombreux le pouvoir de la pense grandit! Ensemble, nous avons russi crer quelque chose de
nouveau et de diffrent de ce que nos collgues d'autres pays avaient prsent devant nous. Le
dernier groupe, notre groupe, a eu le plus d'impact sur l'activit qui nous a t propose par les
organisateurs du stage.
Aprs une longue journe qui peut tre riche en expriences, mais fatigante aussi, enfin,
nous sommes retourns l'htel o nous nous prparions dj le dpart de lendemain.
Le retour la maison a t parsem de chants, de rires et de joie, mais aussi de la fatigue et
de la terrible pense que, quelques heures plus tard, nous devons nous sparer, pour aller chacun
chez soi. Cependant, ce sentiment inconfortable parfois, n'a pas t ressenti au plus haut niveau, car
on a su le transformer dun sentiment navrant en un autre, plus marrant.
Avant de nous dire au revoir, la premire raction a t de nous serrer les mains et de se
promettre, comme dans une confrrie, quon ne se quitterait jamais, mais bien sr, je savais que
cela tait impossible, donc je ne l'ai pas fait. Au lieu de cela, je vous offre les larmes les plus
sincres, les larmes qui coulaient de mes yeux, en dpit de ma volont. En les regardant pour la
dernire fois, dans cette aventure intellectuelle, car je lai perue comme une interview dembauche
ou comme une profession, je me suis aperue quels liens solides peuvent se former dans seulement
quelques jours, parfois plus puissants que ceux forms dans quelques annes. Jai compris que ces
gens avec lesquels j'avais pass quelques jours seulement, sont venus pour tre une partie de moi,
ils taient venus tre si prs les uns des autres, de sorte que nous avons pass chaque instant de la
journe ensemble, bien sr, quand je n'avais pas les activits qui exigeaient de nous sparer. Je sais
que beaucoup d'entre vous peuvent croire que j'exagre, mais il nest pas tout fait comme vous le
pensez : le besoin de socialiser des jeunes est tellement grande, quils sont mme de lui sacrifier la
famille, cest pourquoi les jeunes font parfois des fuites de chez eux, en risquant des pripties,
mme de gcher leur vie. Je me souviens de chaque instant pass ensemble, chaque rire a eu des
sonorits part, et chaque obstacle rencontr en bref passage par Sofia ma fortifie, de sorte que,
maintenant, je me rends compte que ce qui a d'abord sembl juste un voyage daffaires '' sest
transform en une exprience inoubliable, en un petit trsor de moments inoubliables, cause de
nos nouvelles connaissances, de cette inespre opportunit qui nous a apport des amis pour toute
la vie.

TECHNIQUES DE COMMUNICATION ORALE


SUGGSTIONS DAPPLICATIONS DIDACTIQUES

Prof. Georgiana Romanov,


coala Gimnazial Nr. 8, Constana

Lintercomprhension est un concept associ au plurilinguisme et, de plus en plus,


lenseignement des langues, en tant que possibilit denvisager cet enseignement dans la nouvelle
perspective de lgalit des langues et des cultures dans le monde actuel et futur.
Lintercomprhension, dfinie par les dictionnaires gnraux comme facult de comprehension
rciproque entre locuteurs, entre groupes humains (Petit Robert, 2007), acquiert de nos jours un
sens technique, en tant que moyen spcifique de communication: technique de communication qui
consiste parler dans sa langue maternelle avec un locuteur dune autre langue. Ce dernier, sans
pouvoir rpondre dans la langue de lautre, la comprend et rpond dans sa langue(Wikipdia).
Dans lintercomprhension, on envisage diffrents idiomes dans leur globalit. Ainsi, les familles
77

de langues europennes apparentes, telles les langues romanes, germaniques, scandinaves, slaves,
grce leurs racines respectives proches, peuvent permettre la communication de nombreux
locuteurs dans des langues trs diverses, telles le franais, litalien, le portugais, le roumain ou
lallemand, le flamand, langlais.
Le travail que nous sommes en train de commencer a comme but lanalyse didactique de
trois mthodes dintercomprhension en langues romanes. Nous allons partir des principes
mthodologiques qui ont anim la mise en oeuvre des mthodes Eurom 4, Galanet et Itinraires
Romaines et nous allons concevoir des mthodes dapplications didactiques qui puissent inciter vers
ltude des langues romanes des lves de 9 17 ans. Nous allons prendre comme langues support
le roumain, le franais et lespagnol, et nous allons essayer de proposer des exercices varis.
Nous allons donc commencer avec quelques suggstions dexercices qui prennent comme
support la mthode Eurom 4. Nous gardons le texte journalistique comme la base de nos
applications. Nous voulons mentionner le fait que lanalyse des textes journalistiques ne doit pas
tre rduite au contenu informationnel proprement-dit. Nous pouvons travailler seulement avec les
titres ou avec les images.Les dates des articles offrent aussi un support considrable. Pour une
rvision de lexpression de la date, nous pouvons utiliser journaux des trois pays qui constituent
lobjet de notre tude et qui auront la mme date de parution. Les lves observeront la prsence de
larticle ,,le en franais et ,,el en espagnol avant lexpression du jour et du mois de lanne,
lment qui ne se retrouve pas en roumain. En plus, lespagnol utilise aussi la prposition ,,de(,,el
6 de junio). Nous pouvons aussi employer cette mthode pour ltude comparative des mois de
lanne et pour une rvision du numral. La rvision du numral peut tre approfondie toujours par
le texte journalistique, et plus prcisement en nous servant de la statistique. Nous pouvons chercher
des thmes communs, comme les victimes des guerres, les disparitions des espces de plantes et des
animaux, les femmes qui travaillent dans le monde, et nous allons nous servir des pourcentages y
exposs pour sinformer et pour rpter. Les titres des publications journalistiques offrent un
support culturel, en introduisant les lves dans le monde de la presse de chaque pays impliqu dans
cette tude. Les titres des articles offrent des pistes danalyse du contenu informative. Nous allons
aussi nous centrer sur des sujets communs, universellement traits pour observer la manire de les
traiter. Les titres peuvent avoir une formulation polysmique, qui a le but dinciter le lecteur. Nous
pouvons donc essayer une traduction des titres en nous servant des zones transparentes observes ou
nous pouvons demander aux lves davancer des suppositions sur le contenu informatif. La grande
diversit des articles de journal offre aussi dautres alternatives. Nous pouvons continuer la srie
des thmes communs avec des articles de gastronomie (en cherchant dans les trois langues des
recettes plus simple dabord, des produits connus pour se familiariser avec les ingrdients, pour
continuer avec des recettes plus compliques, pour observer les diffrences gastronomiques entre
les pays), ou nous pouvons rdiger dautres types dexercices: 1.des exercices trous-on dcoupe
un article et, aprs une prmiere lecture, on demande aux apprenants de reconstituer le contenu.
2.des exercices de reprage-on demande didentifier de divers champs lexicaux, en fonction de la
thme choisie, 3.divers exercices de grammaire-nous pouvons identifier et transformer les temps
verbaux, dcouper des phrases illustratives dun problme de grammaire et demander de la
complter. Avec les apprenants dun niveau suprior, nous pouvons essayer la traduction en nous
servant de lidentification des zones transparentes et de la technique du mot x.
Notre itinraire dapprentissage continue avec le projet scolaire qui a comme support la
mthode ,,Galanet. Nous allons garder les trois langues support et nous allons emprunter de ce
projet les phases qui concernent la collecte des documents et la rdaction dun dossier de presse. Le
travail pralable sur des articles de journal peut inciter vers la ralisation de ce type de projet
scolaire dans trois langues. Lenseignant doit prsenter le projet, il doit expliquer clairement aux
apprenants quils vont travailler par groupes, quils raliseront un dossier en trois langues sur un
thme dont le choix peut tre une option. Nous pouvons leur prsenter des suggstions comme ,,La
qualit de lenvironnement dans notre sicle: ralits et prdiction, ,,Les nergies renouvelables
entre le projet et lurgence, ,,La gastronomie quotidienne et le soin pour la sant. Vu quil sagit
dun travail qui suppose une collecte importante de matriel et qui demande aussi une contribution
78

personnelle, nous considrons que cest un devoir pour les classes terminales. Le projet travaille sur
lexpression crite conue comme laboration dun article de presse et organisation dun dossier
thmatique et lexpression orale qui vise la prsentation des conclusions du projet, la matrise dun
dbat.
Pour les plus petits de nos apprenants , nous allons concevoir des applications bases sur la
mthode ,,Itinraires Romans, pour les enfants de 9 13 ans. Le matriel didactique sera le conte,
lhistoire. Nous pouvons choisir de travailler sur le texte entier ou seulement sur un fragment. Nous
conscientisons le fait que les petits ne pourrons pas comprendre toute lhistoire et alors une
prsentation en langue maternelle devient importante. Le simple exercice de lecture et de
comparaison entre deux langues est un pas important. Nous soulignons limportance des
illustrations dans lhistoire, qui aideront maintenir leur attention sur lhistoire prsente et mme
rsoudre des exercices. De mme, nous pouvons nous servir dun conte pour les habituer aux
chambres de la maison. Une illustration plus grande avec le plan de la maison dcrite dans lhistoire
et des personages qui lhabitent aidera les enfants reconnatre les pices et les meubles. Nous ne
devons pas oublier limportance des questions et des rponses simples mais importantes qui peuvent
tre apprises dune manire amusante avec les histories(par exemple, les protagonists ont des
nationalits diverses). Les dialogues sont des passages qui attirent plus lattention. Nous pouvons
concevoir des exercices dassociation: en deux collones, nous groupons des rpliques des dialogues
et nous demandons didentifier lnonciateur. Avec les lves de 12-13 ans, nous pouvons essayer
des exercices de grammaire, surtout avec des verbes des premiers deux groupes(transposer un
passage du prsent au pass compos,accorder les adjectives).
La BD est un document authentique des plus vivants et des plus motivants qui offre
diffrents atouts. Les bandes dessines, en tant que documents authentiques, permettent aux
enseignants de FLE deffectuer un travail bnfique et positif pour les apprenants; ils permettent
dallier apprentissage et crativit. Leur aspect ludique et leur richesse favorisent une manire de
travailler diffrente, en classe et avec les apprenants. De plus, la langue de la BD est une langue de
tous les jours, qui de par son style conversationnel (avec des registres de langue diffrents), permet
de travailler sur des situations varies.
Il s'agit de comprendre la BD globalement partir de l'image, du dessin, de rflchir sur les
procds graphiques, de dvelopper l'expression orale. En d'autres termes, l'enseignant incite ses
apprenants introduire le document. L'enseignant vise alors un entrainement en comprhension
orale et crite pour arriver l'expression orale (dclencheur d'expression): raconter l'histoire selon
diffrents points de vue, trouver un titre, imaginer ce qui s'est pass avant, ce qui se passera aprs.
Outre, l'enseignant demande aux apprenants d'imaginer le contenu des bulles, de trouver les mots
qui manquent. L'enseignant passe enfin l'expression orale pure, en dveloppant la crativit des
apprenants. Par exemple, il est possible de jouer les scnes originales de la BD, ou celles inventes
par les apprenants. La BD permet un travail en rseau sur les personnages, les genres et les auteurs
et leurs diffrentes uvres. Elle permet pour tous les apprenants une entre plus facile dans la
lecture autonome et elle devient par la lecture plaisir. S'ils ne sont pas habitus lire des romans ou
des autres formes de littrature, gnralement les apprenants connaissent et pratiquent dj d'eux-
mmes la lecture de bandes dessines. Pour les apprenants en difficults face la lecture, cela reste
un moyen plus facile de pratiquer la lecture autonome. Tout comme le thatre, la BD est un outil
privilgi pour l'tude du dialogue dont elle use presque exclusivement. Par sa technique du cadrage
et la mise en scne des personnages, elle s'apparente du " thtre en image ". La BD peut tre le
point de dpart de projets d'criture; par exemple au niveau de l'criture de dialogues, l'exercice
consiste pour l'apprenant crire les paroles des personnages en tenant compte de l'information
visuelle (attitudes, dcors, personnages,etc). La BD participe l'introduction de l'image sous
toutes ses formes au sein de la classe ( voil un exemple concludent d'une BD realise par mon
lve Nenciu Andrei)

79

BIBLIOGRAPHIE

Cadre europen commun de rfrence pour les langues, Division des Politiques Linguistiques
Strabourg, Conseil de lEurope/Les Editions Didier, Paris,2001
ACTES du Colloque EPAL, Echanger pour apprendre en ligne:outils, tches, interactions,
multimodalit, corpus, Universit de Grenoble 3, 7-9 juin, 2007
Adam, Jean-Pierre, Lintercomprhension, lapport de linformatique, in Lintercomprhension:le
cas des langues romanes. Le franais dans le monde, janvier 1997, Paris, pp.140-152
Blanche-Benveniste, Claire et al., Eurom4. Mthode denseignement simultan de quatre langues
romanes, La Nuova Italia Editrice, Florence, 1997.

LA PLACE DU VOCABULAIRE EN CLASSE DE FLE

Ciolacu Lola-Gabriela
Lyce thorique Mihail Koglniceanu, Vaslui

Comme le remarquent bien des didacticiens, notamment J.-P. Cuq et I. Gruca13, on assiste
aujourd`hui un renouveau croissant de l`intrt accord l`enseignement du vocabulaire et la
place de l`entre lexicale en classe de langue. L`un des problmes actuels dans l`enseignement des
langues trangres est celui du choix des priorits lexicales. Selon quels critres serait-il mieux

13
Cuq, J.-P., Gruca, I., Cours de didactique du franais langue trangre et seconde, Paris, PUG-FLE, 2005, pp. 365-
369.
80

d`oprer la slection des mots enseigner ? Quels sont les facteurs dterminants qui rgissent le
choix du contenu lexical ?
Frquence, importance, utilit et application dans la ralit immdiate, voil quelques
critres essentiels qui rgissent actuellement l`enseignement du vocabulaire. Chronologiquement,
comme mthode de FLE, nous sommes prsent dans la logique de la perspective actionnelle et des
orientations politiques, culturelles et linguistiques prvues par le CECR. Avec la mise en place
d`chelles et de Niveaux communs de rfrence accompagns de descripteurs, le CECR a le mrite
de rpondre aussi au souci de la progression des contenus linguistiques, non seulement celui de la
slection ou de l`valuation. Voil quelques prcisions du Cadre relatives au choix, l`tendue et
la slection du vocabulaire :
Chapitre 6.4.7.2 : La quantit, l`tendue et la matrise du vocabulaire sont des paramtres
essentiels de l`acquisition de la langue et, en consquence, de l`valuation de la comptence
langagire de l`apprenant et de la planification de l`enseignement et de l`apprentissage de la
langue. 14
6.4.7.3 Le choix du vocabulaire
Les utilisateurs du Cadre de rfrence envisageront et expliciteront selon le cas les principes qui
ont prsid la slection lexicale.
Parmi les lignes directrices dans le choix du vocabulaire, les auteurs du Cadre
recommandent aussi de choisir des mots et des expressions cls a. dans les domaines
thmatiques exigs pour raliser les tches communicatives correspondant aux besoins des
apprenants et de suivre les principes de statistiques lexicales en slectionnant les mots grande
frquence dans un large corpus ou dans des domaines thmatiques rduits.15
Ces citations servent aussi justifier une fois de plus l`intrt particulier que nous accordons cette
forme de regroupement du vocabulaire des fins pdagogiques, c`est--dire au vocabulaire
thmatique.
Dans l`ouvrage Faire classe en FLE. Une approche actionnelle et pragmatique, les auteurs
plaident pour le choix d`un focus16 dans l`laboration du tableau des contenus enseigner lors
du cours de langue, direction suivre en gale mesure au niveau de toutes les composantes
linguistiques, peut-tre notamment au niveau du vocabulaire.
Dans leur Cours de didactique du franais langue trangre et seconde17, Jean-Pierre Cuq et
Isabelle Gruca prsentent plusieurs opinions concernant le ct quantitatif du vocabulaire
connatre en FLE, notamment sa frquence et sa valeur communicative : Robert Galisson estime le
vocabulaire connatre environ 45000 termes, tandis que pour Jacques Prouvost ce mme
vocabulaire ne comprendrait qu`environ 3000 mots car la rpartition par la frquence () ne
constitue pas un critre de progression18.
Grosso modo, les critres de slection dj classiques, les critres passe-partout qui
fonctionnent tous les paliers de l`enseignement d`une langue restent toujours les besoins, les
attentes et les centres d`intrt des apprenants. Nous considrons qu` cela viennent s`ajouter des
facteurs qui particularisent encore davantage le contenu enseigner :
- le niveau des apprenants : Pour oprer une slection pertinente et efficace du matriau lexical,
l`enseignant doit prendre en compte le niveau rel des apprenants et se plier au dcalage important
entre le niveau dbutant/lmentaire et le niveau avanc. Pour le niveau lmentaire, disons A1,
l`enseignant privilgiera les mots essentiellement concrets et lis la vie quotidienne des

14
Conseil de l`Europe, Cadre europen commun de rfrence pour les langues. Apprendre, enseigner, valuer, Paris,
Didier, 2001, p. 115.
15
Ibid.
16
ROBERT, J.-P., ROSEN, E., REINHARDT, C, Faire classe en FLE. Une approche actionnelle et pragmatique, Paris,
Hachette, 2011 , p. 75.
17
Cuq, J.-P., Gruca, I., op. cit., p. 365.
18
Prouvost J., La dimension lexicale de la langue : didactique et dynamiques , Modernit et diversit, Dialogue et
cultures, no 46, 2001, pp. 344-349, cit par Cuq et Gruca, op. cit., p. 365.
81

apprenants. ce propos, il est noter l`importance vrifie des indispensables leons zro19 qui
servent justement mettre en place un vocabulaire minimal (les mots-outils) indispensable tout
point de dpart de la comptence lexicale. Les mots slectionns seront toujours prsents en
contexte, dans des noncs simples et l`accs au sens se trouvera souvent facilit par l`association
avec un support visuel ou par le recours leur quivalent en L1 ou leurs relations smantiques
(synonymes, antonymes).
- la distinction vocabulaire passif/vocabulaire actif. De toute vidence, c`est la comprhension qui
prcde l`expression. C`est pourquoi dans la perspective de l`enseignement du vocabulaire il faut
distinguer les termes que les apprenants reconnaissent et comprennent sans toutefois les employer
spontanment dans leurs productions des termes que les apprenants connaissent et emploient
spontanment dans leur discours.
- le nombre des mots nouveaux par leon : Il n`y a pas un nombre prcis ou idal des mots
prsenter pendant un cours mais l`opinion commune des didacticiens est qu`il ne faut pas
dpasser 12 nouveaux mots pendant un cours de 50 minutes. Ce nombre-ci est encore bien variable
car il diminue chez les apprenants dbutants ou lorsque ces mots sont des notions abstraites peu
communes ou des termes spcialiss.
- les contraintes du manuel scolaire : la slection du vocabulaire est galement influence par
l`offre lexicale du manuel utilis en classe. Si le vocabulaire se rapportant aux domaines
thmatiques des programmes officiels ne s`y trouve pas en intgralit, alors c`est l`enseignant en
tant que concepteur d`ajouter les mots/les expressions/les structures qu`il juge importants, voire
indispensables au dveloppement de la comptence lexicale et smantique des apprenants.
- le choix de la forme de prsentation des mots nouveaux : Le mot d`ordre est le CONTEXTE,
nuanc et renforc par l`importance des regroupements organiss, des associations, de
l`environnement, de l`entourage lexical et des rseaux d`association. Les didacticiens s`accordent
constater qu` l`heure actuelle les deux grandes approches de prsentation du lexique sont
l`approche par champ thmatique et l`approche par champ notionnel.
Le prsent article nous a fourni donc l`occasion et le cadre de prsenter quelques rflexions
sur la prsence du vocabulaire en classe de FLE, quelques suggestions de parcours didactique qui
sont censes dpasser les limites souvent contraignantes du manuel, en nuanant ainsi la leon de
vocabulaire et en lui accordant la place qu`elle mrite et qui devrait lui revenir de droit.
Les pistes de travail que l`on propose aux apprenants doivent tre sous-tendues par un
objectif central : intgrer le vocabulaire aux activits de comprhension et d`expression car, comme
le prcisent si bien Cristelle Cavalla, Francis Grossmann et Franoise Boch, apprendre des mots ne
garantit nullement le fait qu`on les utilise.20 En effet, connatre des mots ne garantit pas leur
utilisation, leur emploi ultrieur. Entrer en contact avec les mots nouveaux n`implique pas
ncessairement les rinvestir aprs. Savoir identifier des termes et des structures thmatiques ne
veut pas dire pouvoir les mobiliser et les remployer dans des contextes authentiques. L`acquisition
ne garantit ni l`utilisation libre ni l`expression personnelle spontane ; certes, elle en est une
condition prliminaire, elle fonctionne comme un pralable. Les lves peuvent connatre beaucoup
de termes relatifs un certain thme sans pour autant tre mme de les mobiliser efficacement au
cours de leur production. C`est plutt dans cette optique que nous devrions essayer d`organiser nos
activits. Et cette optique va un peu dans la direction de ce que Francis Grossmann et Franoise
Boch appellent l`attention au lexique, (ils en parlent en se rapportant aux diffrentes phases de
l`criture des textes), attirer l`attention des lves sur la palette des moyens linguistiques dont ils
disposent, pour les aider ensuite manipuler les units lexicales au cours de la rdaction. 21

19
Courtillon, J., laborer un cours de FLE, Paris, Hachette, 2003, p. 57.
20
Grossmann, F., Cavalla, C., Boch, F., Quand l`criture n`empche pas les sentimentsQuelques propositions pour
intgrer le lexique des sentiments dans la production de textes , in Actes du colloque Lexique et production verbale :
vers une meilleure intgration des apprentissages lexicaux, Lyon, Institut National de Recherche Pdagogique, mars
2005, p. 4, consult en ligne : https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00397685/document
21
Grossmann, F., Boch, F., Production de textes et apprentissage lexical : l`exemple du lexique de l`motion et des
sentiments , Repres, n 28, 2003, pp. 117-135.
82

Un itinraire pdagogique efficace devrait s`appuyer sur une conduite de classe raisonne et
souple et il revtira parfois la forme d`une vritable arborescence car partir d`un certain mot-cl
se rapportant au thme vis et part les activits standard de vocabulaire, on peut exploiter la fois
les relations intrinsques22 (d`ordre morphologique et smantique, drivation, recherches de
synonymes, d`antonymes, d`homonymes) et les relations extrinsques23 (les cooccurrences et les
connaissances culturelles) du mot en question. Notre approche ressemblera donc une approche
mosaque, comme nous nous sommes permis de l`appeler.
Notre hypothse de travail pourrait donc se rsumer ainsi : partir du groupement
thmatique comme facteur rgissant l`exploitation du vocabulaire et avec le souci primordial de la
mise en contexte permanente des units lexicales enseigner, il est bien possible de travailler la
leon de vocabulaire d`une manire plus souple et plus riche afin de lui redonner sa place
convenable dans les pratiques de classe.

BIBLIOGRAPHIE
Conseil de l`Europe, Cadre europen commun de rfrence pour les langues. Apprendre, enseigner,
valuer, Paris, Didier, 2001
COURTILLON, J., laborer un cours de FLE, Paris, Hachette, 2003
CUQ, J.-P., GRUCA, I., Cours de didactique du franais langue trangre et seconde, Paris, PUG-
FLE, 2005
GROSSMANN, F., BOCH, F., Production de textes et apprentissage lexical : l`exemple du
lexique de l`motion et des sentiments , Repres, n 28, 2003
ROBERT, J.-P., ROSEN, E., REINHARDT, C, Faire classe en FLE. Une approche actionnelle et
pragmatique, Paris, Hachette, 2011

SITOGRAPHIE
https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00397685/document

LA BD ET LES MOYENS AUDIOVISUELS DANS LA CLASSE DE FLE

Prof. Grigora Ramona


Liceul Teoretic tefan cel Mare Rmnicu Srat

On dit souvent quon pourrait mieux assimiler et apprendre ce quon entend et ce quon voit
parce que la mmoire visuelle et celle auditive jouent un rle important dans le processus
dapprentissage. part tout cela, le dveloppement de la technologie influence, de manire
favorable sans doute, tout le processus denseignement-apprentissage-valuation. De nos jours, dans
un continu progrs technologique, les matriels audiovisuels et lInternet peuvent trs bien faciliter
lapprentissage dune langue trangre et apportent un souffle nouveau, moderne, en classe de FLE.
Les enseignants doivent se tenir toujours au courant avec les changements sur plan social, culturel,
et surtout technique. Pour que la classe de FLE devienne plus attrayante, il faut toujours apporter
quelque chose de nouveau, il faut toujours utiliser des moyens denseignement modernes et des
instruments modernes, en trend , comme : lordinateur, le vidoprojecteur, le lecteur CD.
On met de plus en plus laccent sur laspect actionnel et communicatif de lapprentissage
dune langue et lon a dmontr que laudiovisuel est le meilleur moyen utilis en classe de FLE.
Les nouvelles technologies aident, dune part, lenseignant, dans le processus denseignement-
apprentissage-valuation et, de lautre part, lenseign.
Il ne faut pas oublier le fait que les jeunes sont attirs par la technologie et lInternet ; on a
observ mme leur addiction la technologie et, cest pour ces raisons que jai dcid de faire

22
Cuq, J.-P., Gruca, I., op. cit., p. 369.
23
Ibid.
83

une recherche approfondie sur les matriels audiovisuels et leur rle et influence sur le processus
denseignement dune langue trangre, dans ce cas, le franais.
Le thme choisi comme dbat est dautant plus actuel, grce son apport de crativit et
grce la possibilit dinteraction des lves. Laccent est mis, donc, sur la manire
dapprhension, sur linteraction et sur la partie actionnelle de la comprhension orale. Ainsi, par
lintermdiaire des projections sonores et des projections vido, telles que les missions radio, les
chansons, les films franais, les bandes dessines ou les mdias, on espre sensibiliser les lves
la langue franaise et la rendre plus agrable et plus captivante, pour tre mieux assimile.
Comme on le sait dj, les bandes dessines sont des moyens ludiques et pleins dhumour et
dimages, ce que stimule sans quivoque lattention des lves. On joue en mme temps avec
limage et le texte, sensibilisant le rcepteur et enrichissant la comprhension et lapprhension. Par
le biais des BD on stimule lintrt des lves envers les connaissances prsentes, on va capter leur
attention grce la prsentation audiovisuelle des informations, tout en liminant les risques de la
distraction et dinattention des lves, cause de la routine et de lennui. La dmarche ducative est
base sur les mthodes communicatives, la stimulation de limagination et elle a aussi comme
fondement les actes de langage. Par exemple, on napprend plus limpratif seulement pour le
plaisir de lapprendre, mais pour aider les lves donner des ordres. Cette dmarche met
laccent, avant toutes choses, sur lutilisation des documents authentiques, comme les BD, pour
pouvoir aider llve a communiquer plus rapidement et plus naturel en franais.
En ce qui concerne lutilisation des moyens audiovisuels modernes divers, on a observ
quelle est bien reue par les lves, dune part, grce au fait que lapprentissage est fait dans le
milieu le plus propice et le plus opportun, cest--dire, le monde rel, les situations socioculturelles
concrtes, la vie quotidienne.
Une autre raison pour laquelle laudiovisuel est bienvenu dans le processus de
lenseignement-apprentissage-valuation est celle de la partie communicative de la langue franaise
et la prparation des lves pour les situations relles communicatives et actionnelles auxquelles ils
participeront.
Donc, il faut nous concentrer lattention et lactivit sur lacte communicationnel, sur la
comprhension orale et sur la production orale, parce quil est bien connu que, de nos jours, on
passe plus de temps en parlant et en coutant, quen crivant et en lisant.
Les enseignants doivent perfectionner continuellement leur style denseignement et ils
doivent toujours se rinventer, afin damliorer leurs mthodes. Et, ils ont toujours la tche
dveiller lattention et la crativit des apprenants.

Bibliographie :
- Desmons, Fabienne, Ferchaud, Franoise, Dominique Godin, Catherine Guerrieri, Christine
Guyot-Clment, Sabine Jourdan, Marie-Chantal Kempf, Fdora Lancien, Rachel
Razakamanana, Enseigner le FLE. Pratiques de classe, Editions Belin, Paris, 2005
- Girard, D., Enseigner les langues : mthodes et pratiques, Bordas, Paris, 1995
- Tagliante, C., La classe de langue, CLE International, Paris, 1994
- Weiss, Franois, Jouer, communiquer, apprendre (pratiques de classe), Hachette, Paris,
2002
Sitographie :
http://www.tv5monde.com/TV5Site/enseigner-apprendre-francais
http://bd-fle.wikispaces.com/

LA BANDE DESSINE EN CLASSE DE FLE

Prof. Ticea Sorina-Mariana


Liceul Teoretic Radu Vldescu, Ptrlagele, Buzu

84

La seule chose que je regrette dans ma vie, cest de ne pas avoir fait de bande dessine .
(Picasso)
1. Rsum
Lobjectif gnral de toute classe de langue est de procurer aux apprenants des instruments
adquats pour arriver la matrise de la comptence communicative et pour continuer en autonomie
le processus dapprentissage. Bien que lexploitation des documents authentiques dans les manuels
de FLE ne soit pas une nouveaut, lemploi de ces documents semble ne pas tre suffisamment
rpandu dans lenseignement du FLE. En ce sens, la bande dessine, qui fait lobjet de ce travail,
peut tre un support privilgi en classe pour motiver les apprennants, pour les initier ou les
habituer la manipulation dun document authentique ou fabriqu, pour amliorer la comptence
communicative, lautonomie et pour crer une attitude favorable en ce qui concerne la langue, la
culture et la civilisation franaises.
Lobjectif principal de ce travail est de dmontrer que lutilisation de la BD en cours de FLE
motive et facilite lacquisition de la comptence communicative.
2. Motivation et intrt du sujet
La rflexion sur lapplication didactique de la BD en cours de FLE a commenc loccasion
dune Matrise lUniversit Complutense de Madrid lors dun cours, par le choix dun produit
culturel franais contemporain et son exploitation pour dvelopper les comptences cls chez les
apprenants. On a choisi la BD, tout dabord parce que dans le monde francophone il sagit dun
produit culturel extrmement populaire et rpandu, notamment chez les adolescents. En outre,
lapprofondissement du sujet a rvl que la BD tait considre comme un support trs motivant,
pouvant tre introduit tous les niveaux de lenseignement. Ce choix a conduit finalement la
ralisation dun Travail Fin Master ayant pour thme lexploitation de la BD en classe de FLE et ses
atouts par rapport aux autres documents authentiques comme le cinma, la littrature ou la chanson,
considrs plus faciles et plus enrichissantes pour travailler la comptence interculturelle et les
competences langagires.
De nombreux enfants lisent facilement ce genre plus proche leur manire dtre et denvisager
le monde, ce dont nous devrions tirer profit pour leur proposer des situations dapprentissage. En
outre, la BD est un document authentique livr une consommation sociale et non la
consommation scolaire et possde latout doffrir un franais vritable et une image authentique et
riche du monde francophone.
3. Objectifs et mise en pratique
En partant de laffirmation de Quella-Guyot selon laquelle la BD est un moyen dexpression
qui a ses rgles propres, ses uvres, son histoire et qui permet au mme titre que le roman ou le
cinma daborder les genres de rcit qui ont pour noms : aventure, policier, humour, science-
fiction, autobiographie, etc. [] La BD nest pas de la littrature, la BD nest pas de lillustration,
la BD nest pas du cinma, la BD nest pas du thtre, et cest tout naturel puisque cest de la
bande dessine et que la BD est Autre on a tablit les suivants objectifs spcifiques lors de
lexploitation de la BD en cours de langue:
- dvelopper lindpendance et linitiative face des documents authentiques, en variant les
supports par lintroduction de la BD ;
- comprendre la BD sans passer par la comprhension de tous les mots, en sappuyant sur les
images pour arriver une comprhension globale ;
- dvelopper des stratgies locales (lidentification du sens des mots, des structures grammaticales)
et des stratgies globales (identification des schmas discursifs, tches qui promeuvent les diffrents
styles de lecture : balayer le texte, y chercher de linformation, lecture pour une comprhension
complte) ;
- crer une mulation, une curiosit et une motivation pour la langue, la culture et la civilisation
franaises ;
- dterminer les lves continuer la dcouverte de la langue franaise en autonomie en profitant de
la richesse et de la gnrosit dun support authentique accessible du point de vue linguistique et
adapt leur ge.
85

Par ailleurs, avant dexemplifier avec lexploitation dune BD, on doit souligner quelle se
prte de nombreuses possibilits dusage grce ses composantes: images, langue, contenu
culturel et aspect ludique. Pour ce qui est de lexploitation de limage, on peut choisir une approche
dnotative ou connotative; on peut travailler lexpression orale en faisant un inventaire de ce quon
voit: le dcor, les personages, lutilisation des techniques cinmatographiques ou on peut travailler
les actes de langages.
Pour ce qui est de la langue des BD, sil sagit dun exemple authentique, on a affaire un
langage parl, spontan qui permet dintroduire de diffrent types de discours du plus familier au
plus soutenu. Par exemple, les albums de Popeye, le marin, personage qui ignore la syntaxe et la
grammaire pourraient donner loccasion de faire un exercice de rcriture. En plus,si lon pense
Astrix et Obelix, fameuse BD qui a conquis aussi le Septime Art on ne doit pas ngliger la
composante culturelle.
Laspect ludique peut tre exploit par des jeux linguistiques (grammaticaux,
morphosyntaxiques, lexicaux, orthographiques, par des jeux de crativit (calligrammes, imaginer
le dbut, continuer lhistoire, jeux culturels (quiz culturels), par des jeux drivs du thtre qui
supposent la transformation de la sale de classe en thtre et des apprennants en acteurs en utilisant
les jeux de rle, les jeux de simulation, etc.
Voil continuation une exploitation faite partir de quelques cases de BD pour les lves
de dix-onze ans:
Activits niveau A1: Faire les courses:

Avant la lecture/lobservation de la BD :
1. (Remue-mninge) Les lves ont reu les cases de la BD dcoupes et en dsordre.
a. Quest-ce que cest ? Quel type de document vous avez reu ? Des photos, une BD ?
b. Essayez de rtablir lordre des cases pour obtenir la BD et compltez la table suivante :
Quels personnages reconnaissez-vous dans O sont-ils ? De quoi ils parlent ?
les cases ?

c. Proposez un titre !
Pendant la lecture/observation de la BD : (Vrification des hypothses)
1. Rpondez aux questions suivantes :
VRAI FAUX
Lenfant joue dans la rue.
Son pre lenvoie faire des achats la pharmacie.
Lenfant fait les courses dabord la poste, ensuite la crmerie et enfin
la ptisserie.
Sa mre va lui prparer une tarte aux pommes.
2. Rpondez aux questions suivantes :
a. O va faire le petit enfant les courses?

86

b. Quest-ce quil achte ?


c. Connaissez-vous dautres magasins ? Quest-ce que vous y achetez ?
3. Remplacez les dessins inclus dans les bulles par des phrases courtes pour donner de la voix aux
personnages.
Aprs lecture/observation de la BD
4. Choisissez une des boutiques o lenfant fait les achats (cases 4, 5 ou 7) et imaginez le dialogue.
Faites attention aux formules de politesse !
5. Rinventez lhistoire ; vous pouvez rordonner les cases/ quitter ou ajouter dautres pour obtenir
une autre histoire. crivez des phrases courtes dans les bulles et puis reprsentez la nouvelle BD
devant vos camarades!
6. Jeu de rle : reprsentez la nouvelle BD aux camarades !
Tche finale :
Crez votre propre BD dau moins quatre cases ayant pour sujet les courses !

BIBLIOGAPHIE:
Baron-Carvais, A. La bande dessine. Coll. Que sais-je. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France,
1994, pp. 78-79
Decourtye, J. Le dessin humoristique et la bande dessine dans la classe de franais, Ambassade de
France au Chili, 1983
Runge, A. et Sword, J. La BD. La bande dessine satirique dans la classe de FLE. CLE
International, Paris, 1987

87

LA BANDE DESSINE EN CLASSE DE FRANAIS LANGUE TRANGRE (FLE)

Auteur: Bahov Maria, professeur de franais, II-ime degr didactique


Le Lyce Thorique,,Nicolae Mihai
Ciobalaccia, district Cantemir, Rpublique de Moldova

,,Lducation est la forme suprieure de


manifestation compotamentale, qui produit
par tapes, un bien culturel original, de
valeur , pour le progrs social.(S.Suher)

Le systme dEnseignement moderne de la Rpublique de Moldavie dfinit un domaine


scientifique bien developp qui comprend en soi, lobjectif majeur: damliorer la qualit
perpetuelle du processus pdagogique.
Communiquer dans une langue trangre est le produit lementaire des comptences cls
laide desquelles les tudiants doivent mettre en oeuvre diverses aptitudes. Avant de tout, on peut
mentionner que, La Didactique de lenseignement de franais ,langue trangre (FLE) reflte une
suite de mthodes et stratgies qui pemettent aux apprenants dacqurir les comptences
communicatives et les amnent progrssivement la maitrise des savoir faire; telles qui visent
entirement les quatre habilets: comprhension orale et crite(CO, CE) expression orale et crite
(EO, EE). En ce cas , lenseignant devient le principal transmetteur des valeurs ducationelles en
employant dans la classe de franais les meilleures formes de travail et nouvelles stratgies

88

didactiques. Notemment, lutilisation de la Bande Dessinee ragit aux lves un grand intret pour
apprendre cette langue trangre de circulation europenne et confirme avec certitude le message de
la beaut de la langue franaise:,, Elle est harmonieuse, elle est douce loreille, elle permet
dexprimer les nuances les plus fines du lesprit et du coeur. Elle sait tout dire. Elle est claire et
prcise.(Charles Bigot) En tant un moyen didactique ,la B.D rpond aux exigences du
curriculum national ,fonctionne comme un document authentique , inconturable, comme un
declancheur essentiel,annonce un procd narratif multiforme, une expression artistique complexe
qui allie le texte en images dune qualit egale lintelligence scientifique, une facult a laltitude
de toutes les connaissances suprieures. Selon moi, lintroduction de la B.D comme outil
fonctionnel dans la dmarche didactique vise une grande ncessit car elle met laccent sur le
developpement des comptences et sous-comptences de tous les domaines curriculaires repartiss
par le Cadre Europen Commun de Rfrence pour les Langues(CERCL): a)Communication-
comptences linguistiques/ communicatives/pragmatiques ;b)Culture- comp. socioculturelles/
pluriculturelles. c)Comparaison- comp. mthodologiques.d) Connexion comp.intrdisciplinaires
e)Communaut-comp.civiques. a veut dire que la lecture et la cration dune B.D solicite un
ensemble complexe de connaissances et aptitudes dexprimer librement en francais.Voila pouquoi,
il serait important danalyser la structure de BD et comment lutiliser .Avant de tout , on doit
commencer par la notion :
Le Dictionnaire de la langue franaise Le Robert dfinit la Bande dessine comme :,, Une suite de
dessins qui racontent une meme histoire, et ou les paroles et les penses des personnages sont
donnes dans des bulles
Le manuel de franais Boussole des francophones nous propose des Techniques de la B.D :
- Pour pouvoir raconter lhistoire dune manire originale et crer des effets comiques , on
prete attention aux images , a la succession des vignettes, aux bulles.
Les images:les changements de plan:plan densemble, plan moyen, plan rapproche, gros
plan, les angles de vue: de face, latral, en plonge, , en contre plonge ;le dessin :raliste
ou caricatural.
La succession des vignettes : Changement de point de vue du rcit,ellipses.
Les bulles : les variations des caractres typographiques, les signes symboliques ;le texte la
parodie de la langue , les effets de repetitions , les interjections .
Cration dun script de Bande Dessinee : on indique brivement le contenu de chaque
vignette , le type de plan , angle de vue, etc. On rdige le contenu des bulles.on peut adopter
un style adapte aux enfants ou donner une vision parodique de lhistoire,la tourner en
drision, etc.
Ensuite, si on va parler de limportance de la B.D , moi, je pourrais argumenter par des
exemples concrets , dans le cadre de mes activits p&dagogiques. Comme rsultat, jai remarqu
que lefficacit de cette ressourse didactique-B.D rside la qualit de la leon et le developpement
de la pense critique qui est laxe fondamental de lenseignement /apprentissage actuel. Aussi, je
peux ajouter quelle vise un reprage excellent pour les lycens, suscite chez eux le dsir dinitier et
promouvoir laptitude la communication. Son amploi dans la dmarche didactique conduit la
coopration et lencouragement des lves plus timides et modestes.Ainsi, ils osent de sexprimer
librement leurs penses, meme sils ont des doutes, et on est developpe la confience en soi, les
aident savoir utiliser le dictionnaire, sautoanalyser dans la prononciation.
En effet, tous les lves reoivent une grande satisfaction de lire et dessiner leur propre B.D
Parmi les les techniques modernes pratiquees de moi en classe de franais ou je peux impliquer les
B.D sont :La Diagramme Venn. Cette mthode prvoit les similitudes et divergences entre les
uvres des crivains franais et roumains, des fetes, coutumes de ces peuples.En X-ime classe
jenseigne aux apprenants le texte,,Les fetes et traditions franaisesLes lves sont diviss en 2
quipes.I-iere E-dcrit la fete de premier avril en France II-ime E la fete de premier avril en
Moldova. Les consignes suivantes :
- A partir de la tradition inventez une situation comique et intriguante.
- Dessinez les evenements de fete en quatre images sur un papier A4
89

- Compltez les vignettes par des rpliques convenables.


- Prenez des ,,jeu de rolesdes personnages (expression orale)

Le Cube-un corps gometrique confectionn du papier ayant 6 parties avec 6 actions


impratives :Lisez! Analysez! Comparez! Argumentez ! Dcrivez! Assossiez! Sur le tableau ou sur
les pupitres il y a les feuilles reprsentant une B.D. Chaque lve acomplit lune de ces taches. Cest
une stratgie intractive qui incite les lves dans une activit productive ,intressante.
Le Jeu Marabout-il sagit dun jeu de creativite lexicale, narrative, drive dune comptine
franaise. :le Marabout de ficelle.La comptine consiste faire se suivre des expressions dont la
dernire syllabe,lettre de lune est la premire de la suivante. Premire tape-Choisissez un mot au
hasard :dans un texte du manuel, en ouvrant un dictionnaire ou le mot cle de lunite apprise.Il
nexiste aucun lien logique autre que la phontique entre les mots. Par exemple :Fleur-urgence-
encercler-erreur-Rafael-legance-clbrer. Seconde tape : Imaginez une histoire amusante en
utilisant le corps labor ltape prcedente.On est accept et une drivation lexicale.
Troisime tape : Reprsentez ce rcit grafiquement sur une feulle A4/A3 (sous la forme
de B.D) Ajoutez des personnages votre histoire et faites-les parler. Quatrime tape. Prsentez
oralement votre cration en prenat le,, jeu des roles des personnages imaginares . Grace ces
mthodes combins, au supprt visuel et cratif comme la B.D, images, dessins, jai acquis de belles
performances
- les apprenants parlent plus correctement en francais
- Ils sont capables de gnrer des discours communicatifs logiques, cohrents.
- Produisent des contextes, commentaires,imitent des jeux de role, crent des essais.
- Ils viennent dans la classe avec plaisir et satisfaction.
- Ils sont bien motivs et veulent acquerir de nouveaux savoirs.
- Les lycens se developpent les comptences des 3 niveaux viss du CERCL(Cadre Europeen
Commun de Rfrence pour les Langues).
En conclure, je tiens appeller que lutilisation de la B.D en classe de FLE(francais langue
etrangere) offre de nombreux avantages et reflte de grandes finalits educationelles. En speciale,
pour les lyceens qui sont en terminale ,ellle reprsente un reprage efficace pour russir au BAC.

La Bibliografie :

1. Bujor Ala, Palade Raisa,,manuel de Franais-Boussole des FrancophonesEditure Epigraf-


2001, p-82
2. Guzun Maria,,Les nouvelles technologies ducatives, Chiinu 2005, p12
3. Scobioala Maria, Voroniuc Silvia-Limbi Straine I-,,Guide dimplementation du curriculum
modernis, Chiinu 2011- p.19
4. Rey Alain, Paul Robert ,,Dictionnaire de la langue franaise-Le Robert, p.110

LA SQUENCE VIDO EN ACTION

Fetcu Mihaela-Elena
cole Prof.M.Smbotin Crligele, Vrancea

Depuis toujours, la succession des images animes du film a fascin lapprenant.


Elles constituent une provocation pour la comprhension de leurs sens et pour une dcodification du
message transmis, pour lducation de la pense critique, indpendante.
Les squences pdagogiques veillent le plus lintrt des apprenants. Mme les
lves qui naiment pas le franais, qui sennuient, regardant en vide pendant la classe des langues
trangres, qui parlent dhabitude avec leurs collgues tandis que le professeur enseigne, troublant

90

le silence ou le travail de lenseignant, laissent de ct dautres occupations et deviennent presque


hypnotiss par la squence vido, prsente par le professeur.
Les apprenants sont trs exigeants. Ils naiment que les images animes qui illustrent
des situations comiques ou fabuleuses, appartenant aux contes de fes. Les squences qui offrent
des ides philosophiques, profondes, ne les intressent pas. Le danger, rvl dans les squences
vido, la peur, sans tre suivie par violence, entranent une participation unanime, les apprenants
faisant un vrai concours dopinions et de rponses. Ils sont attirs lintrieur de laction par la
magie de la squence filmique, ils deviennent si ensorcels par le mouvement des images que les
enseignants obtiennent la facilit dintroduire ou dexploiter llment de grammaire envisag ou le
vocabulaire du programme.
Ils ont le sentiment du spectacle, ils plongent dans lunivers fascinant de la squence
vido, qui apporte une note de fracheur dans la monotonie de la classe. Tout ce qui tient du
traditionnel les ennuient. Mais cette illusion du spectacle, du sensationnel reprsente une
opportunit de leur faire une ducation sur limage, sur la moralit, de les mobiliser penser,
avoir leurs propres ides, concernant des thmes diffrents.
Le film peut tre un instrument pdagogique pour enseigner tout ce quon dsire. En
plus, les apprenants pourraient tre mobiliss par les enseignants de comparer les textes avec les
extraits de film, comme par exemple, dans la nouvelle de Maupassant ,, Les trois messes basses.
Les articles partitifs peuvent y tre exploiter facilement, on pourrait aussi voir les similitudes et les
diffrences entre le fragment choisi et la squence vido :

1. Lisez le texte haute voix :

,, Chaque fois que cette sonnette tinte, le chapelain oublie sa messe et ne pense plus
quau rveillon. Il se figure les cuisines en rumeur, les fourneaux o brle un feu de forge, la bue
qui monte des couvercles entrouverts, et dans cette bue deux dindes magnifiques, bourres,
tendues, marbres de truffes.
Ou bien encore, il voit passer des files de petits pages portant des plats
envelopps de vapeurs tentantes, et avec eux il entre dans la grande salle dj prte pour le festin.
dlices ! voil limmense table toute charge et flamboyante, des paons habills de leurs plumes,
des faisans cartant leurs ailes mordores, des flacons couleurs de rubis, des pyramides de fruits
parmi des branches vertes et de merveilleux poissons dont parlait Garrigou, tals sur un lit de
fenouil, de lcaille nacre comme sils sortaient de leau, avec un bouquet dherbes odorantes dans
leurs narines de monstres. [.]
Cinq minutes aprs, la foule des seigneurs sasseyait dans la grande salle, le
chapelain au milieu deux. Le chteau, illumin de haut en bas, retentissait de chants, de cris, de
rires, de rumeurs ; et le vnrable dom Balagure plantait sa fourchette dans une aile de gelinotte,
noyant le remords de son pch sous des flots de vin du pape et de bon jus de viandes.
2. Soulignez les mots ci dessus accompagns par des articles partitifs.
3. Mettez les images suivantes dans l ordre de leur apparition :

91

4. Regardez lextrait du film ,, Les trois messes basses et trouvez des similitudes et des
diffrences entre le texte et la squence filmique.

Similitudes Diffrences
Ex : ,, les dindes magnifiques sont aussi Ex : ,, les cuisines en rumeur, les fourneaux
dans le texte que dans la squence vido. .manquent de lextrait du film.

Pour les classes des premires annes dtude, on peut utiliser une squence vido
du dessin anim ,, le cousin de Donald o le canard voit disparatre tous les plats quil avait
prpars. Cest une vraie succession darticles partitifs. On aperoit des petits pois, des macaronis,
du pain etc. Les images aident les apprenants mieux fixer dans leur mmoire les articles partitifs.
1. Utilisez les articles partitifs du, de la, de l, des pour dire ce que le cousin mange :

En ce qui concerne la fiche cre sur la squence filmique de ,, La maison de la peur o


Laurel et Hardy y voluent, les apprenants sont conseills dentrer dans la peau des personnages et
dire quelles pourraient tre leurs ractions dans les situations prsentes. Les lves apprennent non
seulement des notions grammaticales ou lexicales mais de surmonter leurs peurs, de se dtacher de
leurs faiblesses, de se forger une opinion sur la vie, sur les dfauts humains, sur la richesse
intrieure de chaque tre.
1. Cochez les lments qui font peur aux deux personnages :
a) le souhait du vieil homme
b) les yeux brillants du chat
c) la porte qui souvre
d) la main sur lpaule
e) les pas dun fantme
f) le bruit du tonnerre
g) le tableau terrifiant
h) la bougie
92

i) les cris pouvantables des victimes


j) la porte qui grince
k) le fauteuil
l) la lampe
m) la balle de larme
n) lhorloge
o) les escaliers
p) le drap
q) la chauve souris
r) le commissaire
s) le courant dair
2. Tirez des flches et dites quelles peurs cachent les gens qui :

a) dtestent lobscurit b) regardent des films de SF c) pensent aux monstres d) sont cupides

e) veulent tre gagnants f) sont violents g) ne parlent pas un mot h) sont bavards i) sont fiers
1) la peur dtre pauvres 6) la peur de
linconnu
2) la peur de ne pas tre aims 7) la peur de ne pas
tre infrieur
3) la peur de la mort 8) la peur de la vie
relle
4) la peur dtre seuls 9) la peur de
lopinion des autres
5) la peur de se connatre soi mme
Les squences vido ont t, sont et seront des sources de joie et de connaissances pour les
apprenants, des fentres ouvertes vers la littrature et la grammaire franaise ou toute autre
discipline, contribuant au dveloppement de leur mmoire visuelle, la dcouverte des univers
secrets, inconnus, lenrichissement de leur sensibilit, de leurs sentiments.
BIBLIOGRAPHIE :
article ,, Fonctions de limage , revue ,, Travaux Didactiques du franais langue trangre, n31,
Universit Paul Valry, Montpellier, 1994
Viallon, Virginie, ,,La place de limage dans lenseignement/apprentissage des langues dans la
revue ,,Les langues modernes n2, avril-mai-juin, , EuroCALL, Paris, 2009
https://pedagogieuniversitaire.wordpress.com/.../analyser-et-developper-son-enseigne

93

www.agoravox.fr Actualits Technologies


media.education.gouv.fr/file/97/6/5976.pdf

ENSEIGENR AVEC LA VIDO

Prof. Ciobanu Diana-Ionela


Liceul Tehnologic Ion Mincu, Vaslui

En tant que professeur de Fle, j`utilise une panoplie de documents authentiques (des
journaux, des magazines, des missions de tlvision, des films, des chansons etc) pour faire les
cours de franais plus vivants et attrayants. Je mets l`accent surtout sur la vido, en utilisant
diverses ressources: un documentaire, un reportage, une prsentation de la mto; un passage de
journal tlvis enregistr; un extrait dune mission tlvise; une srie tlvise ou des extraits
choisis; un court-mtrage; une interview dun personnage public; des extraits de film, ou des films
passs dans leur intgralit; des clips vido; des dessins anims; des publicits; un jeu tlvis.
L'utilisation de la vido dans l'enseignement des langues est une source irremplaable
d'informations sur les ralits sociales, culturelles, artistiques et civilisationnelles des pays. La vido
est un support extrmement intressant puisqu'il favorise le plaisir d'couter et de comprendre la
langue trangre. De cette faon, les lves peuvent tre impliqus personnellement et activement
dans des apprentissages stimulants, motivants et ludiques.
Quand on choisit un document vido on doit tenir compte de quelques critres de
slection : 1. Le sujet peut-il intresser les apprenants ?; 2. Quel est le lien entre le document
audiovisuel et le programme denseignement ?; 3. Le sujet trait est-il accessible mes
apprenants ? ; 4. Le document ou lextrait est-il suffisamment court ? ;5. Lextrait sorti de son
contexte, constitue-t-il une unit de sens ?; 6. Les images ou le paysage sonore facilitent-ils laccs
au sens ?; 7. Le document est-il comprhensible par mes apprenants ; 8. Le document est-il une
bonne qualit technique ? L'enseignant doit rpondre ces interrogations avant de choisir le
document vido. Une fois que l'enseignant a choisi un support, il lui faut prparer des activits
permettant aux lves d'acqurir diverses comptences (comprhension orale, production orale,
production et comprhension crite.).
Le travail sur des documents vido en classe de FLE amne llve observer, apprcier,
critiquer, porter un jugement sur ce quil voit, dcoder des images, des sons, des situations
culturelles, dvelopper son imagination, deviner, anticiper, formuler des hypothses et le
rend capable de produire, reformuler, rsumer et synthtiser les informations, permettre llve de
construire son savoir, notamment grce lutilisation dune ressource telle que la vido.
Le professeur peut proposer une grande diversit dactivits et les raliser, en fonction du
niveau de la classe. Les activits doivent tre adaptes pour les tapes suivantes:1.avant le
visionnage de la squence (on peut faire un remue-mninges autour du sujet abord); 2.pendant le
visionnage (on peut demander aux lves de saisir les indicateurs visuels: lieux, climats, saisons,
moments de la journe, personnages, objets.); 3.aprs le visionnage sans le son (on peut demander
aux lves de faire des hypothses sur le sujet du film, ou bien, dcrire les lieux, situer en espace,
observer les couleurs et discuter sur ce quelles symbolisent, observer les personnages et faire des
hypothses sils sont des personnages principaux ou secondaires, discuter sur lge des personnages,
sur leur statut, leur nationalit, leur mtier, faire des hypothses sur les relations entre les
personnages, observer la position de leurs corps, surprendre les gestes, la mimique, remarquer la
manire de shabiller et, partir de tous ces lments surpris, caractriser les personnages avec les
qualits et les dfauts); 4.aprs le visionnage avec le son (on compare ce que les lves se sont
imagins avec les informations offertes par la squence.); 5.aprs le visionnage interrompu (le
professeur peut proposer aux lves de simaginer ce qui sest pass avant et aprs la squence vue.
94

On peut leur distribuer les rles pour quils jouent la scne); 6.pour aller plus loin (on peut largir
le sujet et demander lopinion des lves sils ont aim ce quils ont vu et entendu).
Je propose un exemple de fiche de travail sur un court-mtrage, acquise pendant un stage en
France.
Loin du 16e Paris je taime (www.youtube.com )
Niveau intermdiaire / avanc B1-B2
Thme : socit
Objectifs communicatifs :
Parler de la vie de quelquun
Dcrire prcisment des situations quotidiennes
Objectif linguistique :
Vocabulaire du quotidien
Structures de lopposition et de la concession
Indicatif, subjonctif
Objectif inter culturel :
Illustrer les modes de vie des habitants de Paris
Suggestions dactivits pour la classe
1. MISE EN ROUTE
En grand groupe, demander aux apprenants des mots-cls sur Paris. Noter au tableau les
propositions. Orienter le remue mninge sur les arrondissements. Leur expliquer le dcoupage en
escargot des 20 arrondissements. Demander aux apprenants ce que leur voque le 16e
arrondissement.Diviser la classe en petit groupe de discussion. Distribuer le plan de Paris et le
document 1 Le 16e arrondissement en bref .Pour la correction, proposer un groupe de montrer
leur tracer sur la carte. Les groupes peuvent sentraider. Cette activit a pour objectif de prparer les
apprenants au thme du court mtrage et ainsi faciliter linterprtation des images.
2. DECOUVERTE DU DOCUMENT
Diviser les apprenants en 3 groupes avec des consignes de visionnage :
Groupe 1 : reprer les lieux
Groupe 2 : reprer les personnages, leurs attitudes et leurs sentiments.
Groupe 3 : reprer les personnages, vtements, description physique.
Faire dcouvrir le document aux apprenants sans le son. Chaque groupe note des lments en
rapport avec sa consigne. Aprs le visionnage : demander aux apprenants de quel type de document
il sagit (un court mtrage). Expliquer si besoin les caractristiques dun court mtrage, au contraire
dun long mtrage par ex. Leur demander sils ont repr le titre du court mtrage. Laisser les
groupes complter leurs rponses. Noter aux tableaux les lments reprs par les apprenants lors
du visonnage. Chacun peut complter librement. Noter toutes les propositions mme si elles sont
incompltes ou errones. Cette activit a pour objectif de recueillir le maximum dinformations
contenues dans les images du reportage. Elle permet galement de faire des hypothses sur la/les
thmes dvelopps dans le document.
3. COMPREHENSION GLOBALE
laide des lments reprs dans lactivit prcdente, demander aux apprenants ce quils
comprennent de la situation. De qui, de quoi sagit-il ? O, quand ?
Visonnage avec le son : complter les lments au tableau et prciser le thme de la vido.
Demander aux apprenants de faire des hypothses sur le titre : pourquoi ce titre ?
4. COMPREHENSION AFFINE
Distribuer le document 2 aux apprenants liste des lments observer . Diviser la classe en petits
groupes de travail, et partager les questions entre les groupes (consigne de visonnage). Visionner
nouveau le court mtrage. Les groupes compltent leurs rponses. Proposer un autre visionnage si
besoin. Mise en commun : chaque groupe prsente ses lments de rponses, chacun peut complter
si ncessaire. Au tableau noter dans deux colonnes les lments parallles de lhistoire (appartement
dAnna, appartement du 16 e, bb dAnna, bb de la maitresse de maison etc.).
5. TRAVAIL SUR LA LANGUE
95

En fonction du niveau groupe, proposer


Un exercice sur lopposition et la concession.
Ex. : Alors quAnna habite dans un petit appartement, elle travaille dans un appartement trs chic et
bourgeois.
Un exercice sur lutilisation du subjonctif/indicatif
6. PRODUCTION
Production orale/jeux de rles.
Former des binmes, leur distribuer une situation (document 3). Les binmes prparent leur jeu de
rle laide des lments vus prcdemment.
Production crite :Vous tes Anna. Vous racontez les vnements de cette journe dans une lettre
adresse ami(e) franais(e).
Ce qui est trs important dans lexploitation dune squence vido est de formuler toujours
clairement avant chaque activit les consignes pour que les lves sachent quoi faire attention, ce
quils ont faire. Limportant cest de susciter lintrt des lves, de crer une relle motivation
pour lapprentissage du franais, de leur proposer des activits captivantes, de favoriser un
apprentissage-plaisir. Il est bien important aussi de savoir doser correctement les activits pour
viter linstauration de la monotonie et de lennui.

Bibliographie
Compte, Carmen, La vido en classe de langue, Paris, Hachette,1993
Ducrot, Jean-Michel, Module sur l'utilisation de la vido en classe de franais langue
trangre, in Synergies France, Centre de documentation pdagogique, Alep, Syrie, 2005
Georgescu, Corina-Amelia, La didactique du franais langue trangre: tradition et
innovation, Editura Tiparg, Slatina, 2011.

LEXPLOITATION DE LA BD EN CLASSE DE FLE


Prof. Balan Simona Maria,
Scoala Gimnaziala Satulung, Pribilesti
Prof. Dragus Claudia Ioana,
Liceul TeoreticIoan Buteanu,Somcuta Mare

La BD est un document authentique des plus vivants et des plus motivants qui offre diffrents
atouts. Elle est de plus en plus utilise pour lapprentissage des langues.
De plus, la langue de la BD est une langue de tous les jours qui, par son style conversationnel,
permet de travailler sur des situations varies et des registres de langue diffrents, sans oublier de
mentionner un atout trs important : lhumour.
Plusieurs questions se posent: Il faut eduquer par la BD ou la BD ? Peut-on duquer par la
BD ? La BD est-elle ducative ?
Antoine Roux secoue l'inertie scolaire en publiant en 1970 La bande dessine peut tre
ducative (Ed. de L'Ecole). Mais beaucoup reste faire pour convaincre les enseignants de son
intrt, pour ne pas dire de sa ncessit. La BD est rentre peu peu dans les bibliothques scolaires
et les cours, dans les manuels aussi quelquefois mais souvent pour offrir des exercices de
grammaire. L'cueil encore courant consiste en effet se servir de la BD pour enseigner autre chose
qu'elle mme. Alors qu'on n'tudie pas la grammaire propre la BD, on veut l'asservir la
grammaire ! Pire, alors qu'on en dnonce, encore trop souvent, la prtendue facilit et sa pernicieuse
sduction on tente de l'utiliser pour agrmenter des apprentissages moins attirants !
Il est urgent de faire connatre l'histoire, les oeuvres et les auteurs de bande dessine pour
qu'on la considre enfin comme un art. Paralllement, le nombre d'enseignants qui avoue ne pas tre

96

familiaris avec la BD, qui dit ne pas "savoir lire a" (ce n'est donc pas simple ?), reste encore
impressionnant. Il n'est pourtant plus permis d'ignorer la bande dessine, ni de la mpriser.
Seulement, si on ne la combat plus, on ne la dfend gure. Ce patrimoine fictionnel et imag
est aussi noble que tout autre. Il a lui aussi ses "classiques" et ses oeuvres sans lendemain, et des
oeuvres oublies qu'une rdition ranime.
On croit souvent que les jeunes ont une culture BD importante. S'il est vrai qu'ils ont un
bagage d'oeuvres, et plutt de hros, suprieur nombre d'adultes, il n'en reste pas moins qu'il s'agit
l d'une culture dsordonne et souvent superficielle. Leur culture publicitaire et filmique est
largement suprieure leur connaissance de la bande dessine.
La premire raison qu'on invoque pour tenter de l'approcher est qu'elle plat aux enfants ou
qu'on reconnat l'attrait qu'elle reprsente sur les jeunes. Non seulement, c'est nier l'existence des
moins jeunes que cela passionne mais c'est avouer qu'on l'utilise comme appt ou comme alibi, ce
qui est totalement dmagogique.
La BD est un art du dialogue au mme titre que le thtre, un art
de la mise en images au mme titre que le cinma, mais galement un
art du dessin, moins valoris que la peinture, qui a en plus le tort d'tre
"colori". Ce dernier point renvoie la BD l'enfance, ce que l'histoire
des illustrs, en Europe, a galement enracin dans les esprits.
Il ne faut pas considrer la BD comme un genre (sous-entendu
"littraire"). La BD est un moyen d'expression qui a ses rgles propres,
ses oeuvres, son histoire, et qui permet au mme titre que le roman ou
le cinma d'aborder les genres de rcits qui ont pour noms : aventure,
policier, humour, science-fiction, autobiographie, etc. D'ailleurs,
chercher la classer par rapport la littrature (para-littrature ? sous-
littrature ? littrature en images ?...) est un non sens. Beaux-Arts,
Belles Lettres ? La BD n'a pas rendre de comptes ces deux entits
qui ne la reprsentent pas. On n'a pas non plus l'valuer par rapport au
cinma ou la peinture. La BD n'est pas de la littrature, la BD n'est
pas de l'illustration, la BD n'est pas du cinma, la BD n'est pas du
thtre et c'est tout naturel, puisque c'est de la bande dessine et que la
BD est Autre.
On se limite la plupart du temps dans l'analyse des bandes
dessines non seulement reconnatre des procds mais les
quantifier (combien de cases ? combien de gros plans ? combien de
sortes de bulles ?.). C'est desschant et ennuyeux. En BD, pas plus
qu'ailleurs, on ne doit se cantonner l'apparence et rester cette
facilit qui consiste sparer le fond et la forme.
L'introduction de la bande dessine en classe de FLE prsente
plusieurs avantages:

- C'est un support ludique et populaire gnralement apprci par les


apprenants
- C'est un document authentique qui prsente un registre de langue
courant, proche de la vie quotidienne. De plus, les lments textuels
(dialogues ou rcit) sont souvent courts et accessibles.
- C'est un document qui mle rception visuelle et textuelle, jouant sur le lien image/texte pour
crer du sens.
- La bande dessine facilite le dialogue interculturel et permet de sensibiliser l'humour.
- C'est un bon dclencheur pour largir le thme abord avec des activits diversifies (imaginez la
suite d'une histoire, crire un dialogue, etc.) mettant en scne les quatre comptences crites et
orales.

97

Boule et Bill
Qui sont ces deux personnages?
O se trouvent-ils?

Comment vous semblent-ils?

Que fait le petit garon?

Lisez ce que demande le petit


garon et regardez ces gestes:

Vous semble-t-il poli? Pourquoi?

Dcrivez brivement lhomme

qui Boule sadresse-t-il cette fois-ci?

Pose-t-il sa question de la mme manire? Est- il poli?

Comment demanderiez-vous lheure un/e ami/et un membre de votre famille?

Quelle heure est-il ?


Comment lhomme sadresse- t-il
Au petit garon ? Pourquoi ?

BIBLIOGRAFIE:
Benoit, Peeters, Lire la bande dessine, Ed. Flamma
SITOGRAPHIE
http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image
http://www.ac-creteil.fr/lettres/pedagogie/divers/image.htm
http://www.educnet.education.fr/lettres/ressources/textimage2130/bases-images/lecture
LE DOCUMENT AUTHENTIQUE EN CLASSE DE FLE - DE L'APPROCHE
COMMUNICATIVE A L'APPROCHE ACTIONNELLE

Prof. Sava Camelia-Nicoleta,


Liceul Tehnologic Ion Mincu Vaslui

Pour enseigner une langue trangre, le professeur devra tout mettre en uvre afin
damener lapprenant prouver le plaisir dapprendre, de connatre une langue nouvelle. Mais les
documents didactiques restent fidles des situations dapprentissage concrtes: un tel problme de
grammaire, le vocabulaire spcifique un domaine quelconque, la diffrence entre un tel ou tel
phonme, etc., sans mettre lapprenant dans une situation de communication relle.

98

Dans lapprentissage dune langue quand mme, il faut mettre laccent sur la pratique
langagire et sur llaboration des conditions favorables un change plus authentique.24 Cest
pour ce but exactement quon a apport en classe les documents authentiques, les utiliser cest faire
appel une mthode diffrente dapproche de lenseignement du franais.
Dfinis comme des documents qui nont pas t crs des fins pdagogiques, des
documents bruts, labors par des francophones pour des francophones25, les documents
authentiques tiennent une place de plus en plus importante dans les classes de franais car ils
permettent de confronter les apprenants la langue telle quelle est parle: ceux-ci peuvent, de cette
manire, entrer en contact avec la vie relle et lactualit lie la langue cible.
Les documents authentiques ont fait leur entre en didactique des langues au cours de la
dcennie 1970, comme compltion la mthode dite SGAV (structuro - globale audio - visuelle)
qui, bien que centre avant tout sur la notion de communication, elle napprenait pas
vritablement communiquer en situation relle. L'approche fonctionnelle apporte dans cette
priode dans l'enseignement des langues trangres tait centre sur les besoins langagiers de
l'apprenant ncessaires afin de lui faire acqurir une comptence de communication. C'est alors
qu'on a introduit en classe les documents portant la notion d'authenticit. Depuis les annes 70,
lutilisation des documents authentiques en classe de franais langue trangre a ouvert de
nombreuses possibilits et leur exploitation sest trs nettement dveloppe tant pour faire acqurir
du savoir langagier que pour transmettre du savoir-faire dordre socioculturel.
Un certain nombre de critres doivent tre mentionns dans la catgorisation de ce support
didactique. Premirement un document authentique doit tre prsent aux apprenants sous sa
forme intgrale. Toute modification altre lauthenticit du document et le transforme en document
didactique, ce qui affecte aussi la situation de communication relle. Deuximement, le fait quil
existe un nombre infini de documents authentiques, sans cesse renouvels, permet lenseignant
dexploiter lors de son activit pdagogique nimporte quel document qui puisse dterminer
lapprenant de simuler une situation relle de communication mme si cela se passe dans un milieu
artificiel, la salle de classe. Bien que le document authentique soit prsent sous formes destines
pour des locuteurs natifs, lenseignant peut dcider de lexploiter condition quil soit adapt au
niveau des apprenants.
La varit de ces documents est inpuisable et il parat impossible dnumrer tous. Les
didacticiens de la mthodologie de FLE26 ont essay de les prciser en suggrant aussi des
mthodes dexploitation pour chaque genre. En schmatisant, on mentionne plusieurs catgories de
documents authentiques:
- documents de la vie quotidienne (plan dune ville, horaires de train, dpliants touristiques, menus
de restaurant, petites annonces);
- documents dordre administratif (fiches dinscription, formulaires, lettres dintention, factures);
- documents mdiatiques crits, sonores ou tlviss (articles, bulletins informatifs, la mto,
horoscope, publicit, films, bandes annonces, BD);
- documents oraux (interviews, chansons, conversations relles, changes spontans);
- documents visuels et sonores (la vido).
Lenseignant sappuie sur ces documents privilgis27 mais en ajoutant une srie de
pratiques personnelles destines animer la classe et favoriser la communication authentique.
Lexploitation dun tel support permet lapprochement du quotidien, suscite lenthousiasme des
apprenants et favorise llaboration dinteractions langagires bases sur une conversation
authentique parce quils sont considrs comme un support de rfrence de la progression dans le

24
Leyssens, Cedric, Lexploitation de documents authentiques dans le cours de FLE, p.3, disponible en ligne sur le site
http://www.doks.khleuven.be, consult le 19 mars 2017.
25
Coq, Jean-Pierre, Gruca, Isabelle, Cours de didactique du franais langue trangre et seconde, Grenoble, Presses
Universitaires de Grenoble, 2005, p. 431.
26
Dragomir, Mariana, Considration sur lenseignement - apprentissage du franais langue trangre, ed. Dacia, Cluj
Napoca, 2001, p. 49 90.
27
Tagliante, Christine, La classe de langue, Cl International, Paris, 1994, p.37.
99

processus denseignement/apprentissage. Leur importance rside du fait quils rpondent au besoin


de mettre l'apprenant en contact direct avec la langue cible, et rendent possible l'apprentissage de la
langue simultanment celui de la civilisation. L'exploitation pdagogique des documents
authentiques s'est gnralise afin de couvrir l'ensemble des niveaux de langue et contribuer
l'acquisition d'une comptence communicative. Les avantages qu'ils reprsentent sont multiples: la
motivation suscite par cette dmarche assure le succs de l'enseignant et dtermine chez
l'apprenant le dsir d'apprendre. L'apprentissage devient de cette manire plus performant car il est
plus motivant et rcompensant, les lves constatent le rsultat de leurs efforts, c'est--dire
comprendre la langue de l'autre.
Le recours aux documents authentiques en classe de FLE, l'un des objectifs fixs par Le
Cadre Europen Commun de Rfrence pour les Langues, privilgie la perspective actionnelle,
directement lie l'approche communicative qui recentre l'enseignement sur l'apprenant. L'objectif
principal en est de l'apprendre communiquer et de lui faire acqurir une comptence de
communication28 en langue trangre, la langue dans la varit de ses registres et usages sans
sparer la langue de la civilisation.
Les documents authentiques et la modernisation des moyens de communication ont
dtermin le dveloppement dune pdagogie o on entre par l'accomplissement d'une tche - c'est
la perspective actionnelle. L'approche actionnelle prconise par le CECRL s'inscrit dans le
prolongement du tournant communicationnel. Mais l'enjeu de rendre les lves capables agir avec
la langue dans des situations authentiques dpasse la simple comptence de communication.
Si l'approche communicative signifie un exercice de simulation, une tche langagire -
communicative, un agir sur l'autre par la langue, l'approche actionnelle c'est de l'action sociale, un
agir avec l'autre par la langue.29 L'usage d'une langue et son apprentissage comprennent les actions
accomplies par des gens, les acteurs sociaux qui dveloppent un ensemble de comptences
gnrales, forcment une comptence communiquer langagirement. Ils oprent avec les
comptences acquises dans des contextes varis en s'adaptant diffrentes conditions pour raliser
les activits langagires permettant de produire et capter des textes qui portent sur des thmes
particuliers. Pour arriver cela ils mobilisent les stratgies qui paraissent le mieux convenir
l'accomplissement des tches effectuer. L'enjeu n'est plus de communiquer ce qu'on peut faire
l'aide de n'importe quel moyen technique, mais de matriser l'information de manire la rendre la
plus efficace possible.30 Cette action est ncessaire dans le contexte de l'intgration europenne, du
besoin de prparer les apprenants tre capables de se trouver un emploi dans les pays trangers et
communiquer (vivre) avec les natifs.
L'approche actionnelle met l'accent sur les tches raliser l'intrieur d'un projet global -
tout ce que l'apprenant doit amener un rsultat en fonction d'un problme rsoudre, d'un but fix,
ce qu'il doit orienter vers un sens, une raison, un besoin et un destinataire explicite, une tche
accomplir dans les multiples contextes auxquels un apprenant va tre confront dans la vie sociale.
C'est travers les tches, les ralisations concrtes, qu'on va dvelopper les diffrentes composantes
de la comptence de communication, s'entraner aux activits langagires et dcouvrir des lments
culturels. Rsoudre les tches rend les lves actifs, le travail prend du sens leurs yeux et favorise
leur engagement personnel dans l'apprentissage.
De l'autre ct, pour un enseignant qui tenterait d'oprationnaliser cette dfinition assez
gnrale, il s'agirait de concevoir une tche la plus authentique possible, invitant les apprenants
simuler une action telle qu'elle se droulerait en ralit, transformant la salle de classe dans une
sorte de laboratoire d'essai qui a pour but d'attribuer aux apprenants le rle d'acteurs sociaux.31

28
Brard, Evelyne, L'approche communicative - Thorie et pratiques, Paris, Cl International, 1991, p. 17.
29
Puren, Christian. De l'approche communicative la perspective actionnelle, in Le Franais dans le Monde, no 347,
sept.-oct. 2006, p. 38.
30
Ibidem, p.40
31
Conseil de l'Europe, Conseil de la coopration culturelle, Comit de l'ducation, Division des langues vivantes de
Strasbourg, 2001. Cadre europen commun de rfrence pour les langues. Apprendre, enseigner, valuer, Paris: Didier,
p. 15.
100

L'enseignant peut faire les apprenants s'impliquer directement dans ce processus en leur
demandant d'apporter des documents authentiques en classe, ce qui permet de dvelopper des
habitudes de recherche et de consultation personnelle, en dehors des cours, des matriels servant
l'apprentissage des ralits socioculturelles de la langue tudie.32 Cet effort de trouver eux-mmes
des documents authentiques exploitables en classe favorise l'autonomie de l'apprentissage parce que
l'apprenant pourra rutiliser les techniques d'apprentissage dveloppes partir du support en
cause, il pourra donc apprendre par lui-mme, tester et approfondir ses connaissances et mme
communiquer dans la langue cible. De plus, la facilit de l'accs suscite chez les lves un
enthousiasme remarquable.

BIBLIOGRAPHIE :
1. Brard, Evelyne, L'approche communicative - Thorie et pratiques, Paris, Cl International,
1991, p. 17.
2. Conseil de l'Europe, Conseil de la coopration culturelle, Comit de l'ducation, Division
des langues vivantes de Strasbourg, 2001. Cadre europen commun de rfrence pour les
langues. Apprendre, enseigner, valuer, Paris: Didier, p. 15.
3. Coq, Jean-Pierre, Gruca, Isabelle, Cours de didactique du franais langue trangre et
seconde, Grenoble, Presses Universitaires de Grenoble, 2005, p. 431.
4. Dragomir, Mariana, Considration sur lenseignement - apprentissage du franais langue
trangre, ed. Dacia, Cluj Napoca, 2001, p. 49 90.
5. Leyssens, Cedric, Lexploitation de documents authentiques dans le cours de FLE, p.3,
disponible en ligne sur le site http://www.doks.khleuven.be, consult le 19 mars 2017.
6. Puren, Christian. De l'approche communicative la perspective actionnelle, in Le
Franais dans le Monde, no 347, sept.-oct. 2006, p. 38.
7. Tagliante, Christine, La classe de langue, Cl International, Paris, 1994, p.37.

INTERACTIF FLE : LES RESSOURCES TBI

Prof. Zahariea Mona


Colegiul Naional Spiru Haret, Tecuci, judeul Galai

Utiliser les TICE (Technologies de lInformation et de la Communication pour


l'Enseignement) en classe de franais langue trangre signifie enseigner de faon diffrente par
rapport la classe traditionnelle. Dans le cadre de la perspective actionnelle de lapprentissage,
lusage des TICE est recommand: avec les nouvelles technologies on peut apprendre par laction
et par lexprience. Llve est lacteur de son apprentissage. Il devient plus autonome.
Ce nouveau type d'enseignement/apprentissage a deux buts : amliorer le transfert de ce qui
est appris dans d'autres contextes (scolaires ou extrascolaires) et motiver les lves en les
engageant, individuellement et globalement, dans des activits scolaires proposes.

32
Tagliante, Christine, op.cit., p. 38.

101

Le tableau blanc interactif est un espace dynamique qui transforme le tableau traditionnel
et qui construit de nouveaux documents trs utiles pour la classe de FLE. Le TBI est un outil
puissant denseignement qui contribuera enrichir les pratiques de classe car il permet de travailler
tous les supports numriques disponibles sur l'internet.

Qu'est qu' un TBI(ou TNI) ?


TNI= Tableau Numrique Interactif
TBI= Tableau Blanc Interactif
TPI= Tableau Pdagogique Interactif
VPI= vido projecteur interactif
Un tableau noir ... blanc ! Selon Chantal Thos animatrice TICE le TBI remplace le
tableau noir, en thorie; on peut y crire, y dessiner, comme sur un vrai tableau, on peut dplacer les
objets dessins, de les redimensionner.
On est capable galement dy afficher une image, une photo ou mme une animation. Le
contenu du tableau peut tre sauvegard, imprim et prpar lavance par lenseignant.
Leffacement du tableau et son remplacement par un autre contenu est trs facile. Le stylo offre un
choix de couleurs et de tailles. On a un surligneur et un outil texte.
On peut crire la main, voire utiliser la reconnaissance de caractres.

On a une gomme (bien que les enfants utilisent nettement plus la touche annuler ou
retour arrire , un pot de peinture, et une bibliothque de ressources).
Dun point de vue purement pdagogique, lintgration dInternet en cours de langue
permet lapprenant dtre en contact avec des documents rels refltant donc la culture et la
langue telle que vcue et utilise. Le dcalage entre les "normes" langagires et linguistiques
prsentes dans les documents didactiques et celles de la langue en contexte est annihil. Cette mise
en contact avec une ralit sociale de la langue ne peut tre que motivante. Il ne sagit plus
dapprendre une langue des livres mais bel et bien une langue utilise et pratique des fins de
communication. Lordinateur, vecteur de lapprentissage a un rle dsinhibant contrairement au
tableau noir, qui a toujours une action paralysante sur les apprenants, quel que soit leur ge Le
poste informatique rend lapprentissage vivant, il rpond aux commandes de lapprenant et ne peut
mettre une quelconque critique sur le discours produit. (Barrire, 2006)

102

LInternet occupe aujourdhui une place trs importante dans nos vies. Le dfi pour
lenseignant est dintgrer les nouvelles technologies dans la classe de langue en essayant de
transformer ces outils dans des moyens dapprentissage. Ainsi, on peut rendre lapprenant
responsable et autonome dans son apprentissage. Il apprend apprendre et dvelopper ses
comptences de manire individuelle pour ensuite les rassembler et les exploiter lors dactivits
collectives.
Connect Internet, le TBI permet de dtourner des exercices en ligne de leur usage
premier, et de les utiliser en groupe classe.
De manire gnrale, quel que soit le type dexercice, et quel que soit le support, il faut
rappeler que le TBI est loutil de la classe, donc des apprenants, non celui de lenseignant. Il faudra
donc veiller ce que ce soit les apprenants qui le manipulent .
Il est galement important de garder en mmoire que lapprenant au tableau est la main
du groupe, cest--dire quil valide la dcision commune de la classe. Les exercices ne sont donc
pas raliss par un seul apprenant.
On peut trouver de nombreuses pistes pour utiliser les exercices. Elles sont toutes adaptables
dautres collections, quel que soit le niveau de la classe (du A1 au B2).Suite aux activits utilisant
les outils stylos ( , ) ou reconnaissance manuscrite ( , ), on peut dcider
denregistrer le document de manire rutiliser les phrases-exemples, les rsums
ultrieurement, par exemple en sparant les mots pour crer un exercice de phrases remettre dans
l'ordre.
ladresse http://apprendre.tv5monde.com/, les apprenants disposent de nombreux
exercices autocorrectifs quils peuvent raliser sur ordinateur ou tablette. Ces exercices sappuient
sur des supports varis (reportages, interviews, extraits de magazines, de documentaires, de
fictions), et traitent de thmatiques tout aussi diverses(histoire, environnement, tourisme,
littrature).
Les exercices, regroups par niveau (A1 B2), sont ensuite classs par collection
correspondant une srie de vidos issues dune mme mission, par exemple : 7 jours sur la
plante, courts mtrages, Premire classe, etc.
Lenseignant devient ainsi un guide qui accompagne l'lve la dcouverte et simplique
autant dans la cration que dans lvaluation du travail ralis.
Ces nouveaux outils sont des liens entre le monde de l'enfant et la classe de franais langue
trangre l'aide desquels on peut traiter des sujets dactualit en exploitant des documents
authentiques. Pour ceux qui sen servent, elles apportent une plus-value. Un TNI ne remplace pas
uniquement un tableau noir, mais runit en lui galement les fonctionnalits dun projecteur, dun
haut-parleur, dun lecteur de CD ou de DVD et permet de sauvegarder des rsultats, puis de les
rutiliser. Utiliser des mdias qui marquent le quotidien et le style de vie de nos jeunes apprenants
ne peut que les motiver. Utilis de faon adquate, un tlphone mobile devient un outil
dapprentissage performant tout comme une tablette tactile qui grce au WIFI permettent une
rpartition libre des places par comparaison aux labos dordinateurs et crent des scnarios
pdagogiques indits.
Dautre part, la ralisation de tches encourage un travail coopratif, travail qui demande la mise en
place de stratgies dcoute, de concertation et dexplications au sein du groupe. Ces stratgies sont aussi
importantes que lutilisation de la langue dans la mesure o elles favorisent non seulement lapprentissage
mais aussi le dveloppement de comptences gnrales de communication et donc de comptences sociales.

Sitographie
http://www.edufle.net/NTIC-et-FLE.html
http://www.hachettefle.com/ados/pages/feuilleter-nos-specimens/index.php#specimen
http://www.bonjourdefrance.com/exercices/contenu/20/civilisation/604.html
http://www.ac-grenoble.fr/ien.cluses/spip.php?article446
http://www.lepetitjournaldesprofs.com/blog/2013/03/30/lusage-des-tice-en-classe-de-fle/

103

LES DOCUMENTS AUTHENTIQUES EN CLASSE DE FLE


Prof. Dnil Irina
coala Gimnazial Cezar Botez Fstci

Apprendre une langue trangre cest connatre une autre culture, se tourner vers lautre et
cela est la meilleure faon de senrichir ! Surtout sil sagit dune langue comme le franais ! Le
franais et la France cest la culture, le savoir, les ides lhistoire, la curiosit, les lumires.
Connatre le franais, cest avoir accs en version originale aux grands textes de la littrature
franaise et francophone mais galement au cinma et la chanson. Et pour en avoir accs on doit
utiliser en classes de franais les documents authentiques.
Le document authentique est un document crit, audio ou audiovisuel destin au dpart des
locuteurs natifs mais que le professeur collecte pour lutiliser dans diffrentes activits quil va
proposer en classe. Ce document est dit authentique parce quil na pas t conu des fins
pdagogiques mais des fins communicatives. Il est prsent lapprenant tel quil est, cest--dire
dans son tat original.
Daprs Cuq et Gruca les documents authentiques sont des documents bruts, labors
par des francophones pour des francophones des fins de communication 33 tant produits dans
des situations relles de communication. Les documents authentiques disposent dun grand
potentiel: ils peuvent motiver les lves traiter des textes actuels, les rendre curieux par rapport
la culture francophone et leur faire apprendre comprendre un texte dun niveau langagier
suprieur (apprendre apprendre).
Coste et R. Gallison ont donn une autre dfinition : les documents authentiques sont des
documents sonores ou crits qui nont pas t conus spcialement pour la classe ou pour ltude
de la langue, mais pour rpondre une fonction de communication, dinformation ou dexpression
linguistique relle. Un extrait de conversation enregistre, un article dun journal, une page de
Balzac, un pome, un communiqu de presse, une rclame, un panneau publicitaire -sont des
documents authentiques34
Jai observ, dans mon activit didactique, que les documents authentiques reprsentent une
source de richesse infinie dans lacquisition dune culture trangre. Ils offrent de nombreuses
possibilits dexploitation visant dvelopper la communication interactive au sein de la classe.
Les documents authentiques, quels quils soient, chansons, documents audiovisuels, articles de
presse, photos, documents multimdia, documents internet et dautres documents authentiques font
entrer le monde extrieur dans la classe. Par rapport aux documents fabriqus pour le contexte
scolaire (le manuel, le cahier dexercices), les documents authentiques ont en effet un double intrt :
llve tranger est confront aux mmes objets culturels que le natif francophone. Jai constat, le
long de ma carrire didactique, que le document authentique permet galement de travailler la langue
et la civilisation dans un mme mouvement pdagogique.
Les documents authentiques reprsentent un support idal tout point de vue en classe de
langue trangre que ce soit pour faire dcouvrir une culture trangre ou bien pour motiver les
lves, susciter leur intrt et les faire communiquer. Ce sont dexcellents matriaux didactiques qui
permettent de faire partager aux lves quelque chose avec les Franais en les immisant dans leur

J-P Cuq, I. Gruca, Cours de didactique du franais langue trangre et seconde, 2002, Presses
33

Universitaires de Grenoble, p 391


34
Gallison,R.,Coste,D.,Dictionnairededidactiquedeslangues,1997,Hachette,Paris,pag.85

104

actualit, leurs rves, leurs proccupations, leurs dsirs, leurs imaginaires socioculturels. La
pratique langagire, linteraction entre les lves, les situations relles de la communication ne sont
possibles quen offrant aux lves des activits agrables, intressantes, motivantes. Jai remarqu,
le long de ma carrire que tous les lves narrivaient pas en classe avec le mme tat desprit : si
certains dentre eux percevaient lintrt de savoir et dapprendre et ils en ont le dsir, dautres
arrivaient en classe compltement dmotivs (aspect constat non seulement dans les classes de
franais mais toutes les matires). Le document authentique, sil est choisi en fonction des
besoins des lves, dveloppe, comme jai observ, une communication interactive au sein de la
classe et met en vidence limagination des lves, leur intelligence, leur crativit, motive les
lves et leur donne la chance de sexprimer en amliorant aussi leurs habilets communicatives.
Ainsi llve sera confiant et participera volontiers dans le jeu de la construction de son. Un
document audio-visuel, sil est bien conu, rend un lve actif et responsable de son apprentissage
parce que le professeur choisit un objectif atteindre pour lensemble du groupe dlves, identifie
leurs dfis, prpare des stratgies en fonction de leurs dfis, les regroupe et les fait travailler de
faon autonome avec la moindre assistance, selon les stratgies labores. Cest le rle des
professeurs de faire comprendre aux lves que la langue franaise peut devenir utile sur le plan de
lconomie, de la communication et de la culture, damener les lves prouver le plaisir de
ltude, de la connaissance dune langue nouvelle. Voil pourquoi il faut quon utilise les
documents authentiques au service de lenseignement apprentissage des comptences de
communication en FLE : pour motiver, pour rendre l'lve comptent et capable daccomplir des
tches complexes et le prparer en vue de sintgrer dans la vraie vie et non pas pour lui transmettre
des informations non applicables.
Chaque lve a ses besoins spcifiques, un rythme et une motivation dapprentissage
diffrents. Chacun a sa propre faon dapprendre. Cest le rle du professeur de dvelopper les
capacits dapprendre apprendre chez chaque lve et de lui permettre de dvelopper sa propre
stratgie dapprentissage.
De nos jours, o les technologies ont envahi la vie des enfants, il est ncessaire de les
intgrer dans lenseignement des langues, de rendre les classes plus attractives. Il est important
dutiliser le numrique des fins ducatives car non seulement, cette dmarche motive les lves
mais aussi facilite le travail individuel et le travail en groupe. Un document authentique audio-
visuel aide contextualiser lapprentissage de la langue, faire dcouvrir la ralit sociale et
culturelle, enrichir le vocabulaire et briser la monotonie des manuels. Ainsi, il devient essentiel pour
un professeur de bien choisir et structurer le document audio-visuel exploiter en classe. Ce travail
est essentiellement dirig par le besoin didentifier et de structurer les documents authentiques
audio-visuels dans le but de faciliter lapprentissage autonome
La communication joue un rle primordial dans lapprentissage dune langue trangre. Elle
favorise le dveloppement de la conscience phonologique et syntaxique, et lacquisition du
vocabulaire et des structures langagires sur lesquelles sappuient les lves pour comprendre, lire,
crire et communiquer en franais qui est apprci des lves parce que cest une langue douce,
mlodieuse et romantique.
Les documents authentiques reprsentent une source de richesse infinie dans lapprentissage
dune culture trangre. Ils offrent de nombreuses possibilits dexploitation visant dvelopper la
communication interactive au sein de la classe. Ils suscitent chez les lves un enthousiasme
remarquable parce que les documents authentiques en classe de franais, langue trangre, mettent
laccent sur le dveloppement de la comptence communicative et encouragent les lves
communiquer dans la langue cible. Le document authentique renvoie un ensemble trs divers de
situations de communication et de messages crits, oraux, iconiques et audiovisuels, qui couvrent
presque tous les domaines de la vie : quotidienne, administrative, mdiatique, culturelle,
professionnelle. Le document authentique permet aussi de travailler la langue et la civilisation
replaant llve dans la vie quotidienne des Franais/Francophones qui seront confronts aux
mmes situations que les natifs. Dans lapprentissage dune langue trangre, il est important de
mettre laccent sur la pratique langagire et sur llaboration des conditions favorables un change
105

linguistique et culturel plus authentique car un document audio-visuel offre une grande varit
d'informations et permet de crer des liens entre de multiples intelligences. Il offre lopportunit de
concevoir et de proposer un nombre vari de tches et dactivits. Ceci facilite la prise en charge
individuelle et assure la russite personnelle parce que chaque lve progresse selon son rythme.

BIBLIOGRAPHIE
Chalvin, Marie-Joseph, Comment russir avec ses lves, 1982, Editions ESF, Paris
Cremarenco, S. L'approche du document authentique en classe de FLE, 2009 Ed. Teocora, Buzu
Delannoy, Ccile, La motivation, 1997, Hachette Education, Paris
Dictionnaire universel francophone, Hachette, 1997, 1554 p. (ISBN 2-84-129345-9)
Girault, L., De lauthenticit en classe de FLE, Travaux de didactique du FLE, no. 42, 1999 ;
Ilyes Zouari, Petit dictionnaire du Monde francophone, L'Harmattan, 2015.
Jean-Jacques Luthi, Dictionnaire gnral de la francophonie, Paris, Letouzey et An, 1986.
Lemeunier-Qur, M., Recommandations pour lutilisation du document authentique en classe dans
Le franais dans le monde, no.331

SITOGRAPHIE
- Aslim Yetis Veda. Le Document authentique : un exemple dexploitation en classe de FLE,
http://synergies.lib.uoguelph.ca/article/view/
- Barrire, I., Exploitation pdagogique de documents, 2003, http://www.edufle.net/ Exploitation-
pdagogique- de- documents ;
- Holec, H., Des documents authentiques, pour quoi faire?, http://atilf.fr/IMG/pdf/melanges/5holec-
2.pdf;

LINTERCOMPREHENSION EN CLASSE DE FLE


LES APPROCHES PLURIELLES

Prof. Magdalena Miron


Colegiul Naional Spiru HaretTecuci, jud. Galai

Le monde daujourdhui est un monde multilingue et multiculturel, mixte et mobile. Cest


leffet de la mondialisation, de la communication sans frontires. Penser le monde travers le
prisme des langues nous oblige penser la diversit. Dans lenseignement des langues on parle
depuis quelques annes des approches plurielles, dans lesquelles on traite la fois plusieurs langues
et cultures. On appelle approches plurielles des langues et des cultures les approches didactiques
qui mettent en uvre des activits impliquant la fois plusieurs varits linguistiques et culturelles.
Elles dveloppent de faon concrte la conception de la comptence plurilingue et pluriculturelle
promue par le Cadre europen commun de rfrence pour les langues (CECRL). Elles reprsentent
des outils permettant de concevoir et darticuler des interventions didactiques favorables au
dveloppement et lenrichissement continu de cette comptence par les apprenants. Un mme
individu ne dispose pas dune collection de comptences communiquer distinctes et spares
suivant les langues dont il a quelque matrise, mais bien dune comptence plurilingue et
pluriculturelle qui englobe lensemble du rpertoire langagier disposition35. Les approches
plurielles sopposent aux les approches singulires, dans lesquelles on se concentre de faon isole
sur une langue/culture. Aujourdhui cest une certitude, on encourage la ralisation des liens entre
les langues et on prend en compte les savoirs des lves dans les langues autres que la langue de
scolarisation, pour sen servir dappui dans lapprentissage. Si la didactique des langues a
longtemps considr que les langues devaient sapprendre de manire tanche les unes des autres,

35
Cadre europen commun de rfrence pour les langues, page 128
106

elle volue maintenant vers une approche plurilingue qui favorise le dveloppement de la
comptence mtalinguistique de lapprenant. Ce dernier peut ainsi sappuyer sur ses acquis
linguistiques antrieurs (mme partiels) pour apprendre une nouvelle langue.36
Lintercomprhension est une pratique laquelle les hommes ont toujours recouru lors dchanges
avec des personnes dun territoire voisin : de nombreux tmoignages historiques en attestent. Si la
didactique des langues, corollaire de la politique linguistique de ltat, a longtemps t hostile au
plurilinguisme et la mise en contact des langues, la didactisation de lintercomprhension gagne
aujourdhui du terrain. En dveloppant lautonomie et la comptence plurilingue de lapprenant,
cette approche prsente de nombreux avantages dans une socit mondialise o les changes
internationaux se multiplient. Cette communication portera sur les pratiques intercomprhensives
dans le monde professionnel et les relations interculturelles, et sur les aspects bnfiques qui en
dcoulent.
Les tudes sur les approches plurielles des langues prsentent quatre types dapproches
plurielles. Lveil aux langues est une dmarche caractrise par des activits portant simultanment
sur plusieurs langues de tout statut y compris sur des langues que lcole na pas lintention
denseigner. Ce nest pas lenseignement dune langue particulire, mais a peut le soutenir, le
prparer et le complter. La didactique intgre des langues a comme but aider lapprenant
tablir des liens entre un nombre limit de langues, celles qui sont tudies dans le cursus scolaire.
Cest un appui sur le connu pour aborder le moins connu : la langue de scolarisation pour aborder la
premire langue trangre, cette dernire pour entrer dans la seconde langue trangre, etc. On a
donc deux langues (voire trois ou quatre) qui sont "travailles" en mme temps.
Lintercomprhension entre les langues parentes propose un travail dapprentissage et de rflexion
compare portant sur deux ou plusieurs langues d'une mme famille (langues romanes,
germaniques, slaves, etc.). Il sagit en premier lieu de dvelopper des habilets de comprhension
crite ou orale en mettant en place des stratgies prcisment fondes sur la parent des langues.
Lapproche interculturelle a eu une influence certaine sur la didactique des langues et semble de ce
fait assez bien connue. Elle connait de nombreuses variantes qui ont en commun de reposer sur des
principes didactiques prconisant lappui sur des phnomnes relevant d'une ou plusieurs aire(s)
culturelle(s) (conues comme hybrides, permables et dynamiques) pour en comprendre dautres
relevant d'une ou plusieurs autres aire(s) culturelle(s). Ces principes prnent galement la mise en
uvre de stratgies destines favoriser la rflexion sur les modalits du contact entre individus
disposant darrire-plans culturels diffrents.
Lenseignement et lapprentissage des langues par lintercomprhension sont favoriss par
les outils informatiques, plus exactement par les sites et les plateformes qui proposent des outils en
ligne. MIRIADI (https://www.miriadi.net/) est un rseau international de chercheurs, d'enseignants,
et d'autres personnes, toutes intresses par l'intercomprhension et particulirement
l'intercomprhension en ligne. Ce portail nous propose un espace de formation qui contient un
dispositif qui permet aux quipes de formateurs de gnrer un espace numrique adapt leur projet
pdagogique, une base d'activits permettant de recourir la mutualisation de ressources
pdagogiques sous la forme d'activits analyses et rpertories et deux rfrentiels de
comptences, un pour les apprenants et l'autre pour les formateurs, qui claircirent les objectifs
pdagogiques des sessions de formations. Le ressources peuvent tre utilises en ligne ou peuvent
tre imprimes. MIRIADI nous permet aussi dentrer en contact avec des enseignants dautres
systmes pdagogiques qui partagent notre curiosit dessayer lIC en classe, en thorie et en
pratique.
Un autre site qui sensibilise lintercomprhension est EOLE Education et ouverture aux
langues lcole (http://eole.irdp.ch/activites_eole/langues_voisines1.pdf) qui a comme objectif
central dvelopper des stratgies dintercomprhension entre langues proches, plus exactement les

36
Evenou, Gad, Didactiser le contact entre les langues : quels enjeux sociaux et interculturels ? dans Les approches
plurielles dans lducation aux langues : lintercomprhension, en prsence et en ligne, Editura Universitii
Alexandru Ioan Cuza, Iai, 2015, page 78
107

langues romanes (espagnol, franais, italien, portugais, catalan, roumain). Par exemple, un mme
texte crit en espagnol, portugais et italien, tant compos de phrases mlanges. Pour les
comprendre et les mettre en ordre, les apprenants doivent faire appel leurs connaissances
linguistiques et mettre en place des stratgies de comprhension : par des mots connus, familiers,
par des mots transparents en roumain, par des mots semblables leurs correspondants franais, par
la ponctuation, par supposition, en suivant le fil dun conte (premirement il y a une introduction,
puis viennent les dialogues). Par les hypothses et les dductions, les lves deviennent autonomes
leur propre apprentissage, en dcouvrant la langue-cible.
Itinraires romans (http://www.unilat.org/DPEL/Intercomprehension/Itineraires_romans/fr)
reprsente un outil phare au sein des activits de promotion et enseignement des langues de l'Union
latine. Cest un didacticiel qui favorise lintercomprhension en langues romanes. Libre daccs en
ligne, il comprend six modules qui fonctionnent de manire autonome. Sa performance rside dans
la mise en prsence de manire intgre de six langues (catalan, espagnol, franais, italien,
portugais et roumain), de sorte quelles deviennent des passerelles les unes pour les autres, se
valorisant ainsi mutuellement et facilitant le travail dapprentissage simultan et non plus
conscutif. La diversit culturelle et linguistique devenant facteurs ducatifs, le didacticiel vise la
reconnaissance des langues et rvle les capacits dintercomprhension des apprenants car ils
parviennent percevoir le plurilinguisme et la ralit pluriculturelle qui les entoure. Ils arrivent de
la sorte saisir le fonctionnement dautres systmes linguistiques et, par l mme, celui de leur
propre langue. Ludique, loutil vise un public de 9 13 ans et prsente latout majeur dtre
exploitable dans les structures scolaires. Il a dailleurs reu le Label europen des langues pour les
initiatives innovantes dans le domaine de lenseignement et de lapprentissage des langues.
CARAP - Un Cadre de Rfrence pour les Approches Plurielles des Langues et des
Cultures, publication qui est le rsultat dun projet du Centre Europen pour les Langues Vivantes
(CELV), invite prendre appui dans lenseignement sur des approches plurielles afin de dvelopper
des comptences plurilingues et interculturelles chez les apprenants de toutes disciplines. La
publication propose un large ensemble de descripteurs rendant compte des savoirs, savoir-tre et
savoir-faire quil convient de dvelopper dans la perspective dune ducation plurilingue et
interculturelle. Elle offre des matriaux didactiques susceptibles de favoriser ce dveloppement en
classe. Le projet CARAP donne une description exhaustive des savoirs, savoir-tre et savoir-faire
qui constituent les comptences plurilingues et pluriculturelles. Comme le Cadre Europen
Commun, le projet dcrit les comptences en termes de je suis capable de je suis capable de
reprer/de comparer/danalyser, etc. et innove dans les descripteurs des savoirs-tre en prdicats
de avoir la volont de / tre dispos / tre dtermin .
Linstitution scolaire doit semparer dun concept devenu vident, et permettre de
dvelopper grande chelle les programmes dintercomprhension des langues. Son inscription
dans les curriculums est un pralable fondamental. On doit passer du stade dinitiation la
diversit celui de lintercomprhension . 37

BIBLIOGRAPHIE ET SITOGRAPHIE:

Bossuet, R., Escud, P., Parler sa langue pour comprendre celle des autres ? dans Le franais
dans le monde, no 358, juillet-aot 2008
***Cadre europen commun de rfrence pour les langues: apprendre, enseigner, valuer,
Strasbourg, Didier, 2001
Evenou, Gad, Didactiser le contact entre les langues : quels enjeux sociaux et interculturels ?
dans Les approches plurielles dans lducation aux langues : lintercomprhension, en prsence
et en ligne, Editura Universitii Alexandru Ioan Cuza, Iai, 2015
http://carap.ecml.at/

37
Bossuet, R., Escud, P., 2008. Parler sa langue pour comprendre celle des autres ? . Le franais dans le monde, no
358, juillet-aot
108

https://www.miriadi.net/documents-projet
http://eole.irdp.ch/activites_eole/langues_voisines1.pdf
http://www.euro-mania.eu/
http://www.unilat.org/DPEL/Intercomprehension/Itineraires_romans/fr

LA RENCONTRE INTERCULTURELLE DANS LENSEIGNEMENT


DES LANGUES VIVANTES

Nechita Elena
Lyce Thorique ,, Nicolae Blcescu Medgidia

Les socits contemporaines sont presque toutes multiculturelles. Il est impossible de trouver des
groupes compltement homognes qui nauraient pas eu dchanges avec dautres ou dont les
membres ne connatraient aucun lien conomique, aucun dialogue, aucun mlange.
Lorsque des locuteurs de cultures diffrentes se rencontrent, il existe gnralement un dcalage des
perceptions entre eux et, un degr extrme, un choc culturel. Cette apprhension de laltrit
pourrait tre schmatiquement illustre par trois tapes :
Ltape idyllique appele ,,lune de miel dans laquelle le locuteur dcouvre un monde
nouveau o tout lui parat beau et positif, voire agrablement diffrent. A titre dexemple,
lors dun voyage de loisirs, les premires approches de la culture trangre sont en gnral
positivement orientes car cest un regard de type,, circuit touristique qui est port sur
lautre ; il ny a pas de vritable rencontre.
Ltape de la survie, celle des contacts complexes et parfois tendus entre les cultures. Cette
tape se caractrise par la redcouverte des diffrences culturelles qui deviennent ce
moment plus frappantes. Linterprtation des codes, des gestes, des modes de vie devient
difficile, parfois mme impossible. Les locuteurs ont des difficults les comprendre. Cest
ce quon appelle proprement parler le choc culturel. Les points de repre se font tellement
rares que lindividu est dstabilis. Ses rfrences tant celles de la culture dorigine, il sy
accroche intuitivement. Ce regard ethnocentr sur la culture de lautre conduit des
jugements globalisants et empche daccepter ce qui est diffrent.
Ltape dadaptation. Progressivement, le locuteur russit se sentir plus laise, mieux
agir, mieux communiquer dans le mme espace qui lui paraissait auparavant indcodable,
impntrable. La relativisation de son systme de rfrence lui permet de dpasser le regard
ethnocentr, la communication soriente vers les regards croiss, une comprhension et
acceptation mutuelles. Ltape dadaptation est une phase dadhsion, dadoption de
certaines valeurs morales qui sopre graduellement.
Linterculturel dsigne alors un certain type de relation entre les membres de cultures diffrentes. Il
cherche favoriser lacceptation et viter le rejet. Pour que le dialogue interculturel ait lieu, il est
indispensable que les valeurs et les formes de vie de chaque groupe soient valorises.
Il est par la suite trs utile dintgrer une approche interculturelle dans le parcours ducatif scolaire
et extrascolaire. Linterculturalit est une faon de comprendre la diversit et linteraction entre
cultures. En classe de langue, le dveloppement de la comptence interculturelle doit faire natre le
dsir de comprendre la langue et la culture de lautre et de matriser les strotypes et les prjuges.
Lorsquon pntre dans un milieu international, on se rend rapidement compte que tout le monde a
des prjugs sur tout le monde : les Franais sur les Allemands et vice-versa, les Roumains sur les
Hongrois et vice-versa, les Japonais, les Corens, les Chinois, sur les autres asiatiques et vice-
versa, les Africains de tel pays ou de telle ou telle ethnie sur les Africains de tel autre pays ou telle
autre ethnie. Il ny a pas dexception. En Europe, la plupart des cultures ducatives sont centres sur
la reconnaissance de la diversit culturelle et la volont de promouvoir la rencontre et la
connaissance de plusieurs cultures.
109

Nanmoins, vouloir liminer totalement strotypes et prjugs nest pas une option pdagogique
raliste. Nous-mmes enseignants, sommes soumis aux mmes mcanismes de pense que les
autres membres de la communaut laquelle nous appartenons. Nous jouons aussi un rle
important dans la transmission volontaire ou inconsciente des ides et valeurs collectives au groupe
de rfrence, donc aussi des strotypes et prjugs. Le rle de lcole en tant que lieu dducation
et agent de socialisation devrait tre daider apprenants et enseignants apprendre regarder la
ralit en objectivant le plus possible le regard. Il sagit de prendre conscience, puis dinterroger et
de relativiser les reprsentations strotypes et les prjuges afin de permettre daller la rencontre
de lautre, de faire voluer les comportements vers plus de comprhension, de curiosit et de
volont de partage. Il sagit aussi de rflchir ses propres valeurs, ses propres convictions.
Diverses activits trs simples peuvent tre proposes dans le but de faire rflchir les
enseignants et les apprenants sur leurs reprsentations. En fait, ce travail a t dclench justement
par une raction un peu outrage de mes lves par rapport un ralisateur TV franais et une
mission dnigrante par rapports aux mendiants roumains de Paris. Eux aussi, ils ont commence
employer des mots dnigrants sur les Franais. Je leur ai alors propos une activit didactique
adapte du travail ,, Linterculturel en classe ( auteurs R.M Chaves, L. Favier, S
Plissier). La fiche de travail a t exprimente une classe de onzime, niveau B1+.
Strotypes/ 45 minutes
Objectifs :
- identifier des strotypes associs un pays
- prendre conscience du caractre rducteur, simplificateur et ethnocentrique des strotypes
- prendre conscience de la relation entre les strotypes et lidentit.
Matriel :
Court mtrage Clichs franais de Cdric Villain, accessible sur www.youtube.com
Etape 1
Consigne : En groupes de trois, choisissez dix mots pour parler de votre pays. Comparez avec les
listes des autres groupes. Y a-t-il des mots communs ?

Etape 2 :Consigne : trois, changez vos connaissances et compltez le tableau ci-dessous.


La France et les Franais
Des personnages clbres
Des monuments connus
Lalimentation
Des habitudes et comportements
La France dans le monde
Des mots franais dans les langues trangres

De groupe en groupe, les apprenants citent des informations quils ont intgres au tableau.
Consigne : visionnez le vido intitule : Cliches ! version franaise, puis compltez le tableau avec
dautres informations.
La vido est-elle selon vous reprsentative de la France et des Franais, puis compltez le tableau
avec dautres informations.
Consigne : De la mme manire quil existe de nombreux clichs sur les Franais, faites la liste des
strotypes qui sont habituellement noncs sur votre pays dorigine. Selon vous jusqu' quel point
ces strotypes correspondent-ils la ralit.
Cette leon a aid mes lves comprendre que nous tous nous sommes diffrents et que nous
devons respecter lopinion des autres. a ne veut pas dire accepter avec passivit les manifestations
xnophobes. Mais nos ractions doivent tre modres et avant dappliquer des clichs, nous
sommes obligs de nous respecter en tant qutres humains, habitants de la mme plante.

BIBLIOGRAPHIE :
R.M. Chaves, L. Favier, S. Pelissier, LInterculturel en classe, FLE PUG, Grenoble, 2012, pag. 73
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HABILITATION DES EXAMINATEURS-CORRECTEURS DU DELF

Prof. Bortun Cristina- Anca


Liceul Teoretic Mihail Kogalniceanu Vaslui
Prof. Moraru Alina-Emanuela
coala Gimnazial Alexandra Nechita Vaslui

Au mois de juillet 2016, nous avons particip au stage d Habilitation des examinateurs-
correcteurs du DELF, pour les niveaux A1-B2, formatrice Nathalie Duplassy. Les bnficiaires
directs sont les professeurs de franais: Borun Cristina Anca, Ciolacu Lola Gabriela, Mocanu
Ramona, Moraru Alina Emanuela, Mihnevici Landiana et M Alexandru. Les bnficiaires
indirects sont les lves du Lyce Thorique Mihail Kogalniceanu, Vaslui.
Ce stage fait partie dun programme plus ample Erasmus +KA 1 Bilingv 15-18-
Reformarea curricular instituional prin ameliorarea competenelor lingvistice i de specialitate
ale profesorilor de la clasele cu profil bilingv.
Dans ce contexte, 20 professeurs de notre tablissement ont suivi des cours de spcialisation
ayant comme domaine le franais ou langlais.
Ce cours a t dautant plus important parce que linstitution organisatrice est le Centre
International dtudes Pdagogiques, Svres, France. Il a dbut lundi, le 25 juillet et on en a tir
les conclusions vendredi, le 29 juillet.
Cr en 1945, le CIEP est un oprateur du ministre de lducation nationale, de
lenseignement suprieur et de la recherche. Ses missions, qui sinscrivent dans le cadre des
priorits du gouvernement en matire de coopration internationale, sarticulent autour de trois axes
dactivit :
la coopration dans les domaines de lducation, de la formation professionnelle et de la qualit
de lenseignement suprieur ;
lappui la diffusion de la langue franaise dans le monde, par la formation de formateurs et de
cadres ducatifs et par la dlivrance de certifications en franais ;
la mobilit internationale des personnes, travers des programmes dchange dassistants de
langue et de professeurs ainsi que la dlivrance dattestations de comparabilit des diplmes
trangers.
Le Centre International dtudes Pdagogiques gre le label Qualit Franais langue
trangre et soccupe de la certification nationale pour DILF (Diplme initial de langue franaise),
DELF (Diplme dtude de langue franaise: DELF tout public, DELF Prim, DELF scolaire et
junior et DELF pro), DALF (diplme approfondi de langue franaise), TCF (le test de connaissance
du franais) et ev@lang, un test propos entirement en ligne. En plus, il est membre de Sorbonne
Universit.
Linscription ce stage est ne du dsir de:
mieux prparer les lves aux preuves DELF;
de connatre lorganisation du dispositif DELF;
de connatre aussi les modalits de passation des examens du DELF;
de ractualiser les connaissances relatives au Cadre Europen Commun de Rfrence pour
les Langues et aux descripteurs de comptences.
Dans le cadre de ce stage, tous les participants ont t amens dmontrer la capacit
justifier la note en fonction des critres dvaluation des examens du DELF et des niveaux dcrits
par le Cadre Europen Commun de Rfrence pour les Langues. Ce travail rgulier pour chaque
niveau a permis de sapproprier les outils conus et dlivrs par le CIEP pour recueillir et valuer
les performances des candidats aux preuves du DELF, selon les normes de qualit en vigueur au
CIEP.
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Notre valuation, en tant que participants a dpendu de la prsence et de limplication tout


au long du stage et de la connaissance des spcificits des niveaux du Cadre.
Aux critres dj mentionns il convient d`ajouter la capacit justifier les notes attribues,
la capacit dialoguer avec les autres participants et tablir un consensus, les rsultats au test
individuel d`habilitation final et l`approbation de la proposition d`habilitation par la gestion
centrale.
Une fois obtenue, l`attestation d`examinateurs-correcteurs des preuves DELF permet
d`exercer dans le cadre des sessions organises par le centre d`examen auquel le participant est
rattach. Cette attestation est valable 5 ans.
Organisation du cours
Divis en plusieurs sances de travail, le droulement du stage a prsent les points forts
suivants :
o Matriser lorganisation du dispositif DELF-DALF. Prsenter les versions DELF Prim et
DELF Pro. Faciliter lacquisition de connaissances relatives au Cadre europen commun de
rfrence pour les langues (CECRL). Dfinir les notions de niveau, consigne et tche.
o Former lvaluation dun niveau du DELF (de A1 B2). Analyser les documents-supports.
Faciliter lanalyse des descripteurs et la dcouverte de la maquette du DELF pour les
niveaux viss.
o valuer des productions crites et orales pour chaque niveau vis, de A1 B2. Comparer et
harmoniser les notations. Rsoudre des cas problmatiques.
o Sapproprier les outils conus et dlivrs par le CIEP pour recueillir et valuer les
performances des candidats aux preuves du DELF selon les normes de qualit en vigueur
au CIEP.
o Dfinir le profil-type des examinateurs-correcteurs former. Modliser le comportement de
lexaminateur.
o Les tests individuels d`habilitation.
Nous trouvons que ce stage a t une vraie russite et qu`il a parfaitement rpondu aux
besoins de formation identifis lors du projet Erasmus+ KA1, Bilingv 15-18- Reformarea
curricular instituional prin ameliorarea comptenelor lingvistice i de specialitate ale profesorilor
de la clasele cu profil bilingv.

LA B.D. - SUPPORT VISUEL EN CLASSE DE FLE

Prof. Luminia Gima


C.N. M. Eminescu Constana / coala Gimnazial nr. 8 Constana /
coala Gimnazial nr. 1 Comana

Le but de lenseignant de langues est de former et de dvelopper chez les apprenants des
habilets de communication et dexpression orale et crite. Pour cela on a besoin de travailler sur
des supports varis, qui leur permettent galement d'envisager la langue trangre qu'ils apprennent
dans des contextes diffrents. La Bande dessine fait partie de ces supports encore peu exploits par
les professeurs de FLE cause de son caractre trop ludique au dsavantage de celui pdagogique.
Toutefois on peut affirmer que la bande dessine demeure un support de cours parfaitement
exploitable, retenant sur le coup l'attention des apprenants de tous ges. Grce au lien du texte et de
limage, la bande dessine offre beaucoup dindices aux apprenants pour la comprhension globale
dun texte et veille la lecture active. Ainsi elle donne la possibilit dentrer plus facilement dans la
lecture, en devenant lecture plaisir. Dans leur vie quotidienne les apprenants connaissent et
pratiquent dj deux-mmes la lecture de bandes dessines.

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Comment utiliser une bande dessine? Il s'agit dabord de comprendre une planche de
BD globalement partir de l'observation de limage : avant la lecture des bulles, il est juste de leur
faire produire des hypothses sur le thme gnral partir de l'observation des dessins raliss. Ils
peuvent dcrire l'ensemble pour en dterminer le thme, le caractre humoristique ou non,
l'intention de l'auteur, le message ventuel...
La bande dessine peut servir de support pour l'expression orale : description, puis lecture
des bulles, rsum de l'histoire, pour dboucher si la fin est ouverte vers la formulation d'hypothses
pour une fin probable... On peut aussi effacer les textes crits dans les bulles, et travailler
particulirement sur l'imaginaire... Qu'ont voulu dire les personnages ? Quel est le contenu essentiel
de leurs propos? Ce type dactivits sur l'crit dveloppe certaines comptences lies la
comprhension crite mais aussi la production orale, ce qui favorise le travail sur les registres. On
peut aussi essayer de trouver un titre, imaginer ce qui sest pass avant ou aprs, trouver le mot de
la fin, rviser et enrichir son vocabulaire, sapproprier certaines structures grammaticales et des
actes de parole en situation authentique.
La bande dessine peut donc aussi tre le point de dpart de production crite. On peut
demander dimaginer la suite dune histoire partir du suspense dune bulle de la planche. Et
encore, on peut demander de crer un dialogue entre les personnages de la bande dessine en tenant
compte de linformation visuelle comme les attitudes, les dcors, les personnages, etc La bande
dessine prte aussi loccasion une activit dcriture dun scnario par lapprenant mais cest un
travail plus complexe et il ncessite un certain niveau de langue et un scnario prpar davance.
La bande dessine cest avant tout un rcit racont en image successives de diffrentes
tailles (cases). Tout comme le cinma, la bande dessine utilise la technique du cadrage et lellipse.
Elle se caractrise aussi par lutilisation des bulles o apparait le texte. Elle utilise donc un cadre
spcifique et se lit de gauche droite et de haut en bas sous nos latitudes. Cest aussi une forme
littraire part entire subdivise en genres diffrents (aventure, fantastique, humour, policier, ).
Enfin, cest un art reconnu : le neuvime art (Huerta, 2005)
On peut remarquer que la bande dessine fonctionne partir dun code, dun langage qui lui
est propre. Elle possde la capacit daborder, dutiliser tous les genres narratifs (roman, conte,
humour, science-fiction, etc.) avec une grande varit de moyens : couleurs, noir et blanc, photos,
collages, images numriques etc.).
La bande dessine est aussi un document authentique des plus vivants et des plus motivants
qui offre diffrents atouts. Elle est de plus en plus utilise pour lapprentissage des langues. Elle
peut permettre de travailler les quatre habilets principales : comprendre, parler, lire, crire. Elle
permet aux enseignants de FLE deffectuer un travail bnfique et positif. Pour les apprenants, elle
permet dassocier apprentissage et crativit. Son aspect ludique et sa richesse (culturelle, lexicale
et grammaticale) favorisent une manire de travailler diffrente en classe et avec les apprenants. La
bande dessine peut donc tre lune des meilleures manires daider les apprenants mieux
construire leur parcours dapprentissage dans la langue trangre mais aussi largir leurs pratiques
langagires et culturelles. Car, la bande dessine est un vritable phnomne de civilisation qui
permet de mieux faire comprendre le comportement et la mentalit dun pays. Selon les thmes, on
pourra discuter, dbattre et faire ressortir des lments de civilisation pertinents et si le dessein sy
prte, analyser les clichs qui dcoulent et ainsi amliorer la comptence socioculturelle des
apprenants. De plus, la langue de la bande dessine est une langue de tous les jours, qui par son
style conversationnel permet de travailler sur des situations varies.
Adapte par rapport au public destin (ge, niveau de langue, centres dintrt, objectifs,
besoins langagiers, hritage socio-culturel), la bande dessine offre aux enseignants la possibilit de
proposer de nombreuses activits en classe de langues.
En conclusion, on peut dire que l'introduction de la bande dessine en classe de FLE
prsente plusieurs avantages :

- C'est un support ludique et populaire gnralement apprci des apprenants ;

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- C'est un document authentique qui prsente un registre de langue courant, proche de la vie
quotidienne. De plus, les lments textuels (dialogues ou rcit) sont souvent courts et accessibles.
Lapprenant est donc confront au langage populaire, familier, utilis par beaucoup de jeunes
francophones ;
- C'est un document qui mle rception visuelle et textuelle, jouant sur lassociation texte / image
pour crer du sens ;
- La bande dessine facilite le dialogue interculturel et permet de sensibiliser l'humour ;
- C'est un bon dclencheur pour largir le thme abord avec des activits diversifies (continuer un
rcit inachev, crire un dialogue, etc.) mettant en scne les quatre comptences crites et orales.

BIBLIOGRAPHIE :

Huerta, N. (2005). Comment utiliser la bande dessine comme outil pdagogique


lcole?. I.U.F.M: Acadmie de Montpellier, site de Carcassonne.
(sbe.balikesir.edu.tr/dergi/edergi/c18s33/1-14.pdf)
Morlat, J.-M. et Tomimoto, J. (2004). La bande dessine en classe de langue. Rencontres
pdagogiques du Kansa, 52-56. (sbe.balikesir.edu.tr/dergi/edergi/c18s33/1-14.pdf)
Tagliante, C. (1994). La classe de langue. Paris : CLE International.
(https://www.scribd.com/document/318720995/La-Classe-de-Langue-Christine-Tagliante
parte-1-pdf)
http://insuf-fle.hautetfort.com/archive/2010/02/20/la-bd-support-motivant-
pedagogiquement.html
http://flecampus.ning.com/profiles/blogs/bande-dessine-en-classe-des-langues

PENSER EN NOIR ET BLANC- PERSEPOLIS DE MARJANE SATRAPI

Ghiorghe Marina Gratiela


Liceul Tehnologic de Transporturi Auto, Targoviste

Jai propos aux lves cette anne la lecture dun roman graphique, une bande dessine
alternative , indpendante, surprenante parce que son sujet nous oblige dentrer dans un monde
islamique peu connu pour dcouvrir, par exemple, une condition de la femme inconcevable pour
nous, les europens.
Jai choisi de leur prsenter Perspolis , un roman graphique autobiographique, crit par
Marjane Satrapi. Lcrivaine est ne Thran, dans une famille aise, cultive et librale. Elle a
vcu les bouleversements politiques en Iran et en 1992 elle est partie en France. A quatorze ans, ses
parents lenvoient au lyce franais de Vienne. Marjane Satrapi raconte sa vie travers les yeux
dune Marjane contemporaine des vnements.
Il sagit du vcu subjectif dune petite fille, de la reprsentation des vnements dans limagination
de lenfant.
Lautobiographie a pour but de raconter lvolution dun individu avec ses singularits et son
identit.
Elle nous montre comment sest construite son identit ds lge de dix ans. Cest lge quelle a
pendant la rvolution islamique qui, concidence ou non, cest lge ds lequel les petites filles
peuvent subir la peine de mort en Iran. Cest lge auquel elle devrait tre tenue pour responsable de
ses actes.
Quand on regarde la deuxime vignette sur la premire page, on a limpression que la premire a t
dcoupe de la photo de groupe et que lauteur veut distinguer des autres son destin individuel.

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Son histoire est fonde sur la mmoire : tout dabord personnelle, de dix quatorze ans, puis
partage avec les membres de la famille (sa mre, sa grande mre, son pre, etc.) et collective,
lhistoire du peuple iranien. Elle veut faire connaitre travers son histoire, lhistoire dune petite
fille iranienne, lhistoire de son pays des non-iraniens, tant donne le manque dintrt des
europens lgard de sa culture.
Elle est issue dune famille moderne et avant garde, aise, cultive, librale. Elle se dfinit de cette
manire en ce qui concerne le port du foulard : Je ne savais pas trop quoi penser du foulard. Moi,
jtais croyante, mais moi et mes parents ensemble tions trs modernes et avant-garde . De plus,
cest un enfant, cest lge de la libert et elle dit ce quelle pense ou rpte ce quelle entend.
Elle nous annonce que son destin va tre hors du commun, en nous avouant qu lge de six ans
elle voulait tre prophte. Elle voulait avoir des pouvoirs surnaturels pour rgler les ingalits
sociales, les injustices, par exemple pour aider sa grand-mre qui avait mal aux genoux. Cest le
dbut de sa rvolte individuelle. Cest une fministe prcoce : il y a une vignette sur la quatrime
page ou elle sinscrit dans la ligne des prophtes comme la dernire et regarde dune manire
audacieuse et innocente un rang dhommes qui demandent : Une femme ? .
Pour les autres, elle est cingle et pour nous, les lecteurs, son ide est
amusante. Mais ce nest pas delle-mme quelle veut tre prophte, mais
cest Dieu qui loblige en la choisissant. Nous lapprenons de ses
conversations quelle a tous les soirs avec Dieu.
Elle comprend quelle na pas la libert de dire ce quelle pense et
commence mentir, dissimuler, bien sur en se
sentant coupable envers Dieu.

La premire vignette prsente un portrait ou on voit peine le corps de


lenfant, enferm dans un voile noir. Le voile annonce la thmatique de
lenfermement, de loppression.
Dans la deuxime vignette il y a un tableau de groupe ou le voile rend
semblables les petites filles et seulement lexpression du visage les rend
diffrentes.
Dans la quatrime vignette est illustr le port du foulard lcole,
consquence de la rvolution islamique , vignette trois.
La cinquime, qui comprend plusieurs exemples de lincompatibilit du
foulard avec les jeux et les proccupations des enfants, est rectangulaire et
plus vaste.
Sur la deuxime page il y a lopposition entre lcole laque et lautre type dcole (qui nest pas
nomm).
Le leader de la rvolution islamique est reprsent comme un individu dcideur, aux sourcils
froncs, signe de la fermet, de son autorit.
Sur la troisime page il y a lhistoire de la mre quelle nous prsente dans lhypostase de
protestataire et nous annonce que sa mre est dans une certaine mesure un modle pour
elle : Jtais vraiment trs fire delle .
La dernire vignette nous prsente sa mre qui veut se cacher des yeux des acharns religieux. Si les
femmes doivent porter le voile, les hommes doivent avoir de la barbe.
Sur la quatrime page jai trouv intressante la premire vignette.

Lindividualit de lenfant doit se naitre de ces visions trs diffrentes du monde ; elle deviendra
une croyante trs moderne et avant-garde, elle se croit prophte et nhsite pas de le dclarer, elle
dit ce quelle pense.
Jai isol la premire vignette et jai agrandi limage. A droite, le fond est aux arabesques, des
motifs vgtaux styliss dans des lignes sinueuses, ce qui nous fait penser au monde musulman,
islamique. Ici est figur, symbolis lOrient sduisant par ses sinuosits de ses arabesques et qui
cache, protge la fminit par le voile.
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Ce qui mest venu lesprit en regardant la partie gauche de limage a t la dfinition de Descartes
pour le corps humain : Je considre le corps de lhomme comme un horloge compos des roues et
des contrepieds . Cest une vision mcaniste du monde, avec des rouages, un rgle qui mesure,
cest lOccident raisonnable. Pour suggrer cette ide, dOrient et dOccident, sur la carte de
cette vignette louest est figure lOccident et lest lOrient. On peut interprter cette vision
scissionniste, on peut voir gauche le masculin et droite le fminin.
Cette bande dessine a pour but de tourner en drision la dictature islamique de lIran, cest un
pamphlet. Par exemple, lge de six ans, lhrone veut devenir prophte, chose scandaleuse dans
un pays ou les femmes qui ne sont pas assez soumises peuvent tre condamnes mort ds lge de
neuf ans. Elle traite des sujets graves comme la foi, la religion, dune manire amusante, drle,
cocasse.

BIBLIOGRAPHIE :
Satrapi Marjane, Persepolis, Editura Art, Bucuresti, 2014, vol. I

UTILISER LES MOYENS AUDIOVISUELS ET LA BD DANS LA CLASSE DE FLE


Prof. Moraru Alina-Emanuela
coala Gimnazial Alexandra Nechita Vaslui

On dit souvent quon pourrait mieux assimiler et apprendre ce quon entend et ce quon voit
parce que la mmoire visuelle et celle auditive jouent un rle important dans le processus
dapprentissage. part tout cela, le dveloppement de la technologie influence, de manire
favorable sans doute, tout le processus denseignement-apprentissage-valuation. De nos jours, dans
un continu progrs technologique, les matriels audiovisuels et lInternet peuvent trs bien faciliter
lapprentissage dune langue trangre et apportent un souffle nouveau, moderne, en classe de FLE.
Communication par la bande dessine.
La bande dessine s'est rapidement impose comme un vecteur de communication efficace
sur tous publics : Glnat concept est la premire agence de communication par la BD (cre en
1984 et dirige par Roger Brunel). En Belgique, Cartoonbase se spcialise dans ce domaine
partir de 1997.

missions de tlvision consacre la bande dessine


Parmi les missions autour de la bande dessine, on peut citer en France Tac au tac, diffus
entre 1969 et 1975 sur les chanes de l'ORTF. Cooprant ou s'affrontant, les invits se livraient des
dessins improviss, souvent collectifs, encadrs par des contraintes inspires des jeux surralistes
comme le cadavre exquis. De nombreux dessinateurs de bande dessine y ont particip, tels que
Gotlib, Franquin, Mandryka, Jean Giraud, Claire Bretcher, Hugo Pratt, Uderzo, Morris.
Autres missions, La Bande Bd, rubrique de l'mission Rcr A2, diffuse le mercredi
aprs-midi entre 1980 et 1986 ainsi qu'un monde de bulles qui fut diffuse sur la chane
parlementaire Public Snat, sur le canal 13 de la TNT franaise de 2005 2013. Cette dernire
cre par Jean-Pierre Elkabbach et Jean-Philippe Lefvre, mettait en lumire les auteurs, scnaristes
et dessinateurs de bande dessine, sous forme de reportages, dvoilant ainsi les coulisses, la
fabrication et le processus de ce mdium. Elle y dcryptait aussi les sorties, les rendez-vous
spcifiques lis ce thme tels que les festivals et passait parfois des bandes annonces des films
bass d'aprs ce support.
De la bande dessine au cinma
Les industries de la bande dessine et du cinma sont nes en mme temps et ont beaucoup
de traits communs (la squence, la narration, les plans). Des passerelles ont naturellement reli ces
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deux mdiums.Longtemps, les adaptations de bandes dessines au cinma (ou en sries tlvises)
ont t des productions petit budget et sans grandes ambitions artistiques (avec quelques
exceptions, comme Barbarella) : Lucky Luke, Gros Dgueulasse, Fais gaffe la gaffe (Gaston
Lagaffe), Spiderman. Aux tats-Unis, au dbut desannes 1980, de vritables films adapts de
bandes dessines ont vu le jour, revisitant les classiques du comic-strip : Popeye par Robert Altman,
Annie par John Huston, Flash Gordon, Dick Tracy, Superman par Richard Lester, etc.
la fin des annes 1980, une nouvelle voie est ouverte par Tim Burton avec son Batman :
ayant grandi avec les comics et ayant suivi les volutions rcentes du genre (Frank Miller, Alan
Moore), Burton filme Batman comme un conte sombre et dramatique. Enfin on prend un super-
hros au srieux. Le progrs des effets spciaux numriques, au cours des annes 1990, a permis de
rendre presque crdibles visuellement les effets exubrants autrefois imagins par Stan Lee et Jack
Kirby, ce qui aboutira la cration d'une grande quantit de films inspirs par les comic-books :
Spider-Man par Sam Raimi, les X-Men, Daredevil, Catwoman, La Ligue des gentlemen
extraordinaires, The Crow, etc.).
Les hros de bandes dessines francophones tels que : Astrix, Bcassine, le trsor viking,
Les Aventures de Tintin : Le Secret de La Licorne, Sur la piste du Marsupilami, Titeuf, le film,
Boule et Bill, Largo Winch, Les Aventures extraordinaires d'Adle Blanc-Sec, Les Schtroumpfs et
plus rcemment Les Profs, bnficient de moyens quivalents.
Les enseignants doivent se tenir toujours au courant avec les changements sur plan social,
culturel, et surtout technique. Pour que la classe de FLE devienne plus attrayante, il faut toujours
apporter quelque chose de nouveau, il faut toujours utiliser des moyens denseignement modernes et
des instruments modernes, en trend , comme : lordinateur, le vidoprojecteur, le lecteur CD.
On met de plus en plus laccent sur laspect actionnel et communicatif de lapprentissage
dune langue et lon a dmontr que laudiovisuel est le meilleur moyen utilis en classe de FLE.
Les nouvelles technologies aident, dune part, lenseignant, dans le processus denseignement-
apprentissage-valuation et, de lautre part, lenseign.
Il ne faut pas oublier le fait que les jeunes sont attirs par la technologie et lInternet ; on a
observ mme leur addiction la technologie et, cest pour ces raisons que jai dcid de faire
une recherche approfondie sur les matriels audiovisuels et leur rle et influence sur le processus
denseignement dune langue trangre, dans ce cas, le franais.
Le thme choisi comme dbat est dautant plus actuel, grce son apport de crativit et
grce la possibilit dinteraction des lves. Laccent est mis, donc, sur la manire
dapprhension, sur linteraction et sur la partie actionnelle de la comprhension orale. Ainsi, par
lintermdiaire des projections sonores et des projections vido, telles que les missions radio, les
chansons, les films franais, les bandes dessines ou les mdias, on espre sensibiliser les lves
la langue franaise et la rendre plus agrable et plus captivante, pour tre mieux assimile.
Comme on le sait dj, les bandes dessines sont des moyens ludiques et pleins dhumour et
dimages, ce que stimule sans quivoque lattention des lves. On joue en mme temps avec
limage et le texte, sensibilisant le rcepteur et enrichissant la comprhension et lapprhension. Par
le biais des BD on stimule lintrt des lves envers les connaissances prsentes, on va capter leur
attention grce la prsentation audiovisuelle des informations, tout en liminant les risques de la
distraction et dinattention des lves, cause de la routine et de lennui. La dmarche ducative est
base sur les mthodes communicatives, la stimulation de limagination et elle a aussi comme
fondement les actes de langage. Par exemple, on napprend plus limpratif seulement pour le
plaisir de lapprendre, mais pour aider les lves donner des ordres. Cette dmarche met
laccent, avant toutes choses, sur lutilisation des documents authentiques, comme les BD, pour
pouvoir aider llve a communiquer plus rapidement et plus naturel en franais.
En ce qui concerne lutilisation des moyens audiovisuels modernes divers, on a observ
quelle est bien reue par les lves, dune part, grce au fait que lapprentissage est fait dans le
milieu le plus propice et le plus opportun, cest--dire, le monde rel, les situations socioculturelles
concrtes, la vie quotidienne.

117

Une autre raison pour laquelle laudiovisuel est bienvenu dans le processus de
lenseignement-apprentissage-valuation est celle de la partie communicative de la langue franaise
et la prparation des lves pour les situations relles communicatives et actionnelles auxquelles ils
participeront.
Donc, il faut nous concentrer lattention et lactivit sur lacte communicationnel, sur la
comprhension orale et sur la production orale, parce quil est bien connu que, de nos jours, on
passe plus de temps en parlant et en coutant, quen crivant et en lisant.

Bibliographie :
Girard, D., Enseigner les langues : mthodes et pratiques, Bordas, Paris, 1995
Tagliante, C., La classe de langue, CLE International, Paris, 1994
Weiss, Franois, Jouer, communiquer, apprendre (pratiques de classe), Hachette, Paris, 2002

Sitographie :
http://www.tv5monde.com/TV5Site/enseigner-apprendre-francais
http://bd-fle.wikispaces.com/

LA BD EN CLASSE DE LANGUES

Morma Maria Janina


coala Gimnazial Mueteti, Gorj

La bande dessine est un phnomne actuel. Alors pourquoi ne pas lutiliser dans lattention
des lves?
Thierry Smolderen prfre dfinir la bande dessine comme une scne audio-visuelle sur le
papier.
La vision de linventeur de la BD, Rodolphe Tpffer est: Ce petit livre est dune nature
mixte. Il se compose de dessins autographis au trait.
Chacun des dessins est accompagn dune au deux lignes de texte. Les dessins, sans le
texte, nauraient quune signification obscure; le texte, sans dessins, ne signifient rien.
Le tout ensemble forme une sorte de roman dautant plus original quil ne ressemble pas
mieux un roman qua autre chose.
H. Filippini dit que la bande dessine est une suite de dessins contant une histoire, les
personnages sy expriment par des textes inscrits dans des bulles.
On peut dire plus simplement que la BD est un type dart qui permet de raconter des
histoires accompagnes par des images.
Les apprenants ont besoin de travailler sur des supports varis qui leur permettent galement
denvisager la langue trangre quils apprennent dans des contextes diffrents.
La bande dessine fait partie de ces supports souvent encore trop peu exploits par les
professeurs de langue, de peur quelle dnote un caractre trop ludique.
Lutilisation de la bande dessine en classe prsents plusieurs avantages:
- cest un support ludique et populaire, gnralement apprci par des apprenants;
- cest un document authentique qui prsente un registre de langue courant proche de la vie
quotidienne;
- cest un document qui mle rception visuelle et textuelle, jouant sur le lien image/teste
pour crer du sens;
- la bande dessine facilite le dialogue interculturel et permet de sensibiliser lhumour;
- cest un bon dclencheur pour largir le thme abord avec des activits diversifies,
mettant en scne les quatre comptences crites et orales.
118

On peut utiliser la bande dessine dans un groupe dlves qui ne se connat pas encore:
prvoir un session humoristique pour deux personnes;
couper ces dessins en deux, les mlanger et distribuer une moiti de dessin chaque
participant;
les participant regardent attentivement leur moiti de dessin de faon pouvoir la dcrire
(tout en prenant bien soin de ne pas la montrer aux autres);
tous se lvent, vont les uns vers les autres et commencent, chaque nouvel interlovuteur,
dcrire leur moiti de dessin (exemple: moi, jai un monsieur dans un champ...) jusqu ce quils
aient trouv leur partenaire;
ils se dcrivent, alors, de faon trs dtaille leur moiti, respective du dessin, pour tre bien
srs davoir reconstitu le puzzle.
Cest seulement ce moment-l quils mettent les deux parties ensemble; les partenaires
peuvent maintenant se prsenter lun lautre avant de prsenter leur dessin au reste de la classe.
Les activits ayant comme support la BD sont varies et nous les avons groupes en plusieurs
sections selon les diffrents actes de parole pratiqus, envisags comme objectifs :
-Identifier : prsenter, se prsenter, illustrer
- Dcrire : inventorier, classer, reformuler, rsumer, distinguer, comparer, opposer, dfinir des
mots, des couleurs
-Imaginer : situer dans lespace et le temps, faire dialoguer, transposer, observer et spculer,
inventer
- Raconter : exprimer ses ides, ses sentiments, ses souvenirs
- Argumenter : dmontrer, persuader, polmiquer, questionner, faire un discours, une confrence,
juger, critiquer.
On peut fournir une trame tisser avec les lves lors du travail avec les bandes dessinees :
Premires impressions, ractions : Que voyez-vous sur la BD ?
Situation dans lespace : O sommes-nous ? Pays, ville, village, rue, type de lieu, btiment,
etc. Leur donner un nom, une appellation.
Identit dun personnage de la BD et premiers lments de biographie : nom, prnom,
surnom, diminutif, ge, nationalit, profession, situation de famille, caractristiques
physiques, intellectuelles, psychologiques, morales : tics physiques, comportements,
vestimentaires ou verbaux, deux vnements importants de sa vie, deux objets auxquels il
est trs attach, devise personnelle, projets .
Raisons de la prsence de ce personnage cet endroit : vocation de personnages
secondaires et de leurs relations.
Sensations : Quest-ce que lon entend ? Musiques, bruits, sons, conversations, etc. quest-ce
que lon sent, respire ? parfums, odeurs, senteurs, essences, fragrances, manations.
Couleurs : Quelles couleurs proposeriez-vous pour cette BD en noir et blanc ? Ajoutez
ventuellement des tons, des nuances, des qualifications, des comparaisons, des
explications.
Intrieurs, contenus : fouille et inventaire de ce qui se cache dans un sac, une poche, un
vase, un piano, une cave, une poubelle, une armoire, etc.
Imaginez les textes que lon ne voit pas mais qui sont susceptibles dtre prsents a et l :
petites annonces, graffitis, petits mots, tlgrammes, pages de journaux intimes ou de
voyage, cartes postales, lettres damour, etc. Les crire ou en imaginer le thme, le ton, les
formules dadresse ou dadieu, le dbut, la fin, etc.
Hors-temps : Que se passait-il dans ce mme lieu une minute avant ? Une heure avant ? Un
an, dix ans avant ? Il y a un sicle ? Que va-t-il se passer dans ce mme lieu dans une
minute ? Dans un an ? Dans dix ans ? Dans un sicle ?
En utilisant la BD en classe de FLE, je voudrais susciter lintrt dapprentissage de la
langue franaise qui est maintenant en voie de rgression.

119

BIBLIOGRAPHIE

1. Baron-Carvais, Annie, La bande dessine, Que sais-je?, Paris, Presses Universitaires


des France, 1994, pp. 78 78;
2. Godard, Charles, Cahiers de la BD, n. 29, 1976, p. 5;
3. Runge, Annette a Jaqueline, Sword, La BD: la bande dessine satirique dans la classe de
franais langue trangre, Paris, CLE International, C 1987, 95 s. Techniques de classe, ISBN 21-
903-3106-4, p. 9;
4. Tpffer, Rodolphe [online]. [cit. 2013-01-23]. Disponible sur
http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radolphe-T%C% B6 sffer;
5. Smolderen, Thierry, Naissances de la bande dessine, Negri Bologne (Italie), Les
impressions nouvelles, 2012, p. 89.

LE RLE DE LA BD DANS LE DVELOPPEMENT


DE LA COMPTENCE COMMUNICATIVE

Prof. Avramescu Norica Mariana


Colegiul Naional ,,I.C.Brtianu

La bande dessine est dfinie comme une forme dexpression artistique, une histoire en
dessins o les dialogues des personnages sont transcrits dans les bulles. Elle utilise donc limage et
le texte de faon simultane. Elle propose une lecture diffrente car elle se fait de gauche droite et
de haut en bas, et la diffrence du roman, par exemple, le lecteur doit conjuguer avec les images et
le texte pour tre en mesure de comprendre le message ou de dchiffrer le fil de lhistoire raconte
travers la bande dessine. En effet, cest le mariage de limage et du texte qui permet une bonne
comprhension de la bande dessine. Certains chercheurs ont remarqu que le lecteur commence
par faire une apprhension immdiate de lensemble graphique. Par la suite, il lit le texte. Il reprend
alors limage pour en cerner les connotations qui nuancent le texte. Cest tout cela qui fait quil
existe une complmentarit entre le texte et limage.
Il est essentiel que limage imprime de la vie, du mouvement au dessin, quelle suggre des
bruits et quelle fasse parler les personnages tour de rle. Le texte, lui aussi, est soumis des
rgles de lecture : le ton est reproduit par une criture diffrente (en gras, italique) et pour exprimer
les tats dme des personnages (tonnement, colre, peur, joie) on fait appel certains signes
graphiques.
Ce type de document dispose galement dune terminologie spcifique. Une page est
appele planche, son tour compose de plusieurs vignettes qui sont le plus souventndlimites par
un cadre.A lintrieur dune vignette, on trouve les bulles aux formes variables qui contiennent les
paroles ou les penses des personnages.Ces bulles sont relies aux personnages au moyen dun
appendice qui permet didentifier le locuteur ; lappendice peut prendre la forme dune flche pour
dsigner les paroles ou la forme de petits ronds pour indiquer les penses. Les vignettes peuvent
aussi contenir un cartouche, de forme rectangulaire, important pour les moments descriptifs ou
narratifs assums par le narrateur.
Pour le cours de FLE, la ce document prsente plusieurs avantages :
- la bande dessine permet de travailler la langue, la civilisation et de prsenter les oeuvres
francophones ;
- la bande dessine fait appel diffrents types dintelligence peu souvent utiliss ;
- la bande dessine un support agrable et le divertissement est devenu une condition
imprative pout tout apprentissage efficace;
- la bande dessine facilite la comprhension par son mlange image/texte;
- la BD favorise la motivation des lves ;
120

- ce type dactivit implique un apprentissage de la grammaire dune faon implicite et


dductive
- la bande dessine facilite les dbats, lesprit critique .
De nos jours, la comptence communicative se trouve au cur de la didactique des langues.
Elle se ralise par deux canaux : crit et oral, et deux manires diffrentes : comprhension et
expression. Ds lors donc, nous pouvons avancer que les objectifs gnraux de tout programme
dapprentissage sont davantage structurs par ces quatre grands types de comptences :
comprhension de loral, comprhension de lcrit, expression de loral et expression de lcrit.
Les adeptes de la comptence de communication prnent que cest en communicant quon
apprend communiquer. Ceci dit, les activits dexpression ou de comprhension se rapprochant de
la ralit de communication, les documents authentiques, les simulations, les jeux de rles, etc.
peuvent dterminer le cadre gnral de ce que lon appelle, dans lapproche communicative, les
supports dapprentissage.
La bande dessine est un support didactique o la comprhension sassocie lexpression.
Ces activits sont faciles raliser, car lapprenant est aid dans son imagination par le dessin. En
effet, les activits de mmorisation permettent les activits de production. C'est dire que
l'apprenant mmorise d'abord ce qu'il a vu puis il le produit. La production orale ou crite de la
classe de franais, constitue donc un des moyens pdagogiques pour construire une comptence de
communication.
Les bandes dessines visent, notamment, un dveloppement des comptences de
comprhension crite et de production orale et crite, avec un trs important apport socio-culturel.
Nous pensons quon peut exercer mme la comprhension orale car l'occasion de ce support crit
il va y avoir des interactions.
Production orale Production crite Comprhension
crite
Remplir des bulles

Transcrire le contenu des bulles en style


indirect
Ecrire la fin de lhistoire

Imaginez ce qui s'est pass avant, ce qui


se passera aprs
Retrouver un titre

Donner son avis

Dbattre sur un thme prsent dans une


planche
Jouer une saynte

Faire rdiger lhistoire puis confronter le


rcit crit avec la BD
Raconter ce qui se passe

Partant dune vignette muette,


imaginer les penses des personnages
Donner le contenu de bulles en vrac
pour les faire remplir nouveau
Vider les bulles et faire inventer
le dialogue

121

Associer le contenu des bulles la


vignette approprie
Le tableau ci-dessus offre quelques types dexercices quil est possible de faire en classe en
sappuyant sur la bande dessine. On remarque que certains conviennent mieux lentranement
lexpression orale, alors que dautres se prtent plus lexpression crite ou mme la
comprhension crite. Je pense quon peut exercer mme la comprhension orale car l'occasion de
ce support crit il va y avoir des interactions.

BIBLIOGRAPHIE /SITOGRAPHIE :
CREMARENCO, Simona, Lapproche du document authentique en classe de FLE, Ed.Teocora,
Buzu, 2009
GEORGESCU,Corina-Amelia, La didactique du franais langue trangre :tradition et innovation,
Ed.Tiparg,Piteti, 2011
***La bande dessine/vocabulaire, http://www.ekladata.com
COUBALOVA, Andrea, La bande dessine dans lenseignement du FLE, http://is.muni.cz/dok/pedf

AMBASSADEURS DE NOS CONTRES EUROPENNES DHIER ET DAUJOURDHUI

Prof.Moi Marinela
coala Gimnazial Nr.6 Vulcan

On a essay de changer lattitude des jeunes en ce qui concerne le processus


dapprentissage mais aussi les traditions et la culture et les faire mieux comprendre les
gnrations de leurs parents et de leurs grands-parents surtout laide du projet Comenius
Ambassadeurs de nos contres europennes(2011-2013) qui continue nous offrir des ides
dactivits aussi prsent . Les activits ont t organises en corelation avec le thme du projet
qui se propose de jeter un regard sur les modalits o lhistoire et les traditions locales peuvent
tre intgres dans le milieu ducationnel.
Une activit trs intressante pour ltude des traditionset pour comprendre la vie des
gnrations passes a t la visite dune ferme polonaise o les lves ont pu participer des
workshops dans le cadre desquels ils ont ralis des objets dcoratifs,ils ont prpar du pain,du
beurre,du fromage,ils ont appris comment traire une vache,ils ont aussi appris comment filer le
lain et ils ont tiss comme au pass.
Pendant la premire anne du projet on a ralis la documentation et la slection des
matriaux pour la ralisation du calendrier et du mini-livre de recettes dans le cadre des ateliers
nationaux de chaque cole et internationaux au cadre des rencontres dans chaque pays o les
lves ont t chercheurs-traducteurs-rdacteurs-ralisateurs-acteurs pour la ralisation des
matriaux(cartes de voeux,dessins,objets dcoratifs pour chaque saison et pour leurs ftes)
exposs dans les coins Comenius de chaque tablissement,pour la ralisation des portofolios ou
pour la prsentation des pices de thtre,chansons,posies.Cest pendant cette priode quon a
ralis ensemble une partie des produits communs:la premire partie du calendrier-la partie avec
des dessins et des pomes en 4 langues et aussi les ftes communes et spcifiques dautomne et
dhiver,la partie du mini-livre avec des recettes pour lautomne et lhiver,la prsentation des
costumes,des calendriers individuels,des fiches de travail,le DVD et une grande contribution au
site du projet.Pendant la deuxime anne du projet on a ralis la deuxime partie du calendrier
avec les ftes communes et spcifiques de printemps et dt, la deuxime partie du mini-livre
avec des recettes spcifiques de printemps et dt,la forme finale de ces deux produits et du
DVD.
Par les rsultats du projet le site,le dictionnaire,le mini-livre ,le DVD,les prsentations en
Power Point,les fiches de travail-on propose de changer lattitude des jeunes en ce qui concerne le
122

processus dapprentissage mais aussi les traditions et la culture et les faire mieux comprendre les
gnrations de leurs parents et de leurs grands-parents.
Dans notre CALENDRIER FTES ET COUTUMES LIS AUX SAISONS les ftes sont
prsentes en suivant le cycle des saisons, tant accompagnes par des proverbes et des
illustrations. Il contient aussi une fte commune cre et des pomes dans les 4 langues, des
dessins qui reprsentent chaque mois de l'anne.
Notre MINI-LIVRE DE RECETTES est un guide de voyage culinaire dans les 4 pays o
sont incluses les plus reprsentatives recettes traditionnelles en suivant les saisons de l'anne,ce
livre de recettes commun ayant comme but la connaissance de la cuisine traditionnelle de chaque
pays.
Le logo du projet a t cre pendant la I re runion quand les lves ont particip un
concours TICE pour choisir le logo. Il reprsente une particularit distinctive de lamiti qui est
n entre les coles,il est un symbole de lunit,de la tolrance et de la bonne comprehension.
Le Site principal du projet http://ambassadeurscontreeseuropeennes.webs.com/ est cre
pour une bonne collaboration et communication (surtout dans le forum)entre les partenaires et
pour promouvoir les activis.Il a aussi le role de dissemination des rsultats du projet et doffrir
les informations sur limplmentation et lvaluation.
Le DVD FINAL contient les produits finaux communs du projet qui rflte le travail
ralis pendant le projet par tous les partenaires. Il contient aussi l'hymne du projet, les
diaporamas qui reprsentent les activits qui ont eu lieu pendant les runions.
La Fiche de prsentation lves est labore par les quipes avant la premire mobilit et
elle contient part les coordonnes personnelles habituelles d'une fiche (nom, adresse, tlphone
mail) des informations concernant l'option de logement,les hobbies, l'tat de sant.
La Fiche d'tude des ftes reprsente une mthode de travail pour ramasser les
informations,pour le travail sur les saisons,les ftes ,les proverbes,dictons et expressions et pour
la ralisation du dictionnaire.
Nos objectifs ont t atteints:
- dvelopper les habilets des lves et des professeurs des coles partenaires pour comprendre
les valeurs et la diversit de la culture europenne;
- dvelopper la personnalit et les comptences des lves pour devenir des citoyens europens
actifs;
- accrotre les habilets de communication,de lecture et dcriture non seulement dans les langues
trangres mais aussi dans les langues maternelles;
- promouvoir les coutumes, les traditions,les costumes,la gastronomie de chaque rgion
partenaire;
- encourager lintrt des lves pour leur propre culture et lacceptation de leur identit, comme
premier pas dans la comprhension et le respect des autres;
- laborer de matriaux informatifs(dpliants,mini-livre,calendrier,diaporamas,DVD,site etc)
- amliorer la qualit de lenseignement et de lapprentissage.
La communication dans les langues trangres a t faite tout au long du projet,en
franais,la langue du projet,elle a t utilise comme moyen de communication sur le site du
projet,facebook,mail,skype.Au niveau de l'cole roumaine on a eu une prparation linguistique
partir du mois de septembre 2014 par le professeur de FLE Mois Marinela ,prparation pour les
lves et les professeurs impliqus dans le projet,2 fois par semaine avec un programme qui a eu
des activits de conversation,de grammaire mais aussi de culture et civilisation.
La comptence de communication dans sa propre langue a t conue pour dvelopper les
habilets de communication,les comptences sociales et civiques ,de rsoudre des conflits,de batir
des relations avec les autres,d'aborder des nouvelles cultures dans les activits des ateliers:
-l'atelier de cration a eu comme but le dveloppement de l'imagination,de la fantaisie cratrice,le
sense esthetique et surtout les habilets pratiques par la ralisation des produits simples qui
refltent la diversit culturelle en employant des ressources de la nature: des boites
decoratives,des guirlandes de sapin,des tableaux d'automne,des vases avec des fleurs,citrouilles
123

sculpts,sorcires sur des cuillres en bois,figurines en chataines,marrons,des motifs


traditionaux,la ralisation du costume breton en perle synthtiques,des cartes de voeux avec des
messages et des affiches de Valentines Day .On a aussi appris faire le pain,le beurre et le
fromage en employant des mthodes du pass.Aprs chaque runion de l'atelier de cration
pendant les mobilits,on a organis des belles expositions au coin Comenius de chaque cole
pour le partage de l'ide de diversit avec tout le monde qui entre dans l'tablissement scolaire;
-l'atelier d'informatique:dans le cadre de cet atelier,les lves ont t encourags tudier les
traditions,les coutumes,l'histoire,la culture,la religion,la gastronomie des pays partenaires.On
ralisera aussi dans le cadre des cours TICE des runions pour montrer aux lves la maniere que
le site du projet fonctionne et pour s'inscrire au site,la manire d'ajouter des documents,de
retrouver des documents,d'ajouter leurs impressions
-l'atelier de musique et de danse:dans le cadre de cet atelier on a cr et on a appris l'hymne du
projet pendant la premire runion en Roumanie et il a t interpret pendant les autres runions
Comenius pour la comprehension du message par un grand nombre d'lves:seulement ensemble
nous pouvons tre des ambassadeurs de la diversit culturelle et linguistique.Les lves de chaque
pays ont interpret et ils ont appris les autres des chansons traditionnelles et des danses
spcifiques.
Pour raliser les competences cl on a aussi particip a des visites de documentation:en
Roumanie:le dfil de la Valle du Jiu,Trgu-Jiu ,Alba Iulia,les montagnes Valcan et Straja,
Transalpina, la rservation de bisons de Hateg,les monasteres Lainici et Prislop;en
Espagne:Valladolid,Segovia,Simancas,Medina del Campo,Tordesillas;en France:Pont-l'Abbe,Le
Guilvinec,la Torche,Quimper,Concarneau;en Pologne:Varsovie,Liw,Sucha,Dolina Bobrow .
La cooperation dans le projet a impliqu le dialogue,des dbats,exprimer et soutenir ses
propres ides,la capacit d'couter les autres,le respect pour des diffrents points de
vue,l'valuation des intrts individuels et de groupe.
La comprhension multilingue a t assure parce que les lves et les professeurs ont eu
la chance de lire des articles intressants en roumain,franais,espagnol,polonais,anglais. Par le
dialogue on a ralis la coopration multilingue ce qui a rompu les barrires linguistiques et a
aid dans la formation de la comptence interculturelle entre les lves et les professeurs.Les
lves et les professeurs de chaque pays partenaire ont appris des lments conversationnels de
base dans les langues des 4 pays impliqus ,ils ont fait des changes de pratiques pendant les
cours,des prsentations Power Point, oralement et en crit, bases sur leurs expriences relies au
projet.
En partageant aux lves la conviction que la promotion du prncipe de la tolrance est
une garantie pour la maintenance des socits ouvertes qui rendent possible la cohabitation
pacifique, on a soulign aussi le fait que les manifestations violentes dintolrance ont un impact
profond pas seulement sur la victime directe mais aussi sur le groupe avec lequel la victime
sidentifie, elles affectent la cohsion de la communaut et la stabilit sociale.
On a organis un dbat sous la forme dune table ronde dont on prcise les objectifs
suivants: le soutien pour faciliter lhabilet de convivialit dans la socit plurielle de nos jours;
la conscience des causes et des racines de la propre dtermination culturelle , des stereotypes, des
prjugs; la formation dune attitude positive qui soit applique dans le cadre dune socit
plurielle; le respect pour la diversit, pour lidentit de ceux qui sont vus comme diffrents et le
refus des attitudes intolrantes et discriminatoires envers eux.
Ce projet a eu,a et aura encore un impact important parce que par linformation continue
de la communaut locale en ce qui concerne les activits droules et les rsultats du projet ,ses
membres sont devenus,deviennent et deviendront conscients de la valeur dautres cultures
europennes pour promouvoir la tolrance et le respect envers tout ce qui est diffrent.

POURQUOI UTILISER LA BANDE DESSINE EN CLASSE DE FLE?

124

Prof. Paraschiv Camelia


Scoala Gimnaziala Nr. 8, Constanta

1. Introduction
Le document authentique est thoriquement, dans lapproche communicative, le support
de base de toute la progression. Dans sa pratique quotidienne, l enseignant de FLE dispose de
nombreux matriaux textuels exploiter, en particulier en ce qui concerne la dimension crite de la
communication. On utilise en classe toutes sortes de documents, tels que des messages personnels
(cartes postales, invitations), des documents rels ou rconstitus pour donner l impression de
l`authenticit (menus, recettes, manuels d utilisation, rglements), mais galement des articles,
originaux ou rcrits, extraits de journaux ou de magazines. Les dernires annes, ces documents,
ancrs dans la ralit contemporaine, jouent un rle important dans l'volution des reprsentations
des apprenants et l'accroissement de leur motivation.
Les textes littraires appartiennent, eux-aussi, aux documents authentiques crits,
apportant de multiples bnfices aux enseignants de FLE.
Les bandes dessines, en tant que documents authentiques, permettent aux enseignants de
FLE deffectuer un travail bnfique et positif pour les apprenants; ils permettent dapporter
ensemble apprentissage et crativit. Cest par leur aspect distrayant et ludique que les bandes
dessines pourraient aider une classe de langue mieux communiquer loral et lcrit.

2. La BD (bande dessine) comme outil pdagogique


Le Neuvime Art, la bande dessine ne devrait pas tre exclue de la pratique en classe de
FLE. Elle offre des opportunits d approches multiples: linguistiques et discursives ( bulles
complter, onomatopes, description des expressions du visage et du corps ou encore des
mouvements, etc.), narratologiques (reconstitution d une planche dont les vignettes sont en
dsordre, vocation des ellipses, etc), culturels (strotypes descriptifs, vision idologique de telle
ralit historique ou sociopolitique, etc).
La bandes dessine possde l avantage daborder et dutiliser tous les genres narratifs
(romans, conte, humour, science fiction, etc.) avec une grande varit de moyens : couleurs, noir et
blanc, photos, collages, images numriques. Elle apporte, travers limage et le texte, diffrents
types dinformations, de manire simultane et successive. On peut distinguer plusieurs types de
BD en fonction du thme abord: aventure, documentaire, drame, fantastique, humour, historique,
horreur, romance, science-fiction, policier, voyage, western, jeunesse.
La BD est de plus en plus utilise pour lapprentissage des langues parce qu`elle offre
plusieurs avantages:
c` est un support ludique et populaire gnralement apprci par les apprenants;
c`est un document authentique qui prsente un registre de langue courant, proche de la vie
quotidienne.
c`est un document qui mle rception visuelle et textuelle, jouant sur le lien image/texte
pour crer du sens.
la bande dessine facilite le dialogue interculturel et permet de sensibiliser l'humour
c`est un bon dclencheur pour largir le thme abord avec des activits diversifies
(imaginer la suite d'une histoire, crire un dialogue, etc.)
Lorsqu on emploie une BD en classe de FLE, on vise dvelopper les quatre
comptences du Cadre Europen Commun de Rfrence pour les Langues.
2.1. La comprhension crite d une BD lment dclencheur de la production
orale
une premire vue le texte de la bande dessine semble assez facile comprendre, grce
aux images qui l accompagnent. On pourrait, donc procder une comprhension globale, en
proposant aux apprenants de trouver des rponses aux questions de l toile suivant:
QUI ?

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POURQUOI? O?

COMMENT? QUAND?

La BD en classe de FLE est utile pour dvelopper la comprhension orale ou pour


prsenter et faire comprendre certains aspects de civilisation mais aussi pour prsenter certaines
expressions typiquement franaises ainsi que pour enrichir la production lexicale. La
comprhension dtaille du texte va nous amener, donc, vers la production orale.
Les images, ainsi que le texte, jouent un rle important dans l`exploitation d une BD en
classe de FLE. On peut utiliser leffet dentonnoir en introduisant les images une par une, ce qui
permet de faire travailler lanticipation. Les apprenants sont amens tout dabord dcrire limage
puis anticiper, prvoir ce quil va se passer ensuite. Cette mthode enrichit les possibilits
dexpression des tudiants et produit en mme temps un effet de suspens.
partir d une bande dessinee on peut crer plusieurs types dexercices en fonction des
images :
dcrire ou raconter des faits : les lves sont amens dcrire ce quils voient et
raconter la succession des vnements;
simulation de dialogues : les lves sont amens imaginer le dialogue entre les
personnages ou le simuler;
exprimer son opinion : les lves sont amens prendre position sur le thme de la BD
ou sur son message;
dbattre : les images peuvent constituer le point de dpart dun dbat, dune polmique
ou dune discussion en classe;
enrichir le lexique : certains images constituent de vritables actes de langage. On peut
donc profiter de loccasion pour introduire les diffrentes verbalisations: exprimer son accord, son
dsaccord, donner un conseil);
mettre des hypothses: les apprenants sont invits repondre la question Qu` est-ce
qui va se passer juste aprs?. Ils prvoient la suite proche de cette squence dimages, ils imaginent
et expriment ensuite leur ide de ce quon pourra montrer dans les prochains dessins.
2.2. De la production orale vers la production crite
Le lien entre lecture et criture est aujourdhui bien tabli. La lecture d une BD peut
aboutir le plus souvent des propositions de productions crites partir du texte. Le texte peut
toujours servir de prtexte chez les apprenants qui prouvent lenvie de partager plus librement
quelques ides, expriences, rflexions, sentiments. On va essayer, videmment, dvelopper la
crativit des lves, en leur proposant des exercices d imagination: donner la suite de l histoire
ou du dialogue, crire un synopsis ou remplir les bulles vides avec d autres dialogues.
On peut galemment demander aux lves de rdiger eux-mmes une BD sur un thme
donn ou partir de quelques mots cls. Le caractre interdisciplinaire de cette activit est bien
vident: l lve peut entrelacer la passion pour le dessin et le plaisir de s exprimer en franais. En
voil, par exemple, des BD ralises par des lves de l`Ecole Gymnasiale No.8 de Constanta,
partir du mot tap-tap, un des dix mots de la Francophonie 2016.

126

ENE MILENA (VIIe)

BIDASCA BIANCA (VIIIe)

STOICA ALEXANDRA (VIe)


3. En guise de conclusion
Les apprenants de nos jours ont besoin de travailler sur des supports varis, qui leur
permettent galement d'envisager la langue trangre qu'ils apprennent dans des contextes
diffrents. La bande dessine est un mdia motivant, son utilisation permettant lapprenant de
savoir, de savoir-faire et de savoir-tre. Elle reprsente un support didactique qui peut susciter

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lintrt des apprenants de tous les ges et qui a la capacit de leur donner le plaisir de parler, de
dialoguer et dapprendre plusieurs types de discours.
Le rle de lenseignant est bien sr dterminant dans cette demarche, en dcouvrant lui
mme la BD, en prenant le temps et surtout le plaisir de la dcouvrir; il est le seul pouvoir faire
vivre les personnages avec leur tristesse, leur tonnement, leur convivialit.

BIBLIOGRAPHIE:
BOUCHERY, Caroline, TAILLANDIER, Isabelle, Le FLE par les textes, Editions Belin, Paris,
2009, p.70-71.
BARON-CARVAIS, Annie. La bande dessine. Que Sais-je ? Presses Universitaires de France,
Paris, 1994, P.78-79.
CREMARENCO, Simona Lapproche du document authentique en classe de FLE, Teocora,
Buzu, 2009.
DEFAYS Jean-Marc, DELBART Anne-Rosine, HAMMAMI Samia, SAENEN Frdric, La
littrature en FLE. Etats des lieux et nouvelles perspectives, , Hachette, Paris, 2014, p. 39-54.
OCNEAN, Iulia, La BD en classe? Pourquoi pas?, dans Bulletin d information pdagogique,
Centre culturel franais Cluj-Napoca, no. 16, mars 1999, p. 16-18
TAGLIANTE, Christine, La classe de langue, CLE International, Paris, 1994.

LA FOSSE COMMUNICATIVE ENTRE LES GNRATIONS

Durdureanu Irina
coala Gimnazial Alecu Russo Iai

Ayant en vue lexistence humaine dans sa totalit, la liaison entre le pass et lavenir est
incontournable. On fait toujours des dmarcations trop exactes entre pass, prsent et avenir, mais
parfois les limites sont transgresses, surtout lorsque lon parle de linteraction des gnrations dans
le processus ducatif, qui se droule au long de la vie et non pas seulement au niveau scolaire,
institutionnel. Enseigner le pass cest tre conscient de sa propre identit et de son propre devenir
individuel. La faon dont on reoit le pass dtermine notre avenir. La rciprocit
intergnrationnelle est essentielle lorsque lon veut consolider la solidarit entre les gnrations par
le biais de la pratiques entre les gnrations, soit-elles lves, enseignants, parents.
Lapprentissage intergnrationnel reprsente aussi une modalit dans laquelle les gens de
tout ge peuvent apprendre ensemble, les uns des autres, comme partie importante de
lapprentissage tout au long de la vie o les gnrations travaillent ensemble afin dobtenir de
diffrentes habilets, valeurs et connaissances. Au-del du transfert des connaissances,
lapprentissage intergnrationnel contribuent aussi au dveloppement de la cohsion sociale entre
les jeunes et les adultes.
Le rle des parents dans lducation de leurs enfants est essentiel, lcole tant le lieu o les
enfants consolident une srie de donnes inocule la maison, au-del des connaissances dans les
divers domaines dtude. Mais de nos jours, la transgression des vides qui existent entre les
gnrations savre tre une tche de plus en plus difficile surmonter. Margaret Mead (cf. D.
Julien, 2006 : 27) parlait ds les annes 1970 dun foss des gnrations . Elle distingue ainsi une
culture postfigurative , qui suppose une instruction de la par des parents aux enfants, une
culturecofigurative , o les enfants aussi que les adultes apprennent de leur pairs et une culture
prfigurative , caractristique au XXe, dans laquelle les parents ont tout apprendre de leurs
enfants. Cela marque une rupture entre les gnrations, ce qui alourdit et ralentit le processus
instructif-ducatif droul dans un cadre institutionnel.
Vulnrables devant une socit o les modles varient du plus grand degr de positivisme
jusquaux soit-disant antimodles , le rle ducatif de la famille ne doit pas baisser par rapport au
rle de lcole. Limplication de la famille dans le dveloppement de leur enfant et de son devenir
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comme adulte, la collaboration cole-famille deviennent ncessaires dans la socit actuelle. Le


systme scolaire (D. Nicoar, 2014 : 28) a men une redfinition du rle de la famille et non pas
une soi-disant dmission parentale. Les parents veulent incontestablement transmettre des valeurs,
des normes, des attitudes, des modles comportementales, mais le milieu familial en est dfinitoire.
Les modles scolaires reprsentent seulement des repres par rapport auxquels se situe la famille
dans la dfinition dune attitude, soit en les apprciant, soit en les critiquant, mais ayant nanmoins
le droit de prendre la dcision finale.
Mais cette rupture entre les enfants et les adultes est le plus souvent vue comme tant
normale, les adultes gardant une attitude dominante. Ce qui devrait tre vit en tant
quenseignant. Les lves ont besoin de rgles, cest sr, mais la faon les enseignants imposent ces
rgles de conduite est la cl. Si la famille ne suit pas les mmes principes stricts en ce qui concerne
le comportement des jeunes enfants, les efforts des coles de surmonter les drapages
comportementaux aboutissent un chec total. Les enfants se sentent inscuriss face aux
changements des valeurs entre les gnrations ; par consquence, ils commencent dvelopper des
stratgies de survivance dans ce monde o les valeurs commencent tre renverses. Lide de
progrs est vue diffremment par les acteurs impliqus dans le processus instructif-ducatif, mais
les adultes et les enfants ont dsormais la possibilit dinteragir dans certains moments, o les
adultes transmettent des connaissances, des croyances et de bonnes pratiques aux enfants par les
biais des activits formelles ( lcole, o les enseignants apprennent les lves lire, crire,
acqurir des connaissances dans tous les domaines tudis et non pas seulement ) et non-formelles
(dans le milieu familial). Cela demande une collaboration entre tous les partenaires, ce qui le plus
souvent ne se passe pas. Le rythme de la vie est si galopant que les parents nont plus le temps
ncessaire de transmettre leurs connaissances aux enfants et tout leffort dducation est pass dans
le sein de lcole.
De nos jours, les enfants ont le droit de sexprimer librement par rapport leurs parents, et
cette libert accorde, volontairement ou non, a t extrapole vers lcole aussi. Les rapports idals
seraient ceux o la rciprocit est combine avec la complmentarit, puisque ltre social est cr
par la transmission intergnrationnelle de certain modles de conduite, soit-ils structures de surface
(valeurs, normes) ou structures de profondeur (procds interprtatifs) (cf. D. Nicoar, 2014 : 30).
Cette transmission est assure consciemment ou non. Mais il existe aussi des cas o la famille nest
pas capable de transmettre un modle de conduite qui permette lintgration dans la socit, et dans
ce cas les enseignants doivent faire face des comportements inadquats lcole. Tandis que
lducation formelle continue faciliter la transmissions des valeurs culturelles anciennes, le non-
formel dans lequel lindividu vit anantit les efforts de lcole de transmettre ses propres valeurs
formatives. Pour que lapprentissage soit efficace, il faut exister des avantages mutuels pour les
enfants et les adultes, cest--dire que les activits doivent tre intressantes et appropries pour
tous les acteurs. La motivation est elle-aussi importante. Lenseignant doit motiver son lve, le
faire entrer dans son monde, susciter son intrt par rapport aux connaissances transmises.
Si on conoit lapprentissage intergnrationnel comme une pratique qui vise rassembler
les gens pour des activits dtermines, mutuellement bnfiques, qui encouragent une plus grande
comprhension et un plus grand respect entre les gnrations et peuvent contribuer difier des
communauts plus cohsives (Cf. M. Raynuad, http://www.omig.fr), on se rend compte quil
sagit dun partenariat qui sinstaure lcole, quel que soit le domaine. Face aux nouvelles
gnrations, lapprenant doit adapter ses habitudes, murs et convictions aux ralits de nos jours,
o les lves ne sont plus les lves-modles dautrefois et o la classe se transforme parfois dans
une lutte satisfaire les ncessits des enfants et leur besoin daccder aux connaissances ncessaire
pour finir un cycle denseignement.

BIBLIOGRAFIE:
Damon, Julien, Margaret Mead (1901-1978) , Informations sociales, 6/2006 (no. 134), pp.27-27.
Nicoar, Daniel, Educaia familial dincolo de transmiterea intergeneraional i de reproducia
social , Revista de Psihoterapie Integrativ, vol. 3, no. 2, septembrie 2014, pp. 28-33.
129

Raynaud, Marc, Dvelopper lApprentissage Intergnrationnel (AI) dans lentreprise, 2012,


http://www.omig.fr, consult le 20.03.2017.

LA BANDE DESSINE POUR TOUS

Diaconu Constanta
Colegiul National Ion Luca Caragiale Moreni, Dambovita

Savoir communiquer demeure l'objectif primordial de l'enseignement/l'apprentissage des


langues trangres. Il est indispensable de faire acqurir les comptences de comprhension et
dexpression pour pouvoir bien se dbrouiller dans des situations de communication de la vie de
tous les jours. Cest pourquoi, de plus en plus, les programmes des collges mettent laccent sur le
travail interdisciplinaire. Les itinraires de dcouvertes, les classes daction culturelle, les ateliers de
cration artistique, la place accorde la lecture de limage dans les nouveaux programmes sont
autant dinnovations qui retrouvent leur fondement, dune part, dans la volont denrichir la culture
et la sensibilit des lves et, dautre part, dans le dsir de susciter leur intrt.
Lanalyse de limage rsulte dune rforme du cours de franais car elle peut aider llve
mieux comprendre certains phnomnes littraires et linguistiques, mais reprsente aussi un moyen
de faciliter lappropriation et la comprhension du franais. On peut ainsi faire le passage de la
norme conceptualise en thorie la ralisation concrte dans la vie des lves, limage tant, en
effet, un support actuel car elle est familire aux lves. La sance de lecture dimage peut tre
place en dbut, au milieu ou la fin de la squence de franais; a dpend de son objectif: prcder
une tude littraire, laccompagner ou la prolonger.
Le discours narratif travers la bande dessine. La bande dessine est un type dimage que
lon peut particulirement exploiter en cours de franais puisque cette forme de discours narratif
mle la fois le langage visuel et le langage verbal. Depuis le dbut du XXe sicle, la bande
dessine a envahi la presse enfantine et les journaux, en acqurant une certaine autonomie et ses
propres rgles. La succession des vignettes dans la page caractrise cet art. Comme le film, la bande
dessine fonctionne en squences, en plans successifs et en angles de vue, en supposant toujours
une suite narrative. La bande dessine prsente un intrt majeur pour le cours de franais dans la
mesure ou elle dpend dun scnario et associe les langages verbal et visuel dans le but de raconter
une histoire.
La bande dessine est un art qui peut tre rapproch du discours narratif puisquelle raconte
une histoire en images. Il est trs facile dtablir un schma narratif partir dune bande dessine
car son tude peut servir mettre en vidence les tapes du schma narratif. Dans ce cas, il est
prfrable dutiliser une bande dessine dans laquelle chaque page correspond une histoire et
lobjectif de la sance dpend du but que le professeur sest fix. Si lon veut tudier la parole
rapporte dans le rcit, les notions de discours direct et indirect peuvent tre analyses partir des
bulles contenant les paroles des personnages (discours direct) et des cartouches qui contiennent les
passages narratifs noncs par le narrateur (discours indirect). Dans le cas o lobjectif de la sance
est de relever les indices spacio-temporels, la bande dessine est toujours utile car gnralement,
dans les premires vignettes, un cartouche contient des informations sur lespace et le temps, tout
comme dans le rcit. Si notre objectif est dtudier la caractrisation directe et indirecte du
personnage, la bande dessine est indique car elle offre mots et images en mme temps. Ltude du
physique dun personnage puis de ses paroles et des ses actions peut permettre dopposer la
caractrisation directe (la description physique) et la caractrisation indirecte (paroles, registre de
langue, actions faites et subies). Dans une vignette, il est intressant dopposer ce qui relve de la
description (les signes iconiques et plastiques) de ce qui relve de la gestuelle (syntaxe) et du
discours (signes linguistiques).
En tant quexemple, Fanny Deschamps propose dtudier le point de vue laide dune page
de bande dessine de lalbum de Jacques Tardi , Le Demon de la tour Eiffel. Elle met en scne
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Caponi, un dtective, et Dugommier, un commissaire gnral de police. Caponi a appris, au cours


dun enterrement, que la victime avait fait une dcouverte au thtre qui aurait entran sa mort. Il
doit rencontrer Artaud 17 heures afin den savoir plus. Malgr lopposition de son commissaire, il
se rend chez Artaud. Cette page suit un droulement chronologique, elle comporte dix vignettes qui
nous permettent daborder certains traits dfinitoires du discours narratif: lalternance des points de
vue, le rythme. Dventuelles questions: Quelles vignettes correspondent un point de vue externe?
Quelles vignettes correspondent un point de vue interne? Quelles sont leurs functions? Les points
de vue externes de cette page tendent prciser le cadre spacio-temporel de laction et de prsenter
physiquement Caponi tandis que le point de vue interne permet la fois de rendre compte des
sentiments des personnages et de sidentifier aux personages de lhistoire. Possibles sujets
dcriture: 1. Racontez la suite de lhistoire de Caponi histoire dont la situation initiale correspond
la page tudie quil faut rsumer. Lhistoire comportera les tapes du schma narratif et il faut
employer les temps du recit. 2. (comme travail interdisciplinaire) Rcrivez sous forme de page de
bande dessine un sujet de rdaction.
Le discours descriptif travers la bande dessine. Il est possible dtudier les diffrents
points de vue laide de vignettes prsentant la fois la vision du narrateur extrieur lhistoire (il
montre tous les personages: focalisation zero) et celle dun personnage de lhistoire. Si le point de
vue est celui dun tmoin qui nest pas impliqu dans laction quil visualise on parle de focalisation
externe; si le point de vue est limit celui du personnage, il sagit de focalisation interne. Comme
travail interdisciplinaire, il y aurait la cration dune bande dessine partir dun rcit fantastique;
on pourrait mme envisager de mettre en bande dessine des rcits ou des pomes.
On observe travers lanalyse des mthodes du corpus diffrentes mises en oeuvre et divers
traitements de la bande dessine, allant dune parfaite instrumentalisation ltude dune planche
complete, en pouvant identifier plusieurs functions.
La fonction illustrative. Parfois, la bande dessine napparat que dune manire purement
illustrative, cest--dire quelle nest accompagne daucune analyse ni mme dexploitation.
Comme pour dcorer la page, elle introduit dune manire sympathique une unit ou un thme
(cest le cas pour celui des strotypes sur les franais au dbut de chaque unit qui utilise des BD
fabriques extrmement artificielles en vue de la dcouverte des situations de communication ,
sans aucune question associe propos du contenu de ces bandes dessines), elle peut accompagner
un document crit ou bien une notion de grammaire. Il est noter que parfois ce traitement de la
bande dessine est exclusif, autrement dit, aucune autre apparition ni mise en oeuvre de la bande
dessine ne sont prsentes sur les pages des mthodes. Bien que la valeur illustrative de la bande
dessine puisse souvent permettre un trait dhumour, toujours plaisant dans le cadre dun
apprentissage, ce traitement particulier devient problmatique quand il est exclusif, car il participe
encore une fois rpandre lide dune conception lgre et pjorative de la bande dessine.
Lexploitation prtexte des fins essentiellement linguistiques. Un deuxime traitement de
la bande dessine consiste ce quelle ne soit que faussement prise en compte : elle ne constitue
en ralit quun support prtexte des objectifs linguistiques donns ou nest quenvisage comme
un document de dpart pour la mise en place dactivits qui nont souvent pas de rapport direct avec
le contenu de la bande dessine. Elle est exploite au sens fort du terme, et nest pas tudie pour
elle-mme. Cet usage de la bande dessine est le plus rpandu dans les manuels.
La bande dessine, par la diversit de ses genres, de ses styles esthtiques et graphiques, de
ses registres de langues et ses types dcrits, du talent de ses auteurs et des thmes abords, par sa
puissante empreinte culturelle et par la fcondit artistique ininterrompue dont elle fait preuve,
semble pouvoir sadapter au mieux aux objectifs et aux enjeux de lenseignement des langues et
cultures ainsi qu ses apprenants, eux aussi caractriss par leur htrognit. Elle offre un regard
singulier sur le monde et lapprhension du rel. Les auteurs, par latmosphre de leurs oeuvres et
leur esthtique parviennent cristalliser les reprsentations collectives, retranscrire les sensibilits
historiques et sociales dune poque. La BD est le fruit dun auteur, vivant dans une socit donne,
et travers lequel transparat une vision du monde et des relations humaines. Elle constitue cet
gard un document de premier choix, capable de mettre les apprenants en contact direct et rel avec
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la langue cible, et de concilier intimement lapprentissage du linguistique et du culturel, voire de


linterculturel.
Cest dans la prise en compte des spcificits artistiques narrative, squentielle et
iconotextuelle quapparat la faon la plus riche de laborder en cours de langue, en mettant en place
des analyses et des dmarches didactiques intgres, visant rendre lapprenant actif dans
lobservation de la planche, de sa construction narrative et la production de ses effets de sens. Il
semble alors primordial que les dmarches pdagogiques associes aux propositions dtude du
mdium laissent place lexpression de lexprience subjective et motionnelle de la lecture,
productive du point de vue cognitif et linguistique, visant questionner ou interpeler le lecteur
(lapprenant). La bande dessine semble donc, bien des gards, pouvoir offrir lopportunit de
travailler de nombreuses comptences inhrentes lapprentissage dune langue : des comptences
la fois explicatives, communicatives, culturelles, inter et mtaculturelles.
Quels que soient le niveau scolaire et le milieu social de llve, celui-ci se reprsente le
cours de franais comme le reflet , mais aussi comme linstrument dune norme (langagire,
littraire, sociale). Or, pour des raisons aussi bien de gnration que didentit culturelle, llve se
sent souvent tranger cette norme. Limage peut tre un moyen de tisser des liens entre son
univers et le cours, dactualiser ce cours. Elle peut finalement permettre de rduire lcart entre la
norme enseigne et le public.

BIBLIOGRAPHIE:
Dan Dobre, Introduction une pistmologie de limage publicitaire, Editura Universitatii
Bucuresti 2012, p. 58
Fanny Deschamps, Lire limage au collge et au lyce en cours de franais, Hatier Paris 2004, p.
107

LA BANDE DESSINE, UN OUTIL EFFICACE EN CLASSE DE FLE

Brehui Violeta, coala Gimnazial Nr. 4 Moreni


Florea Cristina, Colegiul Naional, Ion Luca Caragiale Moreni

Longtemps mise lcart par la littrature et les arts, la bande dessine devient partir des
annes 1980, un support ducatif prcieux pour les professeurs, notamment pour ceux de langues
vivantes. Mme si avant les annes 80, la tendance tait celle disoler la bande dessine dans le
milieu ducatif, elle parvint obtenir le devant de la scne en devenant le 9 art partir de cette
dcennie. Beaucoup de films que lon regarde sur le petit cran ou en salle de cinma, se sont
inspirs souvent duvres de bandes dessines et ils ravissent tellement les enfants que les adultes
quel que soit le milieu social.
Mme si les enfants et les ados du XXIe sicle sont plongs dans le monde numrique qui
leur offre une grande partie de leur ducation (jeux vido, films, internet etc.), ils sont encore attirs
par lunivers plein de textes et dimages suggestives de la bande dessine. Limage et lillustration
les attirent plus, souvent en mal de concentration et elles peuvent avoir une influence positive sur
eux. Tel comme les livres, la BD se rvle une source gnreuse dinspiration quel que soit lge.
Elle peut les aider mieux comprendre les messages ducatifs (le bon choix alimentaire, la
prvention sur le SIDA, la grossesse ou mieux apprendre) devenant un document authentique et
motivant qui offre un bon nombre datouts pouvant aisment tre qualifi de langage librateur.
En lisant les aventures des personnages, ce support fait travailler normment limagination
de lenfant et lui offre loccasion de dcouvrir la notion didole. Ainsi, elle contribue au faonnage
de la personnalit de lenfant et en mme temps lui permet dassocier lapprentissage et la
crativit.
Les enseignants doivent soutenir l'enfant dans sa recherche du plaisir, lui tendre la main
l'aide du texte et de l'image, pour l'amener comprendre ce que cest l'tude de la bande dessine

132

lcole. Tous les enfants semblent comprendre une histoire dessine avant mme de savoir
dchiffrer le code linguistique.
La BD peut tre utilise tous les niveaux du Cadre europen commun de rfrence (A1,
A2, B1, B2), soit dans un de ses aspects (genre, dialogue, dcoupage, phylactre, etc.) soit dans
son intgralit ; travailler autour de la BD est, gnralement, un lment motivant pour les lves
(et ce nest pas ngliger) ; la bande dessine est la fois support de connaissance, dinformation et
de diffusion ; la BD favorise linterdisciplinarit (principalement entre la matrise de la langue et les
activits darts visuels, par exemple) ; ne se cantonnant pas une seule discipline, la bande dessine
sutilise facilement pour la cration de projets de classe.
travers la B.D., lenfant a loccasion dapprendre la grammaire, lorthographe et le
vocabulaire en dcouvrant les aventures des personnages clbres ou non, tels comme Astrix et
Oblix, Tintin, Titeuf, Les Schtroumphs etc.
Ensemble avec certaines structures linguistiques, llve peut reprer aussi des aspects de
culture et de civilisation franaise, comme par exemple gastronomie franaise. En feuilletant le bd
Le viandier de Polpette38, de Neel et Milhaud, on dcouvre lhistoire dune auberge campagnarde
o le chef Polpette doit satisfaire les gots de ses clients exigeants qui viennent y manger. On y
retrouve beaucoup de recettes de cuisine franaises mles aux pripties du jeune cuisinier.
La BD permet aussi dexploiter facilement d'autres formes d'expression: les marionnettes,
le thtre et le jeu dramatique. Les lves peuvent jouer l'histoire soit en respectant rigoureusement
le dialogue soit en l'adaptant.
partir dune fable Le Lion et le Rat , ils peuvent confectionner le dcor et trouver les
marionnettes ncessaires pour mettre en scne cette uvre littraire. Dailleurs, ils peuvent filmer
la pice et montrer la vido leurs collgues.
En plus, Flore Gervais ne manquait pas de souligner l'importance d'une lecture amie dans
l'apprentissage de l'enfant : Par consquent, la longueur d'avance dont jouit la bande dessine dans
le got des enfants par rapport aux autres genres littraires, ainsi que la qualit reconnue des bandes
dessines que les enfants prfrent, pourraient faire de ce genre littraire un outil pdagogique
prcieux. Puisque ici le plaisir de lire prexiste toute stratgie scolaire, le danger de dmotivation
par l'exploitation systmatique en classe parat beaucoup moins grand39.
Trs bien reue par les lves a t la bande humoristique. Cest le caractre ludique qui a
compt et aussi lutilisation de la TBI dans le laboratoire de langues vivantes, car la technologie a le
mme langage que les lves les plus jeunes. Nous allons proposer quelques activits partir dune
bande cre par Serge Ernest, que nous y avons intgre pour mieux comprendre. La dure a t
une heure et les objectifs proposs ont t les suivants :
OBJECTIFS COMMUNICATIFS :
- Parler tout en mettant des hypothses,
- Parler des activits domestiques,
- Parler de la publicit.
OBJECTIFS LINGUISTIQUES :
- Travailler le lexique des activits mnagres,
OBJECTIFS CULTURELS :
- Dcouvrir une BD francophone et son auteur,
- La publicit franaiseTRAVAIL SUR LA PREMIERE IMAGE
Qui sont les personnages ? Quel est leur lien de parent ? Que font-ils ? Quelle est leur attitude ?
Que dit la tl ?
Analyse du discours : sans frotter = sans travailler, sans se fatiguer
Mettre en vidence le contraste entre ce que dit la tl et ce que fait la femme
4) Dplacer ou agrandir le spot vers la deuxime image
TRAVAIL SUR LA DEUXIEME IMAGE

38
O. Milhaud et J. Neel, Le viandier de Polpette, Paris, Gallimard, 2011.
39
Flore Gervais, Aprs le plaisir de lire..., Liaisons / Dossier: bandes dessines, vol. 9, n 1, novembre 1984, p. 33-37
133

Quelle est lattitude des personnages ? Quest-ce qui a chang par rapport la premire image ?
(lhomme est ppre pendant que la femme travaille)
Faire remarquer le contraste entre ce que dit la tl et ce que fait la femme.
5) Dplacer le spot vers la 3e et la 4e image
TRAVAIL SUR LA TROISIEME ET LA QUATRIEME IMAGE
Quelle est lattitude des personnages ?
Observer lexpression du visage de la femme par rapport lhomme (et au chat !).
Toujours le contraste entre ce que dit la pub et le travail de la femme
6) Dplacer le spot vers la 5e et la 6e image
TRAVAIL SUR LA CINQUIEME ET LA SIXIEME IMAGE
7) Positionner le spot sur la 7e image
TRAVAIL SUR LA SEPTIEME IMAGE
Les paroles de lhomme ont t enleves de la bulle. Demander aux apprenants dimaginer ce quil
dit.
8) Ouvrir le PDF intitul BD humoristique sur la pub avant dernire image
Faire voir ce que dit lhomme qui, entre-temps, sest rveill. On comprend pourquoi sa femme le
fusille du regard. Demander aux apprenants de faire des prvisions sur la conclusion de lhistoire
9) Revenir au PDF prcdent et positionner le spot sur la dernire image
L aussi la bulle est vide... Les apprenants expriment leurs hypothses de conclusion.
10) Faire voir BD humoristique sur la pub dernire image
11) Poursuite du travail sans la BD : dbat et production crite
La classe peut tre invite dbattre dabord oralement puis par crit sur les deux affirmations
suivantes :
a) La femme a-t-elle eu tort ou raison de renverser la casserole sur la tte de son mari ?
b) Que penser de la pub tlvise ?
Travail sur les conjugaisons :
On peut revoir les conjugaisons des verbes SE PLAINDRE, NETTOYER

134

LA BD EN CLASSE DE LANGUES

Profesor Georgiana Davidoiu


Colegiul Economic Ion Ghica, Trgovite

Dans une socit situe dans un processus continu de transformation dans tous les domaines
de la pense (conomique, social, politique) et de la perception de la ralit environnante, le mdia
constitue la liaison de base de la communication entre les individus.
Le mdia attire par ses moyens de prsentation, par la simplicit de la prsentation, par le
contenu riche en information et par la rapidit de son transmission vers la population, d son
caractre global. Grce ces caractristiques il peut tre utilis avec succs dans lducation et, plus
prcisment, dans lapprentissage du franais, langue trangre.

135

Prenant en considration que les lves sont attirs par tout ce quil y a du moderne
(ordinateurs, portables, tablettes etc.), toujours prts dchiffrer des mystres, le mdia couvre
presque toutes ces ncessits des apprenants.
Vu par les lves comme une nigme, une langue trangre peut tre traite du point de vue
mdiatique, le mdia les motivant comprendre et apprendre cette langue trangre un autre
niveau appart celui classique dapprentissage.
Envisageant cette ide, cette prsentation a comme but de montrer que la bande dessine
reprsente un moyen denseignement efficace du point de vue grammatical, lexical et culturel, au
niveau de linterprtation et de la conversation dans une langue trangre, le franais.
La BD est un rcit en images successives dans des vignettes de tailles diffrentes.
Ce support prsente des avantages incontestables pour la classe de FLE :
c'est un document authentique qui prsente un registre de langue courant, proche de la vie
quotidienne. De plus, les lments textuels (dialogues ou rcit) sont souvent courts et
accessibles
c'est un support ludique et populaire, gnralement apprci par les apprenants
c'est un document qui mle rception visuelle et textuelle, jouant sur le lien image/texte pour
crer du sens
la bande dessine facilite le dialogue interculturel et permet de sensibiliser l'humour
c'est un bon dclencheur pour largir le thme abord avec des activits diversifies
(imaginez la suite d'une histoire, crire un dialogue etc.) mettant en scne les quatre
comptences crites et orales.
Une bande dessine est compose de plusieurs parties40. Ce sont une case, un strip, une planche, des
bulles et des rcitatifs. La case est une vignette qui contient un dessin. Le strip est une suite de cases qui sont
disposes sur une ligne. La planche est un ensemble de strips qui sont disposs sur plusieurs lignes. Les
bulles (ou phylactres) sont des textes intgrs dans une vignette. Ce sont des dialogues des personnages de
la bande dessin. Certains phylactres sont aussi utiliss pour lexpression des bruits, dune action. Les
rcitatifs sont des panneaux qui sont situs au bord des vignettes et qui servent aux commentaires ou
donner des indications de temps et de lieu. Plusieurs planches font un album. a peut tre cr par un auteur
ou par plusieurs. Un ensemble dalbums relis par un thme ou un personnage sappelle une srie.
Toute bande dessine peut se caractriser par la prsence dune chelle des plans 41 qui
peut tre de plusieurs types :
a) le plan gnral : le dcor envahi limage ;
b) le plan moyen : les dtails de lobjet deviennent plus lisibles, lobjet est plus
rapproch, le dcor se rtrcit ;
c) le plan amricain : le cadre sagrandit, une partie de lobjet disparat. Sil sagit dun
personnage, il est coup dhabitude la mi-cuisse ;
d) le plan rapproch : le cadre continue sagrandir en rtrcissant
proportionnellement le dcor. Seule une partie de lobjet reste visible, excellant dans
la nettet des dtails ;
e) le gros plan : rien quune partie de lobjet est agrandie jusqu' faire disparatre toute
trace de dcor ;
f) le trs gros plan : agrandissement maximal dun seul dtail de lobjet.
Toutes ces ressources peuvent tre exploites en clase de FLE car llve entre en contact
permanent avec eux. Pour exploiter une bande dessine, le professeur doit envisager les
caractristiques de la BD choisie :
a) Le type dimage (iconique, iconographique, topographique) ;
b) La prsence/absence dun texte types de textes (descriptif, narratif, informatif,
argumentatif)
c) Description de limage : la connotation ; la dnotation ;
d) Travail sur limage : plans, personnages, objets, couleurs, position du texte ;

40
Coubalova, A. La bande dessine dans lenseignement du FLE, Brno, 2013, p. 6
41
Peirce, Ch. S. : Collected papers, Cambridge, Mass, 1966, p. 37
136

e) Travail linguistique : lexique ;


f) Travail grammatical : structures grammaticales ;
g) Travail loral sur la crativit, limagination des lves.
Mme si ses possibilits dutilisation en classe sont multiples, il sagira tout dabord de comprendre
une BD globalement partir de lobservation de limage, du dessin, de rflchir sur les procds graphiques,
de dvelopper lexpression orale, en bref dintroduire le document. On visera ensuite un entranement la
comprhension crite et lexpression orale (dclencheur dexpression) : raconter lhistoire selon diffrents
points de vue, trouver un titre, imaginer ce qui sest pass avant, ce qui se passera aprs. Imaginer le contenu
des bulles, trouver le mot de la fin, rviser et enrichir son vocabulaire, manipuler certaines structures
grammaticales et des actes de parole en situation authentique. On passera enfin lexpression orale pure, en
dveloppant la crativit des apprenants. Il est par exemple possible de jouer les scnes originales de la BD,
ou celles inventes par les apprenants. Il faut cependant garder lesprit que lon peut galement montrer un
dessin humoristique dans un pur esprit de dtente ou de dcontraction lorsque que son sujet se rapporte
celui de la leon. Un album complet pourra, de mme, illustrer un cours de civilisation.
On utilise la bande dessine en classe de FLE parce quon peut42 :
montrer un dessin humoristique simplement dans un esprit de se dtendre parce que son sujet se
rapporte celui de la leon
faire ressortir les lments de civilisation si le dessin sy prte, bien entendu et analyser les
clichs qui en dcoulent
faire dcrire son contenu et, pour varier on peut donner le dessin la moiti de la classe et en faire
deviner le contenu par lautre moiti
supprimer la lgende ou la bulle, sil y en a une, pour essayer ensuite den faire imaginer une par les
apprenants.
On peut aussi utiliser la bande dessin dans un groupe dlves qui ne se connat pas encore43 :
prvoir un dessin humoristique pour deux personnes (pour une classe de 20 : 10 dessins diffrents),
couper ces dessins en deux, les mlanger et distribuer une moiti de dessin chauque participant,
les participants regardent attentivement leur moiti de dessin de faon pouvoir la dcrire (tout en
prenant bien soin de ne pas la montrer aux autres),
tous se lvent, vont les uns vers les autres et commencent, chaque nouvel interlocuteur, dcrire
leur moiti de dessin (exemple : moi, jai un monsieur dans un champ...) jusqu ce quils aient
trouv leur partenaire,
ils se dcrivent alors de faon trs dtaille leur moiti respective du dessin pour tre bien srs
davoir reconstitu le puzzle. Cest seulement ce moment-l quils mettent les deux parties
ensemble,
enfin, dernire tape ventuelle de ce jeu : si les dessins humoristiques ont une lgende (et si le
dessin est assez explicite) le professeur peut auparavant la supprimer et les participants qui ont
reconstitu leur dessin, doivent alors essayer den imaginer une,
les partenaires peuvent maintenant se prsenter lun lautre avant de prsenter leur dessin ainsi
queux-mmes au reste de la classe.
En conclusion, on doit toujours tenir compte des ncessits des apprenants, des particularits
individuelles de chaque individu, du niveau de culture et des traits de la socit dans laquelle les
lves vivent. On doit les faire apprendre se dbrouiller dans nimporte quelle situation de
communication en franais et faire face toute provocation. Lessentiel, mthodologiquement,
consiste par consquent intgrer de faon cohrente tous les paramtres qui interviennent dans la
dfinition mme dun processus global denseignement et dapprentissage. Les caractristiques du
public, la rpartition du temps, les besoins dapprentissage, lhoraire disponible, la formation de
lenseignant, les outils pdagogiques, tout cela, et bien dautres choses encore, doit tre recens, et
organis, en vue de mettre sur pied un enseignement vritablement adapt au contexte. 44

42
Runge, Annette, Jacqueline Sword La BD: la bande dessine satirique dans la classe de franais langue trangre,
Paris: CLE International, c1987, 95 s. Techniques de classe. ISBN 21-903-3106-4., p. 5
43
Ibidem, p. 6
44
Margerie, Ch. et Porcher, L. : Des media dans les cours de langues, collection Didactique des langues trangres, d.
CLE International, 1981, p. 5
137

BIBLIOGRAPHIE :

1. Coubalova, A. La bande dessine dans lenseignement du FLE, Brno, 2013


2. Margerie, Ch. et Porcher, L. Des mdia dans les cours de langues, Collection Didactique
des langues trangres , Ed. CLE International, 1981
3. Morlat, J. M., Tomimoto, J. La bande dessine en classe de langue, Rencontres
Pdagogiques du Kansa , 2004
4. Peirce, Ch. S. Collected papers, Cambridge, Mass, 1966
5. Runge, A., Sword, J. La BD: la bande dessine satirique dans la classe de franais langue
trangre, Paris: CLE International, c1987, 95 s. Techniques de classe

LE ROMAN PHOTO
Prof. Gina Budaca
Liceul Teoretic Emil Racovita, Vaslui

Lcriture crative est un outil formidable pour permettre limagination des lves de se
dployer et pour exploiter au maximum leurs comptences, dans un moment ludique, amusant et,
parfois, potique. Pourquoi le roman photo ? Parce qu'il est un support la production de lcrit. Il
est aussi trs motivant de faire un lien avec lunivers familier des lves- les nouvelles
technologies- et lapprentissage du franais. Le roman photo peut illustrer un thme enseigne
pendant la classe, un acte de parole ou un vnement vcu.
Le roman photo est un type de document qui peut tre utilis dans la classe de langue : on
peut faire appel aux habilets numriques des lves, leur imagination dans la construction de
lhistoire, leurs connaissances de langue et lutilisation des dialogues, leur talent thtral. La
bande dessine et le roman photo sont construits presque par la mme technique de construction,
mais ce dernier emploie des photos la place des dessins. Les personnages ou les dcors peuvent
tre reprsents par des photos trouves sur Internet ou dcoupes dans des revues ou bien des
photos dlves et de leur environnement. Il fournira aux lves la possibilit de se mettre dans des
situations diffrentes, semblables des situations rencontres dans la ralit.
A lcole, le roman photo peut tre utilis comme projet collectif. Les apprenants appliquent
les comptences acquises, les renforcent dans un contexte prtabli ou imagin par eux-mmes, ils
enrichissent leur vocabulaire, dveloppent leurs comptences dexpression crite, ils apprennent
travailler en quipe. A part cela, les lves peuvent faire recours des comptences
transdisciplinaires : ils travaillent sur lordinateur pour lutilisation du logiciel de traitement de texte
ou de prsentation, ils manipulent dun appareil photo numrique.
Un roman-photo est form de plusieurs pages. Chaque page contient une planche compose
de bandes. Chaque bande compte deux quatre cases ou vignettes. Chaque case contient une image
photographie, avec du texte plac soit dans des bulles, soit dans des cartouches. Les bulles peuvent
tre utilises pour que les personnages parlent ou pour quon dvoile leurs penses. Les cartouches
sont introduits pour marquer le contexte (moment de laction, le lieu, rsum de ce qui est arriv
entre temps).
Il y a des romans photos de tous types : enqute policire, romantique, aventure ils
peuvent illustrer diffrents moments de la vie des jeunes. Si lon sest dcide sur cet aspect-l, on
peut penser au cadre dans lequel se droulera lhistoire (pass, prsent, futur), aux personnages
et/ou au personnage principal, au lieu ou aux lieux du dcor. Pour cela, le professeur peut guider
les lves en leur fournissant un schma comme celui-ci:
EPOQUE passe, prsente, future
TEMPORALITE jour, nuit, histoire qui se droule sur une
journe, une semaine ou davantage

138

LIEU familier, exotique, unique, vari

STYLE raliste, parodique, pique

TYPE DE PERSONNAGES personnage principal ou groupe de


personnages, hros de quel style
EVENEMENT quel est lvnement dclencheur de
lhistoire ?
Aprs cela, les tudiants peuvent chercher llment de dpart du scnario, ce quon appelle
llment dclencheur, qui peut tre gai ou triste, drle ou effrayant.
On est maintenant un moment important dans la construction du projet. Il faut crire le
rsum de lhistoire en une page. Le rsum sappelle aussi synopsis. Toujours avant de commencer
le travail proprement dit, il faut penser aux nombres de cases dont ils ont besoin, sachant que
chaque case contient un seul lment narratif. Pour chaque case, il est ncessaire dimaginer le
dialogue, la narration. On tient aussi compte de la cohrence de lhistoire, des lieux et des
personnages.
Et voil ltape la plus attendue- la prise des photos ralises avec un appareil photo ou un
tlphone portable. Les tudiants peuvent devenir prsent les acteurs du roman quils ont
imagin. Ils doivent tenir compte de laction, des personnages, des paroles prononces (dialogue),
du dcor (lieu). Les photos doivent tre trs expressives : cest limage qui va parler, car les
dialogues seront trs brefs afin de ne pas alourdir les bulles. Pour cela, comme dans les bandes
dessines, les onomatopes peuvent tre utilisees pour donner du rythme a laction. Ainsi, quand
une personne arrive, on peut crire Coucou !, un tonnerre qui rsonne, Baoubadaboum, la pluie qui
tombe fait ploc-floc, flip-flip, le tlphone qui sonne, driiiing, driiing !, etc.
Sils sont contents des photos, ils peuvent continuer avec le montage du roman. Pour cela,
ils doivent faire appel aux comptences numriques pour insrer les photos et les bulles. Quand
mme, si lon na pas accs un ordinateur, on peut coller sur une planche en papier les photos
imprimes et au-dessus les vignettes remplies de dialogues.
Limportant est de laisser les tudiants donner libre cours leur imagination. Il est
galement essentiel que chaque membre de la classe ait un rle jouer et participe totalement au
projet.
Pour bien valuer un tel projet, le professeur doit partager de faon quilibre les taches
dans le groupe pour que chacun sache trs bien ce quil a faire et ce dont il est responsable.
Sur Internet on peut trouver des exemples de romans photos travailles par des lves,
comme par exemple http://lettres.ac-creteil.fr/spip.php?article1665. Sur ce site, lAcadmie de
Crteil met disposition de ceux intresss une histoire policire, un diner au restaurant, des
adaptations de divers textes littraires sous la forme de romans photos.
Sur un autre site vous trouverez des ides de romans photos raliser facilement en classe
de Fle, des conseils suivre, des exemples de romans photos. http://circo89-joigny.ac-
dijon.fr/spip.php?article95&lang=fr.
Pour finir, voil un exemple dactivit dexpression crite pour pratiquer le pass compos
sous la forme dun roman photo ayant comme thme: Une histoire d'amour.
Consigne
Racontez lhistoire damour dun couple en choisissant un lment de chaque groupe. (Vous
pouvez inventer dautres si vous voulez).
Ils sont maris aujourd'hui. Vous devez utiliser le pass compos. Cest un beau roman,
cest une belle histoire
LUI
Son nom : Martin/ Guillaume/ Thomas/ Hugo/ Gilles
Son caractre / Sa profession : - bavard - dentiste - optimiste - banquier - jaloux -
producteur de cinma - inculte - informaticien - timide - musicien
ELLE
139

Son nom: Chlo/ Julia/ Elodie/ Aurlie/ Claire


Son caractre / Sa profession : - marrante - coiffeuse - fidle - femme daffaires - mignonne
- professeur - sympa - femme au foyer - autoritaire - danseuse
LA RENCONTRE
Lieu :Dans un parc /A la piscine/ Au bureau/ Sur le quai de la gare/ Un parking de
supermarch /Un casino/ A la plage/ Dans un centre commercial
Mto : Il pleut/ Il fait beau/ Il neige/ Il y a un orage/ Il y a un orage/ Il gle
Un objet : Une voiture/ Un bouquet de fleurs/ Une photo/ Une montre/ Des bijoux/ Un
tlphone portable
DES HISTOIRES ENSEMBLES
Un voyage en Egypte/ Des vacances la neige/ Lanniversaire des amis/ Naissance du
premier enfant/ Mariage dun frre/une sur
On sait que tous les contenus ne peuvent pas tre enseigns avec le projet, mais l o les
mthodes traditionnelles denseignement ne prouvent plus leur efficacit, il faut avoir du courage
pour innover ou pour accepter linnovation. Il y a beaucoup de situations o ce sont les lves qui
nous proposent de raliser des projets. Cest nous dtre leur coute. L'criture crative mobilise
des comptences langagires qui peuvent s'enrichir lorsqu'elles sont mises au service d'une criture
collaborative (interaction, mise en commun de comptences, correction, etc.). Les projets de classe
sont des exercices qui supposent plusieurs heures de travail, semblent difficiles a grer, mais,
lenthousiasme des lves est la preuve que ce genre dactivit vaut la peine.

SITOGRAPHIE
https://cinematice.com/fle/%E2%80%95-usage-de-la-bande-dessinee/
http://www.francparler-oif.org/des-projets-pour-la-classe/

LA COMPTENCE DE LECTURE UNE COMPOSANTE ESSENTIELLE


DANS LENSEIGNEMENT DU FLE
Cazacu Amalia Giorgiana
Liceul Tehnologic Ion Mincu Vaslui
Tous les processus de communication ont comme base lacquisition de la part de lapprenant
dune langue trangre, et particulirement du franais, dune comptence de communication. Dans
ces circonstances il nous semble pertinent de nous poser la question suivante : que devient la
comptence de communication dans le cas particulier de la comprhension crite ? Alors la rponse
est simple : la responsable de lacquisition de la comptence de communication dans le cas de la
comprhension crite est la comptence de lecture.
La comptence de lecture nest autre chose que la capacit de trouver dans un texte
linformation que lon y cherche, capacit dinterroger un crit et dy reprer des rponses, capacit
de comprendre et dinterprter dune manire autonome. En analysant cette comptence de lecture
Sophie Moirand affirme que si lon accepte de dfinir le terme de cette manire il faut accepter
aussi le fait que cette comptence repose sur une triple comptence en langue trangre :

la comptence linguistique qui relve des modles syntactico - smantiques de la langue ;


la comptence discursive qui repose sur la reconnaissance des types dcrits (leur
organisation rhtorique) et de leur dimension pragmatique (les situations dcrit) ;
la connaissance des rfrences extra linguistiques des textes (lexprience vcue, les savoir
faire, le bagage socio culturel et la perception cultive que lon a du monde.
Ces trois comptences interviennent simultanment dans la mise en place dune comptence de
lecture, en particulier, et dune comptence de communication, en gnral.
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Laccs au sens dun texte est fonction dune comptence de comprhension globale qui
comprend aussi bien la connaissance du code linguistique (graphmie, morphologie, syntaxe,
lexique) que celle du fonctionnement textuel et intertextuel (organisation des phrases entre elles,
fonction du texte, relation du texte dautres textes).
La comptence de lecture permet donc au lecteur de connatre la fois ses capacits
intellectuelles et daccder lessence du texte, de le questionner et de le commenter. Lire en
langue maternelle, cest pratiquer pour son plaisir et pour son travail, des techniques de lecture
apprises pendant lcole primaire. En langue maternelle la comptence globale de comprhension
pourrait tre partage de la manire suivante :
Comptence de base : saisir linformation explicite de lcrit
Comprendre de qui ou de quoi on parle.
Tirer des informations ponctuelles dun crit.
Matriser lordre alphabtique.
Comptences approfondies : reconstituer lorganisation de lexplicite
Retrouver les enchanements de lcrit : lenchanement de causalit, lenchanement
chronologique, lenchanement rfrentiel.
Matriser les rgles principales du code crit : les accords, les types de phrases, les formes
verbales.
Utiliser les ressources du contexte : djouer les effets de la polysmie.
Comptences remarquables : dcouvrir limplicite dun texte
Mettre en relation deux informations.
Dgager le prsuppos dun nonc.
Dgager du contexte le sens dun mot inconnu.
(C. Tagliante, 1994 :122)
Un lve qui aurait atteint les comptences remarquables sait lire. Il sera capable daccder
au sens de nimporte quel document crit. Un tel lve sera capable de transfrer ses comptences
dans la langue trangre. Certes dans le cas de la lecture en langue trangre la motivation de
lapprenant joue un rle primordial, aussi bien que lapprentissage des stratgies de lecture
appropries pour la classe de langues. Lorsquon travaille en classe un document crit, lobjectif
premier nest pas la comprhension immdiate du texte, mais bien lapprentissage des stratgies de
lecture dont la matrise doit, long terme, permettre lapprenant davoir envie lire dans une
langue trangre, de trouver le plaisir douvrir et de feuilleter un journal ou un livre dans une autre
langue que sa langue maternelle. Ainsi les activits de comprhension crite, dapprentissage des
stratgies de lecture doivent avoir pour objectif de former des lecteurs actifs, autonomes, qui ne se
laissent pas rebuter par la longueur ou la difficult dun texte.
Francine Cicurel observe que pour atteindre ces comptences il y a deux modles que
lenseignant pourrait aborder en classe de comprhension crite. Le modle traditionnel de la
pdagogie de la lecture privilgie la connaissance des units dites de faible niveau ; si le lecteur
connait le code sa graphie, ses mots, ses phrases -, il est mme de comprendre le texte. Par
contre pour les modles de lecture appels sommet bas, les indices efficaces sont de haut niveau
comme la structuration smantique, la connaissance du contenu rfrentiel, la reconnaissance du
genre textuel. Alors, sil parait indispensable de travailler sur les units de rang infrieur, il est
regrettable que la mthodologie du texte lire en langue trangre ne prenne pas en compte les
units de rang suprieur sur lesquelles sappuie toute lecture en lange maternelle. Paradoxalement
on a observ que dans la lecture en langue trangre il y a un abandon des indices de niveau
suprieur alors que prcisment le lecteur en aurait davantage besoin quen langue maternelle pour
faciliter la comprhension.
Il existe aussi un niveau pr pdagogique qui permet la saisie de la mise en page, de la
typographie, de la mise en paragraphe, de lorganisation graphmique. Le lecteur entran prend en
compte ces lments comme autant dindices de lisibilit. Ce nest que sil rencontre une difficult
de comprhension quil revient de faon consciente sur les lettres, la morphologie, la disposition

141

des lments. Pour favoriser lapprentissage la mthodologie sappuie sur ces lments perus
inconsciemment afin de rendre le lecteur dbutant attentif au fait quils existent et quils constituent
une aide indispensable. Peu peu ce niveau tendra de devenir inconscient comme dans sa langue
maternelle.
Ainsi pour atteindre une bonne comptence de lecture lapprenant aura besoin de reconnatre
les schmas formels et les schmas du contenu du texte lu. Selon leur fonction, leur destination, leur
support les textes ont une organisation diffrente. Le lecteur sera guid dans on approche du texte
sil reconnat le type de texte. On parle des schmas formels du texte pour designer lorganisation
des lments qui le constituent. Lapprenant sait dj de sa langue maternelle quune structure
narrative se trouve dans une nouvelle, un roman, mais aussi dans un fait divers et un fait politique.
De mme quil sait quune structure descriptive se trouve dans des guides touristiques, mais aussi
dans des textes littraires. Le lecteur qui a dj rencontr un tel type de structure dans sa langue
maternelle aurait intrioris un type de droulement textuel quil retrouve dans sa lecture en langue
trangre. Il fait le transfert des connaissances de sa langue maternelle en langue trangre.
La reconnaissance des schmas du contenu est lie la comptence culturelle du lecteur. Le
texte ne se dchiffre pas en fonction des units qui le constituent mais aussi selon ce quon appelle
lencyclopdie du lecteur. La connaissance du monde que possde le lecteur lui permet de relier les
informations lues des expriences et connaissances passes, emmagasins dans le cerveau sous
forme de scnarios cognitifs.
Le lecteur apprenant dune langue trangre na pas besoin de comprendre tous les mots
pour arriver au sens dun texte. La comprhension peut se faire aussi avec des troues lexicales.
Cest le contexte qui permet de faire le saut. Le texte au contenu rfrentiel connu permet de
combler en partie les lacunes. En langue trangre le lecteur napprend pas lire, cest une activit
qui lui est familire et un lecteur entran procde par anticipation, il fait jouer ses connaissances
acquises. La carence de comptence linguistique qui oblige le lecteur dchiffrement fastidieux des
units de rang infrieur entrane un blocage dans la perception des units de rang suprieur (la
structure textuelle, les schmas de contenu, les connaissances pragmatiques lies au texte) quil
pourrait ventuellement retrouver mme sans comprendre lintgralit du code.
En effet ce qui influe sur la comptence de lecture des apprenants en classe de langue
trangre ne constitue pas des piges dans le choix des mots ou des rgles syntaxiques /
orthographiques mconnues, mais en vrit cest lattente de la comprhension immdiate du texte
(chaque mot et chaque dtail). Pour rsoudre le problme lapprenant doit tre un lecteur actif qui
ne sarrte pas sur des mots quil ne comprend pas. Il doit apprendre que lil na pas besoin de
voir toutes les lettres dun mot ou tous les mots dune phrase pour permettre au cerveau de
comprendre ce mot ou cette phrase. La lecture cest avant tout une activit cognitive.
BIBLIOGRAPHIE
S. Moirand, Situation dcrit, Paris, 1979
C. Tagliante, La classe de langues, Cle International, Paris, 1994
F. Cicurel, Lectures interactives en langue trangre, Hachette, Paris, 1991

LA BD PUBLICITAIRE EN CLASSE DE FLE

Prof. Aurelia Curelaru


Liceul tefan Procopiu Vaslui

La communication et linformation jouent un rle trs important dans la socit


contemporaine. Soit quon fait rfrence un certain type de communication, soit quon se limite
simplement informer, les deux actes reprsentent sans doute le rsultat dune pratique humaine.
Subjectivement ou objectivement, on utilise des instruments essentiels dans le processus de la
142

transformation et de lvolution de la pense, de la culture et de la civilisation. Le langage devient


loutil le plus puissant et le plus complexe de la communication, y compris le monde infini des
signes et des symboles.
Sur le champ de la publicit, la communication et linformation sont les fonctions
importantes du discours publicitaire. Une publicit doit obir principalement deux contrats
nonciatifs qui caractrisent le contrat de communication mdiatique: un contrat dauthenticit et
un contrat de srieux, comme le souligne P. Charadeau. On doit prciser les buts du contrat de
communication du discours publicitaire: il a comme premire finalit de faire savoir car sa vis
est dinformer le potentiel consommateur sur le produit et ses qualits, puis il doit faire ressentir,
provoquer une motion chez le lecteur. Donc, il doit rpondre la logique commerciale: sduire
pour faire agir qui le sudtermine. Le message publicitaire (form dun texte accompagn le plus
souvent dune image) doit capter et construire en mme temps lidentit de son public, ce quil fera
en offrant au lecteur limage suppose de son propre dsir. Lnonc publicitaire prtend instituer
une certaine relation avec son destinataire. Si le rcepteur ne russit pas reconnatre lacte en
question, il nadoptera pas le comportement adquat lgard de lnonc et la publicit natteindra
pas son but.
Ces prcisions faites, on peut parler de la BD publicitaire comme un document riche en
informations et significations que lon peut utiliser en classe de FLE. Tintin, Lucky Luke, Gaston
Lagaffe, Corto Maltese et bien dautres hros de BD sont sortis de leurs cases pour faire une
apparition dans lunivers de la publicit. Lobjectif : profiter de leur popularit pour sduire des
consommateurs, jeunes et moins jeunes, enfants et parents. On peut donc dduire que toute publicit
se propose de transmettre une information (Faire-Savoir), mais de provoquer en mme temps un
Faire-Croire/Faire-Vouloir pour aboutir un Faire-Faire. La publicit est efficace si elle entrane
une modification dans lattitude psychologique et dans le comportement du rcepteur, le
tranformant en acheteur, en consommateur. Tout Faire-Savoir est marqu par une intentionalit
manipulante. On devrait alement remarquer comment le simple Savoir se transforme en Vouloir-
Faire. Le Passage du Croire au Faire ne peut tre assur que si le consommateur potentiel apprend
quelque chose quil ne considre pas comme tant faux. Le dicours publicitaire doit tre crdible.
On propose une possible exploitation de la BD publicitaire en classe de FLE pour les
apprenants ayant acquis le niveau A2, B1 du CECRL. On a choisi une BD publicitaire dont le sujet
este TINTIN, un hros de BD trs aim par les enfants. On peut analyser la BD publicitaire en
classe de FLE en proposant aux lves des activits pour la comprhension orale et crite, mais
aussi pour la production crite.
Les lves doivent regarder la BD publicitaire et
prsenter les signes linguistiques apparaissant sur le texte publicitaire - le slogan, la marque,
le pav rdactionnel:
-le slogan de la BD publicitaire : Le fromage des jeunes gourmands.
-la marque : Fromage Tintin
-le pav rdactionnel: cest lexplication ou largumentation que portent, de moins en moins,
les publicits. Gnralement mis en bas de page et en criture plus petite que le reste de lensemble.
Cest le texte qui est plein des significations: Formidable: dans chaque bote, un super autocollant
dune collection de six sujets diffrents... Super formidable, ce fromage Tintin: trs doux et trs
crmeux...je dirais mme plus, trs crmeux et trs doux. Mille sabords, quel fromage ce TINTIN!
Prsenter les signes iconiques: le type d'image - dessin, peinture en couleur, avec ou sans
lgende ou bulle. Le visuel: cest le rsultat du mlange de limage et du texte.
Dans son ensemble, il recherche leffet de choc. Limage publicitaire travaille lordinateur est
corrige, arrange, pure et finalement transforme en visuel pour faire appel aux sens et veiller
les dsirs. On doit remarquer le texte TITIN crit avec la couleur bleu et le personnage qui porte
aussi un pull bleu.
Prsenter les signes plastiques la couleur: les couleurs utilises sont: bleu, vert et noir;
la forme: celle qui met en vidence le produit est la forme ronde. La typographie - cest la
stylisation de lcriture: le slogan est crit avec les majuscules et le message publicitaire avec les
143

minuscules. On voit pour la premire fois la marque et le slogan montrant le public vis (les jeunes
gourmands).
Le thme gnral de la BD publicitaire :
-La BD publicitaire parle de/traite de (exemple :un pique-nique avec Tintin et son fromage ou
pendant le pique-nique on ne manque pas le Fromage TINTIN)
-Dans la BD, il s'agit de
Description prcise de la BD publicitaire (BDP):
Pour cela, il faut couter ses premires sensations et se poser des questions gnrales:
-La BD est drle, choquante, triste, donne rflchir
-Le dessin est simple, complexe, raliste, imaginaire, fantastique
-Quelle est la composition du dessin ?
1. La BDP est compose de plusieurs parties.
2. La BDP est prsente sous la forme d'un triptyque.
3. La BDP prend la forme d'une planche de bande-dessine. Elle est divise en plusieurs
vignettes.
-Quelles sont les couleurs utilises ?
- O et quand se droule la scne ?
1. La scne se droule/se passe/a lieu ...
-De quel type de scne s'agit-il ? (Une scne quotidienne, de vie politique, de famille)
-Qui sont les personnages/les objets/les animaux et comment sont-ils ?
- O sont-ils ? l'arrire-plan ? au premier plan ?
-Que font-ils ? Quelles sont leurs relations ? Quels sont leurs motions, sentiments ? Comment les
voit-on ?
-Quel est le public vis ? Quels sentiments veut-on crer chez ce public ?
1.La BDP s'adresse /est destine
Interprtation de la BD publicitaire
-Quel message veut faire passer cette caricature ?
1.Le message dlivr par la BD est: acheter le fromage TINTIN, manger le fromage
TINTIN, aimer ce type de fromage
2.Le message transmis par la BDP est
3.La BDP veut faire passer/transmettre/dlivrer un message de ...
-Quels lments sont dcrits en deuxime partie de ce message dlivr? (Sens des couleurs utilises;
symbolique des objets, des personnages, des animaux; pourquoi avoir exagr tel ou tel lment ?
-Quel est le contexte historique/politique/social qui explique la cration de cette BD publicitaire ?
-Le message dlivr est-il vrai ou bien exagr / minimis ?
-La publicit est-elle efficace (la captation, la communication, peut convaincre les jeunes?) ou non ?
Pourquoi ?
Analyse linguistique du texte publicitaire
On propose de dvelopper la comptence linguistique: ladjectif qulificatif et les degrs de
comparaison. Les lves doivent identifier les adjectifs et les degrs de comparaison prsentes en
texte et puis ils peuvent expliquer pourquoi on utilise ce sujet de grammaire dans la publicit. On
peut expliquer aussi la manque du comparatif dans le texte publicitaire. Il faut mettre en vidence le
rle des signes de ponctuation dans le texte de la BD publicitaire: la virgule substitue le verbe tre
et on voit la prsence de la subjectivite: je dirais.... Ce sont des moyens par lesquels le message
publicitaire nous prsente largumentation et la persuasion: expliquer pourqoui on emploie le
conditionnel prsent.
Le vocabulaire aussi peut tre travaill, comme exemple on propose des exercices avec les
expressions idiomatiques, les proverbes qui concerne la nourriture ou les animaux. La tche finale
sera de crer des BD publicitaires par les lves (la production crite). Ils travailleront par groupes
pour mieux exprimer leurs gots.

144

BIBLIOGRAPHIE
Charaudeau, Patrick, Langage et discours. Elments de smiolinguistique, Classiques Hachette,
Paris, p. 101;
Idem, Le discours dinformation mdiatique. La construction du miroir social, Paris, Nathan, 1997,
p. 73;
Corjan, I. C., Semiotica limbajului publicitar. Textul i imaginea, Editura Universitii, Suceava,
2004, p. 232;
Frunz, Monica, De largumentation la persuasion dans le discours publicitaire franais, Casa
Editorial Demiurg, Iai, 2007, p. 68;
Landowski, Eric, La socit rflchie, Seuil, Paris, 1989, p.140
http://jetudielacom.com/heros-bd-et-publicite/#prettyPhoto/1/

L`IMPORTANCE DU TEXTE CRIT DANS


L`ENSEIGNEMENT D`UNE LANGUE TRANGRE

Professeur Sprncenatu Monica,


Lyce Thorique ,,Emil Racovi Vaslui

En didactique des langues, ce qui est important, c`est de savoir quoi servent les notions de
situation et de communication, c`est savoir les utiliser dans l`enseignement/apprentissage d`une
langue. Certes, la situation doit tre redfinie en fonction du projet initial et le fonctionnement de la
communication doit tre bien compris pour pouvoir acqurir les capacits de communication. Car,
,,enseigner une langue signifie premirement enseigner communiquer, transformer le langage dans
une pratique sociale utile l`apprenant" (Moirand).
La comprhension des crits est, avec la comprhension orale, l`une des quatre activits de
communication langagire retenues par le Cadre europen commun de rfrence pour les langues.
Dans la perspective actionnelle l`apprenant est pos dans la situation de communiquer dans des
situations dtermines.
L`envoi d`une demande de renseignement, l`intervention sur un forum sur Internet,
l`tablissement d`une correspondance avec une autre classe sont autant d`occasions d`aboutir au
,,parler vrai" au niveau de l`crit. Alors, pour comprendre un texte crit, on part toujours des
documents authentiques varis qui contiennent des textes illustrant divers types de discours : narratif,
descriptif, injonctif, explicatif, argumentatif, informatif. On choisit le texte en fonction du niveau de
l`apprenant et des contenus linguistiques ou civilisationnels que l`on souhaite travailler, le texte doit
corresponde aux intrts et aux proccupations des apprenants.
145

I. Les objectifs de la comprhension crite sont :


Saisir le sens global et l`explicite d`un texte.
Pour viter que l`apprenant arrive comprendre isolment chaque phrase d`un texte sans
comprendre le sens gnral de celui-ci, l`enseignant doit guider son apprentissage pour dvelopper les
processus cognitifs complmentaires. C`est qui est essentiel dans l`apprentissage de la comprhension
crite c`est d` identifier les lments connus dans le texte ayant comme stratgies de lecture les
indices :
La notion de contexte : origine du texte ;
Identification du type de texte : nouvelle, lettre, fiche technique, etc ;
Articulateurs logiques du texte pour saisir les relations smantiques entre les lments
pertinents du discours ;
Mots-cls
Relations temporelles : temps verbaux, marques de temps, indicateurs temporels ;
Donnes culturelles, sociologiques, politiques, etc. du texte.
La fonction iconique du texte : les photos, les dessins, les titres, les effets typographiques
Le professeur doit apprendre l`enseign prendre en compte et interprter tous ces indices, ce
qui permet l`lve d`anticiper le contenu du document.
II. Les supports
On les choisit en fonction du niveau des lves et le plus possible authentiques : des
publicits, des affiches, des prospectus, des courriers lectroniques, des programmes de tlvision,
des CV, des documents officiels, des textes littraires, des lettres personnelles, etc.
III. La dmarche
La mise en route prpare les apprenants la lecture par l`introduction du thme du document :
On invite les lves discuter sur des images ;
On fait un remue-mninge autour du thme abord en demandant les termes qu`ils connaissent
dj ;
On propose une liste de termes lis au sujet et demander le point commun.
Premirement, on distribue le document crit aux lves, on s`intresse autour du texte (titre,
images), on identifie la source qui va aider la comprhension globale du texte. On adresse des
questions supplmentaires pour aider les apprenants (Qu`est-ce qu`il y a la fin du texte ? D`o est-
extrait ce texte ?, d`un journal, d`un magazine.).
Deuximement, les lves vont dcouvrir le texte seuls en lecture silencieuse. Pour accder au
sens, on adresse des questions globales : Qui ?, Quoi ?, Quand ? Comment ? Pourquoi ? pour les
avancs.
Pour dtailler, on varie les questions, on vitera des questions fermes auxquelles on rpond par
oui ou non, on demande aux apprenants d`tablir des hypothses qu`on vrifie par un questionnaire
crit ou oral.
Puis, on attire l`attention sur l`organisation du texte: ponctuation, connecteurs, qui sont trs
importants car ils assurent la cohrence et construisent le sens.
Finalement, on adopte de divers exercices de comprhension crite adapts au support.
IV. La typologie d` exercices :
Des exercices de classement ;
Des Q.C.M ;.
Des exercices d`appariement ;
Des exercices de remise en ordre ;
Des exercices complter ;
Pour russir la comprhension des crits
Comprendre l`essentiel d`un texte est suffisant, ce n`est pas ncessaires de comprendre
le texte en dtail ;
Aborder le texte de diffrentes faons ;
Poser des questions qui pousse l`lve la rflexion ;
146


laborer au dbut de l`unit didactique de la grille d`valuation et des objectifs qu`on
veut arriver en fin de parcours.
En conclusion, dans le cadre de la perspective actionnelle, les activits de classe sont lies aux
activits sociales que les apprenants sont soumis accomplir en socit quotidiennement. L`approche
actionnelle implique un pilotage par tche pour dvelopper la comptence de communication,
entraner l`apprenant aux activits langagires et dcouvrir des lments culturels.

BIBLIOGRAPHIE :
Brard, E., Les tches dans l`enseignement du FLE : rapport la ralit et dimension
didactique, Le franais dans le monde, no 45, janvier 2009, p. 45.
Bourguignon, C., Pour enseigner les langues avec CECRL : cls et conseils, Delagrave, Paris,
2010, p. 25-30.
Bougnoux , D., Introducere n tiinele comunicrii, Polirom, Iai, p. 70-85.
Manuel de formation professeurs de franais, Projet Ministre de l`Education, de la Recherche, de
la Jeunesse et du Sport, Bucarest, 2012, p.36-45.
Mcquail, D., Comunicarea, Institutul European, Iai,1999, p.90-98.
Moirand,S., Enseigner communiquer en langue trangre, Hachette, Paris, 1982.

LA ENSEANZA DEL ESPAOL COMO LENGUA EXTRANJERA


A LOS ALUMNOS CON NECESIDADES ESPECIALES

Tofan Gabriela
Liceul Teoretic Emil Racovi, Vaslui

Es un verdadero desafo para un profesor ensear a un alumno con necesidades especiales para
adaptar sus mtodos , su tiempo y esperar ciertos resultados.
Un alumno tiene dificuldades educativas especiales cuando presenta dificuldades mayores que el
resto de los alumnos para acceder a los aprendizajes que se determinan en el currculo que le
corresponde por su edad (bien por causas internas, por dificuldades o carencias en el entorno
sociofamiliar o por una historia de aprendizaje desajustada) y necesita, para compensar dichas
dificuldades, adaptaciones de acceso y/ o adaptaciones curriculares significativas en varias reas del
currculo45
En estas condiciones acoger a los alumnos con necesidades especiales en la enseanza pblica
significa hacer educacin inclusiva., un nuevo concepto segn el cual todos los nios y todos los
jvenes tienen derecho a la educacin.
Sencillamente respetando a los alumnos en su diferenciascomo derecho humano y como valor. Las
nias y los nios se puede ser negra o blanco, espaola o esloveno, ser sndrome de Down, padecer
una enfermedad contagiosa y nada de eso configura un defecto ni una lacra social, sino un valor.La
naturaleza es diversa y no hay cosa ms genuina en el ser humano que la diversidad.
Mi experiencia
Llevo un ao y media trabajando con una nia con sndrome Down en el dcimo grado. Al principio
no saba muchas cosas de esta enfermedad y sobre todo no saba cmo comunicar para que ella
aprendiera el espaol, mi asignatura.
Los profesor de esta clase tuvimos la oportunidad de participar a un curso de Educacin Inclusiva
como apoyo en nuestra actividad didctica.

45
El curriculo para nios con necesidades especiales .Editorial siglo XXI de Espaa Editores.Madrid
147

A travs del curso hemos podido entender , primero, las necesidades emocionales, psquicas, su
manera de comunicar, saber que le gusta y que no. En segundo lugar aprendimos varios mtodos,
adecuados para que ella pudiera aprender vocabulario.
En el caso de mi alumna aprend que ella necesitaba mucha confianza de mi parte.A ellos no les
gusta alto. Tienes que explicarles todo en voz baja, despacio y esperar con mucha paciencia a que
haga su tarea . Y sonrer. Acariciar. Es muy importante.
Uso siempre materiales visuales: fotos, imgenes, posters porque el nio con sndrome Down tiene
un estilo visual de aprendizaje.
Ofrezco instrucciones simple, en oraciones simples, claras, cortas ( tacha con una lnea, une las
palabras con los dibujos) . Utilizo mucho los gestos (el lenguaje nonverbal) para ser ms explcita.
Mientras le explico las tareas es necesario tener contacto visual. Es muy importante para mi alumna.
Entiende mejor que quiero decirle.
Trato de averiguar si ha comprendido las instrucciones y le pido que las repita.As me doy cuenta de
que realmente ella ha aprendido.
Tengo paciencia para que ela me d la respuesta porque su ritmo de trabajo es mucho ms lento
(te gusta esta casa?/ cmo es? / cmo es la chica?/ cul te gusta? )
Siempre repito, reformulo todo lo que trabajamos. La animo ; es muy importante.
Le doy la liberdad de escoger las tareas que le guste (los animales, la casa, la calle etc) apoyndola
para que ella tome una decisin . De esta manera se le fortalece la confianza en si misma , en sus
acciones. Entiende que tambin ella tiene responsabilidad.

Ejemplos de fichas de trabajo y mtodos en la clase de espaol :

Ficha 1 : Aprender el alfabeto

Las fichas tienen que ser simples, claras , con dibujos e imgenes vivas, explcitas.

Ficha 2 :Relacionar los dibujos con las palabras.

148

Ficha 3 : Relacionar las frutas con las palabras

Ficha 4: Reconocer los estados de nimo


He notado que prefiere escoger y colorear las caras alegres.

Ficha 5 : Aprender los colores / Aplicar los colores

149

La actividad de colorear pide mucha paciencia de parte del profesor pero es la actividad que ms
relaja al nio con el sndrome Down. Es muy importante que el nio est relajado, que sus
compaeros lo entiendan y contribuyan a un ambiente muy relajado para su compaero especial.

BIBLIOGRAFA:
1.Stan, Cristina / Ciuc, Olga- Maria -Sindromul Down, Strategii de intervenie si integrare in
activitatea didactic, Tribuna nvmntului, Martie 20, 2017
2.http://www.educapeques.com/recursos-para-el-aula/fichas-de-vocabulario.html
3. http://www.escuelaenlanube.com/fichas-de-vocabulario-en-imagenes/

IL FUMETTO E LO SVILUPPO DELLE COMPETENZE LINGUISTICHE


Prof. Fighiuc Mirela
Liceul Teoretic Emil Racovi Vaslui

Negli studi sul fumetto, sono due le definizioni che, comunemente, vengono ritenute pi
esaustive. La prima quella fornita da Will Eisner il quale definisce il fumetto come arte
sequenziale (Eisner, 1985), perch esso costituito innanzitutto da una sequenza di immagini,
arricchita di parole, simboli e segni che permettono di raccontare una storia. Sulla base di questa
definizione, Scott McCloud propone, nel suo Understanding Comics: The Invisible Art, una
definizione estesa di fumetto, ossia Juxtaposed pictorial and other images in deliberate sequence,
intended to convey information and/or produce an aesthetic response in the viewer (McCloud,
1994: 9).
I modi in cui il fumetto pu contribuire allo sviluppo di ben precise competenze linguistico-
comunicative sono quella lessicale, testuale, pragmatica e (inter-)culturale, dato che si tratta di quei
livelli di analisi linguistica su cui si ravvisa una maggiore influenza ma che sono anche canale di
espressione degli usi di una lingua in contesto.

Lo sviluppo della competenza lessicale

150

Secondo Gilardoni (2009: 177) la competenza lessicale quella componente della competenza
comunicativa che comprende le regole di combinazione e di generazione del lessico e la memoria
lessicale, in cui risiedono le diverse informazioni relative ad ogni unit lessicale, ossia le
informazioni di tipo fonologico, ortografico, morfologico, sintattico, semantico e
pragmatico.
Data la complessit del lessico, evidente lo studente (ma anche il parlante madrelingua)
potr conoscere le componenti di quest'ultimo in vario modo: ad esempio, possono conoscersi
nessuno, una parte o tutti i significati di una parola. Non bisogna poi dimenticare il fatto che uno
studente possiede, nel proprio bagaglio linguistico, un lessico attivo e un lessico passivo: del primo
ci si serve attivamente in produzione, mentre il secondo costituito da quell'insieme di parole che
vengono riconosciute nei loro significati ma che non vengono necessariamente usate in produzione.
Di conseguenza, l'insegnamento e l'apprendimento del lessico non dovrebbero
tanto poggiare su un approccio quantitativo, che miri a conoscere un numero sempre pi
grande di parole, ma piuttosto su un approccio qualitativo, grazie al quale lo studente riesca
ad assimilare le [...] le propriet grammaticali, sintattiche e distribuzionali delle parole [...]
(Chini&Bosisio, 2014: 140) a partire dal significato che esse assumono in un preciso
contesto.
Oltre a ci, il fumetto obbliga l'insegnante a svolgere quel lavoro qualitativo e non
quantitativo a cui avevamo accennato sopra: per ragioni editoriali, ma anche per la loro natura
intrinseca natura che prevede una combinazione di materiale grafico e verbale inserito
all'interno di uno spazio limitato (la vignetta e il balloon) i fumetti contengono una
quantit di materiale linguistico ridotta rispetto a quella che pu trovarsi in un romanzo, in
cui l'autore gode di una relativa libert di spaziare. Inoltre, questa poca lingua anche la
lingua di pochi personaggi che soprattutto nei fumetti pi semplici si inseriscono
all'interno di una rete di relazioni per lo pi stabile e che, di conseguenza, impiegheranno un
lessico che riflette tale stabilit. Il fatto poi che generalmente la quantit di testo contenuta
all'interno del balloon si limiti a poche frasi, rende ancora pi semplice spezzare queste ultime
in chunks di discorso, che possono essere dapprima fatti notare dagli insegnanti, nei casi di
una competenza linguistica minore, e poi essere lasciati a un'operazione di noticing
da parte di studenti che abbiano gi raggiunto un grado di autonomia sufficiente.

Lo sviluppo della competenza testuale

Secondo Chini e Bosisio (2014: 153-154) La competenza testuale pu essere definita, sul
versante ricettivo come la capacit di riconoscere che cos' un testo e che cosa non lo , di
ricostruire l'unit di senso di un messaggio, di riassumerlo, parafrasarlo, a scriverlo a un genere e a
un tipo testuale; sul versante produttivo, essa comporta saper produrre testi compiuti,
semanticamente e formalmente coerenti con una certa intenzione e situazione comunicativa,
secondo una specifica tipologia testuale.
Il fumetto si presta bene come messo per elicitare e sviluppare le capacit di produzione
testuale dello studente: se gli richiesto infatti, quest'ultimo dovr essere in grado, anche con l'aiuto
inconsapevole della propria competenza testuale in L1, di ricostruire il testo nella sua interezza,
includendo quindi nella produzione i passaggi logico-concettuali cancellati dallo spazio bianco.
Dovr quindi ricostruire i rapporti di coerenza e coesione tra una vignetta e l'altra, ricreando un
testo pi lineare, in cui questi grandi salti semantici non esistono pi. Inoltre, in un'ottica pi
strettamente pragmatica, lo studente deve essere in grado di ricostruire e descrivere l'atteggiamento
dei personaggi parlanti, e di individuare da che tipo di relazioni sono legati, anche a partire da un
raffronto tra il contesto socio-culturale in cui viene impiegata la lingua di studio e quello in cui
stato cresciuto e scolarizzato.
Lo sviluppo della competenza pragmatica

151

Chini e Bosisio affermano che sviluppare la competenza pragmatica significa forniregli


strumenti per agire e interagire in [quella] lingua in modo efficace e adeguato al contesto,
coerente con i suoi scopi comunicativi (2014: 163) nonch saper identificare le intenzioni
comunicative altrui, come ascoltatori, e insieme, come parlanti, saper ricorrere a tali tipi di
messaggi e strategie, pi o meno esplicite e traslate, per veicolare significati (come fanno
spesso i nativi) [...] (Ivi: 167).
Facciamo un esempio pratico: la frase Sta arrivando una tempestainserita all'interno di un
normale speech balloone pronunciata da una bambina che guarda assorta fuori dalla finestra di casa
in una mattina d'inverno, verr plausibilmente interpretata dal lettore come una descrizione di uno
stato di cose, o al limite come una riflessione sul fatto che non sar possibile andare a fare una
passeggiata; se per la stessa frase viene inserita in grassetto all'interno di uno
splash ballon, solitamente utilizzato per le parole urlate, e se questo viene collegato a un marinaio
che si rivolge ai propri compagni terrorizzato dall'imminente burrasca, ovvio che l'effetto sar
completamente diverso: il fumetto, pur all'interno di un ambiente controllato, permette allo studente
di identificare l'intenzione comunicativa altrui, come lettore, e anche come parlante.

Lo sviluppo della competenza (inter-)culturale

Fin qui si cercato di illustrare il contributo che pu fornire il genere fumetto in ambito
glottodidattico, con un'attenzione particolare ai livelli lessicale, testuale e pragmatico. auspicabile
tuttavia che lo sviluppo della competenza linguistica in LS vada di paripasso con
lo sviluppo della competenza culturale, ossia con lo sviluppo della capacit di saper usare la
lingua non soltanto correttamente, in base ai suoi elementi strutturali, ma anche appropriatamente
a seconda del contesto comunicativo e sulla base di norme pi o meno implicite che sono condivise
dai parlanti di una stessa lingua.
Esempi di esercizi ch epossono essere usati per linsegnamento e lapprendimento
dellitaliano.

152

I Vocabolario e communicazione:
1. Leggi il fumetto e rispondi alle seguenti domande con Vero o Falso:
a.Durante lo spettacolo la giraffa si divertita un sacco.
b. Alle scimmie non gli piaciuto affatto lo spettacolo.
c. Gli animali soffrono al circo.
d. Gli animaletti vogliono andare al circo di nuovo.
e.Il pupazzo di neve ha un cappello verde.
f. Il primo che arriva al circo ha il biglietto gratis.
g. La macchina e guidata da un uomo.
h. pericoloso attraversare la strada senza guardare.
i. La macchina ha il colore grigio.
j. Tra gli spettatori del circo c unelefante.

2. Questo fumetto ha 10 illustrazioni. Trova lillustrazione che corrisponde alle seguenti


situazioni:
a. Nellimmagine si trova un idrante rosso. Immagine no.
b. La foca ha un dito alzato. Immagine no.
c. Gli animali si sbrigano ad andare al circo. Immagine no.
d. Il pupazzo di neve vienec olpito da una macchina. Immagine no.
e. Un clown che va in bicicleta. Immagine no.

3. Scegli laffermazione giusta:


1. Dove vanno i tre animaletti?
a. Allo zoo
b. Al circo
c. Al circuito
2. Lultimo che arriva:
a. Prende da mangiare
b. Compra le bevande
c. Paga i biglietti
3. Quale animale non presente al circo?
a. La giraffa
b. Lelefante
c. Il cane

4. Combina le due colonne:


1. La giraffa non a. a fare esercizi pericolosi.
2. Il leone b.corre per vedere il circo.
3. Gli animali non sono costretti c.stava molto felice.
4. La tapa d.rimprovera il pupazzo di neve.
5. Lautista e.ha fatto altro che ridere.
II Grammatica
1. Completa le frasi con i verbi tra parentesi al modo e al tempo opportuno:1p (0.2x5=1)
a. Domani, gli animali ____________al circo. (andare)
b. Mi______________tanto insieme a Marta. (divertire)
c. Mia madre ha detto che questa settimana_____________ qualcosa di male. (accadere)
d. Ti___________venire con noi al cinema? (piacere)
e. Spero che __________ andata bene. (essere)
153

Saper riconoscere l'atteggiamento di un parlante e saper ipotizzare il motivo per cui parla in
un determinato modo piuttosto che in un altro, o dice qualcosa piuttosto che un'altra, indice
della capacit di crearsi delle aspettative sulla base di esperienze passate anche in una lingua
che non la propria, e dovrebbe essere un'abilit al cui sviluppo un docente dovrebbe
dedicare molte energie. Per questo motivo, necessario trasmettere agli studenti l'importanza del
sapersi aiutare con tutti gli input semantici che essi hanno a disposizione per capire, e nel nostro
caso essi hanno a disposizione le immagini. importante che gli studenti comprendano che tentare
di intuire il significato a partire dalle immagini nel momento in cui non si capiscono le parole non
barare, ma semplicemente ci che un qualsiasi essere umano, verosimilmente,
farebbe in un contesto reale.
I percorsi didattici che abbiamo immaginato sono soltanto proposte, idee e ipotesi, che
speriamo risultino abbastanza flessibili per chi eventualmente vorr metterli in pratica e adattarli a
un contesto d'insegnamento reale.

Bibliografia

Balboni, P (2013). Modulo, UnitDidattica, Unitdapprendimento: non


unaquestioneterminologica. In.It, 29-30: 2-6 [http://www.initonline.it/pdf/init2930.pdf]
Chini, M. & C. Bosisio a cura di (2014).Fondamenti di glottodidattica.Apprendere einsegnare le
lingueoggi. Roma: Caroccieditore.
Eisner, W. (1985).Fumetto e arte sequenziale. Torino: Vittorio PavesioEditore.
McCloud, S. (1994).Understanding Comics: The Invisible Art. New York: HarperPerennial

UTILIZAREA BENZILOR DESENATE N PREDAREA LIMBII ENGLEZE

Prof. Claudia Morar


Liceul Teoretic Lucian Blaga, Cluj-Napoca

It always strikes me as supremely odd that high culture venerates the written word on the
one hand, and the fine visual arts on the other. Yet somehow putting the two together is dismissed
as juvenilia. Why is that? Why cant these forms of art go together like music and dance?46, sunt
cuvintele lui Jonathan Hennessey, autorul The U.S. Constitution: A Graphic Adaptation i The
Gettysburg Address: A Graphic Adaptation. ntrebarea lui poate rmne retoric, simpla expresie a
unei nemulumiri. ns, printr-un proiect didactic al unui profesor ce poate vedea potenialul
educaional al benzilor desenate, acestea vor contribui la dezvoltarea abilitilor de lectur, la
competenele de comunicare n limba strin sau, pur i simplu, vor trezi interesul pentru carte.
Cu intenia de a ncuraja utilizarea benzilor desenate n coli, Josh Elder, fondatorul i
preedintele organizaiei Reading With Pictures, rezum punctele ri ale acestora sub formul
cele 3 E-uri ale benzilor desenate47, artnd ce avantajoas este o asemenea
abordare interdisciplinar:
Engagement (implicarea) - benzile desenate transmit sensuri prin implicarea active a
cititorului n descifrarea limbajului suprapus cu imagine i pin completarea informaiei
dintre chenare

46
Sunt permanent foarte uimit de cum culturile avansate venereaz cuvntul scris, pe de o parte, i artele frumoase,
pe de alta. i totui, alturarea acestora este considerata infantil. De ce se ntmpl asta? De ce nu se accept aceste
forme de art mpreun, ca muzica i dansul? (https://teach.com/blog/why-comics/, accesat 12.03. 2017)
47
http://www.readingwithpictures.org/ (accesat 12.03.2017)
154

Efficiency (eficient) formatul benzilor desenate ofer cantiti mari de informative ntr-
un timp foarte scurt, ceea ce este foarte convenabil unor materii c matematic, tiinele,
studii sociale
Effectiveness (eficacitate) procesarea simultan a imaginii i a textului duce la memorare
i transfer de informaie mult mai facil i pe termen mai lung.
Este posibil, ns, ca tocmai interdisciplinaritatea unui asemenea subiect sa dea impresia
profesorului ca este foarte complicat de aplicat. Interdisciplinaritatea este definit ca tratarea unui
subiect sau a unei teme prin prisma mai multor discipline academice, transcenderea limitei dintre
acestea i crearea de produse i valori noi, adesea surprinztoare prin simplitatea, eficiena sau
ingeniozitatea lor. Tocmai de aceea, o abordare de acest tip presupune competene mult mai
complexe din partea profesorului ct i a elevului, necesit surse de documentare suplimentare,
resurse mai mari de timp, fapt care, adesea, descurajeaz alegerea unei asemenea maniere de lucru.
Interdisciplinaritatea nu este un fenomen nou multe din domeniile de cercetare tiinifice
i programele educaionale sunt datorate nevoii de a gndi interdisciplinar si independent. De
asemenea, multe produse care sunt uzuale astzi nu ar exista dac soluiile la diferitele probleme nu
ar fi fost rezultatul unei abordri interdisciplinare omul modern nu ar fi fost dispus s coroboreze
informaii din domenii diferite, s fac analogii, s gndeasc radical diferit sau s colaboreze cu
mini care funcioneaz dup alte principii raionale.
Avantajele unui subiect propus a fi tratat interdisciplinar sunt evidente. Elevii pot lucra pe
grupe, mod n care i dezvolt competenele de comunicare, pot aplica metode moderne studiului
individual - cum ar fi principii ale gndirii laterale - pot preda la rndul lor, altor colegi, temele
respective sau pot face echip cu profesorul, mprind echitabil responsabilitile. n ciuda
dezavantajelor, abordarea interdisciplinar lanseaz n elev nevoia de nvare pe tot parcursul vieii
la un nivel constant, prilej cu care i poate aplica mare parte din cunotinele dobndite n diverse
momente n timp i la diferite niveluri ale ciclurilor de nvmnt.
Ca o ilustrare a noiunilor teoretice de mai sus, doresc s prezint n continuare o activitate
din cadrul orelor de limba englez pentru care am ales o clas a unsprezecea cu cunotine avansate
de limb strin. n cadrul proiectului Global English, coordonat de British Council si desfurat
in multe scoli din tara, am accesat pentru diverse activiti didactice platforma electronic de
nvare a limbii engleze patronat de Consiliu ce conine subdiviziunile LearnEnglishKids,
TeachingEnglish, LearnEnglish i LearnEnglishTeens.
De pe acesta am ales o lecie despre manga i romanele grafice, asta datorit pasiunii
elevilor de liceu pentru acest stil interesant de a desena i a nara. Conform acestui site, acestea sunt
naraiuni ce insist pe aspectul vizual al povestirii, fcnd apel la tehnici de desen specifice anime-
urilor asiatice. Cu alte cuvinte, pe lng naraiunile cu eroi tipici culturii asiatice (cu care elevii erau
familiarizai mai ales de la televizor) se poate alege orice povestire i repune n pagin n stil
manga, sub forma de benzi desenate.
Dup parcurgerea leciei virtuale cu tent mai mult teoretic i explicativ n cadrul clasei ca
ntreg, elevii care cunoteau i citeau/desenau asemenea materiale au fost rugai sa i formeze
grupele de lucru n care, mai nti, au desfurat o activitate de documentare referitoare la tradiia
manga, a tehnicilor de desen, de perspectiv i a instrumentelor de desen sau scris folosite. Au
exersat mpreun trsturile feei, caracterizate de tue stilizate, n spe ochi mari, semi-nchii,
reprezentri ale prului, nasul mic i crn precum i reprezentri ale vesmintelor preferate de autorii
de manga. Pasul urmtor a fost alegerea unei naraiuni care s fie adaptat i rescris n aceast
manier, cu condiia ca aceasta s fie de circulaie general tocmai pentru a se putea evidenia
diferenele dintre grafica utilizat in alte ilustrri clasice sau n firul povestii i apoi realizarea
propriu-zis a acestui material. Proiectul mai conine un rezumat al naraiunii dar i o analiz a
stilului de lucru, a stilului decizional, a responsabilizrii n cadrul grupei, a dificultilor
ntmpinate i a impactului.

155

Unul dintre cele mai reuite proiecte este o adaptare n stil manga a poeziei Luceafrul,
scris de poetul nostru naional, Mihai Eminescu. Dei elevii de clasa a unsprezecea erau
familiarizai cu textul, a fost nevoie de o re-lectur aprofundat pentru a gsi acele detalii care se
pretau la noua abordare. Astfel, ei au selectat doar povestea de dragoste nemplinita ntre cei doi
tineri ce preau a aparine unor lumi diferite. Apoi au scris textul n limba engleza, integrnd
casetele de text extrem de plastic printre cadrele lucrate n creion grafic ce conin uneori doar un
detaliu al fizionomiei lui Ctlin, cadre mai largi sau onomatopeele inerente stilului grafic de band
desenat. Conform tradiiei, paginile sunt legate invers, astfel nct aceast poveste grafic se
citete de la cap la coad fa de una occidental, pornind de la coperta ireal de frumoas,
nfindu-i pe cei doi ndrgostii.
Desigur, recursul la o oper de asemenea valoare i amploare poate prea pretenios. De
multe ori, timpul nu permite studiul att de aprofundat al unei opere cu rdcinile n alt disciplin,
chiar dac ea face parte din cultura proprie i face obiectul examenelor naionale. ns benzile
desenate se pot aplica n cadrul unor lecii mai comune studiului limbilor strine. De exemplu, n
cadrul studiului povestirii, ca i exerciiu de scriere funcional, benzile desenate pot fie descrie
demersul naraiunii schematic, nainte c aceast s fie dezvoltat sub form de text amplu, fie pot
rmne ca atare, exclusiv sub form de desen cu text. n multe manuale de limb strin gsim
noiunile de mit sau legend, care se pot transforma cu uurin n legende ilustrate ce explic
apariia unor obiecte uzuale i legume sau animale cu aspect mai deosebit.
Consider realizarea unor astfel de proiecte deosebit de util i atrgtoare pentru elevi
deoarece pornete de la elemente din universul lor pe care le pot aprofunda aplicat n cadrul orelor
de limba englez. Practic, ntr-un asemenea proiect se ngemneaz competenele TIC cu cele de
limba romn, limba englez, arte plastice dar i cu cele de comunicare, nemaivorbind de gndirea
critic. O astfel de tema poate uni generaii prin dimensiunea s universal, Eminescu unete mai
chiar lumi ntregi culturi radical diferite. ns cel mai important rezultat este impactul asupra
elevului: dezvoltarea creativitii, deschiderea minii ctre forme noi i coninuturi nestandardizate,
satisfacia elevului de a vedea un produs nou, creat de sine nsui, produs ce ar putea servi n
procesul de nvare universal al altui elev aflat oriunde n lume.

Sitografie

1.Braddock, Paul, Manga, disponibil la https://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/manga, accesat


la 13 martie 2017
2. Elder, Josh, Comics in the Classroom: Why Comics? disponibil la https://teach.com/blog/why-
comics/, accesat la 12 martie 2017
3. Purcia, Valeria Ecaterina, Invatarea intergenerationala, disponibil la
https://edupsihologie.wordpress.com/2014/11/12/invatarea-intergenerationala/ accesat la 12 martie
2017
4. Sarantino, Tim, Comics Uniting Nations, disponibil la http://www.readingwithpictures.org/
accesat la 12 martie 2017
5. Whiting, James, Using Comics in the English Language Classroom, disponibil la
https://americanenglish.state.gov/files/ae/resource_files/comicsinlangclassroom-ning.pdf accesat la
12 martie 2017
6.*** Teacher Tips for Creating Comic Books in the Classroom, disponibil la
http://www.brighthubeducation.com/teaching-methods-tips/60323-creating-comic-books-in-the-
classroom/, accesat la 12 martie 2017
7.*** Using Comics and Graphic Novels in the Classroom, disponibil la
http://www.ncte.org/magazine/archives/122031, accesat la 12 martie 2017

BENZILE DESENATE N CULTURA POPOARELOR I

156

IMPACTUL ACESTORA ASUPRA EDUCAIEI

Prof. Mateescu Georgeta Carmen


Liceul Tehnologic Constantin Brncoveanu, Trgovite

,,O carte sau revist de benzi desenate (englez: comic book, francez: Bande Dessine)
reprezint o publicaie n care sunt istorisite una sau mai multe naraiuni prin intermediul limbajului
i conveniilor benzii desenate.48
Specialitii au mai multe opinii despre definiia termenului, dar se pare c originea benzilor
desenate trebuie cutat n ziarele de la nceputul secolului al XIX-lea din America. Aici apreau
diferite caricature pentru a comenta sau pentru a susine multe povestiri simple.
,,Primul exemplar de benzi desenate, dup definiia american a fenomenului "comic
books" din Statele Unite, este considerat a fi The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck. Benzile desenate
americane au fost asociate cu tradiia super-eroului. Traducerea exact a termenului american pentru
cri de benzi desenate ar fi cri comice de unde a i pornit controversa cu folosirea unui alt
termen (romane grafice) pentru a face diferena ntre cele care aveau ca int un public format n
mare parte din copii i adolescent. Industria modern a benzilor desenate a nceput n Statele Unite n
1930, cnd a fost introdus stereotipul super-eroului, Superman. Fanii americani i pasionaii mpart
benzile desenate americane n diferite ere. Din S.U.A. origineaz de asemenea benzile desenate
contra-culturale i cele underground/alternative. Vnzrile de benzi desenate sczuser n vremea
cnd apruse televizorul, dar au rectigat popularitatea n anii `50 i `60 din cauza modului n care a
abordat Stan Lee super-eroii n lumea real. Mai trziu a aprut influena benzilor desenate japoneze,
denumite manga i recunoaterea mediului printre academici, critici literari i muzee de art au
solidificat aceasta ca o form de art stabilind tradiii, stiluri, convenii i evoluie artistic. Modul n
care sunt ilustrate benzile desenate din S.U.A. este unul specific, personajele fiind desenate sub
forma ideal i mbrcate n costume pentru a evidenia aceste caracteristici. Brbaii au o
musculatur bine subliniat, la fel ca i femeile. Fetele de obicei la brbai au o mandibul ce le
confer o fa oarecum dreptunghiular n partea de jos, iar femeile au o fa ovaloid. Eroii sunt
reprezentai sub diferite costume, iar rufctorii i acoper de obicei faa. De asemenea sunt
prezeni anti-eroii, care reprezint partea ntunecat a justiiei, care folosesc orice mijloace pentru a
i ndeplini voina (...) Fiecare dintre toi aceti artiti influeneaz atmosfera scenei i trebuie exact
ce trebuie s scoat n eviden i ce trebuie s fie tratat cu mai puin interes pentru a echilibra
compoziia. Iar apoi vine cel care adaug textul, care trebuie s aib cunotine profesionale n ceea
ce privete caligrafia pentru a reprezenta ct mai bine ceea ce este ilustrat49
n ceea ce privete crile desenate franco-belgiene, acestea sunt considerate o nou art.
,,Frana i Belgia sunt dou ri care au o tradiie ndelungat n ceea ce privete benzile desenate,
unde sunt numite BD-uri (abreviat de la bande dessine). Spre deosebire de termenul american de
comics (amuzant) ce implic o form de art ace nu poate fi luat n serios, aici benzile desenate
sunt private ca a noua art i concepia asupra lor este alta. n America benzile desenate din Frana
i din Europa n general sunt categorisite drept romane grafice datorit modului n care acestea sunt
tiprite (n cantiti mari, pe volume). Benzile desenate franco-belgiene au un stil propriu n ceea ce
privete modul n care sunt ilustrate. Spre deosebire de modul foarte realist i idealist folosit n
mare parte de artitii de band desenat americani, artitii franco-belgieni trateaz ilustrarea
benzilor cu o libertate mai mare. Ei pun mai mult pre pe poveste i pe faptul c modul n care arat
este mai puin important dect povestea pe care o spune o band desenat, dar asta nu nseamn c
benzile franco-belgiene nu sunt atractive din punct de vedere vizual. Linia din benzile desenate

48
https://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carte_de_benzi_desenate
49
Ibidem
157

franco-belgiene este mai vibrat n contradicie cu cea foarte exact, pe care o gsim n benzile
desenate americane. Unul dintre primele stiluri care au fost inventate n Frana a fost linia clar,
care este caracterizat prin lipsa total a umbrelor i a negrului, o linie nentrerupt i
proporionalitatea realist. Acest stil este considerat un stil ncetinit datorit faptului c nu exist
linii dinamice, de fug. Alt stil franco-belgian este cel realist, care ncearc s arate foarte
convingtor i natural, dar n acelai timp s menin acea contien a faptului c este un desen.
Mai trebuie menionat i stilul comic-dinamic cu o linie de grosime variat i nite desene foarte
agitate.50
Benzile englezeti nu se deosebesc foarte mult de cele americane, avnd aceeai mrime,
dar fr formatul glossy (hrtie lucioas pentru copert). Dei n 1884 a fost publicat prima carte
de benzi desenate n Marea Brianie, aceasta era conceput pentru cititorii aduli, firmele i-au
schimbat orientarea ctre publicul tnr i de aceea a fost creat o prere greit, aceea c ar fi un
lucru juvenil.
n Japonia, denumirea benzilor desenate este manga. ,,Manga-urile populare sunt
transformate n anime-uri (animaie n japonez). Manga este creat dintr-o mixtur ntre arta
japonez ukiyo-e i stiluri strine de desenat, i a preluat forma prezent la puin timp dup cel de-
Al Doilea Rzboi Mondial. Const n principal din desense alb-negru, n afar de coperi i
cteodat primele cteva pagini; n unele cazuri, este colorat integral. Termenul de manga
nseamn imagini aleatorii. Primele benzi desenate japoneze au aprut la nceputul secolului al
XVIII-lea i aveau foarte puine cuvinte fiind pentru cititorii neiniiai n literatur. Dar n 1775
Koikawa Harumachi a publicat ce ar putea fi prima band desenat mai complex cu un fir literar i
mai sofisticat cultural. Stilul japonez de a desena este unul foarte expresiv, n sensul c ei
exagereaz modul n care se exprim aciunile. Iar personajele sunt desenate n stilul moe anume
cu ochii mari i nasul i gura mic. Dr. Osamu Tezuka a creat un stil aparte n care un personaj nu
ilustreaz o reprezentare realistic, ci una bazat mai mult pe ideea ce st la baza personajului.
Manga este mult mai comercializat dect oricare alte benzi desenate datorit modului i a
formatului n care este publicat benzile desenate se vnd pe toat suprafaa globului. Un alt factor
important n comercializarea benzilor desenate manga a fost faptul c este un factor foarte apreciat
n cultura japonez i este mult mai valorificat dect n orice alt parte. Majoritatea benzilor
desenate manga sunt publicate pe hrtie ieftin i n alb negru, avnd o copert n patru culori, iar
primele pagini fiind colorate n prealabil. Stilul manga a avut o influen asupra benzilor desenate la
nivel mondial, practic a fost creat un curent artistic de benzi desenate manga. Benzile desenate
manga se citesc de la dreapta la stnga, spre deosebire de modul tradiional american/european de a
citi de la stnga la dreapta. Aceasta a creat diferite controverse datorit faptului c unele edituri
pentru a nlesni cititorilor aceast problem au ntors paginile i de aceea majoritatea personajelor
par s fie stngace i anumite lucruri par asimetrice. Una dintre cele mai cunoscute benzi desenate
i anume Blade of the immortal nu a suferit acest proces datorit faptului c personajul principal
poart pe spate un manji (svastica budist), iar ntoarcerea paginilor ar fi artat c personajul poart
emblema nazist.51
n Romnia, benzile desenate sunt dezvoltate, dar nu sunt la fel de appreciate ca n SUA,
Frana, Belgia, Japonia, Austria sau Germania.
Benzile desenate au un important rol n educaie timpurie a copiilor care vizualizeaz n
imagine anumite povestiri sau situaii din lumea real.

50
Ibidem
51
Ibidem.
158

ROLUL BENZILOR DESENATE N EDUCAIE

Prof. Alecu Anda-Ligia


Liceul Tehnologic Constantin Brncoveanu, Trgovite

,,O band desenat reprezint un mijloc de comunicare pe cale grafic, alctuit cu ajutorul
imaginilor, i adeseori, a cuvintelor, n scopul de a ilustra un fir narativ. Aceasta este, n special,
destinat copiilor de tate vrstele.
Acest mijloc de comunicare reprezint o form de educaie pentru c povetile au fost
reprezentate n imagini, aceast idee fiind ntrit de definiia educaiei: .,,EDUCIE s.
f. 1. Fenomen social fundamental de transmitere a experienei de via a generaiilor adulte i a
culturii ctre generaiile de copii i tineri, abilitrii pentru integrarea lor n societate. 2. Cunoaterea
bunelor maniere i comportarea n societate conform acestora. Loc. vb. A face educaie cuiva = a
educa pe cineva. Educaie fizic = ansamblu de exerciii corporale, practicate n coli i
universiti, destinat ntreinerii calitilor fizice ale organismului. [Var.: (nv.) educaine s. f.]
Din fr. ducation, lat. educatio, -onis.
Este bine de tiut c benzile desenate au trsturi distincte, particulariti care le fac atractive
pentru copii, n general, dar exist i aduli care prefer benzile desenate.
Specialitii n domeniu susin c ,,interpretarea unei benzi desenate implic un numr de convenii,
ntr-o oarecare msur variabile ca expresie grafic n funcie de preferinele autorului (sau a
colectivului de autori, a sistemului de convenii grafice stabilite pentru o publicaie de benzi

159

desenate etc.); astfel, un cititor obinuit cu ilustrarea de benzi desenate ntr-o manier anume nu va
ntlni dificulti n descifrarea unei abordri diferite. ntre cele mai cunoscute modele sunt:
adugarea replicilor sau a indicaiilor de loc i timp sub fiecare ilustraie n parte, folosind
normele limbii scrise (punctuaie,linii de dialog);
folosireabulelor de dialog, ndreptate spre gura ori silueta personajului (cnd nu i se vede
faa sau cnd ilustraia e foarte dens). n acest caz, indicaiile temporale i de loc vor fi, de
regul, marcate prin casete dreptunghiulare situate n partea de sus a ilustraiei.
O ilustraie de band desenat nu va avea aspectul unui instantaneu ori stop-cadru, ci va sugera mai
multe momente de timp. Dup gradul de complexitate, aplicaiile n acest sens pornesc de la notarea
n dreptul ilustraiei a mai multe replici (cu toate c ele corespund unor momente succesive n timp)
i merg pn la imitarea fotografiei stroboscopice (apariia siluetei unui personaj, a unei pri a
corpului sau a unui obiect de mai multe ori pe o aceeai imagine, cu scopul de a sugera o micare
rapid). Sunt folosite, mai simplu, aa-numitele zip ribbons (linii frnte sau curbe desenate n
apropierea unui obiect pentru a sugera traiectoria sa pn n acel punct) i noriori de praf (indic o
micare demarat cu un impuls mare pornirea unei maini, dar i pasul grbit al unui personaj
sau, dimpotriv, oprirea brusc din vitez).
Reprezentarea unei succesiuni de aciuni se va face n majoritatea cazurilor de la dreapta la stnga
ori, mai puin frecvent, de sus n jos. Excepional, se pot folosi i alte sensuri de citire (de la stnga
la dreapta, n sensul acelor de ceasornic), care vor provoca, ns, dificulti n a fi urmrite. O
situaie arhicunoscut este schimbul de replici: indiferent dac vor fi folosite bule de dialog sau nu,
personajul care d prima replic va fi aezat n partea stng a imaginii sau deasupra celuilalt.
n cazul unor ilustraii complexe, se pot ntlni i aciuni de fundal, cu efect comic sau probe ale
unei naraiuni pe mai multe straturi (rezultatul unei aciuni pornite cu cteva ilustraii mai devreme,
n vreme ce atenia cititorului a fost mutat n alt drecie); ele sugereaz simultaneitatea sau o
aciune ciclic (de exemplu, psrele cntnd ntr-un crng) i vor ocupa un spaiu redus n cadrul
ilustraiei (ntrind deprtarea fundalului de ceea ce se ntmpl n prim-plan).
De-a lungul timpului, benzile desenate au evoluat i au devenit din ce n ce mai attractive,
ajungnd s fie un real mijloc de educaie pentru tineri. Astfel, adulii concept felurite imagini
gritoare pentru copii, asigurndu-se i n acest mod educaia intergeneraional.
ntorcndu-ne n timp, aflm perioada apariiei benzilor desenate n Romnia, care dateaz
din anul 1891, imitnd modelul benzilor desenate din Germania i Austria. Datorit faptului c
presa s-a dezvoltat, odat cu ea i publicaiile pentru copii.
B. P. Hadeu a condus prima revist de benzi desenate din Romnia, Amicul copiilor, care a
aprut la 1 aprilie 1891. La acea vreme, benzile desenate apreau, de obicei, n ziare satirice cum ar
fi Moftul romn al lui Caragiale.
n ce constau benzile desenate de la sfritul secolului al XIX-lea?
Benzile desenate erau nite casete ptrate, cu explicaii dedesubt, de obicei n versuri,
format pstrat i n perioada interbelic. Este de remarcat c autor al multor casete aprute n
Revista Copiilor (alt revist pentru benzi desenate) este Constantin Jiquidi, un foarte bun prieten al
marelui drmaturg IL Caragiale.
Renumit pentru benzile desenate s-a dovedit revista din perioada interbelic, Dimineaa
copiilor, din 1924, revist n care sunt redate aventurile celui mai cunoscut personaj romnesc de
band desenat, acesta fiind HAPLEA!
Haplea a fost creat de Batzaria (care semna Mo Nae), care era aromn, iar numele
personajului a fost preluat din regiunea lui i desenat de Marin Iorda, un foarte mare grafician, i a
devenit un adevrat erou al benzilor desenate romneti. Acesta nu semna deloc cu supereroul
American Superman, nici cu ali supereroi desenai ai altor spaii cultural. El era n schimb jovial i
delstor, iste adesea i uneori perdant. Haplea este un continuator al tradiionalului Pcal.

160

Ceea ce nu se tie ns este faptul c Haplea este i cel mai vechi film romnesc de animaie
care s-a pstrat pn n zilele noastre, film creat de Marin Iorda, pe numele su real, Marin
Iordache, n anul 1927, iar mai trziu, n 1938, Haplea a devenit protagonistul unui text dramatic,
Haplea la stpn. Acest desen animat l are ca personaj principal pe Haplea, un tip naiv, uluitor de
simplu n ceea ce face i ce spune.
Este demn de notat faptul c Haplea a nceput prin a fi un contur desenat pe o hrtie i a
rezistat de-a lungul timpului intrnd n limbajul uzual al oamenilor cu expresia ETI HAPLEA!,
adic Eti lacom!.
Mai mult, dicionarul ofer explicaii pentru acest cuvnt:
,,HPLEA s. m. (Pop. i fam.) 1. Om ntru, prostnac. 2. Om lacom la mncare.
[Var.: hple s. m.] Din bg. hapljo. HPLEA adj., s. v. bleg, ntfle, ntru, ntng, neghiob,
nerod, netot, prost, prostnac, stupid, tont, tontlu. m. 1) Om lipsit de inteligen; om prostnac.
2) Om lacom la mncare. [Sil. ha-plea] /<bulg. Hapljo
Cele mai bune explicaii pentru personajul Haplea sunt oferite chiar de creatorul acestuia,
Marin Iorda care spune:
Cam ce ar putea s nsemne acest cuvnt? C omul este un prost, un nerod i un lesne
ncreztor. E i nu prea e aa, fiindc Haplea nu e un nerod de rnd, nici un prost sadea. De
multe ori dac nelege anapoda unele lucruri, nu-i de vin el, ci acei cu care trebuie s stea de
vorb. i cnd nelege pe dos anumite vorbe sau ntmplri, vina n-o poart mintea lui, pe care
nu i-o bnuiesc prea srac, ci tocmai o isteime neateptat, ce-l face s se duc cu gndul mai
departe dect ceilali muritorincreztor n oameni, n gndurile i sufletele lor, el nu le pune
la ndoial nici vorbele.
Haplea rmne n memoria romnilor drept un personaj simplu care devine o surs
educaional, fiind un model al simplitii al isteimii i al sinceritii, nsuiri care se transmit din
generaie n generaie.

BIBLIOGRAFIE:

1. https://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Band%C4%83_desenat%C4%83
2. https://dexonline.ro/definitie/educa%C8%9Bie
3. https://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Band%C4%83_desenat%C4%83
4. https://dexonline.ro/definitie/haplea

BENZILE DESENATE ON-LINE I ROLUL LOR


161

N EDUCAIA TIMPURIE A COPIILOR

Prof. Preda Luminia


Liceul Tehnologic Constantin Brncoveanu, Trgovite

Webcomic-urile cunoscute i sub termenul de benzi desenate online sau internet comics, sunt
benzi desenate care pot fi citite doar pe internet. Multe dintre ele sunt publicate exclusiv online, iar
altele sunt i publicate, dar menin o arhiv online pentru interese comerciale sau artistice. Cu
popularizarea accesului la internet, webcomics-urile au ajuns s aib diferite stiluri de la benzi
desenate pn la nuvele grafice. Webcomics-urile au avantajul faptului c similar benzilor desenate
printate independent, aproape oricine i poate crea un site pe care s publice webcomics. Momentan
sunt peste 18.000 de webcomics-uri online, dar foarte puine dintre ele au succes comercial. Sunt
totui cteva diferene dintre webcomics i cele tradiionale printate. Cu webcomics-urile restriciile
formale ale paginii n sensul c se poate folosi n avantaje diferite capabiliti ale web-ului. Scott
McCloud este printre primii care a venit cu ideea de o pnz infinit, pe care spre deosebire de
pagina printat, care este limitat, artitii i pot plasa cadrele n orice fel i n orice direcie, aa cum
demian5 a creat When I Am King. Ali artiti ca Mark Fiore cu ajutorul programului Flash au
experimentat n a combina animaia cu interactivitate. Dar n ciuda acestor ncercri multe
webcomic-uri au forma tradiional, fiind postate pe net sub form tradiional de alb negru, ori
colorate digital. Acest mod de a posta zilnic cte un comic i permite artistului s atrag un public
repede. Sunt i alte webcomic-uri care se axeaz pe poveste i nu pe amuzament. Cteva benzi
desenate independente au ncetat a se mai publica n modul tradiional, postnd periodic pe internet
benzile pentru a cuprinde un public mai larg. Unele webcomic-uri sunt publicate pe net fr
utilizarea modului de desenat tradiional. Ele folosesc personaje copiate din jocuri, image de stoc
public sau importate de pe site-uri de specialitate sau fotografii. Expresia artistic acestor webcomic-
uri ready-made este textul. Webcomics-urile care sunt publicate independent nu au anumite restricii
i se bucur de o libertate de exprimare extrem. Unele webcomic-uri ntind graniele gusturilor,
profitnd de lipsa aproape inexistent a cenzurii pe internet, un factor ce evideniaz liberatea
exprimrii. Dar chiar i aa unele probleme pot exista, un bun exemplu ar fi artistul Farnon Tristan
care a avut probleme legale dup ce a creat o parodie homo-erotic sau multe alte exemple.
Webcomic-urile care strng o arhiv mai mare de obicei public benzile desenate n cri. Dar acei
care nu respect un anumit standard gsesc ncadrarea n cri a benzilor foarte grea.
Benzile desenate necesit o triere i o selecie destul de riguroas pentru a conferi povetii
prezentate coeren, spre deosebire de o carte, unde lucrurile se leag mult mai uor. Aceste decizii
care trebuie luate se pot mpri n cinci mari categorii:
-Alegerea momentului;
-Alegerea cadrului;
-Alegerea imaginii;
-Alegerea textului;
-Alegerea fluiditii.
Alegerea momentului
Alegerea momentului ntr-o band desenat este foarte important, ntruct dac se emite un detaliu,
naraiunea se poate schimba, imaginile dnd un alt neles aciunii prezentate. Aceasta trebuie s
aib o continuitate ct mai exact, punct cu punct, pentru ca mai apoi s nu existe confuzii n
mesajul transmis. Controlul asupra aciunii este mult mai mare, n cazul nu este necesar s fie scos
din context un moment.
Variaiuni:
Alegerea momentului sau a tranziiei dintre cadre are ase variaiuni:
1. Moment la moment care prezint o singur aciune ntr-o serie de momente ale ei.
2. Aciune la aciune care prezint un personaj, obiect, ntr-o serie de aciuni pe care le
162

efectueaz.
3. Subiect la subiect schimbarea subiectelor ntr-o singur scen.
4. Scen la scen care reprezint tranziia unei distane mai mari n timp sau n spaiu.
5. Aspect la aspect care este tranziia de la un aspect, o idee sau o stare la alta.
6. Non sequitur o serie de imagini i/sau replici care par s nu aib legtur ntre ele. Acest mod
de reprezentare se folosete n special n BD-urile cu tent umoristic, pentru a scoate n eviden
poanta.
Alegerea momentului ntr-un comics depinde de cursul pe care vrei s-l dai aciunii, de obicei se
regsesc primele cinci variaiuni ale momentului aciunii n orice band desenat.
Alegerea cadrului
Dup alegerea momentului trebuie s v concentrai pe alegerea punctelor de focus ale aciunii,
unde vrei s ndreptai atenia. Aici intervine a doua categorie alegerea cadrului, ct de aproape
sau de departe de subiect vrei s fie imaginea. Trebuie stabilite perspectiva, unghiul de nclinare i
crop-ul. n acest caz, trebuie s inei cont i de aciunea prezentat, deoarece o aciune simpl nu
necesit perspective i unghiuri complexe de redare, acestea trebuie s fac momentele uor de
neles, nu s ncarce cititorul cu informaii inutile.
Alegerea imaginii
Aceast etap const n crearea imaginilor care s umple cadrele create, indiferent de stilul ales.
Mesajul transmis trebuie s fie lizibil i s comunice uor i clar i s fie suficient de captivant
pentru cititor. Pentru a reui acest lucru, trebuie s putei reda lucruri specifice, nu doar generaliti,
s fii siguri c imaginea poate fi citit exact i s nu existe confuzii n mesajul i ideea pe
care vrei s le transmitei.
Alegerea imaginii se realizeaz cel mai bine dup referine, aici intervin foarte bine crile de
desen, de anatomie i de perspectiv. Acestea v ajut s simplificai imaginea, dac nu vrei s
avei un stil de desen realist.
Alegerea textului
Alegerea textului ntr-un comics este un lucru secundar, care intervine doar pentru a completa ideea
sau pentru a oferi informaii specifice, care nu necesit s fie illustrate. Excepie o fac benzile
desenate care sunt comice i care se bazeaz pe text, poant. Deoarece o band desenat trebuie s
transmit mesajul clar doar prin imagine, textul trebuie s fie doar ajuttor sau s se lege foarte bine
de imagine, astfel nct cititorul s nu observe trecerea dintre imagine i text, s aib un
curs natural.
Alegerea fluiditii
Fluiditatea ntr-un comics este foarte important, deoarece, asemenea unui text, banda desenat se
citete de la stnga la dreapta, de sus n jos. Singura excepie este BD-ul japonez, manga, care se
citete de la dreapta la stnga. Aici este important dispunerea cadrelor n pagin pentru a ghida
privirea cititorului, cum se ntmpl n cazul unei cri.
Pot aprea confuzii n cazul n care aciunea iese din linia cadrului; ochiul cititorului trebuie ghidat
ntr-o anumit direcie, n aa fel nct linia pe care o urmrete s nu-l oboseasc.
Alegerea fluiditii imaginilor const parial i n curarea imaginii de obstacole care pot
interfera cu modul de citire. n acest sens, detalii precum fundalul i chiar obiecte din mediu se pot
detalia mai puin pentru a direciona privirea cititorului spre un anumit punct, unul de interes.
Un punct bun de plecare pentru a reui s mbinai aceti pai este acela de a prezenta o lucrare n
proces de finalizare unor cunoscui, care ar putea s v ofere o a doua prere asupra a ceea ce ai
lucrat.
n final, principalul aspect care trebuie s v preocupe referitor la aceti cinci pai de
comunicare ntr-o band desenat este claritatea. Ei nu sunt strici i nu trebuie urmai n aceast
ordine exact, fiecare artist de BD i alege singur ordinea n care i va crea banda desenat.

BIBLIOGRAFIE:
163

1. https://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carte_de_benzi_desenate
2. http://ctrl-d.ro/tips-and-tricks/specificatii-tehnice-ale-benzilor-desenate/

MODALITI DE EDUCAIE NONFORMAL I FORMAL PRIN UTILIZAREA


UNOR SUPORTURI GRAFICE DE IMPACT SITUAIONAL SAU ROLUL EDUCATIV
AL IMAGINII, LA ORICE PALIER DE VRST

Profesor: Epure Teodor


coala Gimnazial Adrian Porumboiu
Muntenii de Jos- judeul Vaslui

Unul dintre cele mai utilizate mijloace de educaie, care a avut mereu un impact mai decisiv
dect orice moral verbal a fost, cu mare certitudine, folosirea unor suporturi imagistice sugestive,
desene, caricaturi, imagini sugestive, care au reprezentat de-a lungul timpului modaliti de
expresie artistic, protest, bucurie, ironie i de ce nu o ncercare de a face educaie prin sugestie
grafic i nu numai prin cuvinte i gesturi. Anumite discipline studiate n nvmntul de mas
folosesc argumentul grafic deoarece este cel mai sugestiv mod pentru a ilustra anumite mrimi,
(geometria, fizica), alte discipline au ca principal modalitate de educaie tocmai suportul grafic (
educaia plastic) iar altele folosesc suportul grafic drept o alternativ la textul scris sau n
completarea acestuia (limbile moderne). Dincolo de aceste consideraiuni educaia prin folosirea
imagisticii elaborate sau circumstaniale are o vechime secular i a avut mereu un loc bine definit
alturi de alte modaliti folosite n diferite societi umane i diferite momente ale istoriei
umanitii.
1. La nceput a fost sugestia
Dac ne ntoarcem n timp, cu suficient de mult timp, ca s eliminm din viaa noastr
calculatorul,crile,revistele, filmele i alte modaliti de exprimare ale societii ne putem regsi n
plin comun primitiv. S-a ntrebat cineva cum se exprima omul care nu avea cuvinte pentru a se
face neles i nici suficiente gesturi la ndemn, scrijelea el cumva anumite simboluri pe arbori,
pe pietre sau pe pmnt ? De ce nu ? Dar mai trziu, cnd au aprut primele ncercri artistice
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literare, nu aveau majoritatea lucrrilor, n special de aventuri i un bogat suport grafic ? Oare cum
am putea citi mai cu plcere crile genialului Jules Verne dac n-ar fi nsoite de un bogat suport
grafic ? Dac nu toi scriitorii au apelat la desene i caricaturi pentru a fi mai expresivi, i alte surse
de informare i educare a maselor au utilizat astfel de suporturi, menionm aici ziarele, jurnalele,
revistele lunare sau sptmnale fie au consacrat o pagin sau un col pentru o astfel de modalitate
de expresie fie s-au axat exclusiv pe prezentarea anumitor situaii cu ajutorul suportului grafic
(revistele de umor). Unele publicaii au avut un succes att de mare nct au devenit adevrate
brand-uri umoristice.O alt modalitate de utilizare a desenelor, caricaturilor sau imaginilor ca
mijloc de expresie i educaie a constat n nlocuirea romanelor clasice cu foiletoanele n paginilie
crorara erau prezentate n serial poveti sau chiar romane ntregi prin intermediul desenelor, acesta
fiind nceputul benzilor desenate ca modalitate de expresie artistic.
2.Tradiia romneasc n domeniu
Plecnd de la modele europene verificate i n spaiul autohton au existat de-a lungul
timpului o serie de producii artistice care se foloseau sau se folosesc de imagini, desene sau
caricaturi ca modalitate de exprimare. Ne gndim astfel la Ilustraiunea romn, Unu, Albina
romneasc, Aluta romneasc sau mai trziu, renumita revist Urzica. o revist de educaie care a
funcionat ntre 1949 i 1989 i care era axat pe prezentarea unor realiti punctuale, n condiii de
cenzur. Principalii promotori ai acestor producii au fost scriitorii umoriti, epigramitii i
caricaturitii (Cik Damadian,Urmuz, Ion Popescu Gopo, Matty .a). O modalitate de utilizare a
imaginii ca suport educaional pentru mase l-a reprezentat o lung perioad, gazeta de perete,
existent n perioada comunist n orice instituie prin care erau prezentate att situaii demne de
laud ct i situaii condamnabile. Pe o filier complicat ptrundeau n spaiul romnesc i reviste
umoristice de calitate precum renumita Pif.
3.Desenul animat i benzile desenate
Dup Al Doilea Rzboi Mondial, un american cvasinecunoscut, Walt Dysney, a reuit s
surprind lumea filmului cu o prezentarea a realiti sau ficiunii prin intermediul unor desene
mictoare. Acest tip de poveti prezentate grafic au prins foarte repede la public i a devenit o
modalitate de exprimare foarte gustat, mai mult de copii dar poate i de unii adulii mai deschii
spre diversitate. Dincolo de desenul animat i ca o necesitate de a diversifica genul au aprut
revistele de benzi desenate n care erau i sunt prezentate poveti clasice, filme de renume, romane,
poveti fantastice etc. Au aprut adevrate coli n domeniu, numrul utilizatorilor a devenit
impresionant iar sugestia prin imagine a devenit un modus vivendi.
4.Despre comunicarea verbal i nonverbal
Psihologul american Lasswell a conceput principiile comunicrii i transmiterii informaiei pornind
de la urmtoarele ntrebri :
1.Cine transmite mesajul ?
2.Ce spune mesajul ?
3.Prin ce mijloc se transmite mesajul ?
4.Cui se transmite mesajul ?
5.Care este efectul (impactul) mesajului ?
Dincolo de orice consideraiuni pur teoretice ambalajul n care este prezentat un mesaj nu
este i nu poate fi oarecare, mereu trebuie gsite metode de a fi ct mai expresiv. Orice mesaj
transmis doar pe o singur filier poate fi greu perceptibil sau redundant de aceea trebuie cutate
mereu noi modaliti de expresie care s-i dea mesajului o mai mare consisten iar recurgerea la
suportul grafic este adesea foarte eficient, deoarece combinarea surselor de informare este un
atribut al unei mai bune percepii (audio, video, letric).
6.Pedagogiile alternative
Anumite coli pedagogice din spaiul european, au pus accentul primordial pe libertatea de
aciune a copilului. Astfel coala Montessori pune mare accent pe autonomia elevului, pe
autodisciplinare i pe utilizarea unei varieti de mijloace didactice n funcie de capacitatea
fiecruia sub ndrumarea cadrului didactic. Pedagogia Waldorff, care promoveaz coala fr cri
i caiete propune, printre altele i cursurile artistice i practice prin care cursanii ncearc s se
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exprime i altfel dect prin intermediul scrisului, deci i prin desen. n ceea ce privete colile care
promoveaz principiul step-by-step, lucrul pe ateliere, prin care trec alternativ toi elevii este foarte
eficient i cu siguran este exploatat i latura artistic a elevilor.
7.coala modern i modalitile de exprimare nonverbal
Pornind de la gradul ridicat de sugestibilitate tot mai multe discipline studiate n spaiul
educaional romnesc sau mondial apeleaz i la modaliti curriculare i extracurriculare de
prezentare a unor situaii de nvare, noiuni, concepte etc. Astfel, nvarea limbilor strine, la
precolari i n clasele primare pune accentul pe mesajul nonverbal, prezentarea unor desene,
cntece animate, jocuri nonverbale, din care elevii nva expresii, noiuni, sunete de baz. Mai
trziu, unele manuale folosesc i benzile desenate pentru a sugera anumite situaii, noiuni, expresii.
Dincolo de factorul estetic acest mod de exprimare este mai bine perceput de educabil i mai
apreciat. La educaia plastic unde exprimarea nonverbal este prioritar, unii elevi i pot dovedi
calitile vocaionale n domeniul artei grafice, rolul primordial avndu-l aici reprezentarea iconic
(registrul figural), bazat pe imagini concentrate, desene, fotografii, crochiuri grafice etc.
8.nvarea prin intermediul limbajului grafic i educaia pentru frumos
Exist n peisajul educaional romnesc i mondial discipline care folosesc simboluri grafice
riguroase pentru a putea defini principii, noiuni, concepte (matematica, geografia, sociologia,
statistica, informatica .a) dar i discipline care folosesc expresia grafic drept o alternativ la
educaia clasic sau ca un suport suplimentar. Cel mai bun argument pentru utilizarea acestei
modaliti de exprimare este cu siguran i principiul estetismului, ceea ce atrage, este mai bine
perceput, n plus prin sugestia grafic elevul nelege mai uor i poate i nva cu mai mare interes
i plcere.
Benzilor desenate i a alte mijloace grafice sunt mai sugestive, mai bine acceptate de
educabilii dar poate i de toi cei care consider c educaia continu pe tot parcursul vieii.
Exprimarea grafic are un mare atu n faa textului scris, care este plat, adesea greu de neles i
plictisitor pentru educabilii care sunt i demotivai i asaltai de tentaiile cotidiene, false modele
i lipsa unui orizont viabil. n educarea tinerilor este esenial s fie permanent monitorizat progresul
zilnic, semestrial sau anual folosindu-ne permanent de orice resurs educaional viabil prin care
s fie promovate principiile toleranei, pluridisciplnaritii i democraiei.

BIBLIOGRAFIE
Albulescu, Ion ;Pedagogii alternative ;Editura All ; Bucureti : 2014
Amado,Gilles; Guitet,Andree; Psihologia comunicrii n grupuri;Editura Polirom; Iai;2007
Hattie, John; nvarea vizibil-ghid pentru profesori; Editura Trei; Bucureti;2014
Iucu,B, Romi; Instruirea colar-perspective teoretice i aplicative; Editura Polirom; Iai;2008
Momanu,Mariana;Introducere n teoria educaiei; Editura Polirom; Iai;2002
Neacu, Ioan-Metode i tehnici de nvare eficient-fundamente i practici de succes;Editura
Polirom; Iai;2015
Neculau, Adrian;Educaia adulilor-expriene romneti;Editura Polirom; Iai; 2004.

BENZILE DESENATE FACILITATOR AL INTERCULTURALITII


Prof. Radoman Ciprian,
coala Gimnazial Grigore Moisil Galai

Benzile desenate au reprezentat pentru mine o necunoscut pn n anul 2014, an n care


m-am nscris la cursuri de formare profesional n domeniul didacticii limbii franceze, n Paris.
Pn atunci nu inusem n mn o astfel de carte, att de apreciat n spaiul francofon. Ajungnd n
Frana, unde benzile desenate sunt apreciate att de cei mici, ct i de aduli, am nceput s

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rsfoiesc, ori de cte ori am avut ocazia, benzi desenate n librriile poziionate n Cartierul Latin
din Paris.
Desigur, cele care mi-au atras atenia cel mai mult, fiind vorba n acelai timp i de cele
mai apreciate n Frana i n Belgia, au fost cele din seria Aventurile lui Tintin. Putem vorbi de
muli autori de benzi desenate, ns Herg, creatorul seriei Aventurile lui Tintin a dus benzile
desenate la rang de art.
Ce pot aduce benzile desenate bun n viaa noastr, dar mai cu seam n educaia
intergeneraional ?
n primul rnd, putem spune c benzile desenate aduc n viaa celui care le citete o
serie de realiti. Pe de o parte, putem vorbi de realiti sociale i morale, norme de convieuire n
cadrul aceleiai societi, dar i valori interculturale, n cazul n care aceste benzi desenate sunt
valorificate judicios de ctre un adult n cadrul procesului de educaie informal cu un copil, sau de
ctre un profesor de limbi strine n sala de clas, n cadrul procesului de educaie formal,
instituional.
Exist pe piaa francez a benzilor desenate o multitudine de genuri de astfel de lucrri,
plecnd de la benzile desenate de aventuri, fantastice, umoristice, poliiste, etc., i ajungnd pn la
benzile desenate erotice, acestea din urm fiind destinate, bineneles, exclusiv adulilor. Oricum am
privi aceste genuri, fiecare e menit s transmit ceva modaliti de reprezentare a fantasticului, a
umorului, a anchetei poliiste, a erosului ntr-o anumit cultur, dar i reprezentri ale modurilor n
care o persoan dintr-o anumit cultur reacioneaz ntr-o situaie dat, n cadrul unei interaciuni
cu o persoan ce provine din alt cultur, avnd reprezentri complet diferite n ceea ce privete
modul de a reaciona n respectiva situaie, n comparaie cu interlocutorul su.
Aici intrm n domeniul interculturalitii, un domeniu care presupune nainte de toate
contientizarea propriei sale culturi, propriei sale reprezentri a unei culturi diferite, sau a mai
multor culturi n acelai timp, acceptarea acestei/acestor culturi, tolerarea eventualelor diferene
ntre acestea i nelegerea modalitilor prin care reprezentanii acestor dou culturi pot convieui
armonios.
Raportndu-ne la interculturalitate, putem considera benzile desenate ca fiind un model
de reprezentare a unei noi culturi. Astfel, citind de exemplu Traque Montmartre (Urmrire n
cartierul Montmartre), din seria Marion Duval, serie de benzi desenate create de Yvan Pommaux i
Philippe Masson, avnd ca protagonist o adolescent din Frana, putem descoperi multe obiceiuri
ale adolescenilor francezi, comportamentul acestora n cadrul colar dar i n exteriorul colii, n
relaia cu prinii. Acelai lucru l putem spune i despre seria Aventurile lui Tintin, benzi
desenate care redau nite aventuri poliiste al cror protagonist este tnrul Tintin, alturi de
credinciosul su cel Milou.
Mai mult, aspecte foarte importante din benzile desenate ce pot fi exploatate cu
precdere de ctre profesorii de limbi strine n cadrul educaiei formale sunt limbajul familiar,
onomatopeele, care sunt elemente recurente n benzile desenate. Onomatopeele, expresiile specifice
limbajului familiar, expresiile idiomatice nu se traduc niciodat adlitteram dintr-o limb n alta, de
cele mai multe ori fiind necesar apelul la istorie, la valori culturale profunde pentru a le nelege. n
plus, n ceea ce privete expresiile idiomatice, acestea sunt specificate i n Cadrul European
Comun de Referin pentru Limbi, la nivelul B2-C1/C2 de cunoatere a unei limbi strine, fcndu-
se astfel o diferen din acest punct de vedere ntre nivelurile inferioare A1/A2 i cele superioare,
expresiile idiomatice putnd face diferena, n ochii unui locutor nativ, ntre un strin care vorbete
mai puin bine limba sa matern, i unul care o vorbete foarte bine.
Iat aadar cteva motive foarte bune pentru care ar trebui s utilizm benzile desenate
n educaia intergeneraional. De altfel, personajul Tintin este foarte puternic promovat la nivelul
Belgiei, n ultimele luni realizndu-se o serie de aciuni n acest sens, cu precdere prin intermediul
reelei de socializare Facebook, pe grupul special dedicat acestui personaj denumit simplu,

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Tintin. Acelai personaj este promovat i prin intermediul unui site, unde administratorii anun
ultimele expoziii, evenimente culturale legate de celebra serie a lui Herg. Nenumrate
evenimente, simulri, imitaii de personaje, i chiar imitaia unui automobil la volanul cruia apare
Tintin n mai multe episoade ale seriei, au fost realizate n preajma srbtorilor de iarn ale anului
2016, pentru a promova, din nou, aceast serie extrem de ndrgit peste tot n lume. Astfel, un
tnr avnd o coafur identic cu cea a lui Tintin, purtnd haine identice cu cele ale lui Tintin,
conducnd o copie fidel a automobilului acestuia, alturi de un cel asemntor cu Milou, au
putut fi vzui pe strzile din centrul capitalei belgiene, cu ocazia srbtorilor de sfrit de an.
Valorile care pot fi transmise tinerei generaii, prin intermediul acestei serii de benzi desenate, ar fi
urmtoarele: corectitudine, perseveren, inteligen, curiozitate, toate acestea reprezentnd trsturi
de caracter ale personajului central al seriei, Tintin.
ns, n educaia intercultural trebuie s inem cont i de faptul c n transmiterea
acestor valori nu e de ajuns s optm pentru o singur surs, pentru un singur auxiliar didactic, etc.
n acest sens, copii/elevii trebuie s aib la dispoziie mai multe surse, multiple documente
autentice, din care s aleag i din care s extrag valorile convergente/divergente, diferenele
notabile ntre propria cultur i cultura strin, dup care s-i pun intrebri referitoare la aceste
diferene i s se gndeasc la posibilitile de convieuire ntre cele dou culturi. Astfel, nu ne
putem limita la utilizarea exclusiv a benzilor desenate pentru a stimula educaia intergeneraional,
ci trebuie s mbinm aceste creaii n mod raional, de exemplu cu mrturii/experiene ale unor
persoane aparinnd culturilor n cauz.
Cu alte cuvinte, putem spune c educaia intergeneraional bazat pe benzile desenate
i pe valorile transmise de acestea exist, ns e posibil ca aceasta s nu fie promovat peste tot, de
toi profesorii i de toi prinii, n aceeai msur.
De asemenea, nu trebuie neglijat faptul c benzile desenate pot contribui decisiv la
nsuirea strategiilor de lectur de ctre cei mici, n limba matern sau ntr-o limb strin. Aceasta
deoarece benzile desenate reprezint o nlnuire de imagini foarte sugestive, crora li se asociaz
replici ale personajelor. Avantajul benzilor desenate, n comparaie cu literatura pur este acela c
de cele mai multe ori suntem antrenai (din curiozitate) s privim imaginile, i mai apoi s citim
replicile, replici care pot fi anticipate doar privind imaginile. Prin urmare, putem folosi imaginea de
pe coperta benzii desenate, sau primele imagini i replici ale benzii desenate, precum i ultimele
imagini i replici ale acesteia, antrennd copii/elevii n realizarea de ipoteze cu privire la
desfurarea aciunii, la posibila intrig, etc., contribuind n acest fel la dezvoltarea strategiilor de
lectur, cum ar fi: formularea de ipoteze, utilizarea cunotinelor dintr-un domeniu precis, precum
i realizarea de deducii n procesul de lectur.
n concluzie, putem spune c benzile desenate reprezint un puternic argument n
favoarea utilizrii acestora n procesul de predare-nvare, precum i un mijloc eficient de
transmitere a valorilor, noiunior culturale, de la o generaie la alta. Rmne s motivm puternic
tinerii artiti, desenatori, s se implice n realizarea benzilor desenate romneti, n promovarea
puternic a acestor mijloace de educaie intergeneraional, astfel nct cultura romn s devin
mai vizibil n spaiul european i mondial.

BIBLIOGRAFIE:

1. Cornaire Claudette, Le point sur la lecture, CLE International, Paris 1999, pag. 80
2. De Carlo Maddalena, Linterculturel, CLE International, Paris 1998, pag. 44-45
3. Masson Philippe, Pommaux Yvan, Marion Duval Traque Montmartre, Bayard Editions
Jeunesse/Astrapi, Luon 2001
4. Herg, Les aventures de Tintin, Casterman, Tournai 1947

Pagini web:
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https://www.facebook.com/Tintin
www.tintin.com

ISTORICUL BENZILOR DESENATE ROMNETI I ROLUL LOR


Prof. Slgean Gabriela
Prof. Stainer Claudia
Colegiul Tehnic George Bariiu Baia Mare

Pentru copii, dar i pentru aduli, crile de benzi desenate joac un rol educativ i
formativ important, dar s vedem pentru nceput un mic istoric al benzilor desenate
romneti.
La sfritul secolului XIX, benzile desenate au ajuns i n Romnia. La nceput au fost
preluate din reviste europene. n 1891 revista Amicul copiilor, condus de B.P. Hadeu, public
pentru prima data o band desenat. n paginile acestei reviste se gseau poveti pentru copii scrise
de I. Slavici, I. Creang, M. Eminescu, precum i poveti n imagini, copiate din revistele de
specialitate germane i austriace.
ntre 1896 i 1897 apare revista bilunar Revista Copiilor, are 24 pagini alb negru, iar n
primele dou numere apar primele benzi desenate romneti Pisica Splat i Mseaua Babei
scrise de Constantin Jiquidi (celebru desenator i caricaturist romn). Dup primul rzboi mondial
benzile desenate se diversific. Apare primul erou romnesc HAPLEA n 1924, n revista
Dimineaa Copiilor.
n 1939 apare primul roman n imagini Curentul pentru copii i tineret, cu scenariul
reaizat de Marin Iorda i desene de Ion Drug.
ntre anii 1960i 1970, benzile desenate se dezvolt foarte repede. Apar reviste ca Licurici
i Cuteztorii. n timp i mai ales dup 1989 bezile desenate au nflorit, aprnd o multitudine
de reviste specializate n benzi desenate i au nceput s primeasc atenia pe care o merit.
Basmele romneti sunt transpuse n benzi desenate pline de culoare i de aciune. ntlnim
Greuceanu modern, un Harap-Alb plin de iniiativ i de virilitate, un Prslea curajos, toi descrii
ntr-o manier avangardist de tinerii artiti autohtoni care trec de bariera basmului original,
atribuind noi aventuri i izbnde clasicelor personaje. Astfel benzile desenate autohtone aduc n
prim plan personaje ndrgite din basmele i povetile romnilor.
Banda desenat este un hibrid de imagine i cuvntcare a reuit s sparg toate barierele.
Benzie desenate implic cititorul, fcndu-l s se identifice cu eroii, s-i doreasc s poat avea
acelai impact pozitiv asupra lumii pe care-l au acetia.
Benzile desenate contribuie la dezvoltarea imaginaiei copiilor. Cei mici ncep s anticipeze
ntmplri din poveste, s gseasc soluii la situaiile expuse, iar n acest fel imaginaia lor se
dezvolt. Copiii se ataeaz de personaje, se identific cu acestea i ncep s inventeze jocuri n care
ei sunt eroii din benzile desenate. In acest fel, copiii sunt stimulati de mici sa creeze, sa vina cu idei
noi, sa-si lase imaginatia libera.
Prin evidenierea calitilor i a defectelor personajelor, copiii intr n contact cu noiunile
de bine i ru. Din scenele n care eroul i pedepsete pe raufctori copiii pot afla ce au voie s
fac i ce este interzis i, de asemenea, pot nva c atunci cnd nu respect regulile pot fi
pedepsii.
O parte din noile benzi desenate conin multe scene de violen ce poat afecta
subcontientul copiilor. Cei mici, nu au capacitate de discernmnt i pot s-i nsueasc unele
dintre obiceiurile personajelor preferate. n perioada de dezvoltare copii absorb informaiile din

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jurul lor, iar mesajele promovate n prezent n benzile desenate conin un limbaj neadecvat. Toate
acestea pot contribui la dezvoltarea unui comportament agresiv. Copiii se pot obinui cu scenele
violente, acestea devenind pentru ei situaii normale. Astfel, cei mici ar putea s accepte situaiile
negative ca fiind unele obinuite i ulterior le-ar putea promova.
Orice proces educaional care implic imagini, indiferent de modul in care sunt prezentate,
se consider tehnic de nvare vizual. Astfel benzile desenate fac parte din aceast tehnic. Ea
ofer o mai bun i mai rapid nelegere a proceselor, a funcionalitii acestora, o mai bun
anticipare a problemelor, abilitile practice se formeaz i se dezvolt mai uor, transmite o mare
cantitate de informaii concrete, faciliteaz formarea reprezentrilor mintale precum i puterea
creierului nostru pentru a stoca i reaminti imagini e mult mai mare spre deosebire de text. Benzile
desenate datorit imaginilor se impun aproape instantaneu n cmpul vizual i nu necesit o
prelucrare cerebral elaborat pentru construirea nelesului, ca n cazul ideii, imaginea este puternic
conectat la structurile emoional-afective ale receptorului, rspunsul acestuia venind mult mai
repede (uimire,bucurie, tristee, groaz, oc etc.), comparativ cu ideea care se adreseaz n primul
rnd raiunii. Imaginile prezint informaii, promoveaz nelegerea motivant, atitudinile se
schimb i se dezvolte aptitudinile, se mbuntete nivelul de concentrare i nelegere, se
mbuntete retenia n nvare ( imaginile pot fi stocate pe termen lung de memorie ) i nu n
ultimul rnd se declaneaz o gam larg de asociaii, sporind astfel gndirea creativ.
Tehnicile de predare nvare cu ajutorul benzilor desenate sunt utilizate mai ales la predarea
limbilor strine. Ele ajut elevii s-i nsueasc un vocabular relativ bogat. nelegerea (traducerea)
cuvintelor este intuitiv datorit imaginilor putnd fi utilizate nc din grdini.
nvarea cu ajutorul benzilor desenate poate fi utilizat i n domeniile tehnice. Fazele de
proiectare a unui utilaj sau al unui produs sunt mult mai uor de neles dac sunt desenate i pot
nlocui cu succes obiectul real.
Aceste tehnici putem s le numim moderne, deoarece ele au prins avnt doar n ultimii ani.
Astfel nvarea cu ajutorul benzilor desenate face parte din metodele moderne de nvare. Pn
prin anii 90 predarea / nvarea se realiza preponderent prin materiale tiprite unde rar existau
imagini.
Studiile efectuate n ultimii ani au demonstrat c benzile desenate au un impact puternic
asupra elevilor, dezvoltndu-le creativitatea i puterea de concentrare.
n ultimii ani au fost publicate cri de benzi desenate cu poveti n idea de a strni interesul spre
cunoatere nc de la vrste fragede.
n concluzie n benzile desenate putei descoperii o lume vibrant, plin de idei inteligente i
creative.

BIBLIOGRAFIE:
Istoria Benzii desenate romneti 1891-2010, Alexandru Ciubotariu i Dodo Ni, editura
Vellant, 2010
http://adevarul.ro/cultura/arte/istoria-benzii-desenate-romanesti-1891-prezent-
1_529f5628c7b855ff5672e372/index.html
http://benzidesenateromanesti.blogspot.ro
http://www.lambiek.net/artists/r/radulescu_neagu.htm
http://www.revistacomics.ro
http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolae_Batzaria

IMPACTUL INTERNETULUI N SPAIUL EDUCAIONAL

Paraschiv Daniela

170

Liceul Tehnologic Blteni , Blteni , Gorj

n societatea actual , rolul i statutul profesorului s-a transformat , acesta devenind o surs
de informaie alternativ , iar elevul a devenit actor de sine stattor n spaiul mediatic . Modul
clasic de a nva sufer transformri rapide i profunde . Utilizarea tehnologiilor moderne i a
Internet-ului reprezint cea mai complex form de integrare a educaiei informale n educaia
formal . Internet-ul a devenit principalul mediu de informare i comunicare , fiind considerat un
mare succes att tehnologic , ct i social . Societatea informaional este o nou etap n evoluia
civilizaiei umane , calitativ superioar , n care informaia deine un loc primordial . Accesul
elevilor la Internet duce la schimbri majore n educaia , dar i n formarea personalitii lor .
Este cunoscut rolul Internet-ului i Webului n procesul de predare - nvare evaluare .
Datorit constatrii acestui lucru , au fost conectate la reeau de Internet practic toate colile ,
indiferent de natura i profilul acestora . Acest lucru a dus la crearea de site-uri cu informaii
specifice pentru diferite categorii de vrst i interese educaionale . Webul a devenit un
instrument de lucru indispensabil , att n sala de clas , ct i n afara ei , genernd un nvmnt
centrat pe nevoiele elevului .
Digitalizarea societii a determinat apariia de reacii i la nivelul sistemului educativ ,
implementarea tehnologiilor moderne i a Internet-ului devenind o cerin tot mai acut n
nvmnt . Educaia prin Internet reprezint un nou tip de predare nvare la distan . Apariia
i rspndirea tot mai accentuat a nvmntului la distan este o parte important a
transformrilor prin care trece i sistemul educaional din Romnia . Trebuie s inem pasul cu
tehnologia dac vrem o integrare cu adevrat european, profesorul regsindu-se n prima linie a
acestei schimbri i de aceea trebuie s se perfecioneze permanet .Tinerii resimt tot mai acut
nevoia de comunicare i informare , fiind implicai mai mult atunci cnd inva lucruri care sunt
relevante pentru ei . Existena conexiunilor la Internet deschide oportuniti de pregtire i
perfecionare la orice disciplin de studiu , pentru orice nivel i pentru orice vrst . Accesnd
Internet-ul , elevii ptrund ntr-o baz de date imens , o reea care se ntinde la nivelul ntregii lumi
, oferind informaii de interes tuturor celor care au un calculator conectat . Elevii pot avea acces la
cursuri on-line sau pot avea posibilitatea de a nva gratuit o limb strin . Materialul de pe
Internet poate fi accesibil oricnd , astfel ei putnd repeta continuu .
E-learning-ul const n utilizarea tehnicilor informaionale n educaie i se bazeaz pe
distribuirea coninutului informaiei pe cale electronic ( Internet ) . Avantajul e- learning-ului
este creterea responsabilitii de nvare din partea elevului care-i poate gestiona timpul de
nvare conform ritmului propriu . Atribuiile e-profesorului sporesc , nu se reduc . Rolul actual al
profesorului este acela de intermediar al cunoaterii . Acest nou tip de nvare presupune un anumit
tip de interactivitate cu elevii prin discuii . I se permite elevului s-i aleag coninutul i
intrumentele corespunztoare propriilor interese i necesiti . Elevul dobndete mai mult
autonomie , devine responsabil de propria nvare , dispunnd de o motivaie intrinsec , alegndu-
i punctele de interes , distribuindu-i singur prioritile , n felul acesta mplicndu-se activ n
propria nvare . Elevii au posibilitatea s se autoevalueze . Evaluarea este mai puin stresant i
contribuie la nvare . Sunt avantajai elevii mai emotivi . Se pot evalua simultan mai muli elevi .
Elevul i poate aprecia rapid progresele , beneficiind de un feedback permanent . Interaciunea sa
cu profesorul este liber . Accesul la informaii este nelimitat i nu sunt necesare cheltuieli de
deplasare . Cu ajutorul resurselor on-line se poate nva de acas fr a mai fi nevoie de deplasarea
ctre o instituie de nvamnt sau de a depinde de un anumit program . De asemenea , elevul poate
avea acces la informaii alternative . Nu este nevoit s rein cantiti uriae de informaii , ci doar
s gndeasc logic i s localizeze informaiile de care are nevoie . Este stimulat imaginaia
elevilor i nvarea prin descoperire .

171

Aplicarea E-learning-ului n nvarea chimiei face posibil realizarea unor experimente


virtuale imposibil de realizat n mod practic datorit lipsei timpului sau a unei dotri
necorespunztoare a laboratoarelor . Se reduce timpul necesar prelucrrii datelor experimentale . De
asemenea , elevii au posibilitatea de a modifica condiiile n care se desfoar experimentul sau l
pot repeta astfel nct s poat urmri modul n care se desfoar fenomenele i pot trage singuri
concluzii . Pe Internet sunt postate materiale video ale unor experimente sau explicaii ale unor
coninuturi. Se pot crea experimente virtuale , atunci cnd condiiile nu permit realizarea unor
experimente reale , astfel elevii fiind implicai mai mult n propria formare . Prin intermediul
Internet-ului elevii pot face vizite virtuale n diferite ramuri ale industriei chimice i astfel pot
urmri aplicaii ale chimiei n practic . ntr-un timp mai scurt se poate ajunge la o nelegere mai
bun a materiei . Este mai uoar predarea unor noini abstracte , datorit suportului vizual . Se pot
realiza jocuri didactice pentru aprofundarea materiei . n vederea evalurii sumative profesorul
poate repartiza anumite teme de proiect , ce se pot face individual sau n grup , pentru realizarea
crora utilizarea Internet-ului este foarte util n cercetare . Tot n vederea evalurii sumative elevii
i pot mbunti portofoliul cu diferite materiale descrcate de pe Internet . Pe Internet elevii pot
primi sprijin n realizarea unor probleme la chimie , ct i la alte discipline , pot gsi cursuri de
pregtire pentru bacalaureat sau admitere la facultate . Se poate folosi Internetul pentru realizarea
diferitelor proiecte educaionale sau reviste colare .
Utilizarea Internet-ului transform procesul instructiv educativ . Dac n nvmntul
tradiional elevul era un simplu receptor de informaii , datorit utilizrii tehnologiilor moderne
i a Internet-ului se pune accentul pe satisfacerea necesitilor reale ale elevului . nvarea nu mai
este considerat a fi rodul muncii profesorului , ci efectul interaciunii elevului cu calculatorul i al
colaborrii sale cu profesorul .
Internetul poate fi utilizat n mai multe direcii : motoare de cutare , resurse de tip Wiki ,
dicionare , biblioteci online i comunicarea prin Internet . Instrumente eficiente i gratuite , utile n
nvare i predare sunt Google Apps pentru Educaie i Google + . Foarte util este aplicaia
Google Docs care permite realizarea unor documente sau prezentri mpreun cu ali colegi , chiar
dac acetia se afl la un alt computer sau ntr-un alt loc . Web site-ul este un instrument care
faciliteaz procesul de nvare , asigurnd elevilor i profesorilor acces la informaii tiinifice de
actualitate incluse n baze de date . Profesorii i elevii pot comunica prin e-mail , chat i video-
conferine . Elevii pot vizita n mod virtual centre de cercetare , muzee , pe care , dac nu ar fi
Internetul ar fi mult mai greu s le cunoasc . De asemenea , elevii i pot publica online rezultatele
nvrii pentru ca ali elevi i profesori s le citeasc i s le rspund . Email-ul permite
comunicarea offline prin intermediul potei electronice . Elevii pot folosi i chat-urile pentru a
adresa ntrebri unui profesor / expert sau pentru a colabora cu ali colegi .
Ce mai utilizate instrumente web n educaie sunt : Wiki urile , blogurile , reelele sociale
, servicii pentru partajarea coninutului grafic , servicii pentru partajarea coninutului audio/video ,
servicii pentru partajarea prezentrilor . Un Wiki este o colecie de pagini Web . Wikipedia este o
enciclopedie deschis . Crearea unor pagini Wikipedia poate fi foarte motivant pentru elevi . Un
blog este un site Web coninnd intrri i comentarii . Rezultatele muncii elevilor pot fi postate pe
bloguri folosite de clas . Profesorul trebuie s se asigure c are permisiunea prinilor de a posta
informaii despre copiii lor . Cea mai utilizat reea social de ctre elevi este Facebook , ce le
permite elevilor att s comunice ntre ei , ct i crearea anumitor pagini , ca de exemplu cea a
clasei sau a colii . Flickr este un photo sharing (serviciu pentru partajarea coninutului grafic) ce le
permite utilizatorilor s ncarce imagini pe un site Web , reprezentnd i o platform de
comunicaie online. You Tube este cel mai cunoscut video sharing ( serviciu pentru partajarea
coninutului audio/video ) , unde elevii pot ncrca , vizualiza i partaja materiale video . Slideshare
este un serviciu ce ofer ncrcarea , marcarea i partajarea unor documente .

172

Excesul de tehnologie poate genera dependen i constituie un pericol major n formarea


personalitii elevilor. Comunicarea n mediul virtual deformeaz realitatea i nu poate nlocui
sentimentele , emoiile , limbajul nonverbal . Dei mai avantajoas dect comunicarea direct ,
comunicarea online poate deforma mesajul transmis . Exist riscul de a stabili relaii cu persoane
care i ascund identitatea i astfel se poate ajunge n pericol . Unii adolesceni nu sunt contieni de
faptul c , o fotografie eventual compromitoare de pe o reea de socializare rmne ntr-o baz de
date , chiar dac a fost tears ea poate distruge ulterior o carier , dac la aceasta are acces un
angajator . Un alt dezavantaj al Internetului const n faptul c unele teme pentru acas i pierd din
efectul lor stimulativ i deci constructiv , deoarece multe din materialele necesare sunt obinute n
mod mecanic de ctre elev , nesolicitnd suficient gndirea acestuia . Folosirea fr limit a
Internetului i n special a reelelor de socializare provoac distrageri i chiar poate duce la scderea
randamentului colar . Folosirea nepotrivit i fr scop a calculatorului n timpul lectiei duce la
monotonie , ineficiena nvrii prin neimplicarea elevilor , nerealizarea competenelor leciei i
dezinteres fa de acest mijloc modern de nvare . La polul opus , s-a constatat c folosirea n
exces a calculatorului i a Internet-ului poate duce la pierderea abilitilor practice , de calcul , de
observare a realitii i deteriorarea relaiilor interumane . Capacitatea elevilor de a argumenta un
anumit subiect are de suferit . Elevul tinde s se izoleze de ceilali colegi , inclusiv de profesori . Un
accent prea mare pus pe individualizarea nvrii poate duce la deteriorarea relaiei elev-profesor i
la izolarea procesului de nvare n contextul psihosocial . Un alt dezavantaj l constituie faptul c
informaia de pe Internet nu este sigur ntruct oricine poate posta informaii , nu doar specialitii
n domeniu .
Educaia nu se realizeaz doar prin dezvoltare intelectual . Nu se poate pune problema
nlocuirii profesorului cu calculatorul i Internetul . Instruirea Asistat pe Calculator trebuie
utilizat doar pentru optimizarea procesului instructiv-educativ . Invmntul cu ajutorul
Internetului trebuie sa fie complementar celui tradiional . Internetul este incapabil s ofere rspuns
la ntrebrile neprevzute ale elevilor , de aceea profesorul joac ntotdeauna un rol foarte important
n educaie . Rolul profesorului este de a-i face pe elevi s dobndeasc competene i nu doar
cunotine ce pot fi date repede uitrii de ctre elevi . Profesorul trebuie s-i adapteze strategia
didactic societii informaionale de astzi .

BIBLIOGRAFIE: :
1. Ion Gh. Roca , Societatea cunoaterii , Editura Economic , Bucureti , 2006 , p. 258
2. Ileana Rotaru , Comunicarea virtual , Editura Tritonic , Bucureti , 2010 , p. 264
3. Constantin Cuco , Pedagogie , Editura Polirom , Iai , 2006 , p. 288
4. Septimiu Chelcea , Psihosociologie , Editura Polirom , Iai , 2008 , p.183

NOILE TEHNOLOGII PENTRU EDUCAIA PRECOLARILOR

Prof.nv.precolar Tifrac Maria


G.P.N.Bocicoiu Mare, Maramure

Utilizarea calculatorului n educatia precolarilor permite transmiterea i asimilarea noilor


cunotine ntr-un mod atractiv pentru copii. Procesul de educatie este mult mai eficient. Copiii
nva jucndu-se, sunt pui n situaia de gsi repede soluii i de a lua decizii pentru rezolvarea
problemelor. Calculatorul este un mijloc de instruire care ine atenia copilului activ pe tot
parcursul activitii de nvare.
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Folosirea calculatorului n grdini constituie o modalitate de cretere a calitii predrii i


nvrii. Operarea pe calculator reprezint o nou strategie de lucru a educatoarei cu copiii,
prezint importante valene formative i informative, este un nou mod de instruire. Prin intermediul
computerului se ofer copiilor justificri i ilustrri ale proceselor i conceptelor abstracte, ale
fenomenelor neobservate sau greu observabile. Alturi de mijloacele didactice clasice, calculatorul
este un instrument didactic ce poate fi folosit n scopul eficientizrii tuturor activitilor din
grdini. Interesului copiilor se menine pe tot parcursul activitilor, folosind acest mijloc didactic.
Imaginaia, la vrsta precolar, intr ntr-o nou faz de dezvoltare, capt noi aspecte.
Formarea competenelor descrise prin programa colar nu este posibil doar prin utilizarea unor
strategii clasice de predare-nvare-evaluare. Instruirea difereniat individual, pe nivel de vrst,
cu ajutorul softului educaional, poate fi o alternativ de succes.
n nvmntul precolar, jocul este principala form de organizare a procesului instructiv-
educativ, iar calculatorul, este pentru copil, un alt mod de a nva jucndu-se, este parte din spaiul
socio-cultural al lui, care l pun n situaia de a gsi rapid soluii, de a se adapta la o lume n care
informaia circul, i influeneaz limbajul i comunicarea non-verbal i totul cu pai repezi.
nvarea asistat de calculator reprezint o cale de instruire eficient. Experienele cognitive i de
exprimare care i introduc pe copii n lumea oferit de programele multimedia trebuie s fie n
concordan cu mediul educaional din care provin ei. Prin aceste activiti, oferim copiilor anse
egale la educaie, indiferent de mediul n care cresc i se dezvolt.
Prin utilizarea calculatorului, procesul de predare-nvare-evaluare capt noi dimensiuni i
caracteristici, permite transmiterea de noi cunotine i sugereaz semnificaiile acestora. Strategiile
de predare-nvare folosite pot sprijini i stimula procesele nvrii active. Cunoaterea este un
drum ce se deschide pe msur ce naintm. Procesul de nvare devine mai interesant i mai plcut
prin intermediul calculatorului. Imaginile viu colorate, nsoite de texte sugestive, permit
dezvoltarea limbajului i a vocabularului celor mici. Bagajul de cunotine generale crete, pornind
de la noiuni simple, cum ar fi culorile i ajungnd pn la cunoaterea de poezii, cntece, precum i
a unor proverbe i zictori. Noiunile elementare, cum ar fi animale domestice i slbatice,
anotimpuri, etc., ncep s aib neles de la vrste fragede, dndu-le astfel posibilitatea s le nvee
mult mai uor.
Soft-urile sunt bine structurate, copilul poate alege orice etap din cele prezentate cu ajutorul
mouse-ului, sau poate repeta anumite secvene, pentru a ajunge s cunoasc i s neleag toate
noiunile cuprinse n jocul respectiv.
Soft-ul educaional realizat pentru copii poate fi educativ, distractiv i interactiv. De
exemplu, folosind dorina copilului de a citi, este invitat ntr-o Cltorie misterioas la bibliotec,
unde are mai multe variante de joc. Precolarii i pot consolida cunotinele, rezolvnd sarcinile
primite. Personajul i cere copilului s analizeze imaginea de pe ecran, s compare forma i
mrimea crilor prin alturare vizual i apoi s le aeze pe rnd n rafturile bibliotecii. Imaginile
individuale se prezint pe rnd i copilul trebuie s fac apel, fie la imaginea de ansamblu care i se
prezint cnd greete, fie la cunotinele dobndite anterior. Jocul se desfoar interactiv,
calculatorul l sftuiete pe cel ce se joac, s se gndeasc bine i l ncurajeaz s ncerce din nou,
dac a greit. Rspunsurile corecte sunt rspltite cu strigte de bucurie, aplauze i laude, pentru c
a aezat corect crile n rafturi. Programul are mai multe variante de joc: repar jucria (trebuie
asamblate piesele lips i apoi colorate dup dorina copilului), matematic cu personaje din poveti
cunoscute, ghicitori, labirint, construcii (csua greieraului), ghicete indicii (Personajul este
ascuns i trebuie gsit dnd clic pe fiecare cifr. Dup ce rezolv toate sarcinile, copilul este ludat,
aplaudat i primete recompens o medalie). n alte jocuri interactive, este recompensat cu o
diplom pe care i scrie numele sau cu lucrarea pe care a avut de asamblat o jucrie, un mijloc de
transport, o coloreaz i are opiunea de a le imprima.
Unul dintre obiectivele importante ale nvmntului precolar este pregtirea pentru
coal, cu multele aspecte pe care le mbrac: motivaional, intelectual, afectiv, fizic, completate i
prin activiti comune, complementare, individuale, n care este utilizat calculatorul, ca mijloc de
nvmnt integrat n acestea. Folosind tastele, copiii se familiarizeaz cu literele, ncep s scrie
174

cuvinte simple, numele i prenumele, nva mult mai uor cifrele i rezolv probleme simple de
adunare i scdere cu 1-2 uniti, ntr-un mod foarte plcut de ei.
Putem desfura o activitate de educare a limbajului: Iedul cu trei capre de Octav Pancu
Iai, repovestire, cu copiii din grupa mijlocie, n mod tradiional sau, sub forma activitii integrate.
Dup activitatea de repovestire, cu ajutorul imaginilor, copiii sunt mprii n dou grupe. Prima, va
rezolva o fi matematic, unde educatoarea le citete copiilor o poezie care conine sarcina de
lucru: n csua fermecat / Vrjitoarea blestemat / ine cifrele ascunse, / Tu s le afli de-ndat! /
Cinci sunt. Cum le gseti, / Tu s le ncercuieti! / Coloreaz ptrele, / Cte cifra de jos cere! i
n timp ce copiii rezolv fia, ceilali, la calculator, vor rspunde unor ntrebri, pentru a verifica n
ce msur s-au familiarizat cu ideile i personajele din poveste. Lucrnd astfel, activitatea este mai
plcut pentru copii, iar pentru educatoare, mult mai uor de verificat rezultatele. Dup rezolvarea
testului, copiii de la calculator vor rezolva fia matematic, iar ceilali, testul de la calculator.
Metoda instruirii asistate de calculator ofer accesul comod i eficient la informaiile i cunotinele
cele mai noi, este o metod nou i eficient de predare-nvare-evaluare a cunotinelor i de
formare permanent.
Unele reprezentri pot fi reproduse doar prin intermediul calculatorului, care ofer metode i
tehnici privind grafica, animaia, sunetul. De exemplu, evoluia unor fenomene fizice, chimice,
biologice, etc., care se desfoar dinamic, nu pot fi reprezentate sau studiate, dect folosind
calculatorul.
Jocurile de orientare de tip labirint l ajut pe copil s foloseasc tastele de deplasare stnga-
dreapta, sus-jos, s-i dezvolte viteza de reacie, coordonarea oculo-motorie, dar i spiritul de
competiie, capacitatea de a aciona individual. Am observat o mbuntire a capacitii de
concentrare a ateniei, creterea stabilitii n aciune, chiar i la unii copii, care, n alte activiti, au
o slab concentrare a ateniei.
Jocurile pe calculator l pun pe copil n situaia de a rezolva sarcini, care altfel ar prea
inaccesibile, dar atmosfera plcut de lucru, caracterul ludic al aciunii, posibilitatea ndreptrii
greelilor, stimulentele primite: ncurajri, aplauze, imagini cadou, diplome de nvingtor,
medalii, situarea n fruntea clasamentului, melodii, i creeaz copilului emoii pozitive, bucuria c a
rezolvat singur o sarcin i l responsabilizeaz, trecnd de la nvarea pasiv la cea activ, n care
i nsuete cunotine, acionnd ntr-o strns relaie de comunicare interactiv calculator-copil.
Micarea imaginilor, culorile diferite, dialogul, spiritul de glum i de joc, fac ca factorii stresani,
inhibatori s dispar, iar copilul s acioneze fr constrngeri.
Prezentarea i organizarea coninuturilor, n situaii de nvare asistate de calculator, trebuie
s se fac n funcie de cerine instructive, care faciliteaz i optimizeaz nvarea. n nvmntul
tradiional, profesorul dispune de posibiliti multiple pentru a verifica i stimula nvarea. Rostul
unui program de nvare, este de a formula sarcini, de a oferi scheme de abordare a informaiei, de
a realiza feed-back-ul, dar i de a motiva copilul pentru continuarea instruirii. Materialele audio-
vizuale pun la dispoziie resurse valoroase pentru sistemul de nvare. Instruirea asistat de
calculator este folositoare, dac copilul este activ i motivat, el nva fiind implicat i provocat s
se gndeasc la ceea ce i se prezint.
Calitatea interaciunii cu copilul este o caracteristic de prim importan a unui soft
educaional; de ea depinde msura n care se produce nvarea.
Pedagogia modern pune n prim plan copilul, cu trebuinele i nevoile lui de dezvoltare. Copiii vor
s se descurce singuri i vor n acelai timp ca persoanele n care au ncredere s-i orienteze i s-i
ocroteasc. Educatoarea dovedete competen dar i dragoste pentru copii, atunci cnd le ofer
posibilitatea de a avea iniiativ.

BIBLIOGRAFIE:
Marin Manolescu, Curriculum pentru nvmntul primar i precolar. Teorie i practic, Ed.
Credis, 2004.
Revista de pedagogie, nr. 1-2, Informatizarea nvmntului, Institutul de Stiinte ale Educatiei,
1994.
175

S.M. Cioflica, B. Iliescu, Prietenul meu, calculatorul, (Ghid de utilizare pentru precolari), Ed.
Tehno-Art, Petroani, 2003.
http://www.unibuc.ro/eBooks/informatica.htm, U.B., site-ul oficial.

PROIECTUL ERASMUS + KA 1- STAGIUL DE ABILITARE LINGVISTIC

Prof. Popa Irina


Liceul Teoretic Mihail Koglniceanu Vaslui

n cadrul Liceului Teoretic Mihail Koglniceanu Vaslui, s-a derulat n perioada 2015-
2017 unul dintre Proiectele Erasmus+ KA101 2015-1-RO01-KA101-014129 Bilingv 15-18 -
intitulat Reformarea curricular instituional prin ameliorarea competenelor lingvistice i de
specialitate ale profesorilor de la clasele cu profil bilingv prilej cu care douzeci de profesori au
participat la stagii de formare n strintate n limbile francez i englez cu scopul actualizrii,
dezvoltrii i perfecionrii competenelor discursive i de redactare ntr-o limb strin.
n primul an de proiect s-a realizat selecia echipei n urma unui concurs de dosare. n acest
context, fiecare candidat a aplicat pentru un grant privind implementarea proiectului i a obinut
privilegiul de a urma un curs de formare continu acreditat, organizat de furnizori de educaie din
Malta i Frana. A urmat etapa de pregtire premergtoare stagiilor de formare de natur lingvistic,
tiinific i socio-cultural, care a durat aproximativ zece luni n anul colar 2015-2016 i care a
constat n parcurgerea metodic a unor cursuri de iniiere sau actualizare a cunotinelor n limba
respectiv, susinute de profesorii de limbi strine din liceu fa n fa cu formabilii dar i n studiul
individual pe platforma e-learning a proiectului: http://nelpae.ro/platforma.
Ca profesor de limba romn n liceu, am considerat c acest stagiu mi poate oferi
posibilitatea de a aplica n practic, n folosul instituiei i spre satisfacia personal cunotinele
acumulate n urma formrii, de a rspunde provocrii permanente pe care o reprezint noutatea
colii i rolul dasclului. Nu n ultimul rnd, formarea prin acest stagiu a contribuit la dezvoltarea
carierei mele i mi-a mbuntait considerabil performanele lingvistice.
Personal, am beneficiat de un stagiu intensiv de limba francez desfurat n perioada 01-
05.08.2016 organizat de Institutul Cavilam, Centre d'Aproches Vivantes des Langues et des Mdias,
Vichy, Frana. Institutul de formare este deintorul certificatului Label France, a fost fondat n
1964 sub tutela Universitii din Clermond Frrand i formeaz anual peste 5000 de stagiari din
toat lumea, fiind unanim recunoscut pentru calitatea serviciilor educaionale furnizate.
Activitatea propriu-zis de formare de la Vichy a nceput cu un test de evaluare n urma cruia
s-a stabilit nivelul de competen lingvistic i programul de lucru. Conform orarului stabilit am
beneficiat zilnic de cel puin 4 ore de curs i dou ore de activiti practice (ateliere de lucru). n
afara acestora am beneficiat de 3 conferine diferite ca abordare tematic privind:
a) Situaia economic, politic, educaional a Franei n perioada contemporan ( Le malaise
franais: comprendre les blocages d'un pays); luni, 01 august 2016
b) Formarea digital ( La digitalisation des formations); mari, 02 august 2016
c) Descoperirea benzii desenate n opera sciitorilor clasici francezi (Atlier Dcouverte BD.
Adaptations des classiques franais); joi, 04 august 2016.
Programul de lucru a fost completat cu excursii tematice, ntlniri cu autoritile locale,
activiti sportive i de recreiere, expoziii de carte etc.
n cadrul orelor de curs am avut privilegiul de a lucra n grup multicultural cu studeni de
diferite vrste, etnii i specialiti, centrul universitar de la Vichy fiind specializat n acreditri si n
eliberarea unor certificate de competene lingvistice pentru diverse domenii de activitate. Am lucrat
cu medici, ingineri, studeni, elevi, profesori din Japonia, Brazilia, Coreea, Italia, Germania, India
etc. Subiectele orelor de curs au fost antrenante i de actualitate: despre simbolurile si elementele
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specifice fiecrei ri, despre sistemele de guvernare actuale i anterioare, despre sistemul electoral,
codul familiei, sistemul de nvmnt, agricultur, celebriti etc. Ineditul acestor ore de curs a
constat n maniera de achiziie a informaiilor lingvistice, de mbogire a vocabularului, de
cunoatere a expresiilor n uz i de utilizare corect a normelor de limb francez. n cadrul acestor
ore de curs am fost evaluai prin teme scrise i prin intervenii orale, primind un feedback
permanent din partea formatorilor.
n activitatea practic, atelierele de conversaie din fiecare dup amiaz, grupele se schimbau,
astfel nct lucram cu o serie de noi colegi nsuindu-ne tehnici/ metode de lucru n clas si
valorificndu-ne exprimarea oral n limba francez. n acest context am exersat autoprezentarea i
prezentarea partenerului, am interpretat jocuri de rol precum Alibi, am participat la dezbateri pe
teme de actualitate precum: avantajele i dezavantajele Transportului de tip BlaBlaCar sau
Covoiturage. Toate aceste activiti au inlesnit deschiderea spre comunicare, buna dispoziie,
stabilirea contactelor cu persoane din diferite coluri ale lumii. Orele de curs i atelierele de lucru
ne-au oferit exemple de bun practic n desfurarea n cadrul liceului nostru a leciilor de limbi
strine bazate pe activiti interactive i chiar pe parteneriatul unor profesori formatori. Personal,
am avut intervenii orale att n cadrul orelor de curs ct i al atelierelor practice, avnd misiunea de
a vorbi despre istoria romnilor, formele de guvernare, mesajul imnului naional i simbolurile care
ne definesc. Am avut teme scrise pe probleme de gramatic francez precum subjonctivul prezent,
viitorul apropiat i am facut parte din echipele de lucru n cadrul interaciunilor din ateliere cu
parteneri japonezi, indieni, germani, chinezi. Competenele dobndite se regsesc n depirea
blocajelor de utilizare a codului oral al limbii franceze i de nsuire a unor expresii uzuale.
Revenirea de la stagiu a corespuns procedurii de recunoatere a competenelor prin emiterea
documentelor de Mobilitate Europass.
Transferul i valorizarea formrii de care am beneficiat s-a realizat n cadrul colii n al
doilea an de proiect, respectiv 2016-2017 prin proiectarea unui suport de curs opional, novator care
va fi folosit n anul colar 2017-2018.
Stagiul de abilitare lingvistic mi-a oferit ocazia s-mi valorific capacitile intelectuale i
experiena acumulat n predarea unui opional modular creat n limba francez la clasele cu profil
bilingv, privind practicile de expresie oral i activitile ludice din cadrul orelor de curs (jocuri de
cuvinte, calcuri lingvistice, calambur). Opionalul pe care l-am conceput n perioada 15-30.01.2017
i care a fost aprobat se intituleaz Jurnalistic colar.
Opionalul a fost conceput pentru un an colar, respectiv 35 de sptmni, poate fi aplicat la
orice nivel de studiu, are ca produs final conceperea unui ziar al liceului editat n ntregime de elevi
i care s cuprind diferite texte jurnalistice.
Tema acestui opional este dat de discursul mediatic, care este omniprezent n viaa noastr.
Acest curs ofer posibilitatea elevilor sa nvee ABC-ul gazetresc, s-i mbogeasc vocabularul,
s se exprime mai uor, s-i perfecioneze exprimarea in limba romana si franceza.
Acest opional este stimulativ pentru elevi din cel puin dou puncte de vedere:
Primul se refer la o strategie activ-particular, elevii progresnd rapid n achiziiile de
limb n redactarea unui text, avnd motivaii diverse: la coal pentru a-i scrie compuneri de un
anumit tip, pentru a-i afirma personalitatea ntr-un colectiv sau ntr-o activitate profesional de mai
trziu, ca jurnalist.
Cu toii scriem texte din motive practice sau ca profesioniti. Acest curs i va ajuta pe elevi
s se cunoasc, s-i dezvolte personalitatea, s o cizeleze n raport cu ceilali autori de texte.
n al doilea rnd, prin faptul c acest curs i propune realizarea unui produs- respectiv un
ziar al colii, el va motiva elevii pentru activitatea orientat spre un scop. A scrie un text implic o
responsabilitate i anumite abiliti pe care trebuie s-i nvm pe elevi s le foloseasc pentru a-i
dezvolta personalitatea, gndirea critic i reflexiv. Ei trebuie s tie ca un text nu se scrie oricum,
ci dup anumite reguli, ncadrndu-se ntr-un sistem de liberti i de obligaii.
Acest curs acord o pondere sporit elementelor de limb i comunicare i recomand
studierea acestora cu accent pe latura aplicativ i n corelaie cu studiul literaturii. El pune accent

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pe latura formativ a nvrii, avnd ca scop formarea unor elevi capabili s se raporteze la cultur,
autonomi, reflexivi, critici i creativi.
Elevii paricipa in plus la concursuri si olimpiade scolare la limbi straine. Cu aceasta ocazie,
ei sunt pusi in situatia de a crea diferite texte (scrisori, eseuri argumentative, de opinie, naratiuni,
descrieri) si sunt pusi in situatia de a recunoaste si identifica tipurile de texte si terminologia
specifica. Acest curs optional ar veni in intampinarea nevoilor si asteptarilor elevilor, avand ca
avantaj punct de plecare la limba romana si comparatia cu aceasta.
De asemenea, se dezvolt, prin intermediul acestui curs opional de jurnalistic colar,
manifestarea ncrederii n propriile competene de comunicare i se dezvolt interesul pentru
receptarea critic a discursului jurnalistic.
In ceea ce priveste limbile moderne, in elaborarea prezentei programe s-au avut n vedere
urmtoarele aspecte:
- formarea i dezvoltarea competenelor de interaciune;
- dezvoltarea unor tehnici de munc intelectual: elevul se va nva s utilizeze o gam
variat de surse de informare, surse care cumuleaz unul sau mai multe domenii de
activitate; de asemenea el va nva s utilizeze imformaiile oferite de internet;
- corelarea cerinelor din documentele Comisiei Europene referitoare la dezvoltarea
competenelor cheie;
- Cadrul European Comun de Referin pentru limbi: nvare, predare, evaluare
publicat de Consiliul Europei n 1998 i revizuit n 2000.
Din aceast perspectiv curriculumul de fa i propune formarea competenelor de
comunicare derivate dintr-un consens larg, european: comunicarea n limbi strine, a nva s
nvei, competene interpersonale, interculturale, sociale i civice.
Prin aceast disciplin se urmree formarea la elevi a unor valori i atitudini menite s
permit o mai bun, dar mai ales fireasc receptare a fenomenelor de cultur i civilizaie francez.
n concluzie, ca beneficiar al proiectului Erasmus + Ka 1 am nvat c orice demers didactic
trebuie s nlesneasc deschiderea spre comunicare i buna dispoziie, c trebuie s existe un
parteneriat permanent ntre formator i cursant, c fiecare cursant trebuie valorizat la fiecare or de
curs i c performana se obine lucrnd cu grupe mici. Orele de curs trebuie s fie pe ct de dense
din punct de vedere tiinific, pe att de antrenante i de eficiente, iar n nvarea unei limbi strine
accentul trebuie s cad pe practicile de expresie oral i pe activitile ludice, obiectivul central
fiind depirea blocajelor n utilizarea codului oral al limbii franceze.

DIGITIZAREA INFORMAIEI

Bnic Marina-Eraclia
Liceul Tehnologic Dimitrie Filipescu Buzu

Digitizarea informaiei n mediul educaional nu presupune numai transpunerea manualelor


n format electronic n vederea accesrii acestora pe dispozitive mobile. Avantajul acesteia este
crearea unei noi dimensiuni a procesului de predare/nvare prin conexiunea ntre lumea virtual i
cea real.
Digitizarea are efecte asupra tuturor domeniilor de formare, n special schimbarea
competenelor personalului care se calific astzi pentru fabrica de mine.
Locurile de munc vor evolua, vor disprea unele calificri i vor aprea altele noi, iar
viitorii lucrtori vor avea nevoie de formri pentru a face fa noilor cerine la locul de munc.
Angajatorii trebuie s-i pun ntrebri precum: mediul de lucru este atractiv pentru fora de
munc n viitor?; echipa mea este capabil pentru a face o schimbare esenial n modul de a

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gndi?; instituia de nvmnt care pregtete fora de munc formeaz competenele necesare
noilor schimbri?
Digitizarea solicit schimbarea sarcinilor i a secvenelor de lucru, iar interaciunea cu
mainile inteligente cere noi abiliti i competene.
Dintre competenele necesare absolvenilor care vor lucra n fabricile inteligente amintim:
rezolvarea activ a problemelor, competene avansate IT, cunoaterea ntregului proces, stpnirea
sarcinilor de lucru, comunicare eficient, implicarea n procesul de inovare, coordonarea
secvenelor de lucru, gndire interdisciplinar, nvare pe tot parcursul vieii, abiliti individuale
i potenial de angajare, nsuirea standardelor n materie de calitate, capacitate de luare a deciziilor,
disponibilitate pentru nvarea pe tot parcursul vieii, capacitate de auto-organizare i auto-
direcionare, mobilitate n ceea ce privete timpul i locul, calificare interdisciplinar, rezolvare de
probleme complexe, gndire n ceea ce privete procesele de nivel superior, de nvare, procesare
interaciuni complexe.
Metodele tradiionale de predare/nvare, cum ar fi fa-n-fa, a nva prin a face i
nvarea prin auto-ghidare, sunt toate legate prin acest concept de digitizare. n plus, se creeaz o
interaciune direct ntre elevi, software i hardware i dispare grania dintre teorie i practic.
ntr-un scenariu lrgit de nvare, metodele sunt adaptate n mod specific abilitilor
individuale ale elevului.
Un nvmnt tehnic profesional durabil poate fi asigurat prin digitizare, care duce la
creterea atractivitii activitii de formare i la motivarea elevilor.
Un excelent exemplu al modului n care conceptul de digitizare este aplicat n nvmntul
tehnic i profesional, l reprezint echipamentul de nvare Tec2Screen de la Festo Didactic.
Aceasta realizeaz dialogul cu tehnologia, prin utilizarea multimedia. Cu ajutorul
echipamentului se pot realiza urmtoarele:
- msurarea tensiunii, intensitii sau rezistenei;
- nelegerea cauzei i efectului cu ajutorul unui manual, diagram de circuit i documentaia tehnic
care stau n fundal i pot fi accesate oricnd este nevoie;
- oferirea de suport la cerere dac ceva nu se potrivete sau nu funcioneaz;
- indicarea modului de lucru prin cuvinte i imagini la asamblarea, punerea n funciune sau
repararea unui echipament;
- cursuri i exerciii din domeniile pneumatic i hidraulic;
- alegerea de ctre utilizatori a textelor, imaginilor, grafic sau filme, n funcie de ceea ce li se
potrivete mai bine modului lor de nvare.
Testarea i punerea n funciune a echipamentului presupune familiarizarea cu un proces
prin utilizarea SimuBox-citirea i transmiterea semnalelor; detectarea practic a avariilor-susinut
prin documentaia tehnic; marcarea de ctre utilizatori a intrrilor i ieirilor, nelegnd astfel
inter-relaionrile.

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Testarea noului echipament de nvare Tec2Screen de la Festo Didactic de ctre elevii Liceului
Tehnologic Dimitrie Filipescu Buzu

BIBLIOGRAFIE:
Connected Learning, Festo Didactic

VICHY O EXPERIEN APARTE

180

Prof. Mirela Bulgaru


Liceul Teoretic Mihail Koglniceanu, Vaslui

Am considerat ntotdeauna c Frana este o ar care trebuie vizitat. Limba francez mi-a
plcut de cnd m tiu. Aa c am considerat o mare ans proiectul european coordonat de domnul
profesor Alexandru M de la Liceul Teoretic "Mihail Koglniceanu" Vaslui. Am beneficiat
datorit dumnealui de stagiul de formare n flux, inclus ca aciune a proiectului Erasmus+ KA101,
intitulat "Bilingv 15-18 Reformarea curricular instituional prin ameliorarea competenelor
lingvistice i de specialitate ale profesorilor de la clasele cu profil bilingv".
Asadar, n cadrul proiectului, am participat la o mobilitate de predare i formare a
personalului didactic, avnd ca aciune cheie educaia colar. Mobilitatea s-a desfurat la Vichy,
regiunea Auvergne, Frana, n perioada 31 iulie 6 august 2016.
Am parcurs cursurile de pregtire lingvistic puse la dispoziia noastr pe platforma MEI,
nivelurile A1, A2, B1, B2. Cursul a fost foarte bine structurat, cu multe secvene audio i exerciii
interesante. De asemenea, am parcurs cursul de pregtire socio-cultural care s-a dovedit extrem de
util n informarea mea cu privire la specificul regiunii Auvergne i a oraului Vichy i cursul de
eTwinning (am aflat c eTwinning este comunitatea colilor din Europa care ofer personalului
didactic care activeaz n colile europene participante o platform de comunicare, colaborare,
demarare proiecte i schimb de informaii).
Aeroportul Charles de Gaulle a reprezentat primul contact cu Frana. "Oraul Luminilor" s-a
dovedit a fi pe msura ateptrilor noastre, a mea i a colegelor de stagiu. Turnul Eiffel, Muzeul
Luvru, Arcul de Triumf, Catedrala Notre Dame, Sacr Coeur ... o lume de vis, un vis devenit
realitate. Pe 1 august am fost primii, noi i coordonatorul de proiect, la CAVILAM Vichy Alliance
Franaise, care este o instituie aflat n parteneriat cu universitile din Clermont-Ferrand, regiunea
Auvergne. Aici am dat un test de stabilire a cunotinelor fiecruia, apoi ni s-a prezentat cldirea
universitii, slile, profesorii.
Am avut un program bine stabilit, alert: cursuri de comunicare cu doamna formator Colette,
ateliere cu doamna formator Daphn Rios, conferine, prezentri de carte de la edituri foarte
cunoscute Hachette, Cl.
Am cunoscut oameni deosebii, deschii, empatici. Doamnele care ne-au format, colegii de
diferite vrste din numeroase ri (Statele Unite ale Americii, Germania, Regatul Unit, Spania,i
multe altele), cu toii m-au impresionat i mi-au lsat amintiri frumoase. Cursurile de comunicare
mi-au deschis noi perspective asupra Franei, asupra francezilor, asupra lumii n general.
Un nume pe harta Franei pn nu demult, orelul Vichy a devenit un album cu amintiri.
Cldirile frumoase, parcul, magazinele, gara, biserica Notre-Dame-des-Malades, biserica Saint-
Blaise, rul Allier, afluent al celui mai lung ru francez Loire, Muzeul Operei dinVichy,
bomboanele de Vichy, produsele cosmetice, plimbrile pe strduele nguste i curate, toate acestea
fac acum parte din mine.
Am aflat c, la orice vrst, putem nva lucruri interesante, att despre noi ct i despre
ceilali. Aceast experien mi va fi util, fr ndoial, n viitor. Am realizat, mpreun cu colega
mea Lola-Gabriela Ciolacu, un opional n limba francez intitulat "Repres culturels et
gographiques de l'espace francophone", pe care l vom preda n anul colar 2017-2018 la o clas a
XI-a.
Iat i cteva fotografii pe care le-am realizat n plimbrile prin Vichy i n scurta incursiune
parizian.

181

VEDERE DIN TURNUL EIFFEL FLUVIUL


SENA (arhiva personal)

PRIMRIA ORAULUI VICHY (arhiva personal)

CENTRUL ORAULUI VICHY(arhiva personal)


Cred c fotografiile spun mai mult dect o mie de cuvinte!

182

UTILIZAREA BENZILOR DESENATE I A NOILOR TEHNOLOGII


N CADRUL ORELOR DE ISTORIE
profesor Ciurea Viorica
coala Gimnazial Anton Pann Craiova,
Normele Comisiei Europene precizeaz necesitatea nsuirii competenei digitale de ctre
fiecare absolvent din spaiul intracomunitar. Integrarea noilor tehnologii, n procesul de predare
nvare evaluare, a devenit n ultimele dou decenii o prioritate a politicilor educaionale pe toate
meridianele lumii. Calculatorul poate fi folosit n achiziionarea unor cunotine i formarea unor
deprinderi care s-i permit elevului adaptarea la cerinele noii societi. Introducerea n coal a
Internetului i a tehnologiilor moderne a determinat schimbri importante n procesul de
nvmnt. Transmiterea de informaii realizat de cadrul didactic n nvmntul tradiional este
nlocuit de facilitarea nvrii i dezvoltarea cunoaterii elevului cu ajutorul noilor tehnologii
informaionale i comunicaionale. Nu doar vechile manuscrise, filmele documentar sau
documentele de arhiv sunt izvoare istorice, ci i benzile desenate pot fi utilizate n scrierea i
nelegerea fenomenului istoric.
Pe lng noile tehnologii care pot fi folosite n demersul didactic, benzile desenate
reprezint un mijloc de comunicare pe cale grafic, alctuit cu ajutorul imaginilor i a cuvintelor, n
scopul ilustrrii unui fir narativ i sunt destinate copiilor de toate vrstele. Termenul de carte
sau revist de benzi desenate are corespondent n limba englez comic book (comics) i
limba francez Bande Dessine i reprezint o publicaie n care sunt istorisite una sau mai
multe naraiuni prin intermediul limbajului i conveniilor benzii desenate. De altfel, o definiie a
termenului a creat multe dispute ntre specialiti, ca de altfel i originea acestei forme de art. n
timp ce originile benzilor desenate americane trebuie cutate n ziarele de la nceputul secolului ce
au aprut n Statele Unite ale Americii, unde apreau pentru a comenta diferite caricaturi sau pentru
a susine diferite povestiri simple. Primul exemplar de benzi desenate, dup definiia american a
fenomenului "comic books" din Statele Unite ale Americii, este considerat a fi The Adventures of
Obadiah Oldbuck. nc din cele mai vechi timpuri arta secvenial a fost utilizat pentru a relata
diverse ntmplri i fapte sub forma picturilor rupestre, a picturii egipteane (cum este cazul
mormntului Scribului Menna), a basoreliefului de pe Columna lui Traian siluetele pictate pe vasele
greceti. n perioada medieval manifestri ale artei secveniale se regsesc n manuscrisul
precolumbian, descoperit de Cortes n anul 1519, pe pergamentele medievale japoneze sau
Tapiseria Bayeax, n care este surprins cucerirea normand asupra Angliei din anul 1066. Un
moment important n rspndirea informaiei l-a constituit apariia tiparului inventat de Johannes
Gutenberg. Gravurile realizate de William Hogarth, A Harlots progress i A rakes progress,
alturi de lucrrile lui Rodolphe Tpffer, considerat printele benzii desenate moderne au deschis
drumul benzii desenate n ziarele americane. Dei benzile desenate au fost populare n rile anglo-
saxone (Superman sau Captain America), ca de altfel, i n rile germanice i n cele
francofone (Frana, patria lui Asterix, i Belgia, unde Herg l-a creat pe Tintin), n Romnia aceste
forme de comunicare au fost etichetate drept un divertisment pentru copii.
Dei n Statele Unite ale Americii benzile desenate au cunoscut cel mai mare succes, prima
band desenat n adevratul sens al cuvntului, a aprut n Europa. Revista de benzi desenate The
Glasgow Looking Glass a aprut la 11 iunie 1825 i era o satir la adresa societii i politicii
scoiene din secolul al XIX-lea. n timpul regimului fascist introdus de Benito Mussolini, singurul
personaj american exceptat de cenzura fascist a fost Mickey Mouse. Chiar i Biblia a fost
transpus n benzi desenate. n perioada regimului naionalist-comunist al lui Nicolae Ceauescu,
benzile desenate promovate n tirajele de mas ale revistelor pentru pionerii i oimii patriei din
Epoca de aur au promovat ideologia regimului, alturi de filmele lui Sergiu Nicolaescu i Mircea
Drgan (unele personaje desenate aveau chipul actorilor care le interpretaser pe marele ecran,
precum Amza Pellea sau Gheorghe Cozorici), sau romanele istorice ale lui Dumitru Alma i Radu
Teodoru. Serialele de benzi desenate: Column n milenii, Arcaul Negru, Dan Buzdugan ,

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Neamul oimretilor, Ion Vod cel Viteaz, Eroii de la Plevna, Taina Pergamentului, i
Escadrila nemuritoare au rmas celebre n epoc.
Utilizarea calculatorului i a Internetului permit o nelegere mai bun a materiei ntr-un timp
mai scurt iar n cazul evalurii se elimin subiectivitatea uman, deoarece elevul este protejat de
capriciile profesorului, iar elevul poate chiar s se autoevalueze singur i astfel se reduce starea de
stres i emotivitate. Nu trebuie omis faptul c exist posibilitatea evalurii simultane a mai multor
elevi cu nivele de pregtire diferite, deoarece testele de evaluare sunt realizate pe nivele de
dificultate diferite. Cu ajutorul noilor tehnologii se pot realiza diverse recapitulri, sinteze, jocuri
didactice, proiecte, portofolii, pagini html, scheme atractive care s permit facilitarea nvrii sau
elevii pot realiza pagini web de prezentare a colii, a oraului, a rii, a culturii, obiceiurilor i
tradiiilor poporului romn. Pentru a capta atenia elevilor acesia trebuie antrenai s participe la
lecie prin jocuri, prin activiti de culegere de informaii de pe Internet sau din alte surse
(televiziune, ziare i reviste, enciclopedii etc.). Modalitile de integrare a noilor tehnologii la
disciplina istorie sunt nelimitate i se pot concretiza prin: inserarea n momentele leciei a unor
surse istorice, informaii, imagini, fie de lucru utiliznd calculatorul sau videoproiectorul care s
susin activitatea de nvare, parcurgerea unor sarcini de nvare individuale sau de grup
utiliznd internetul, implicarea elevilor n concursuri colare ce presupun utilizarea avansat a
competenelor digitale i realizarea unor teste interactive.
De exemplu, profesorul de istorie trebuie s predea la clasa a VIII-a lecia despre Dacia de la
Burebista la Decebal, iar conform programei trebuie s-i familiarizeze pe elevi cu noiuni i
termeni istorici precum: religie politeist, tarabostes sau pileati, comati, sanctuar dave,
etc. n stilul tradiional, profesorul venea la clas i le expunea elevilor povestea apariiei i
evoluiei regatului dac, iar acetia ar fi scris dup dictare ori dup ceea ce profesorul ar fi scris la
tabl. Prin utilizarea noilor tehnologii informatice i comunicaionale n procesul de predare-
nvare, arhitectura didactic a leciei se schimb, devenind mai atractiv att pentru elevi ct i
pentru profesor.
n noua variant, profesorul va lucra cu elevii mult mai aproape pornind de la o prezentare a
regatului dac. fiindc dup o scurt prezentare pe tema regatul dac. Profesorul de istorie i-a stabilit
urmtoarele activiti: folosindu-se de o prezentare realizat ntr-un program Microsoft Office
Power Point Statul dac n timpul lui Decebal, el va expune pe parcursul orei elementele pe care
elevii trebuie s le neleag i s le rein din lecie. (Fig.1). Prezentarea respectiv conine imagini,
hri i desene pe care profesorul le comenteaz la anumite momente, profesorul folosete scurte
filmulee sau serii de imagini (youtube) pentru a-i introduce i mai mult pe elevi n elementele care
compun lecia sau le poate prezenta o band desenat despre Burebista n Revista Cuteztorii
(Fig.5.) . De exemplu, atunci cnd ajunge s le explice elevilor despre zei, profesorul acceseaz un
site cu Petera Polovragi (Fig.2) sau informaii Wikipedia cu privire la mitologia geto-dacilor.
https://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religia_dacilor. (Fig.3). sau revista de benzi desenate Legendele
dacilor (http://dacia-art.ro/index.php/legendele-dacilor-nr-1-revista-de-benzi-desenate.html).

Fig.1.Microsoft Fig.2 https://www.ghiduri-


Power Point turistice.info/ghid-turistic- Fig.5. Benzi Desenate,
http://www.didactic.ro/ma pestera-polovragi- revistacutezatorii.blogspot.com/
teriale- legendara-casa-a-lui- 2010/06/burebista-iii.htm
didactice/43133_statul-
dac-in-timpul-lui-decebal
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Pentru a-i introduce i mai mult n lumea greac, profesorul le cere elevilor s acceseze
Google Earth i s navigheze n jurul Columnei lui Traian, accesnd Ancient Rome,
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e_phjB19ZEg.
http://www.openculture.com/2009/03/ancient_rome_in_3d_on_google_earth.html ( Fig.4).
Pentru a nu-i lsa doar cu aceste informaii primite n clas, profesorul le cere elevilor s
pregteasc pentru fiecare concept cheie o scurt descriere, folosind versiunea romneasc a
Wikipedia i alte cteva site-uri tematice. (Fig.3).

Fig. 4. Roma antic (Ancient Rome)


Fig.3. Captur Wikipedia Religia dacilor https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e_phjB19ZE
https://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religia_dacilor. g.
http://www.openculture.com/2009/03/ancient_ro
me_in_3d_on_google_earth.html
Cu ajutorul programului Paint, se poate realiza digrama Venn privind asemnrile i
deosebirile din timpul statului dac din timpul regilor Burebista i Decebal. ( Fig.6 )

Fig. 6 Diagrama Venn n Paint

Cu ajutorul tehnologiilor mobile learning o grup de elevi, timp de o sptmn, se vor


informa cu privire la strmoii notri daco-gei, vizionnd ecranizrile Columna , Dacii,
Burebista i i vor imagina cteva posibile scurte dialoguri ca personaje ale evenimentului ales i
le tehnoredacteaz n Microsoft Word, sub forma unui mic scenariu. Elevii interpreteaz sceneta (de
maxim 5 minute), ea fiind nregistrat video i audio cu ajutorul unui telefon mobil i postat apoi
pe pagina web a clasei. Ceilali elevi vor audia i vor comenta sceneta din punct de vedere al
scenariului i al jocului de rol, folosind argumente istorice.

Dacii,https://www.youtube.com/w Burebista
Columna atch?v=OshsmDHWnTk, https://www.youtube.com/wat
ttps://www.youtube.com/wat ch?v=FM4mppaWh9I
ch?v=IalFhb9GHwc

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Instrumentul software Hot Potatoes permite att generarea propriu-zis a exerciiilor, ct i


configurarea acestora sub forma unor pagini web, foarte uor de accesat cu ajutorul unui browser.
Hot Potatoes este un produs al firmei Half-Baked Software, creat de echipa de cercetare i
dezvoltare a Humanities Computing and Media Centre din cadrul Victoria University din Canada.
Pentru profesori, unul dintre cele mai populare instrumente destinate crerii de teste de evaluare
interactive este Hot Potatoes, care cuprinde cinci programe de baz (Jquiz, Jcolze, Jcross, Jmix i
Jmatch). Hot Potatoes reprezint un annsamblu de aplicaii gratuite pentru crearea de teste
interactive cu rspuns multiplu, cu rspuns scurt, cuvinte ncruciate, formare de perechi, ordonare
i completare de fraze. Dup instalarea soft-ului Hot Potatoes i deschiderea acestuia, apare ecranul
de ntmpinare, cu cele ase programe de baz: JQuiz, JMatch, JCloze, JCross, JMix, i, cel care le
asambleaz pe acestea, The Masher. JQuiz creaz exerciii bazate pe ntrebri, exerciii cu variante
multiple de rspuns, exerciii cu alegere dual sau exerciii cu rspuns scurt. Pentru a realiza
evaluarea profesorul poate realiza diverse teste iar din dorina evitrii subiectivitii umane se poate
apela realizarea unor teste cu ajutorul calculatorului care poate transmiterea itemilor, receptarea
rspunsurilor, analizarea i compararea rspunsului cu rspunsul corect, punctarea performanelor
relevante i calcularea i afiarea notei colare. Profesorului i rmne sarcina formulrii itemilor, a
rspunsurilor corecte i a regulilor de notare.
De exemplu, la sfritul leciei, Dacia de la Burebista la Decebal se pot evalua elevii prin
administrarea unor teste realizate cu aplicaia Hot Potatoes cu itemi de diverse tipuri: exerciii cu
alegere multipl (realizat cu JQuiz), exerciii de completare (realizat cu JCloze), exerciii de
asociere de cuvinte (realizat cu JMatch), exerciiu de realizare de cuvinte ncruciate (realizat cu
JCross), compunerea exerciiilor cu propoziii amestecate de cuvinte (realizat cu JMix).
Integrarea noilor tehnologii n actul educativ prezint o multitudine de avantaje n ce
privete dezvoltarea colaborrii i comunicrii n grup, parteneriatul, sprijinul reciproc,
creativitatea, iniiativa i interevaluarea, stimularea nvrii active, nvarea bazat pe proiect, etc.,
dar i limite care constau n utilizarea la ntmplare, la un moment nepotrivit, a calculatorului n
timpul leciei care poate duce la plictiseal, monotonie, neparticiparea unor elevi la lecie, repulsie,
pierderea abilitilor practice, de calcul i de investigare a realitii, pn la deteriorarea relaiilor
umane.
Banda desenat vizeaz, n special, o exersare a competenelor de nelegere scris i
exprimare oral i scris, cu un important aport sociocultural.

BIBLIOGRAFIE
1.http://dacia-art.ro/index.php/legendele-dacilor-nr-1-revista-de-benzi-desenate.html
2.storia celor mai iubite benzi desenate, 31 martie, 2016, a1.ro/news/inedit/istoria-celor-mai-iubite-benzi-
desenate-id475969.html
3.Bluoiu, Valentin, Modaliti de utilizare a calculatorului n predarea-nvarea istoriei Studii i
articole de istorie, LXXI, Societatea de tiine Istorice din Romnia, Bucureti, Editura Publistar,
2006, 81-89.
4.. Centrul Naional de Evaluare i Examinare, Proiect cofinanat din Fondul Social European prin
Programul Operaional Sectorial pentru Dezvoltarea Resurselor Umane 2007 2013, Proiect:
Competene cheie TIC n curriculumul colar, POSDRU/1/1.1/S/5, Ghid metodologic de
implementare a TIC n curriculumul naional. Instrument pentru facilitarea includerii n programele
colare de competene cheie i detalierea modului de lucru, Bucureti, (2011).
5. Ciubotariue Alexandru, Ni Dodo, Istoria Benzii Desenate Romneti, Bucureti, Editura
Vellant, 2010, passim.
6. Ciurea, Viorica, Utilizarea Tehnologiilor Informaice i Comunicaionale la istorie, la Conferina
Internaional Share knowledge and good practises regarding the use of IT/CODING, n cadrul
Proiectului Erasmus+ domeniul colar Thinking.Coding, nr. 2015-1-IT02-KA219-015506_5
1.12.2015-30.11.2017, Liceul Teoretic Tudor Arghezi Craiova, 23 iunie 2016.

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7. Idem, Integrarea componentei TIC la disciplina istorie, n Comunicare i predare creativ,


coordonatori Mirea Ileana Dora, Grecu Daniela, Croitoru Lucia, revista on-line la nivel judeean
pentru toate ariile curriculare dedicate cadrelor didactice din nvmntul preuniversitar, anul I,
nr.1, Craiova, mai 2015, n cadrul Proiectului Erasmus +KA1 Dezvoltarea competenelor creative
de predare i comunicare, cu numrul de referin 2014-1-RO-01-KA 101-000267, p. 83-87.
8. Idem, Noile tehnologii folosite n cadrul orelor de istorie n volumul Tehnologii Moderne n
Educaie i Cercetare. Model & Methodologies, Technologies, Software Solutions, Editura
Universitii din Bucureti, Bucureti, 2016, p 162-168.
9..Hentea, Clin, i benzile desenate au fcut istorie, Historia,
http://www.historia.ro/exclusiv_web/general/articol/benzile-desenate-au-facut-istorie-0, accesat 15
martie 2017.
10. Milotinescu, Irina, Instrumente suport pentru activitatea didactic, n Magister, nr. 12-13/
aprilie-noiembrie 2011, Editura Arves, Craiova, 2011.
11. Idem, Utilizarea TIC n procesul de predare-nvare-evaluare. Aplicaii la disciplina istorie, n
Magister, nr. 15-16/ aprilie-noiembrie 2012, Editura Arves, Craiova, 2012.
12. Mirea, Tudor, Consideraii privind integrarea tehnologiilor de informare i comunicare n
predarea-nvarea istoriei, n Magister, nr. 7, noiembrie 2008, Editura Arves, Craiova, 2008.
13.Coordonatori Potolea, D., Neacu, I., Marinescu, M., Ghid de evaluare. Disciplina istorie,
Proiect cofinanat din Fondul Social European prin Programul Operaional Sectorial pentru
Dezvoltarea Resurselor Umane 2007 2013 Axa prioritar: 1. Educaia i formarea profesional n
sprijinul creterii economice i dezvoltrii societii bazate pe cunoatere Domeniul major de
intervenie: 1.1 Acces la educaie i formare profesional iniial de calitate Titlul proiectului:
Instrumente digitale de ameliorare a calitii evalurii n nvmntul preuniversitar Beneficiar:
Ministerul Educaiei, Cercetrii, Tineretului i Sportului ID Proiect: 3074 Cod contract:
POSDRU/1/1.1/S/3, manager de proiect G. Guu,
https://insam.softwin.ro/fisiere/GHID%20DE%20EVAL_ISTORIE2.pdf, accesat 17 martie 2017.
14. Dogaru-Ulieru, Valentin, i Istrate, Olimpiu, TIC-instrumente suport pentru activitatea
didactic, editat n cadrul Proiectului POSDRU87/13/S/62651 Formarea continu a profesorilor
de Istorie i Geografie n societatea cunoaterii. Scrisul Romnesc, Fundaia Editura, Craiova,
2011, p. 199-216.

ROLUL BENZILOR DESENATE N PREDAREA LIMBILOR STRINE

Murariu Larisa Elena


Colegiul Economic Ion Ghica, Bacu

Metodele de predarenvare specifice limbilor moderne sunt multiple. Pentru a putea


dezbate importana unor metode n asimilarea unor deprinderi i abiliti, trebuie s cunoatem
semnificaia conceptului:
,,Privit sub raport funcional i structural, metoda poate fi considerat drept un model sau
un ansamblu organizat al procedeelor sau modurilor de realizare practic a operaiilor care stau la
baza aciunilor parcurse n comun de profesori i elevi i care conduc n mod planificat i eficace la
realizarea scopurilor propuse. (I. Cerghit)
,,nelegnd prin metod de nvmnt o cale, un drum de strbtut deopotriv de elevi i
profesori, prin care, conform unor principii (principii didactice) dar i unor legi (legile nvrii) se
nfptuiesc obiectivele instruirii, adic se nsuesc de ctre elevi anumite cunotine de baz i se
formeaz anumite capaciti intelectuale i convingeri n vederea integrrii progresive n societate.
(Ion Berca)
187

Dac n nvmntul tradiional, principalele metode le constituie conversaia, expunerea,


demonstraia, metodele centrate pe profesor, transmiterea de cunotine, pasivitatea elevilor,
nvmntul modern solicit aplicarea metodelor active i interactive, a celor care dezvolt
gndirea critic. Fundamentul pentru un nou cadru de predare-nvare l constituie imlementarea
Metodei Benzilor Desenate, o metoda activizatoare, cu rol esenial n dezvoltarea personalitii
beneficiarului prin nvarea acestuia s redescopere, sa descopere, sa gaseasca analogii si sa se
joace. Jocul este actvitatea preferat i dominanta a copilriei. Valenele educativ-formative ale
jocului sunt multiple. Prin joc copilul nva, cunoate, i dezvolt capacitile intelectuale, nva
s coopereze cu ali copii. Jocul contribuie la exersarea voinei, a ncrederii n sine, prin joc copilul
socializeaz, transfigurnd mental realitatea, asumndu-i statusuri i roluri potrivit dorinelor sale.
Formele de manifestare i funciile jocului difer de la o vrst la alta. Jocul didactic mbin
elementele de joc att de dragi copilului cu activitatea de nvare, oferindu-i motivaia pentru
activitate. Benzile desenate reprezint punctul unde se ntlnesc cuvintele, secvenele i imaginile;
sunt experiene, ntmplri ngheate n timp, care sunt aduse la via numai atunci cnd sunt citite.
Exist astfel un mare potenial de a construi poveti puternice despre oameni, locuri i
emoii folosindu-ne de aceast tehnic.
mprtirea unei poveti are rdcini adnci nfipte n comportamentul social al oamenilor
de vreme ndelungat, povetile fiind folosite pentru a mprti cunotine ntr-o anumit
comunitate, pentru a discuta valori morale sau a satisface diverse curioziti. De la picturile
rupestre, siluetele pictate pe vasele greceti, pergamentele medievale japoneze sau pictura egiptean
omul a simit din cele mai vechi timpuri nevoia s se exprime, s povesteasc folosindu-se i de
imagini.
Elementul narativ este cu siguran o trstur important a benzii desenate. mprirea n
secvene ct i spaiul interstiial de pe o pagin a unei benzi desenate subliniaz evoluia
evenimentelor n timp. De asemenea modul de construcie permite cititorului s-i stabileasc
singur pasul n care este parcurs lucrarea, ritmul putnd fi controlat, variat, astfel nct cel ce
parcurge ntmplrile poate s le digere n ritmul su. Aceast trecere a timpului este adesea
reprezentat prin dialoguri sau prin prezentarea unor imagini ce ncetinesc tempo-ul aciunii sau
dimpotriv l accelereaz. n unele secvene, ns ne putem lipsi total de prezena cuvintelor, n
benzile desenate un spaiu tcut poate fi descris fr ajutorul cuvintelor, acestea fiind prezente
numai pentru a maximiza potenialul prii desenate.
Aplicarea acestei metode care genereaz nvarea activ nu este simpl ci necesit timp,
rbdare, exerciiu i este de preferat s se fac de la vrste fragede, la toate disciplinele, ns cu
preponderenta in cadrul orelor de limbi straine. Benzile desenate trebuie s fie selectate i utilizate
n mod riguros, creativ, n funcie de obiectivele propuse, de specifcul grupului educaional i nu
trebuie s constituie un trend sau un moft al cadrului didactic. Aceasta metoda activa i interactiva
are multiple valene formative care contribuie la dezvoltarea gndirii critice, la dezvoltarea
creativitii, implic activ elevii n nvare, punndu-i n situaia de a fi practici, de a realiza
conexiuni logice, de a produce idei i opinii proprii argumentate, de a le comunica i celorlali, de a
sintetiza/esenializa informaiile, se bazeaz pe nvarea independent i prin cooperare. n
interiorul propriilor convenii i limite n funcie de care ar trebui judecat banda desenat poate
fi sofisticat, poate satisface exigene artistice dintre cele mai pretenioase, prin ingeniozitatea
soluiilor tehnice de vizualizare, de reprezentare a timpului, prin tiina elipselor i a alegerii
momentului semnificativ (punctum temporis) al unei micri sau al unui ntreg traseu narativ.

BIBLIOGRAFIE:
Gaston Berger, Omul modern i educaia sa, Bucureti, Editura Didactic i Pedagogic,1973;
I. Cerghit, Metode de nvmnt ,Iai, Editura Polirom, 2006 ;
Elena Joia, Educaia cognitiv. Fundamente. Metodologie, Editura Polirom, 2002;
Alina Pamfil, Limba i literatura romn n gimnaziu. Structuri didactice deschise, Editura Dacia,
Cluj, 2001;
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Ion Ovidiu Pnioar, Comunicarea eficient; Iai, Editura Polirom, 2002;


Tudoric Radu, Dimensiunea european a nvmntului romnesc, Iai, 2004.

INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGY INTO CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES

Profesor Caragea Carmen


coala Gimnazial, Comuna Plosca, Judeul Teleorman

Theres no denying that education has evolved from a pen, paper and textbook affair to
using smart boards, iPads, online resources and even mobile apps. With all the technology available
at our fingertips and our move towards becoming a completely connected global community,
incorporating it into the classroom only makes sense.
If youre aiming for a career in education, utilizing technology effectively is a crucial skill
that youll need to be able to demonstrate. Its a skill that can set you apart from the rest of the
crowd, whether youre applying for your first job in education or youre trying to show your
employer why youre a valuable asset to the school.
Teaching with technology can deepen student learning by supporting instructional
objectives. However, it can be challenging to select the best tech tools while not losing sight of
your goals for student learning. Once identified, integrating those tools can itself be a
challenge albeit an eye-opening experience.
The term technology refers to advancements in the methods and tools we use to solve
problems or achieve a goal. In the classroom, technology can encompass all kinds of tools from
low-tech pencil, paper, and chalkboard, to the use of presentation software, or high-tech tablets,
online collaboration and conferencing tools, and more. The newest technologies allow us to try
things in physical and virtual classrooms that were not possible before. What you use depends
fundamentally on what you are trying to accomplish.
Technology is ubiquitous, touching almost every part of our lives, our communities, our
homes. Yet most schools lag far behind when it comes to integrating technology into classroom
learning. Many are just beginning to explore the true potential tech offers for teaching and learning.
Properly used, technology will help students acquire the skills they need to survive in a complex,
highly technological knowledge-based economy.
Integrating technology into classroom instruction means more than teaching basic computer
skills and software programs in a separate computer class. Effective tech integration must happen
across the curriculum in ways that research shows deepen and enhance the learning process. In
particular, it must support four key components of learning: active engagement, participation in
groups, frequent interaction and feedback, and connection to real-world experts. Effective
technology integration is achieved when the use of technology is routine and transparent and when
technology supports curricular goals.
Many people believe that technology-enabled project learning is the ne plus ultra of
classroom instruction. Learning through projects while equipped with technology tools allows
students to be intellectually challenged while providing them with a realistic snapshot of what the
modern office looks like. Through projects, students acquire and refine their analysis and problem-
solving skills as they work individually and in teams to find, process, and synthesize information
they've found online.
The myriad resources of the online world also provide each classroom with more interesting,
diverse, and current learning materials. The Web connects students to experts in the real world and
provides numerous opportunities for expressing understanding through images, sound, and text.
New tech tools for visualizing and modeling, especially in the sciences, offer students ways
to experiment and observe phenomenon and to view results in graphic ways that aid in
189

understanding. And, as an added benefit, with technology tools and a project-learning approach,
students are more likely to stay engaged and on task, reducing behavioral problems in the
classroom.
Technology also changes the way teachers teach, offering educators effective ways to reach
different types of learners and assess student understanding through multiple means. It also
enhances the relationship between teacher and student. When technology is effectively integrated
into subject areas, teachers grow into roles of adviser, content expert, and coach. Technology helps
make teaching and learning more meaningful and fun.
1. Do a PowerPoint Game Show Review
Many tech-savvy teachers have used Microsoft PowerPoint to create review games based on
famous game shows, including Jeopardy!, The Weakest Link, and Who Wants to Be a
Millionaire? These templates are available online for teachers to download and revise, including
their own content. Check out this template or search powerpoint game show template online. A
fun way to practice using a projector and get your students to review important material!
2. Have students complete a written classroom activity as if it was online.
Ever have your students write a diary from the perspective of a character or famous person?
Why not have them create a blog instead? Take a look at various blog sites (Blogger and
WordPress are two of the most popular) and create a template for your students to fill in.
Want students to summarize information? Ask them to tweet the lesson that is, have them write
summaries of 140 characters or less, as if they were writing on Twitter. Or create a template for a
web page and ask students to use it to design a webpage about the content they are studying. While
these activities dont actually use technology, they familiarize you and your students with the
Web 2.0 world, which can be a great first step.
3. Try a Webquest
A webquest guides students to search the Internet for specific information. For example, students
are asked to serve as curators of a museum on a particular topic. They must search the Internet to
determine what artifacts belong in their museum and explain their choices.
There are tons of already-constructed webquests out there, a perfect way to teachers to begin
integrating Internet searches into their curriculum.
4. Use technology as a topic for a writing assignment
For younger students, have them write a how-to piece about using technology in the
classroom. Its a natural fit, as young people usually have a higher comfort level with technology
than many adults. Tell kids to write a piece instructing someone maybe a grandparent? on how
to send an email, set up an Ipod, or play a video game. For older kids, have them research the
impact technology has had on a particular time in history or science or include a unit on science
fiction and technology in your Language Arts curriculum.
5. Create a class webpage
A class webpage can be anything from a basic site where you post announcements (think
online bulletin board) to a much more elaborate one that includes class photos, a class blog,
downloadable materials, and your own domain name. Those of you with a little more experience
may enjoy Webs.com (http://www.webs.com/), which offers both free and premium service
packages.
6. Use an online grading system
While some schools are mandating the shift to web-based gradebooks, you dont have to wait to
try one out. Sites like MyGradebook.com (http://www.mygradebook.com) offer the opportunity to
track grades, record attendance and seating charts, and compile reports on student progress. You
can also email students and parents directly to allow them to view their updated grades. Never
worry again about bringing home your gradebook you can access it from any computer.
7. Do an email exchange
When we were kids, some teachers had class penpals or had you practice your penmanship by
writing a letter to an author. Try the 21st-century version of that by instituting an email exchange.
Have your students exchange emails with students in another school, city, state, or country
190

especially valuable if both sets of students are studying the same material. Or arrange for a group of
experts to accept emails from your students on a particular topic. Students who fail to see the real
world implications of math or science may develop new interest if you can put them in touch with
a video game designer, astronaut, or engineer who uses those skills every day. And for adults who
might want to volunteer but feel pressed for time, email can be a great way to help out, since they
can respond on their own schedule.
8. Give multimedia presentations or have your students give them
Liven up a traditional lecture by using a PowerPoint presentation that incorporates photographs,
diagrams, sound effects, music, or video clips. For high school teachers, consider having your
students develop presentations as a review tool before semester exams. Their work may be so good
that you will want to use it in future classes!
9. Supplement your lessons
When youve taught the same material for awhile, you and your students may find it less-
than-exciting. A quick Internet search may help you identify ways to supplement your lessons with
interesting new material. Make a habit of searching before you begin each new unit. You may find
photographs, sound clips, video clips, and more that can bring your lessons to life. Many museums
now offer online virtual tours and teachers are constantly developing new presentations and
webquests, which are posted online. Add these in to keep your lessons fresh.
10. Create a class blog or wiki
Take appropriate precautions for Internet safety, but a class blog or wiki can be a great way to
integrate technology in the classroom and develop student knowledge. Some teachers use blogs to
drive outside-of-class discussion particularly helpful for AP/IB students who are motivated but
short on class time.A wiki is a website that uses software which allows many different people to
edit it (think Wikipedia). Have your students work together to create a wiki on a topic they are
studying. They will need to correct each others work and collaborate in order to make it a success.
11. Listen to or create a Podcast.
There are thousands of podcasts available on the Web. Search for ones that meet your students
needs. Some colleges are offering professors lectures via podcast, which can be great for advanced
students. In other cases, you may be able to find an interview with the author of a book your
students are reading, or other supplemental material. Make arrangements to download it and play it
for your students. For the really ambitious, have students create their own podcasts to document
their progress through the year or discuss their ideas on a variety of issues pertaining to the course.
12. Publish your students work
Tools exist today to allow your students to create really professional looking work using a
desktop computer. Have students create a short film, run an ongoing class website that features
student work and opinions, or if theyre really ambitious raise the money to have their work
professionally published by a self-publishing company like iUniverse or Lulu.
No matter what your skill level, integrating technology in the classroom offers the chance to
increase student interest and teach valuable professional skills and have some fun!

Bibliography:
1. https://www.edutopia.org/technology-integration-introduction
2. http://www.teachhub.com/12-easy-ways-use-technology-your-classroom-even-technophobic-
teachers
3. http://www.washington.edu/teaching/teaching-resources/engaging-students-in-learning/teaching-
with-technology-2/

LES NOUVELLES TECHNOLOGIES ET LENSEIGNEMENT

Prof. Tristaru Vasilica Monica


191

Liceul Teologic Tg-Jiu

Lenseignement, de nos jours, a beaucoup volu. Il fut un temps que chaque enseignant
donnait des cours magistraux, les lves taient en rang dognon et ils travaillaient plus souvent
quautrement individuellement. Avec le temps, certains ont compris limportance de mettre les
enfants dans la pratique plutt que juste faire de la thorie. Les lves apprennent tous diffremment
et leur rythme. Le simple fait de les impliquer davantage semble plus motivant par lapprentissage
scolaire. Mais , il y a galement un autre moyen dapprendre efficacement l Internet, un nouveau
moyen de communiquer et de travailler. Maintenant, je crois fortement quil serait temps de sen
servir comme outil de travail non seulement pour les lves, mais aussi pour les enseignants. Il
faudrait, donc, lintgrer davantage dans le milieu scolaire.
Tout dabord, je crois quil y a un foss technologique entre les enseignants et les apprenants.
Certains ne sont pas comptents en matire de technologie et ne font pas ncessairement tous les
efforts ncessaires pour amliorer la situation. . Pourtant, il serait bien de joindre lagrable lutile.
Pour ma part, je crois, bien sr, quil faut former les enseignants lutilisation des TIC avant de se
lancer dans ce type de projet. Lorsque nous savons se servir correctement des logiciels et des sites
Internet, il devient plus facile de bien travailler et de faire des recherches pertinentes avec de
linformation logique. Je me demande aussi comment il se fait que certains enseignants utilisent les
technologies de linformation et de la communication alors que dautres, les laissent compltement
lcart. Je crois quil est bien dadopter maintenant les bonnes habitudes concernant les TIC, car
les enfants daujourdhui sont ns avec les progrs technologiques et ils doivent les utiliser
correctement au quotidien. Pour eux, cest un peu comme le centre de leur vie. tant donn que ces
outils sont utiliss quotidiennement, pourquoi ne pas leur enseigner comment les utiliser de manire
efficace et scuritaire.
Pour continuer, un des avantages que je perois est celui de la relation maitre-lve qui devient un
niveau plus quitable. Ce que je veux dire, cest que llve peut tre en mesure dapprendre des
choses son enseignant et vice-versa. Le maitre de la classe ne se doit pas de tout savoir et de tout
connaitre, avec lutilisation des TIC pour lenseignement cela lui simplifierait mme un peu la
tche. Il devient en mesure de mieux grer les capacits des quipes de travail et chacun des
lves. De faon naturelle lenseignant viendra qu aider la production du savoir des lves en
triant les informations pertinentes et non pertinentes. Cest pour cela quune formation
complmentaire sur les technologies informatiques est recommande. En bref, je crois que
lenseignant et les manuels ne seront plus les seules sources dinformations et que cela amnera
beaucoup dinteractions et de coopration.
Ensuite, je crois quintgrer convenablement les TIC dans sa classe amne une motivation
extrinsque de llve pour lcole. Cest--dire, quun lve nayant pas accs Internet la
maison se sentira privilgi de tout de mme apprendre comment le tout fonctionne. Cela permet
galement de faire en sorte que lcart entre les jeunes (ceux possdant un ordinateur et ceux nen
possdant pas) diminue, car chaque lve en aurait un lcole. Dfinitivement, enseigner les
technologies de linformation et de communication rduirait un peu la fracture numrique et les
diffrences sociales dans la classe. Ce qui favoriserait, bien entendu, lhtrognit dans la classe.
De plus, lapport de lordinateur dans lapprentissage scolaire amne, selon plusieurs sources, de la
motivation, un dsir dapprendre, facilite la communication, a des effets bnfiques sur le
comportement et sur la construction des habilets cognitives. Les sources affirmes galement que
leffet positif quapporte les TIC est autant pour les lves en difficult que ceux qui russissent
bien.
Pour continuer, un autre avantage que jai song intressant face aux TIC est le fait quun
ordinateur nous donne deux choix de travail, cest--dire soit comme didacticiel ou encore comme
outil de travail. Un enfant peut faire une recherche sur un animal, par exemple, crire les
informations sur Microsoft Word et crer une page couverture avec une image de son choix. Donc,
cest pour trouver de linformation, la mettre en place et crer un travail de qualit. Je rajouterais
quil est imprial de savoir maitriser un ordinateur et ses logiciels, car de nos jours, chaque emploi
192

requiert une connaissance en informatique aussi minime soit-elle. Il est bien de penser au futur
rapproch des lves lorsquils sont dans nos classes.
Un autre avantage dintgrer les TIC dans son enseignement est celui quil est possible de travailler
en rseau et de communiquer simultanment par Internet. Un lve peut tre absent une journe et
savoir ses devoirs par un pair ou bien simplement avoir une question concernant un travail faire et
pouvoir demander un autre lve de la classe via un systme de clavardage et peut alors
poursuivre son travail comme il se doit. Ce nest pas dans lenseignement en tant que tel que cet
avantage servira, mais si on regarde plus loin llve sera capable dutiliser son autonomie pour
pouvoir travailler la maison, par exemple, et ce sera grce au professeur qui aura bien fait son
travail en faisant en sorte dtablir un contact avec lordinateur en classe. De plus, il est bien de dire
que les TIC sont avantageux pour les lve lorsqu'un enseignant les enseignent correctement, car
cela leur permet de faire des recherches approfondies, de communiquer avec des gens d'ailleurs,
consulter des archives de journaux par exemple, ils peuvent construire un site Web (au 3e cycle)
pour pouvoir tre en relation et communiquer de linformation avec leur enseignant et les autres
lves en tout temps. De plus, une foule de jeux pdagogiques sont offerts pour l'ducation, c'est un
autre bon moyen d'amener les TIC en classe pour apprendre en s'amusant.
Une cole a dj une bonne structure, des techniques et des pratiques pdagogiques, lenseignant
galement. Lapport des TIC dans une classe bonifiera donc les pratiques pdagogiques des
enseignants, selon mon opinion. Bien que le tout soit structur, un peu de nouveaut ne ferait que
rafraichir lair et amliorer le sort de lcole et le futur des lves. Il ne faut pas avoir peur de
linconnu, bien que souvent on saperoit vite que les enfants en sachent plus que nous ce sujet, il
ne faut surtout pas avoir peur et dtre stresser de se lancer dans le projet. Les lves napprennent
pas ncessairement parce que les enseignants parlent lavant, ils apprennent et retiennent plus
facilement lorsque les efforts sont faits par et pour eux-mmes. Par ailleurs, le fait quils soient
exposs laction dans linformatique plutt qu la thorie les fera sintresser davantage au sujet
et ils pourront constater une amlioration acadmique au cours de lanne, je lespre.
En guise de conclusion, je soutiens toujours mon point de vue face lintgration des technologies
de linformation et des communications qui est favorable. Je ne suis pas moi-mme une pro des
TIC, je commence apprendre un ct de ceux-ci plus efficace et utile dans une classe. Par ailleurs,
je ne serais pas daccord quon enlve les crayons, les cahiers pdagogiques et les feuilles pour les
remplacer par un ordinateur. Je crois dfinitivement quutiliser les ordinateurs dans une classe avec
modration est un excellent moyen denrayer les diffrences sociales et de permettre aux jeunes
daccder de linformation rapidement en sachant diffrencier linformation utile de celle inutile.

Bibliographie
Laberge, M.-F. (2003). Nos lves entrent dans lre du numrique. Vie pdagoqique, Mars 2003.
Nicolescu, B., de Freitas, L., Morin, E. (2002). Charte de la Transdisciplinarit. Document
lectronique tlaccessible lURL: http://basarab.nicolescu.perso.sfr.fr/ciret/chartfr.htm
Tardif, J. (1998). Intgrer les nouvelles technologies de linformation- Quel cadre pdagogique
? Paris : ESF diteur.

TEACHING ENGLISH USING TECHNOLOGY

Prof. Coste Lcrimioara


coala Gimnazial Constantin Brncui Cluj-Napoca

Technology is becoming increasingly important in both our personal and professional life and our
learners are using technology more and more. Yet teacher training programs often ignore training in

193

the use of Information and Communication Technology and teachers are often far less skilled and
knowledgeable than their own students when it comes to using current technology.

Although the use of ICT by language teachers is still not widespread, the use of technology in the
classroom is becoming increasingly important and it will become a normal part of ELT practice in
the coming years. There are many reasons to it:
Internet access either in private homes or at Internet cafes is available for almost every
student
Younger learners are growing up with technology and it is a natural and integrated part of
their life. For these learners the use of technology is a way to bring the outside world into the
classroom. And some of these learners will become teachers themselves.
English, as an international language, is being used in technologically mediated contexts
Technology, especially the Internet, presents us with new opportunities for authentic tasks
and materials, as well as access to a wealth of ready-made ELT materials.
The internet offers excellent opportunities for collaboration and communication between
learners who are geographically dispersed.
Technology offers new ways for practicing language and assessing performance
Technology is becoming increasingly mobile. It can be used not only in the classroom, it can
be also used at home, on the way to school and in internet cafes.
Using a range of ICT tools can give learners exposure to and practice in all of the four main
skills speaking, listening, writing and reading.

Technology in language teaching


Technology in language is not new. Tape recorders, language laboratories and video have been in
use since the 1960s and are still in use in classes around the world. Computer based materials for
language teaching, often referred to as CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning), appeared in
the early 1980s. Early CALL programs typically required learners to respond to stimuli on the
computer screen and to carry out tasks such as filling in gapped texts, matching sentence halves and
doing multiple-choice activities. Probably one of the best known early CALL activities is that of
text reconstruction, where an entire text is blanked out and the learner recreates it by typing in
words. For all these activities the computer then offers the learners feedback, ranging from simply
pointing out whether the answer is correct or incorrect to providing more sophisticated feedback,
such as showing why the learner is mistaken and offering remedial activities. The CALL approach
is one that is still found on many published CD-ROMs from language teaching.

As access to Information and Communication Technology has become more widespread, so CALL
has moved beyond the use of computer programs to embrace the use of internet and web-based
tools. The term TELL (Technology Enhanced Language Learning) appeared in 1990s in response
to the growing possibilities offered by the internet and communication technology.

An important aspect of using computers and the internet refers to the degree of democracy during
the learning process. As Jeremy Harmer puts it, being democratic and letting your students
participate in decision-making takes more effort and organization than controlling the class from the
front. Furthermore, the promotion of learner autonomy is only one view of the teaching-learning
relationship and is very culturally biased. In some situations both teachers and learners may feel
more comfortable with more autocratic leadership style, and while this might not suit some, it is
highly attractive to others. Whether or not we are more autocratic or democratic as teachers, we are
called upon to play many roles in the classroom. Our ability to carry these on effectively will
depend to a large extend on the rapport we establish with our students and on our own level of
knowledge and skill.52

52
Harmer, Jeremy, 2007, The Practice of Language Teaching, p.175
194

Although the use of ICT by language teachers is still not widespread, the use of technology in the
classroom is becoming increasingly important, and it will become a normal part of ELT practice in
the coming years. There are various reasons for this:
Internet access either in private homes or at Internet cafes has become increasingly
available to learners.
Young learners are growing up with technology and it is a natural and integrated part of
their lives. For these learners the use of technology is a way to bring the outside world into the
classroom. And some of these young learners will in turn become teachers themselves.
English, as an international language, is being used in technologically mediated contexts.
Technology, especially the internet, presents us with new opportunities for authentic tasks
and materials, as well as access to a wealth of ready-made ELT materials.
The internet offers excellent opportunities for collaboration and communication between
learners who are geographically dispersed.
Technology is offered with published materials such as coursebooks and resource books for
teachers
Learners increasingly expect language schools to integrate technology into teaching.
Technology offers new ways for practicing language and assessing performance.
Technology us becoming increasingly mobile. It can be used not only in the classroom,
lecture hall, computer room it can be used at home, on the way to school and in Internet cafes.
Using a range of ICT tools can give learners exposure to and practice in all of the four
language skills- speaking, listening, writing and reading.

The contexts in which teachers are working with technology can vary widely and the access that
teachers have to computers will affect what we can do with our classes in terms of implementing
technology. A general lack of ICT training for teachers also means that we still have some way to
go until they absorb technology in language teaching, where the use of technology becomes as
natural as the use of the books or pens and paper.

Attitudes to technology in the classroom


Many people are afraid of new technology and with the increasing presence of the internet and
computers, the term technophobe has appeared to refer to those of us who might be wary of these
new developments. More recently, the term digital native has been coined to refer to someone who
grows up using technology and who thus feels comfortable and confident with it typically todays
children. Their parents, on the one hand, tend to be digital immigrants, who have come late to the
world of technology, if at all. In many cases, teachers are the digital immigrants and our younger
students are the digital natives.

A large part of the negative attitudes teachers have towards technology is usually the result of lack
of confidence, a lack of facilities or a lack of training, resulting in an inability to see the benefit of
using technologies in the classroom. It is also often the case that the teachers may not fully control
their work situations. A teacher may want to use more technology in their teaching, but the school
may not have the facilities, or, on the other hand, a teacher may be instructed to start using
technology for which they feel unprepared or untrained.

When starting to use technology, teachers can rely on these more technologically knowledgeable
learners for help and support. Learners are usually delighted to be called upon to help out, and to get
a chance to demonstrate their skills and knowledge in this area. By far the most useful resource in

195

the classroom are the students themselves. Through their experiences they bring the outside world
into the room and this is a powerful resource for us to draw on.53

The use of the computer in the classroom does not replace using traditional materials such as a
board or a course book - rather, technology tools are used to complement and enhance regular class
work. Imagine that a unit in the course book deals with animals in danger of extinction. Technology
can be used to do complementary activities such as data collecting email project or a web-quest on
animals in danger of extinction.
Making new materials from scratch can be time-consuming, both for paper-based classes and for
classes using technology. Teachers need to collaborate in schools and pool resources and lesson
plans, as well as use the technology based resources that most commercial course books provide
nowadays. Typically, a course book will have its own web pages in the publishers website, a list of
recommended websites to visit for each unit, a CD- Rom.

Skills and equipment for getting started


What does a teacher need to know to be able to use technology in the classroom? You dont need to
have any specialist technical knowledge or skills, much as you dont need to be a mechanic to know
how to drive.

The basic skills you need to have in place are how to use a simple processing program (e.g.
Microsoft Word), how to use email and how to access and use the internet .The essential equipment
needed to start to implement technology in your classroom:
At least one computer (preferably one per two students)
An internet connection
A printer
An audio card in the computer and a headset for every computer.
Basic software (basic word processing program, a web browser like Internet Explorer,
Firefox or Mozilla and an email program)

It is worth bearing in mind that the layout for your computer room will directly affect the types of
activities you are able to do with your learners, and how they will interact with one another and
with you. A layout which has computers at desks around the walls, facing walls, with a large table
in the centre of the room, allows the teacher to walk around and easily see what the learners are
working on and what they are looking at on the monitors. The central area provides and easily
accessible space where learners can go when they dont need the computers and for when we might
want to do more communicative group work. If the central space is reasonably large, more
movement and activity is possible in the centre of the room. This will offer more opportunities for
kinaesthetic learners and the chance to use games and physical activities with younger learners
away from the computers.

Bibliography

1. Dudeney, Gavin; Hockly Nicky, 2007, How to teach English with technology,Pearson-Longman
2. Stenberg, Robert J. (ed), 1999, Hanbook of creativity, Cambridge University Press
3. Cozma, Teodor(ed), 2001, O nouprovocarepentrueducaie: interculturalitatea, Polirom, Iai
4. Dulama, Maria Eliza, 2008, Metodologiididacticeactivizante: teoriesipractica, Ed. Clusium, Cluj


53
Harmer, Jeremy,2007,The Practice of English Language Teaching, p.190
196

EXPLOITER LA BANDE DESSINE EN CLASSE DE LANGUES

Ciolacu Lola-Gabriela
Lyce thorique Mihail Koglniceanu, Vaslui

La perptuelle volution de l`enseignement/apprentissage des langues trangres, les


mutations et la dynamique des pratiques de classe font que la didactique actuelle des langues essaie
de plus en plus de rconcilier la culture crite et les contenus rellement ancrs dans le vcu des
apprenants. Vu les tendances actuelles, nous sommes amene constater que les effets d`exclusion
de certains documents authentiques parmi lesquels on a compt trop longtemps la bande dessine -
juge coupable d`avoir un caractre plus ludique que pdagogique - ne sont plus craindre.

On se pose le problme de la lgitimation de la B.D. en classe de lanques: l`utilise-t-on en


tant que prtexte, comme dclencheur des activits classiques de comprhension et d`expression,
l`utilise-t-on comme accompagnateur d`autres activits l`air plus sobre et pdagogique, l`utilise-t-
on comme un accessoire de la lecture de l`image ou tout simplement pour elle-mme, comme
document authentique bon droit, pleinement et richement didactisable?

l`poque contemporaine de l`actionnel et d`une approche plus laxiste des contenus


scolaires, cet art du visuel est entr officiellement en classe. Dans toute sa diversit. Littraire,
historique, d`aventure, policire, de science-fiction, psychologique, cette forme artistique
particulire alliant texte et image s`est finalement crois un chemin qui lui revenait de droit et que la
dmocratisation rcente des composantes linguistiques en classe a rendu possible.

la question Mais que peut-on faire avec une B.D.?, les rponses sont nombreuses et
surprenantes. Dans un premier temps, grce son ct fortement ludique, elle sert mettre les
apprenants en confiance et favoriser leur motivation. Ensuite, c`est la crativit qu`elle met en
avant. En effet, les contraintes et les rigidits du cours traditionnel se trouvent abolies car ce qui
compte le plus c`est d`imaginer, d`interprter, de jouer, de donner une suite une histoire, de mettre
la vision et les ides des apprenants en oeuvre. Comme a, ils percevront la classe de langues
comme un espace ludique scurisant o ils seront en gale mesure impliqus dans une dmarche
didactique plurielle visant la fois le maniement du franais et la conception des dessins.

Dans un deuxime temps, il faut souligner la prsence inluctable des activits visant
mobiliser les quatre comptences. Du ct de la comprehension globale et affine d`une planche de
B.D., on recourt gnralement des activits de remue-mninges afin d`identifier le propre du
texte: conversation prliminaire sur le thme du texte ou sur les aspects socioculturels abords,
activits centres sur le vocabulaire se rapportant au thme central du texte, associations de mots
partir d`un mot donn, organiser un rseau thmatique partir du mot-cl du titre si celui-ci est
porteur de sens, favoriser la mme entre thmatique en demandant aux apprenants de
reformuler/paraphraser certaines squences ou mieux encore, complter des bulles lacunaires avec
des mots/des rpliques se rapportant au thme. Pour vrifier l`accs au sens et la construction
progressive de la signification du message on utilise d`habitude le questionnaire choix multiple,
197

les exercices de mise en relation aussi bien que des exercices du type chasser l`intrus qui visent
exclure le terme ne faisant pas partie d`une certaine aire thmatique.

Du ct de l`expression, un avantage essentiel de la prsence de la B.D. en classe de langues


est qu`elle russit dissiper par elle-mme la sensation inconfortable de cadre non-naturel donne
par l`espace scolaire dans lequel l`expression personnelle et l`change authentique seraient censs
se produire. En outre, ce cadre artificiel s`ajoute l`inscurit linguistique des apprenants issue
d`habitude d`une matrise insuffisante ou mdiocre des mcanismes de la langue. L`approche de la
bande dessine sert faire viter ces cueils, elle encourage la spontanit et la prise de parole des
apprenants ; en fait, la crativit est le matre-mot d`une telle approche didactique, c`est pourquoi
plus on s`loigne des contraintes de la correction grammaticale, plus on peut privilgier le capital
lexical et culturel mobilis lors de l`expression.

Il est mentionner aussi le rle des techniques de remploi assurant le passage de la


production d`une phrase pralablement apprise la production de la mme phrase, mais dans une
situation toute diffrente. Le jeu de rles et la simulation sont des formules de remploi trs usites
au cours desquelles le ct cratif et ludique peut facilement trouver sa place. partir du thme
propos, les apprenants sont mis en situation de sonder dans leur mmoire procdurale 54 et de
mobiliser leur capital lexical se rapportant au thme ou l`acte de parole du jeu de rles, se trouvant
en pleine situation d`interactivit, d`laboration, voire de cration. Par la place qu`elle accorde la
communication non-verbale (attitude, gestes, mimique affrents au texte iconique) et aux marques
de l`oralit prsentes dans les dialogues des bulles, elle privilgie la thtralisation, la mise en
scne, les jeux de rles, les simulations lors desquelles les actes de parole trouvent une place part.
Voil comment la bande dessine peut faire parler les apprenants.

Passons maintenant la production crite. La premire remarque qui s`impose serait que la
production crite est invitablement lie la lecture et qu`tre capable de s`exprimer par crit
implique une longue pratique de lecture. Dans le cas de l`exploitation de la bande dessine, la
lecture revt des formes particuliers situes sur plusieurs paliers car lorsqu`on dit lecture, on dit
lecture de l`image et lecture du texte insr dans les bulles. En outre, il s`impose de faire la
distinction entre la production minimale et transitoire d`une phrase crite comme rponse une
question et la production d`un texte cohrent et structur. Comme les limites temporelles espacent
considrablement les squences destines l`expression crite, on prfre la production de phrases
ou de paragraphes ou bien la rdaction de textes fonctionnels.

tout cela vient s`ajouter naturellement l`valuation, le compagnon infatigable de tout


apprentissage/enseignement, avec tout un inventaire d`instruments appropris la comprhension
de l`oral et de l`crit : le questionnaire choix multiple, les questions fermes, le questionnaire
rponses ouvertes, les bulles lacunaire ou trous, le test de closure, le test d`appariement, le texte
guid ou la production d`un texte partir d`une matrice textuelle impose. Dans ce sens, ce qui rend
l`exploitation de la B.D. plus spciale encore, c`est le fait que par son ct profondment ludique
elle favorise l`auto-valuation et la co-valuation.

L`utilisation des techonogies de l`information et de la communication / les outils TICE est


devenue incontournable dans l`enseignement contemporain et permet l`enseignant de donner du

54
Courtillon, J., laborer un cours de FLE, Paris, Hachette, 2003, p. 60.
198

sens ses apprentissages. C`est pourquoi le prsent article a t inspir par la prsence active d`un
espace virtuel qui a le mrite de mettre en symbiose l`exploitation de cet neuvime art et les TICE:
la plateforme Learning Management System, conue et mise en place par monsieur Alexandru M
l`occasion du projet Erasmus KA2 Comics in teaching languages/La B.D. en classe de langues.
Il s`agit l d`une vritable banque de donnes destines mettre la bande dessine au coeur de la
dmarche didactique travers les nouvelles technologies. En version trilingue (anglais, franais,
italien), on y trouve, judicieusement structures sur les niveaux du Cadre, une mine d`activits
mobilisant les quatre comptences: des exercices interactifs avec correction immdiate, des
exercices accompagnants des B.D. originales (Persepolis, Pif, Lucky Luke, Le petit Nicolas), le
magazine thmatique Scaramouche55, la section en ligne du concours de traduction Corneliu M.
Popescu, les rubriques Initiation la B.D., Histoire et B.D., les vnements et les mobilits lis au
projet, tout dans un cadre virtuel remarquable.

Bibliographie

COURTILLON, J., laborer un cours de FLE, Paris, Hachette, 2003 ;

PORCHER, L., L`enseignement des langues trangres, Paris, Hachette Livre, 2004.

Sitographie

Catherine Dupuy, Nicolas Rouvire (dir.), Bande dessine et enseignement des


humanits , Lectures [En ligne], Les comptes rendus, 2012, mis en ligne le 30 juillet 2012,
consult le 12 janvier 2017. URL : http://lectures.revues.org/8943
http://lang-platform.eu/bd/
http://lang-platform.eu/bd/index.php/scaramouche-comics-magazine

AVANTAJELE I DEZAVANTAJELE UTILIZRII BENZILOR


DESENATE N ORELE DE LIMBA I LITERATURA ROMN
Prof. Mihaela-Dumitria BAHMAN
Liceul Teoretic Mihail Koglniceanu Vaslui

Strategiile didactice pot optimiza procesul de instruire, avnd n vedere faptul c reprezint
modaliti complexe de organizare i conducere a procesului instructiv-educativ pe baza combinrii
mijloacelor de nvmnt i a formelor de grupare a elevilor, i toate n funcie de personalitatea i
creativitatea profesorului. Limba i literatura romn este una dintre disciplinele care preiau, ntr-o
bun msur, elemente pe care le pune n practic innd cont de bagajul informaional i de
strategiile didactice.
n procesul de nvamnt, cadrul didactic acioneaz prin intermediul unor metode de
predare i nvare. Calitatea muncii lor este n funcie de aceste metode. Ele constituie o surs
nsemnat de cretere a eficacitii i eficienei nvmntului. Aplicndu-se metode diferite se
obin diferene eseniale n pregtirea elevilor. De asemenea, nsuirea unor cunotine noi poate
deveni mai dificil sau mai uoar pentru unii i acceai elevi, n funcie de metodele utilizate.

55
Magazine thmatique cr dans le cadre du projet Erasmus KA2 Comics in teaching languages/La B.D. en classe de
langues, 2015
199

Exersarea funciilor intelectuale este condiionat nu numai de coninuturile date, ci i de forma n


care acestea sunt aduse la cunotina copiilor, adic de metodele utilizate.
Premisa unei instruiri eficiente, interactive, care i propune ca rezultat, elaborarea de noi
structuri cognitive-intelectuale, acionale, afective, motivaionale i voliionale operaionale este
reprezentat i de implicarea activ i interactiv a elevilor cu ntregul lor potenial intelectual, fizic,
afectiv-motivaional i voliional, cu creativitatea i productivitatea lor. Astfel, activizarea
reprezint un rezultat al instruciei-autoinstruciei i educaiei-autoeducaiei i, deopotriv, o
premis a unei instrucii-autoinstrucii i educaii-autoeducaii eficiente, de nivel superior. Dintr-un
participant pasiv i docil, din obiect al nvrii, elevul devine subiect activ al unei activiti
orientate de propriile sale nevoi i interese educaionale i, n bun msur, propriul su educator.
Profesorul este i trebuie s fie cel care creeaz mediul educaional favorabil, stimulativ i
interesant pentru nvare n clas, iar elevul este cel care aduce ceva din viaa lui, din afara colii,
din ciclul precolar sau experiena lui de via. n cadrul orelor de limba i literatura romn, se pot
folosi o multitudine de metode care s strneasc interesul copiilor. Printre acestea se numr i
metode ale gndirii critice. Elevii citesc cu plcere orice text dac li se orienteaz atenia,
curiozitatea i interesul fa de acesta. De cele mai multe ori, aceste metode i solicit pe elevi s
formuleze ntrebri referitoare la text, ntrebri care s-i pun n dificultate pe colegii lor n cutarea
rspunsurilor. Nici unii, nici ceilali nu ar reui s fac acest lucru, dac nu ar citi textul cu atenie.
Animaia i cuprinde i atunci cnd ntrebarea pus are mai multe soluii. Uneori, metodele i
antreneaz n citirea pe roluri, prin dramatizri, prin organizarea i distribuirea rolurilor n echip,
precum i prin folosirea unui vocabular propriu n replicile lor.
Receparea mesajelor i a informaiilor se face prin comunicare elev-elev sau profesor-elev,
ceea ce contribuie la nvarea de tip activ. Dintre metodele gndirii critice se pot enumera
urmtoarele: ciorchinele, jurnalul dublu, tabelul conceptelor, cadranele, stiu-vreau s tiu-nv,
brainstorming-ul, scrierea liber, lectura n perechi, turul galeriei.
Benzile desenate constituie o metod prin care este evideniat creativitatea, imaginaia,
gndirea critic. Benzile desenate au avut ntotdauna categoria lor de public, fascinnd copii i
adulti deopotriv. Fiecare cititor n parte ndrgete un anumit personaj, este fascinat de cltoriile
acestuia i l urmrete pagin dup pagin, volum dup volum.
Pe de o parte, benzile desenate contribuie la dezvoltarea imaginaiei copiilor. Prin
elementele de ficiune, combinate cu cele de realitate, benzile desenate ofer copiilor posibilitatea
de a-i exploata imaginaia prin completarea frame-urilor deja desenate n crearea unei aciuni care
se deruleaz asemenea unui film, prin umanizarea personajelor i identificarea trsturilor lor la
persoanele reale, cu care au de a face zilnic.
Pe de alt parte, benzile desenate ajut n educarea copiilor. Prin scoaterea n eviden a
trsturilor negative sau pozitive (prin aspectul i aciunile personajului), copilul ajunge s
contientizeze, chiar dac la un nivel primar, ce lucruri are voie sau nu are voie s faca. De
exemplu, eroul pedepsete hoii, astfel, copilul, care este nvat explicit de benzile desenate s
antipatizeze personajele negative, va avea o repulsie fa de aciunile negative, i astfel, este foarte
probabil s nu le practice.
Partea mai puin plcut ar fi aceea c unele benzi desenate abordeaz aspecte negative
ale societatii. O regul a popularitii ar fi "what bleeds, leads", deci, pentru a se vinde, publicaiile
exploateaz neobinuitul i grotescul, care, de obicei, impresioneaz sau ocheaza, cel puin.
Violena- venica lupt dintre bine i rau: dei este promovat binele, prin victoria eroului
pozitiv asupra antagonistului, aceasta este obinuta, totui, prin violen
lipsa de realism- promovnd o lume fantastic, la nivelul de comprehensiune al copiilor,
percepia asupra lumii va fi denaturat
Prin familiarizarea cu aspectele negative, se creeaz o imunizare la ele, ncurajare sau
autovictimizare. Datorit regularitii cu care sunt prezentate aspecte ocante i respingtoare ale
societii, acestea intr n normal. Astfel, tinerii se nva s nu ia atitudine i, prin pasivitate,
accept i promoveaz comportamentele negative (prin nepedepsire, acestea ajung s fie
200

considerate pozitive). De asemenea, n contientizarea contrastului dintre lumea fantastic
promovat de benzi desenate i realitate, copilul ar putea suferi un dezechilibru psihologic.

DESPRE BD-URI I DESPRE RECEPTAREA ROMANELOR GRAFICE N JURNALELE


DE LECTUR ALE ELEVILOR

Prof. Popa Irina, Liceul Teoretic Mihail Koglniceanu Vaslui


Proiectul Erasmus + KA2- La BD en classe de langues

Banda desenat are tradiii complexe i foarte diferite n Frana i Belgia (bande dessine),
Japonia (manga- cu rdcini n secolul al XVIII-lea) i Statele Unite. Tradiia american este
cunoscut sub denumirea de comics.
Cea mai simpl definiie a benzii desenate, propus de Will Eisner, un important artist
grafic, este cea de naraiune secvenial. Imaginile sunt plasate ntr-o ordine deliberat n care totul
- de la dimensiunea i aspectul panourilor la amplasamentul textului i aspectul ilustraiilor -
creeaz un efect global. Einser susine c banda desenat e un mediu, nu un gen narativ, ccea ce
nseamn c poate acomoda tipuri variate de naraiune.
Benzile desenate moderne apar niial n ziare spre sfritul secolului al XIX-lea i au un
caracter comic ( de unde i denumirea de comics). La nceputul secolului XX, cei mai importani
artiti sunt Winsor McCay (Micul Nemo n ara Visurilor i Micul Sammy Strnut-Tare- ambele
experimentale i onirice) i Rudolph Dirk (Putii Katzenjammer- peripeiile comice ale unor
imigrani germani) Acest tip de naraiune foarte scurt (4-5 panouri maximum publicate zilnic) se
pstreaz pn n ziua de azi n ziarele nord-americane.
n 1938, apariia lui Superman (creat de Jerrz Siegel i Joe Schuster) n Action
Comics#1(Action Comics va deveni mai trziu DC Comics) va schimba faa benzilor desenate, care
vor fi mult vreme asociate exclusiv cu genul supereroic. n decadele urmtoare vor aprea
numeroase personaje, iar benzile desenate cu supereroi vor deveni o industrie deosebit de lucrativ,
care se va extinde n cinema i n televiziune. n anii 1960 se dezvolt o tradiie alternativ,
influenat de contracultura hippy. Denumirile comix, creaiile lui Robert Crumb, Linda Barrz i Art
Spiegelman cultiv un stil eclectic i grotesc i au subiecte adulte, adesea ocante. n acelai timp
comixurile reexamineaz tradiia i stilul benzilor desenate de la nceputul secolului i extind masiv
tipurile de subiect pe care mediul le poate acomoda.
Art Spiegelman se revendic din tradiia comixurilor, editnd Raw, mpreun cu soia sa, o
foarte influent revist de benzi desenate alternative.
Cu publicarea lui Maus, genul benzilor desenate a cptat legitimitate, nemaifiind asociat cu
literatura pentru copii sau cu subcultura hippy. Genul romanului grafic s-a dezvoltat masiv n
ultimele dou decade, la fel ca literatura critic pe tema benzilor desenate.
Ali autori importani de romane grafice: Cris Ware, Marjane Satrapi, Daniel Clowes, Alison
Bechdel, Craig Robinson.
Maus a fost tradus n numeroase limbi: ebraic, polonez, german, japonez i
patun(limb de larg circulaie n Afganistan i Pakistan). Autorul a insistat ca fiecare ediie s
pstreze dimensiunile i coperta originalului.
Romanul prezint memoriile tatlui autorului, un evreu polonez care a
supravieuit holocaustului. Cartea urmrete, de asemenea, relaia dificil a autorului cu tatl su i
modul n care efectele rzboiului reverbereaz de-a lungul generaiilor unei familii. Toate
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personajele sunt prezentate ca animale antropomorfe (numele romanului, Maus, nseamn n


german oarece, acesta fiind animalul care i reprezint n carte pe evrei).
Prezentarea holocaustului este tema principal a volumului, dnd crii un aspect
metabiografic. Autorul menioneaz deseori sentimentele cu care se confrunt ncercnd s
"exprime inexprimabilul". Holocaustul este prezentat prin ochii unui supravieuitor, dar i a celor
care nu l-au trit direct, dar au fost totui profund afectai de acesta.
Reprezentarea prin animale:
evreii sunt reprezentai de oareci
germanii sunt reprezentai de pisici
polonezii sunt reprezentai de porci
americanii sunt reprezentai de cini
afroamericanii sunt reprezentai de cini negri
iganii sunt reprezentai de fluturi de molie (Lymanthia dispar, n englez Gypsy moth)
francezii sunt reprezentai de broate
suedezii sunt reprezentai de reni
britanicii sunt reprezentai de peti
ruii sunt reprezentai de uri
doi copii cu mama german i un tatl evreu sunt vzui ca oareci cu dungi de pisic
n fundalul de pe pagina 34 din Maus I apar i un iepure, un elan, un cal, un elefant, o capr
i o lam, fr indicaii despre ce grup reprezint.
Impact
De la publicare, Maus a fcut subiectul a numeroase eseuri.
Alan Moore a ludat romanul, spunnd M-am convins c Art Spiegelman este probabil cel
mai important creator de benzi desenate care lucreaz n domeniu i dup prerea mea, Maus este
cea mai bun creaie a sa de pn acum.
Maus a fost studiat i n coli, att la cursurile despre literatura modern n limba englez,
ct i la cele despre cultura evreiasc.
n 2008 Entertainment Weekly a plasat Maus pe locul 7 n lista lor The New Classics: Books
- The 100 best reads from 1983 to 2008 (Noii clasici: Cele mai bune 100 de cri din 1983 pn n
2008), fiind astfel cel mai sus clasat roman grafic.
Premii i nominalizri:
1988 Premiile Festivalului internaional de band desenat de la Angoulme - Religious
Award: Christian Testimony & Prize for Best Comic Book: Foreign Comic Award (Maus: un
survivant raconte).
1988 Premiul Urhunden - Album strin (Maus).
1990 Premiile Max & Moritz - Premiu special (Maus).
1992 Premiul Pulitzer Prize - Premii i meniuni speciale - Letters (Maus).
1992 Premiul Eisner - Cel mai bun album grafic: Reprint (Maus II).
1992 Premiul Harvey - Cel mai bun album grafic de lucrri prepublicate (Maus II).
1993 Premiul Los Angeles Times pentru carte de ficiune (Maus II, A Survivor's Tale).
1993 Premiile Festivalului internaional de band desenat de la Angoulme - Premiul
pentru cea mai bun carte de benzi desenate: Band desenat strin (Maus: un survivant raconte,
part II).
1993 Premiul Urhunden - Album strin (Maus II).
1986 Premiul National Book Critics Circle
1992 Premiul National Book Critics Circle

Modaliti de optimizare a benzii desenate n cadrul orei de curs


Propunere fi de lucru:

202

1. Ai mai citit cri sub form de benzi desenate(sau romane grafice?). Scrie cteva exemple.
...........................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................................................
2. Pref-te c nu tii cum a repartizat autorul personajele-animale n povestea sa. Ce trsturi umane
i-ai putea asocia fiecrui animal n parte? Foloseste-i imaginaia, experiena lecturilor anterioare
sau a vizionrii unor filme.
oarece:.............................................
Pisic:..................................................
Porc:......................................................
Cine:.......................................................
Broasc:....................................................
Ren:........................................................
3. Povestea vieii lui Vladek ncepe la jumtatea anilor 1930 ntr-un orel de provincie din Polonia
la grania cu Germania. Ce impresie i-a lsat tnrul Vladek? Schieaz-i n cteva rnduri un
portret.
................................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
4. Urmrete cu atenie imaginile de mai jos:
Toate evenimentele se petrec nc departe. La Sosnowiec i la Czestochowa este linite. Ce prere
au, n acele momente, Vladek, Anja i ceilali membri ai familiei sale despre ce se ntmpl n
Germania?
................................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................

203

5.
Cel mai cunoscut cuplu de personaje-animale al timpului modern este cel format din Tom i Jerry.
Este ns o mare diferen ntre lumea lui Disney i pisicile i oarecii din cartea lui Spiegelman.
Privete i compar chipurile, n special ochii i atitudinea personajelor din imaginile prezentate. Ce
impresie i produc? nainte de a nota recitete i fragmentul despre Mickey Mouse, reprodus la
pagina 164 a crii, extras dintr-un ziar german din anii 1930.
................................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................

204

6. Dac ar fi s exprimi printr-un singur cuvnt impresia pe care i-a produs-o descrierea vieii din
ghetou, care i s-ar prea cel mai potrivit? Motiveaz-i alegerea.
................................................................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................................................7.
Dac ar fi s recomanzi cartea unui prieten cum ai prezenta-o n 10-15 rnduri?
................................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
8. ncearc s formulezi recomandarea ctre prietenul tu sub form de band desenat. Poate c ar
fi mai convingtoare!

Bibliografie:
Art Spiegelman- Integrala Maus, editura Art, Bucureti
Wikipedia- Maus, Art Spiegelman

COME SCEGLIERE E USARE IL MATERIALE DIDATTICO


CANZONI E FUMETTI
Autore: Prof. Liliana Botez
coala Gimnazial tefan cel Mare Vaslui

Non tutte le canzoni sono adatte allinsegnamento, ma ci sono moltissime canzoni a


disposizione (soprattutto online) che possono servire in maniera egregia.
Ci sono vari momenti in cui gli insegnanti possono usare le canzoni insieme alle schede di
lavoro contenenti dei fumetti.
La ragione per cui linsegnante di lingua italiana usa la canzone e i fumetti nelle sue attivit
in classe la buona atmosfera che essi creano e poich gli alunni collegano le canzoni e i fumetti al
divertimento piuttosto che allo studio, il loro uso rappresenta un importantissimo fattore a favore
della motivazione. Questo fatto particolarmente vero nel caso di canzoni pop che sono senza
dubbio parte della cultura giovanile. I problemi pi grossi che linsegnante deve risolvere quando
usa le canzoni e i fumetti ad esse collegati sono la grammatica non-standard e limmagine non
seria delle canzoni e dei generi dei fumetti. La distinzione in generi stata molto importante per
levoluzione del graphic novel perch ha permesso a questo tipo di produzione di eludere i confini della
letteratura satirica per ragazzi ed entrare nel mondo degli adulti, conquistando una certa autorevolezza
anche tra le classi sociali pi colte. Questa diffusione continua ancora oggi e non c nessuno stile che il
fumetto non abbia ormai fatto proprio. Cos come avviene per tutte le altre arti, anche per il fumetto ci che

205

distingue un genere da un altro sono alcune caratteristiche: le tematiche, i personaggi, linguaggio e lo


stile, le illustrazioni, il pubblico a cui si rivolge
Oggi, nel mondo del fumetto esistono moltissimi generi narrativi e possiamo scegliere in totale
libert in quale mondo immaginario rifugiarci ogni volta che ne abbiamo voglia.
abbastanza probabile che la grammatica non ufficiale confonda lalunno. Non tutte le canzoni
sono adatte ad uno sfruttamento in classe, quindi linsegnante deve mettere in opera esperienze e
abilit nello scegliere le canzoni perch questo il primo passo nella creazione di materiali efficaci
e di buona qualit.
Nella scelta delle canzoni da utilizzare Rita Pasqui propone una distinzione basata su tre
punti di vista:
a) Destinatari
b) Caratteristiche intrinseche della canzone
c) Obiettivi dellinsegnante.
a) Destinatari
1. Il livello di competenza degli studenti
Si sceglieranno canzoni pi brevi, con strutture grammaticali semplici, pronuncia italiana
per cos dire standard, ritmo lento, lessico (possibilmente ad alta frequenza) ricorrente, ripetizione
di interi versi, per corsi elementari; canzoni pi lunghe, con grammatica e sintassi pi complessa,
pronuncia anche regionale, ritmo pi veloce, lessico pi ricco e temi pi complessi per corsi di
livello intermedio e avanzato.56

2. Il bagaglio culturale degli alunni


E necessario valutare nella scelta della canzone e dei fumetti le conoscenze pregresse dei
destinatari e il ritmo con il quale sono abituati ad esprimersi oralmente. Se a questi viene imposto
un ritmo troppo veloce o nel caso dei fumetti, un lessico con parole sconosciute, comprendere il
testo si trasforma in un compito troppo pesante per loro e linsegnante rischia di demotivare i suoi
alunni.
3. Gli interessi dei destinatari (che variano anche con let)
preferibile sondare linteresse degli studenti ed assecondarlo, trovando canzoni e fumetti
che abbiano un rapporto con il loro vissuto, con le loro preoccupazioni attuali, in cui si possano
identificare. Le canzoni folcloristiche o tradizionali, ad esempio, ricevono unaccoglienza tiepide,
scarsamente entusiastica da parte dei giovani soprattutto, perch sono considerate sorpassate,
nella musica e nelle idee. Gli studenti, in genere, apprezano molto lattualit della musica (i giovani
amano il rock, il rap, ma anche la canzone melodica) e del tema trattato.
Linsegnante dovr tenere in considerazione i gusti dei suoi destinatari (oltre che il proprio).
Per questo deve discutere prima in classe e trovare un compromesso tra i desideri della maggioranza
della classe e i criteri linguistici e pedagogico-didattici di scelta.
b) Caratteristiche intrinseche alla canzone
Se si tratta di una canzone che presenta aspetti della vita italiana o che riflette problemi
sociali e periodi storici molto importante soffermarsi sul suo contenuto.
Ad esempio, per la canzone Adesso tu di Eros Ramazzotti linsegnante presenta gli italiani
come un popolo che ha spesso cercato allestero il lavoro che non cera in Italia. Quindi si pu dire
che gli italiani oggi sono in tutto il mondo ed i Paesi dove si stabilita una comunit italiana
particolarmente numerosa sono il Canada, gli Stati Uniti, lArgentina, il Brasile, il Venezuela, la

56
Rita Pasqui in Riflessioni - Lutilizzo della canzone in glottodidattica, Bollettino ITALS settembre 2003
206

Francia, il Belgio, la Germania, la Danimarca, la Svizzera. Si presenta anche la migrazione interna a


partire degli anni sessanta, quando 20.000.000 di italiani lasciano il loro villaggio e la campagna
per spostarsi verso le citt per andare a lavorare nelle industrie del nord. Con questo fenomeno
nascono in fretta periferie moderne per dare una casa ai lavoratori, le citt cambiano aspetto,
lintegrazione fra la cultura del nord e del sud non risulta facile, il grande numero di dialetti e la
difficolt di comunicare rende le cose ancora pi difficili.
c) Obiettivi dellinsegnante
1. Se lobiettivo consiste nel rinforzo di certi argomenti grammaticali, occorrer fare la
scelta appropriata, individuando una canzone che li contenga ampiamente o che possa essere
sfruttata per un esercizio di questo genere. E la scelta pi comunemente operata dagli autori di
manuali e dagli insegnanti nella costruzione delle unit didattiche basate sulle canzoni e sui fumetti:
ad esempio, per introdurre o ripassare limperfetto, si sceglie Nel blu dipinto di blu oppure Quattro
amici di Gino Paoli, per il futuro Con te partir di Bocelli, e cos via.
1. Alla stessa maniera, se linsegnante si propone di rinforzare certe funzioni linguistiche
(persuadere, lamentarsi, ordinare) dovr individuare la canzone pi appropriata.
2. Se lobiettivo riguarda lo sviluppo delle abilit linguistiche: ascoltare, parlare, leggere e
scrivere), la scelta potr ricadere sulle canzoni e sulle attivit di corredo al brano musicale
che maggiormente si prestano allo scopo. Ad esempio, Lanno che verr di Lucio Dalla il
cui incipit Caro amico ti scrivo o la pi vecchia Lettera a Pinocchio di Johnny Dorelli
sono in buon punto di partenza per unattivit di scrittura della lettera informale.
3. Se lobiettivo riguarda lampliamento o il rafforzamento del vocabolario, il docente dovr
individuare il teste contenete i termini o i campi semnatici che interessano.57
Come farsi il proprio materiale didattico ed usarlo?
Nel selezionare i materiali didattici occorre ricordare che noi apprediamo con: 83% la
vista; 11% ludito; 3,3% lolfatto; 1,5% il tatto; 1% il gusto, ricordiamo quello che abbiamo: fatto
50% ; visto 40%; sentito 20%; letto 10% e dimentichiamo molto presto quello che si e appena
appreso: dopo 24 ore da una lezione la percentuale di informazioni perdute di circa il 30%; dopo
48 ore del 50%; dopo 5 giorni dell80%.
In conclusione, maggiore il tempo impiegato per apprendere e minore loblio.58
Nella scelta delle canzoni adatte ci sono alcuni passi da seguire:
1. CREARE UNA LISTA DI CANZONI (KARAOKE) IN ITALIANO
Questo passo iniziale aiuta linsegnante ad entrare in contatto con le canzoni disponibili e a
rendersi conto dei loro contenuti che verranno presentati agli alunni durante le lezioni.
2. SCEGLIERE LE CANZONI (KARAOKE) CHE RISPONDONO MEGLIO AI BISOGNI
DELLALUNNO
Lidea principale di focalizzarsi sulle canzoni i cui testi sono pi facilmente comprensibili.
Certamente, un po di espressioni idiomatiche possono essere divertenti, ma linsegnante deve
assicurarsi che queste non rendano difficile la comprensione.
3. ANALIZZARE LE CANZONI (KARAOKE)
Linsegnante deve ascoltare le canzoni, leggere i testi e cercare di capire a quale bisogno
degli alunni possono rispondere: Lessico? Ascolto? Lettura? Altro?
4. STABILIRE LO SCOPO DELLA LEZIONE

57
Idem
58
Emma Mapelli in Modalit di apprendimento I soggetti dellapprendimento. Profili linguistici, bisogni,
motivazione, 2002, www.tantimondiunacomunita.it
207

Questo momento quello in cui linsegnante deve decidere esattamente che cosa vuole che i
suoi alunni imparino dalla canzone, poich le canzoni possono essere focalizzate su vari aspetti del
processo insegnamento / apprendimento.
5. CREARE IL PROPRIO MATERIALE
Forse il pi importante, in quanto richiede, tutta lesperienza di insegnamento e tutti gli
sforzi da parte dellinsegnante. Si comincia dallo scopo della lezione, si elabora una serie di attivit
e materiali che aiuteranno lalunno ad apprendere quello di cui ha bisogno. Le attivit e i materiali
dovrebbero essere elaborati partendo dal semplice (per le prime volte che la canzone usata) al
complesso in maniera strutturata in modo da assicurare i progressi dellalunno e non far cadere la
motivazione.
A seconda delle canzone scelta, linsegnante dovrebbe creare una lunga lista di tipi di
esercizi: riempire i vuoti, scelta multipla, trovare il corrispondente, scrivere il riassunto, una
composizione.
Pu inoltre portare in classe dei testi con un tema collegato al tema delle canzoni e
analizzarlo o chiedere agli alunni di creare un proprio testo per una particolare canzone.
6. INTRODURRE LA CANZONE (KARAOKE) E I FUMETTI NELLA CLASSE
Prima di iniziare lascolto della canzone, linsegnante dovrebbe iniziare una fase di
riscaldamento parlando con gli alunni in modo da focalizzare lattenzione su quello che vedranno
e ascolteranno. Una discussione guidata sul tema generale della canzone e un prerequisito per
ottenere un apprendimento migliore.
Linsegnante potrebbe dire agli alunni il titolo della canzone e gli alunni, quindi, potrebbero
fare previsioni sul contenuto.
7. SUONARE LA CANZONE (KARAOKE)
Linsegnante dovrebbe portare la canzone in classe e il primo ascolto della canzone non
dovrebbe essere interrotto. Si pu farla sentire una seconda volta perch gli alunni hanno bisogno di
tempo per vedere la canzone come un tutto.
Quando linsegnante sicuro che gli alunni hanno familiarit con la canzone, si pu
focalizzare su di un approccio pi dettagliato e dare compiti specifici.
8. FARE LE ATTIVIT PREFISSATE
Questo il momento giusto per usare i materiali creati al punto 5. E importante procedere
dal semplice verso il complesso. Le attivit da fare dovrebbero essere selezionate in maniera da
collegarsi strettamente alle immagini e al testo, che forniscono un supporto immediato agli studenti
nel caso si trovino in difficolt. Non si deve passare in avanti prima di essersi assicurato che gli
alunni siano passati attraverso tutto il lavoro che stato pianificato per loro.
9. ANDARE IN PROFONDIT
Adesso tempo di usare le attivit e le risorse pi complesse: introdurre attraverso itesti dei
fumetti esercizi grammaticali pi complessi, lessico difficile, un compito scritto che inviti a
riflettere, un saggio.
Linsegnamento e lapprendimento dovrebbero essere portati avanti a questo punto tenendo
la canzone come punto di partenza, o come un pretesto, piuttosto che come una risorsa diretta e
immediata da consultare. Si deve passare poi ad una fase di consolidamento separando le tecniche
di insegnamento e gli strumenti secondo gli stili di apprendimento individuali degli alunni.
10. ASSICURARSI CHE LAPPRENDIMENTO RESO DIVERTENTE
Canzoni e fumetti sono divertenti, quindi bisogna sempre assicurarsi che il loro uso in classe
sia altrettanto eccitante e divertente. Usare le canzoni e i fumetti per insegnare e imparare una

208

lingua straniera uno dei modi pi efficaci per imparare perch unesperienza che conivolge i
sensi suoni, immagini e testo presentati simultaneamente. Se sono usati in maniera appropriata
dallinsegnante, questi dovrebbero indubbiamente portare a buoni risultati.
Normalmente si apprende per gradi e passando 4 diverse fasi:
- esperienza concreta: il momento del contatto con i fenomeni e gli stimoli del mondo
esterno
- osservazione riflessiva: un momento di riflessione
- concettualizzazione astratta: un momento in cui si formano delle categorie mentali
interpretative dei fenomeni osservati
- sperimentazione attiva: il momento della verifica
Queste fasi dellapprendimento devono permettere di comprendere, riprendere e
intraprendere.
Il secondo passo fondamentale in quanto il richiamo di quello che si appreso migliora la
persistenza; il riconoscimento (rivedere) migliora ulteriormente, il riapprendimento stabilizza ad un
livello elevato quello che si appreso.
Le canzoni e i fumetti coinvolgono emozionalmente lalunno e sono di grande impatto e
Fumetti da leggere, fumetti da disegnare, fumetti da sfogliare
Il fumetto lo si ritrova sempre tra le pagine di un sussidiario, lo si usa quando disegniamo e
dobbiamo far parlare i nostri personaggi o quando affrontiamo per la prima volta il discorso diretto e
indiretto in classe.
Il linguaggio del fumetto semplice, diretto e essenziale mentre le immagini rendono tutto pi
piacevole e divertente. Il fumetto appunto un linguaggio (quello fatto di parole scritte) che usa a sua volta
un altro tipo di linguaggio pi semplice (quello iconico, delle immagini). Questo equilibrio perfetto, tra
parole e immagini, lo rende particolarmente efficace come mezzo espressivo e, per i bambini soprattutto,
coinvolgente per via del potenziale ludico che si porta dietro.
Insomma, il fumetto una fonte inesauribile di sorprese. Inoltre, proprio per le modalit con cui
viene sviluppato, si avvicina molto al linguaggio cinematografico fatto di immagini (nel cinema sono in
movimento ma nel fumetto sono fisse) e parole. Nella costruzione di una storia per fumetti, non a caso,
dobbiamo comunque pensare soggetti e sceneggiature, definire i personaggi, scegliere le scene dove
ambientare le vicende, ecc. Non dimentichiamo poi lo stretto legame tra fumetto e onomatopee.
Insomma, credo che il fumetto non possa essere assolutamente trascurato nella nostra
programmazione annuale!

LE SMARTPHONE EN CLASSE DE LANGUE


Laura Tesa,
Colegiul Tehnic de Transporturi Transilvania, Cluj-Napoca

Rsum

209

Nous vivons dans un monde de la technique. la maison, dans la rue ou au travail on utilise des machines et
des appareils qui rendent notre vie plus confortable, qui nous aident communiquer avec les autres et
rester toujours informs et au courant avec tout ce qui se passe dans le monde. l'cole on essaie de
prparer nos lves la vie relle. Et c'est pour cela qu'il faut montrer nos lves comment ils peuvent
s'aider seuls communiquer dans une langue trangre en s'appuyant sur la technique qu'ils utilisent tous
les jours: les smartphones. Ces petits appareils, qui prennent une grande place dans notre vie, deviennent
ainsi utils pour les lves et les professeurs pendant les classes de langue, avec le but prcis de rendre les
classes plus intressantes et les sujets plus accessibles.

Nous sommes tous le produit du sicle o nous vivons, quoique l'on veuille ou non. Il est impossible
de nos jours de ne pas venir en contact avec les nouvelles technologies et mme de les utiliser. a fait dj
partie de notre vie de tous les jours et ce point je pense qu'il nous serait difficile de nous en passer.
Je fais partie de la gnration qui pense toujours au tlphone et la tl toujours comme des objets
immobiles, au contraire pour la nouvelle gnration, celle des lves auxquels j'enseigne, ces objets sont des
objets mobiles qu'ils peuvent utiliser tout instant n'importe o. Pour eux les nouvelles technologies sont
porte de main, car beaucoup d'entre eux ont appris utiliser un touch screen en mme temps qu'ils ont
appris parler ou manger. Apporter et utiliser leur portable que depuis quelques annes on appele des
smartphones partout, mme l'cole, fait partie du quotidien.
Il y a peu de temps, l'tablissement scolaire voyait d' une manire retissante l'introduction et
l'utilisation du smartphone dans les coles, mais depuis cette anne scolaire les choses ont chang dans notre
pays, les lves ont le droit d'apporter leur portable l'cole et les enseignants sont rests avec deux options:
soit ils interdissent l'utilisation du portable pendant les classes (sachant bien qu'il y aura bien des lves qui
ne respecteront pas la consigne), soit ils essaient de les utiliser leur profit et d'en faire un outil attractif qui
puisse aider les lves dans leur apprentissange. Je suis de l'opinion que la deuxime solution est la meilleur
et la plus profitable pour tous.
Avant de voir comment on peut fait du portable notre alli il faut expliquer un peu ce qu'un
smartphone est, ce qu'il peut faire. Il est bien connu par ses utilisateurs que le smartphone est plus qu'un
tlphone, c'est un appareil aux nombreuses fonctions qui facine par ses applications conues pour repondre
aux plus grands besoins de leurs matres. Petit, compact et connect l'internet, le smartphone peut tre
utilis pour envoyer des messages, pour poster des photos sur les rseaux sociaux, communiquer avec des
personnes connues ou inconnues, pour tourner et modifier la photo numrique pour de multiples usages
inattendus, pour couter et voir des missions, pour assister des confrences, pour chercher des
informations, pour grer des problmes administratifs et de travail. Avec ce petit appareil tout est en rseau,
reli, interactif et portable. Le samrtphone c'est un ordinateur et internet dans la poche de tout un chacun. L'
homme connect dispose d'un nouvel outil qui l'ouvre au monde, le prolonge, lui donne une sorte d'ubiquit
et d'universalit. L'individu est la fois, seul et identifi partout, tout le tempsi. Les jeuns sont les
principaux consommateurs de nouvelle technologie. Les nouveauts les attirent, les intressent, les fascinent.
Intuitifs et faciles utiliser les smartphones ont trouv une place dans la vie des jeunes personnes et non
seulement. Ils l'utilisent partout: en bus, dans la rue, la maison, en parc, au restaurant et mme l'cole. Le
petit appareil est devenu un ami inanim dont ils ne peuvent plus s'en passer. Ceux qui ont la possibilit de se
l'acqurir l'utilisent et en sont facins, ceux qui n'ont pas les moyens financiers d'en avoir un, rvent d'en
possder un le plus tt possible.
Pour l'cole traditionnelle le smartphone reste un intrus qui ne fait que boulverser le processus
d'enseignement. Les lves ne font plus attention au professeur car l'appareil multifonctionnel dtourne leur
attention de la leon. D'ici une vritable guerre entre les professeurs et leurs lves.
C'est vraiement pour cette raison que j'ai pens que ce serait mieux de transformer le smartphone
d'un ennemi dans un alli. La pdagogie moderne permet au professeur d'utiliser les nouvelles technologies
comme l'internet, l'ordinateur, le retroprojecteur pendant leur classe; pourquoi pas le smartphone? J'ai
constat qu'il est assez facile d'utiliser le smartphone pendant les classes de langues etrangres. On va voir
comment ce petit appareil peut devenir un outil d'apprentissage pour les lves et un moyen d'enseigner pour
les professeurs.
Pendant une classe de langue on essaie de former des comptences linguistiques, mais aussi de
dvelopper des savoirs faire comme: la communication, la cooperation, la crativit, l'autonomie et la pense
critique. Nos lves doivent tre capables d'utiliser leurs connaissances en langue trangre pour interagir
avec d'autres personnes; l'idal serait, dans des contextes concrets de la vie de tous les jours. Si l'on pense un
peu, l'utilisation du smartphone en classe peut tre un avantage pour nous comme professeur, mais aussi pour
210

nos lves. On constate une chose trs intressante: lorsque les lves utilisent le tlphone en classe, dans le
contexte de la leon, ils dviennent tout d'un coup plus intresss et attentifs ce que leur professeur leur
propose de faire pendant la leon. Ils sont dsormais connects leur ralit quotidienne et peuvent montrer
leur professeur de ce qu'ils sont capables de faire avec leur petit appareil. En plus, les rles se renversent un
peu. Le professeur ne fournit plus les informations, les lves sont ceux qui doivent les chercher. Le rle
principale du professeur est de guider et suiveiller ses lves pendant leur travail de dcouverte.
Le smartphone est un appareil complexe, on peut l'utiliser de diverses manires:
Comme un dictionnaire (On peut leur proposer un exercice de vocabulaire- qu'ils trouvent des
antonymes et des synonymes pour certains mots- en se servant de leur tlphone. Pour qu'ils soient plus
intresss, j'ai conu ce petit exercice sous forme de concours. Je leur ai donn dix minutes pour finir
l'exercice et le groupe gagnant serait le groupe avec le plus grand nombre de synonymes et d'antonymes
trouvs).
Comme appareil photo (Cette fonction du tllephone peut tre utilise de plusieurs manires en
fonction du niveau de la classe et la fonction du langage qu'on veut travailler. Lorsqu'on a appris dcrire
des personnes je leur ai demand de choisir une photo de leur tlphone et de dcrire cette personne devant la
classe. Si l'on veut travailler les pronoms interrogatifs ou bien l'interrogation en gnral on peut demander
un lve de choisir une photo de son portable et les autres lui posent des questions au sujet de cette photo).
Comme ordinateur connect l'internet et appareil photo (Avec l'aide de leur smartphone les lves
vont faire la prsentation d'une ville, d'un pays ou d'un endroit qu'ils voudraient visiter un jour. Par groupe de
trois ou quatre, ils cherchent des images reprsentatives pour l'endroit qu'ils veulent prsenter. Ils recherchent
sur l'internet les attractions touristiques de l'endroit en question, les moyens de transport et les possibilits de
logement, par exemple).
Comme appareil video ou audio (On utilise cette fonction du smartphone pour permettre aux lves
de raliser quelles sont leurs vraies capacits langagires. On leur propose de divers thmes et ils vont
prsenter ces thmes - dscriptions, prsentations ou documentaires - sous forme d'enregistrements audio ou
video. Ensuite le professeur va couter le devoir de chaque lve, va faire des corrections et va lui donner un
feedback personnel. L'exercice est un bon moyen pour les lves plus timides et introvertis, qui n'aiment pas
parler devant la classe, de s'exprimer oralement en langue cible sans avoir peur des commentaires des
autres).
Pour couter de la musique ( Pendant la classe de langue on n'coute jamais de la musique d'un
manire gratuite; mme s'il y a ceux qui disent que les lves travailleraient mienx si on les laisser couter
leur musique prfre pendant la classe. Pour ce type d'exercice c'est le tour du professeur d'utiliser un
smartphone. En attachant le tlphone un amplificateur, le professeur peut faire couter ses lves de la
musique ou des dialogues, de la posie ou de la prose. Aprs avoir cout le morceau on peut leur demander
de rpondre des questions, complter des textes troux, faire des rsums, etc).
Une consquance surpnante de l'utilisation du tlphone comme instrument d'apprentissage pendant la
classe de langue a t que les lves sont plus intresss, plus actifs et impliqus. C' est bine de les voir en
plein action, cherchant des solutions, communiquant avec les autres et faire des progrs.
En conclusion on ne doit jamais ngliger la nouvelle technologie, le besoin de l'lve de l'utiliser et
leurs connaissances dans ce domaine. L'lve d'aujourd'hui n'est plus l'lve d'autrefois. Il est plus agit, plus
ancr dans la vie quotidienne. Il veut tout connatre le plus vite possible, il est plus intress de tout ce qui est
nouveau et surtout de la technologie moderne. C'est normal parce que l'lve d'aujourd'hui sera le jeune
homme de demain qui devra se dbrouiller et s'adapter ce monde en plein mouvement et volution. Il est
vrai que l'utilisation exceassive de l'internet, du smartphone, etc. prsente beaucoup d'inconvnients dont la
plus dangereuse est la dpendance. Dans ce sens les parents, les professeurs ont un rle trs important. Ils
doivent conseiller les enfants et leur montrer que la juste voie dans n'importe quelle activit est l'quilibre et
la modration. En tout cas je crois que le smartphone est un mal ncessaire, si on peut le dire, une
technologie qui ne va pas disparatre, mais elle va voluer.
1 Yannick-Hlne de la Fuente-Zambrano, Des outils nomades pour des langues vivantes

Bibliographie
(1) https://cours-informatique-gratuit.fr/cours/les-smartphones

(2) Divki, Rita, Comment utiliser les portables en classe de FLE afin de dvelopper l'expression
orale des lves?, le 23 septembre 2015.
211

https://www.slideshare.net/aquamarine22/comment-utiliser-les-portables-en-classe-de-fle

(3) de la Fuente-Zambrano, Yannick-Hlne, Des outils nomades pour des langues


vivantes,https://www.meirieu.com/ECHANGES/outils_nomades_zambrano.pdf
(4) Schweitzer, Pascal, Enseigner les langues vivantes trangres lre du numrique,
http://babylonia.ch/fileadmin/user_upload/documents/2013_3/Schweitzer.pdf

(5) Viguier-Vinson, Sophie, Comment utiliser les ordinateurs, tablettes ou smartphones


lcole ?http://www.lemonde.fr/education/article/2016/11/14/la-classe-connectee-pour-apprendre-
autrement_5030847_1473685.html#JMKYhWEjgjmmGW6W.99,

(6) White, Alex, Using Smartphones (and other PDAs) in Class: TheseDays, its
Cool!https://storify.com/alex_white921/using-smartphones-and-other-pdas-in-class-theseday
(7) Can a smartphone be a tool for learning?
http://www.bbc.com/news/education-34389063
(8) Some Schools Actually Want Students To Play With Their Smartphones In Class,
http://www.npr.org/sections/alltechconsidered/2012/10/03/162148883/some-schools-actually-want-
students-to-play-with-their-smartphones-in-class

(9) http://www.lemonde.fr/education/article/2016/11/14/la-classe-connectee-pour-
apprendre-autrement_5030847_1473685.html

NOI TEHNOLOGII UTILIZATE N IMPLEMENTAREA PROIECTULUI


ERASMUS+KA 2

Prof. Nicu Vlad-Laurentiu, LMK Vaslui

n cadrul proiectului K2Erasmus+ Comics in Teaching Languages/La BD en classe de


langues am instruit un numr de 150 de elevi de la clasele 5-8 si o parte dintre clase de liceu 9-11.
Am realizat n acest scop un site etwinning unde am pus o parte dintre lucrrile lor realizate n
etapa de formare precum i tutoriale ale aplicaiilor folosite.
Elevii au fost instruii in folosirea urmtoarelor programe:
1. Pivot Animator este un program de calculator folosit pentru crea animaii.Cu Pivot Animator poi crea
mici animaii fr sa tii prea multe despre desen.Programul funcioneaz pe principiul desenului din linii si
poate fi creat din buci.Cu Pivot Animator descoperi ca doar trgnd linii poi fi creator de animaie.
n Pivot Animator trebuie desenat n parte fiecare cadru al animaiei.
Principalele caracteristici ale Pivot Animator sunt:
- creare de animaii;
- utilizare de cadre;
- desena folosind doar forme geometrice;
- are o biblioteca cu figuri predefinite;
- salveaz imaginile in format gif;
- interfaa simpla si intuitiva.

2. Pencil 2D un alt program de animaie ce v permite s creai animaie tradiional manual (desen
animat) utiliznd att grafic vectorial ct i vectorial.Pencil2D este uor i uor de folosit, astfel nct s
v putei concentra pe animaie i nu pe butonul de urmat.

212

3. Synfig Studio- suport o multitudine de straturi de diferite tipuri; Geometrice, gradiente, filtre, distorsiuni,
transformri, fractale i altele.Synfig are funcii de baz pentru sincronizarea animaiei cu coloana sonor
utiliznd Sound Layer.Programul ofer o alternativ la retuarea manual, astfel nct animatorul nu trebuie
s deseneze fiecare cadru.Software-ul este capabil s simuleze umbrirea moale folosind gradiente curbate
ntr-o zon, astfel nct animatorul nu trebuie s atrag umbre n fiecare cadru.

4. MonkeyJam si Stop Motion Animator sunt programe folosite pentru captura video si realizarea de filme
prin acesta tehnica. Stop motion (de asemenea, cunoscut sub numele de "stop cadru") este o tehnic de
animaie care face ca obiectele din jurul nostru s par a se deplasa de unele singure. Obiectul este mutat cu
pai mici, ntre cadre fotografiate individual, crend iluzia de micare atunci cnd o serie de cadre sunt rulate
ca i o secven cotinu.
Impactul acestor programe a fost foarte mare, elevii fiind foarte incantati si entuziasmati de folosirea
lor, astfel ei au creat o serie de animatii deosebite.
O parte din acestea se regasesc pe site,dupa cum se poate observa mai jos.

MICAREA SUFRAGETELOR. AFIELE PROPAGANDISTICE CARE AU FCUT ISTORIE MAI


BINE DE 100 DE ANI.
Prof. Alexa Carmen, Liceul Teoretic M. Koglniceanu Vaslui

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De-a lungul timpului a existat o tradiie ndelungat ca, n timpul alegerilor politice, s
existe o diferen clar ntre femei i brbai, iar cele mai reprezentative momente au fost cele n
care femeile au cerut s fie luate n considerare n lumea politic, mai ales cnd vine vorba de
procedeul de vot.
n istoria Americii, o importan deosebit au avut-o insistenele acestor femei i lupta lor
pentru obinerea dreptului de vot. Ideea conform creia rolul femeilor era acela de a se dedica
familiei i activitilor casnice a reprezentat pentru mult timp ideea central, propagat prioritar n
societate cu privire la statutul femeii.
Pentru ca aceast mentalitate s fie depit i pentru ca rolul femeilor n societate s fie
recunoscut, au aprut sloganurile precum "Locul femeilor este la Casa Alb!" Astzi, aceste
sloganuri pot fi regsite pe tricouri sau n mediul online, dar la nceputul secolului XX acestea erau
distribuite cu ajutorul crilor potale, cu cel al pamfletelor i erau regsite chiar i n ziare.
ns, foarte multe imagini ce apreau n secolul XX parodiau micarea sufragetelor, chiar
dac ilustraiile n sine nu transmiteau un att de puternic mesaj. Umorul din acea perioad era bazat
pe acest stereotip al genurilor, iar umorul ce viza scena politic nu fcea excepie.
n anul 1920, Congresul a ratificat Amendamentul 19, dar multe femei, mai ales cele de
culoare, nu au primit drept de vot. Se poate observa c afiele propagandistice prezentau doar
persoane albe, populaia neagr fiind exclus. O singur ilustraie a nfiat o femeie de culoare, al
crei so ncerca s nteprind activitile casnice i s aib grij de copii n momentul n care
aceasta se afla la o ntlnire a sufragetelor.
De asemenea, afiele ce nfiau acest sector al istoriei sociale au fcut istorie.

O tem comun era cea a brbatului supus, fiind nfiat ca avnd grij de copii i
nteprinznd activiti casnice, pe cnd femeia avea un statut activ n societate, asemenea unui
brbat

214

"Dl. Hubby. Soia sa face parte din Clubul Sufragetelor." Ilustraie publicat n 1913 n publicaia
The San Francisco Call - Sursa: Library of Congress
Din nou, se observ cum acesta este nfiat ca un brbat casnic, care are grij de copii.

Sursa: Catherine H. Palczewski Postcard Archive /


University of Northern Iowa
O tem obsedant era i cea a pisicilor,
preferat pentru c n anul 1913 a fost abrogat
Legea oarecelui i a Pisicii, pentru a stopa
manifestrile precum greva foamei prin

ncarcerarea sufragetelor.

Fetia din partea dreapt spune: "Sunt feti. i urmeaz s pltesc taxe fr s reprezint
nimic n societate!" Afi din anul 1915 realizat de ctre Rose Cecil ONeill - Sursa: Library of
Congress

215

n anul 1941, scriitorul George Orwell a realizat o analiza acestor afie, care s-a concretizat
ntr-un eseu. Conform spuselor acestuia, "Acestea aveau o condiie umil care era reprezentat nu
doar prin natura glumelor fcute la adresa lor, ci i prin impactul izbitor, grotesc al desenelor. De
asemenea, fiecare figur, gest i atitudine sunt, deliberat, urt nfiate". Gsirea unei surse de
amuzament n condiia femeilor i reprezentarea grotesc a acestora sunt, de fapt, rdcini adnci
ale unei culturi ce a marcat adnc societatea.

Am evideniat doar cteva imagini care reflect att lupta femeilor pentru drepturi politice,
ct i reacia acid a acelei pri din societate care le considera inoportune n domeniul politic.

INTEGRAREA NOILOR TEHNOLOGII N PREDAREA ALTOR