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AE Logistica mrfurilor

EFECTELE LIPSEI DE COORDONARE


N LANUL DE APROVIZIONARE-LIVRARE
(The effects of the lack of coordination within the supply chain)

Prof. univ. dr. Carmen Blan


Academia de Studii Economice din Bucureti
cbalan@ase.ro

Rezumat
Prezentul articol se refer la efectul lovitur de bici(bullwhip effect),1 care
influeneaz negativ performana lanului de aprovizionare-livrare. Acest efect este
nregistrat n diferite sectoare economice, de la bunuri de larg consum la produse IT.
Consecinele pentru membrii lanului de aprovizionare-livrare sunt urmtoarele: costuri
sporite, profitabilitate diminuat, intervale de reaprovizionare mai mari i un grad mai
sczut de disponibilitate a produselor. Principalii factori care genereaz acest efect sunt
tipurile de stimulente acordate de furnizori clienilor din aval, distorsionarea informaiei,
practicile de formulare i onorare a comenzilor, politicile de pre care ncurajeaz
cumprarea n avans i comportamentul specific al membrilor lanului de aprovizionare-
livrare axat pe optimizarea local. Singura modalitate prin care membrii lanului pot
nltura efectul lovitur de bici este stimularea coordonrii ntre stadiile succesive ale
lanului de aprovizionare-livrare. Printre strategiile ce pot fi considerate n acest sens, se
nscriu alinierea scopurilor i obiectivelor, comunicarea informaiilor ntre membri,
reaprovizionarea controlat de un singur stadiu al lanului de aprovizionare-livrare,
strategiile de mbuntire a performanelor operaionale, stabilizarea comenzilor cu
ajutorul unor strategii de pre adecvate, crearea de parteneriate strategice i dezvoltarea
ncrederii.
Incidena i amplitudinea efectului lovitur de bici pot fi diminuate prin strategii
i decizii care sunt armonizate ntre diferitele niveluri ale lanului de aprovizionare-livrare.
n efortul de reducere a efectului lovitur de bici, cuvintele cheie sunt cooperarea,
coordonarea, comunicarea i ncrederea.

Cuvinte cheie: efectul lovitur de bici" logistic, lan de aprovizionare-livrare,


coordonare, distorsionarea informaiei
Clasificarea JEL: M100, M31

Abstract
The present article refers to the bullwhip effect that negatively influences the
supply chain performance. This effect is experienced by various industries, from fast
moving consumer goods to IT products. The consequences for the supply chain members
are the following: increased costs, lower profitability, longer lead times and lower product
availability. The main factors that generate this effect are the types of incentives provided
by suppliers to the downstream customers, the information distortion, the order placing
practices, the pricing policies encouraging the forward buying and the specific behavior of
the supply chain members focused on local optimization. The only way in which supply
chain members may eradicate the bullwhip effect is to enhance coordination among the
subsequent stages. Some of the strategies to be considered are the alignment of goals and
objectives, data sharing among members, single stage control of replenishment, strategies

26 Amfiteatru Economic
The logistics of merchandise AE
for the improvement of the operational performance, stabilizing orders with appropriate
pricing strategies and building strategic partnerships and trust.
The incidence and amplitude of the bullwhip effect may be reduced by strategies and
decisions that are harmonized along the stages of the supply chain. The key words in the
endeavor to diminish the bullwhip effect are cooperation, coordination, communication and
trust.

Keywords: bullwhip effect, logistics, supply chain, coordination, information


distortion
JEL classification: M100, M31

Introducere Introduction
Scopul principal al acestui articol The main goal of the present article
este explorarea coninutului i is to explore the content and
consecinelor efectului lovitur de bici consequences of the bullwhip effect.
(bullwhip effect). Totodat, articolul Simultaneously, the article discusses the
abordeaz aspecte privind incidena incidence of the bullwhip effect in various
efectului n diferite sectoare de activitate sectors of activity and the causes that
i cauzele care genereaz un astfel de generate such an effect. The major
efect. Sunt prezentate, de asemenea, strategies to increase coordination in
strategiile majore care mbuntesc
supply chains in order to avoid or
coordonarea n lanurile de aprovizionare-
livrare, n vederea evitrii sau diminurii diminish the bullwhip effect are also
efectului lovitur de bici. presented.

1. Efectul lovitur de bici 1. The bullwhip effect


Prezentul articol este axat pe The present article is focused on
efectul lovitur de bici (bullwhip the bullwhip effect that is also known as
effect) ce este cunoscut i sub denumirea the whipsaw effect or the whiplash effect
efectul de tip dini de ferstru al (Sterman, 1989). This effect is reflected at
traiectoriei biciului sau fichi de bici each stage of the supply chain by a larger
(Sterman, 1989). Acest efect se manifest variance of the orders to the supplier than
la fiecare nivel al lanului de the variance of the demand expressed by
aprovizionare-livrare, printr-o variaie mai the buyers.
mare a comenzilor transmise furnizorilor
comparativ cu variaia cererii exprimate In essence, the bullwhip effect
de cumprtori. consists in the amplification of the
n esen, efectul lovitur de bici variability of orders as they are placed to
const n amplificarea variaiei suppliers within the supply chain, from
comenzilor pe msur ce se transmit la the retailer to wholesaler to distributor to
furnizorii din lanul de aprovizionare- manufacturer to the supplier of raw
livrare, de la detailist la angrosist, la materials etc.
distribuitor, la productor, la furnizorul de According to this effect, the
materii prime etc. variability of the demand at the upper
Conform acestui efect, variaia levels within the supply chain does not
cererii la nivelurile superioare ale lanului reflect under a 1:1 ratio the variability of
de aprovizionare-livrare nu reflect the demand at the end level of the supply
ntr-un raport 1:1 variaia cererii la nivelul chain.
final al lanului de aprovizionare-livrare.

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Se multiplic variaia cu un factor The variability increases by a


semnificativ, pe msur ce comenzile sunt significant factor as orders are placed
transmise n amonte, n lanul de upwards in the chain.
aprovizionare-livrare.
Efectul lovitur de bici este The bullwhip effect is the result of
rezultatul lipsei de coordonare n lanul de the lack of coordination in the supply
aprovizionare-livrare. El afecteaz chain. It affects the profits of all the
profiturile tuturor organizaiilor membre organizations that are members of the
ale reelei. Lipsa de coordonare este network. The lack of coordination is
generat de dou cauze principale. Pe de o generated by two main causes. On one
parte, poate exista un conflict ntre side, a conflict may exist between the
obiectivele organizaiilor ce acioneaz la objectives of the companies acting at each
fiecare nivel al lanului de aprovizionare- stage of the chain. On the other side, the
livrare. Pe de alt parte, efectul este bullwhip effect is determined by the
determinat de ntrzierile i distorsionrile delays and distortions in the information
ce au loc n privina fluxurilor flows between the subsequent stages of
informaionale, ntre stadiile succesive ale the supply chain. The impact of the
lanului de aprovizionare-livrare. Impactul bullwhip effect increases with the number
efectului lovitur de bici se amplific of stages in the network and with the
odat cu creterea numrului de niveluri diversity of the product portfolios of the
ale reelei i cu sporirea diversitii companies.
portofoliului de produse ale organizaiilor.
O ilustrare a efectului lovitur de An illustration of the bullwhip
bici este prezentat n figura 1. Variaiile effect is presented in the figure 1. The
relativ mici ale cererii consumatorilor relatively small variations of the
sunt amplificate la fiecare nivel al lanului consumer demand are amplified at each
de aprovizionare-livrare. Rezultatul stage of the supply chain. The result
const n acumulri de stocuri. consists in inventory lumps.

120
120
Consumator 100
100 Consumer
80
80 Retailer
Demand

Detailist
Cererea

60 60 Wholesaler
Angrosist Producer
40 40
Raw material supplier
20 20
Productor
0 0
Furnizor de
ai

ar
n

ay
ov

l
p

ov
ar

p
Ju
Iu

materii prime
Ja
Ia

Se

Se
M

M
M

N
M
N

Timpul Time

Figura 1 Variaia cererii n lanul de aprovizionare-livrare


(Demand variability in the supply chain)

Conceptul de efect lovitur de The concept bullwhip effect has


bici (bullwhip effect) a fost adus n been brought to the attention of logistic
atenia experilor n domeniul logistic n experts by the end of the 90s. Lee,
anii '90. Lee, Padmanabhan i Whang, n Padmanabhan and Whang in their article
articolul lor din anul 1997, precum i Lee, of 1997 as well as Lee, So and Tang in
So i Tang, n articolul din anul 2000, au the article of 2000 have coined the
pus n circulaie acest concept. concept.

28 Amfiteatru Economic
The logistics of merchandise AE
Totui, printre primele cercetri However, among the first research
referitoare la relaia dintre stocuri i studies relative to the relationship
comenzi la diferitele niveluri logistice, se between inventory and orders at various
nscriu cele realizate de Forrester n anii logistic stages range those achieved by
'60 (Forrester, 1961). Cu ajutorul metodei Forrester in the 60s (Forrester, 1961).
simulrii, Forrester a dovedit importana Based on the simulation method, Forrester
integrrii fluxurilor de informaii i showed the importance of the integration
fluxurilor materiale, formulnd totodat of the information and material flows and
teoria dinamicii industriale. n acelai formulated the industrial dynamics
deceniu, Burbidge a subliniat importana theory. During that decade, Burbidge
sincronizrii comenzilor, iar n anii '80 a underlined the importance of order
susinut legea dinamicii industriale, synchronization and in the 80s he
conform creia, n cazul n care cererea se supported the law of industrial dynamics,
transmite prin mai multe stadii ce aplic according to which if demand is
proceduri de comand bazate pe controlul transmitted along a series of stages that
stocurilor, variaia cererii va spori cu apply stock control ordering, the demand
fiecare transfer. variation will increase with each transfer.

2. Un efect nregistrat n diferite 2. An effect experienced by various


sectoare de activitate sectors
Efectul lovitur de bici este The bullwhip effect is present in
prezent n diferite sectoare de activitate, various sectors of activity, from fast
de la bunuri de larg consum la produse IT. moving consumer goods to IT products.
Diversitatea organizaiilor i sectoarelor The variety of companies and industries
afectate a fost reflectat de cercetrile has been reflected by the research of
efectuate de Buzzell, Quelch i Salmon Buzzell, Quelch, and Salmon (1990);
(1990); Kelly (1995); Lee, Padmanabhan Kelly (1995); Lee, Padmanabhan, Whang
i Whang (1997); Holstrom (1997) i (1997); Holstrom (1997) and Metters
Metters (1997). (1997).
Consecinele directe sunt: The direct consequences are the
discordana dintre ofert i cerere, mismatch between the supply and
creterea stocurilor, disponibilitatea demand, increased inventories, poor
sczut a produselor, costurile sporite i product availability, higher costs and
profiturile mai mici. n continuare, sunt decreasing profits. Several examples of
prezentate o serie de exemple ale lipsei de supply chain lack of coordination are
coordonare n lanul de aprovizionare- presented hereinafter. Procter & Gamble
livrare. Procter & Gamble s-a confruntat has experienced the bullwhip effect in the
cu efectul lovitur de bici n lanul su supply chain for its Pampers brand of
de aprovizionare-livrare pentru marca de diapers.
scutece Pampers. The size of the orders of raw
Mrimea comenzilor de materii materials placed by P&G with the
prime transmise furnizorilor de P&G suppliers varied significantly while the
varia semnificativ, n timp ce cererea demand expressed by the consumers at
exprimat de consumatori, la nivelul the retail level was relatively stable. The
comerului cu amnuntul, era relativ fluctuations of the orders for raw
stabil. Fluctuaiile comenzilor de materii materials were larger than those of the
prime erau mai mari dect cele ale cererii market demand for the end product.
pieei pentru produsul finit.

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Efectul lovitur de bici a fost The bullwhip effect was also


observat i de productorul italian de observed by Barilla, the Italian
paste finoase Barilla. Organizaia a manufacturer of pasta. The company
constatat c mrimea comenzilor realized that weekly orders placed by a
sptmnale primite de la un centru de local distribution center varied
distribuie nregistra variaii foarte mari. tremendously. During the year, the ratio
De-a lungul unui an, raportul dintre cea between the smallest and largest weekly
mai mic i cea mai mare comand order placed by the center was 1:70. The
transmis de centrul de distribuie a fost analysis of the weekly sales of the
de 1:70. Analiza vnzrilor sptmnale distribution center based on the orders
ale centrului, pe baza comenzilor primite placed by the supermarkets showed a ratio
de la supermagazine, a indicat o variaie of only 1:3.
de numai 1:3.
n SUA, pe piaa a produselor de On the US grocery market, in the
bcnie, n anii '90, cercetrile au artat c 90s, research studies showed that 80% of
80% din volumul tranzaciilor dintre
the volume of the transactions between
productori i distribuitori reprezentau
manufacturers and distributors were
cumprri n avans n raport cu
bought in advance of requirements,
necesitile, efectuate, de obicei, ca
urmare a preurilor atractive (Kurt Salmon usually due to the attractive prices (Kurt
Associates, 1993). Specialitii au estimat Salmon Associates, 1993). Experts have
c rezultatul cumprrilor n avans s-a estimated that forward buying generated
concretizat n stocuri de 75-100 miliarde 75-100 billion dollars of inventory in the
USD, n sectorul produselor de bcnie grocery industry (Sellers, 1992).
(Sellers, 1992). Another case is Hewlett Packard.
Un alt caz este Hewlett Packard. The company has identified that
Organizaia a constatat c fluctuaiile fluctuations in orders increased
comenzilor sporeau semnificativ pe significantly as they moved upstream
msur ce se transmiteau n amonte, n within the supply chain from the resellers
lanul de aprovizionare-livrare, de la to the printer division and further to the
revnztori la divizia de imprimante i integrated circuit division. The variability
apoi la divizia de circuite integrate. of the orders placed with the circuit
Variaia comenzilor primite de divizia de division was larger than the variability of
circuite era mai mare dect variaia cererii the product demand.
pentru produsul finit. There are industries that experience
Exist sectoare de activitate care the bullwhip effect over longer time
s-au confruntat cu efectul lovitur de intervals.
bici de-a lungul unor intervale mari de An example is the production of
timp. memory chips for personal computers.
De exemplu, n perioada 1985- Between 1985 and 1998, there were at
1998, au existat cel puin dou cicluri n least two cycles within which the prices
care au fluctuat preurile memoriilor, of memory chips have fluctuated by a
ntr-un raport de 1:3. Variaiile au fost factor of three. The variations have been
generate fie de deficite, fie de excedente generated either by shortages or surpluses
de capacitate. Disponibilitatea sczut a in capacity. The low availability of the
produselor a generat o cretere rapid a products has generated a rapid increase in
comenzilor, n timp ce stocurile mari au orders while the large inventories had as
avut drept consecin o scdere rapid a consequence the rapid decrease in
cererii. demand.

30 Amfiteatru Economic
The logistics of merchandise AE
3. Impactul asupra performanei 3. The impact on performance
Efectul lovitur de bici The bullwhip effect has a direct
influeneaz n mod direct indicatorii de influence upon the performance indicators
performan, la fiecare nivel al lanului de at each stage of the supply chain. The
aprovizionare-livrare. Impactul este impact is generated by the conflict
generat de conflictul dintre obiectivele between the objectives of the subsequent
stadiilor succesive ale reelei i de stages and the information distortion. The
distorsionarea informaiilor. Efectul este effect is visible in the variation of costs,
vizibil n variaia costurilor, a intervalului lead time, product availability and
de reaprovizionare, a disponibilitii profitability.
produselor i profitabilitii.
Categoriile majore de costuri The major cost categories affected
afectate de efectul lovitur de bici sunt by the bullwhip effect are the following:
urmtoarele:
a) Costurile de producie. a) Manufacturing costs. The
Productorul i planific activitatea pe baza producer plans its activity based on the
fluxului de comenzi primite de la nivelul stream of orders received from the
imediat din aval (distribuitori/ angrositi / immediate downstream stage
detailiti). Datorit efectului lovitur de (wholesalers/distributors/retailers). Due to
bici, seriile de fabricaie vor nregistra o the bullwhip effect, the production runs
variaie mai mare comparativ cu variaia will witness a larger variability than that
cererii utilizatorului final. Un productor ce specific to the demand of the end-user. A
reacioneaz rapid la schimbrile privind manufacturer that is very responsive to
comenzile primite nu va beneficia de the changes in the received orders does
economii de scal sau de avantajele not enjoy economies of scale and the
produciei continue. Costurile de producie advantages of continuous production runs.
cresc fie datorit capacitii excedentare, fie The manufacturing costs increase due to
datorit surplusului de stocuri. either excess capacity or excess inventory.
b) Costul stocurilor i costurile b) Inventory and warehousing
de depozitare. Efectul lovitur de bici costs. The bullwhip effect increases the
sporete costul stocurilor i costurile de inventory and warehousing costs.
depozitare. In order to meet the variable
Pentru a satisface cererea variabil demand expressed by the downstream
exprimat de nivelurile din avalul levels, suppliers may build higher
lanului, furnizorii vor constitui stocuri inventories. Consequently they will need
mai mari. n consecin, vor avea nevoie additional storage space that will incur a
de spaiu de depozitare suplimentar, care raise in costs.
va implica o cretere a costurilor.
c) Costurile de transport. Variaia c) Transportation costs. The
cererii exprimate de nivelurile lanului de variation in the demand expressed by the
aprovizionare-livrare conduce la creterea supply chain stages implies increased
cheltuielilor de transport. Furnizorii transportation costs. Suppliers must invest
trebuie s investeasc resurse n capaciti resources in additional transportation
de transport suplimentare, pentru a capacity to meet the unexpected demand
satisface creterile neateptate ale cererii. peaks. Either owned by the organization
Capacitatea suplimentar, fie c este or rented for a specific high-demand
proprietatea organizaiei, fie c este period, the extra capacity will entail costs.
nchiriat, va genera costuri.

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d) Costurile cu resursele umane. d) Labor costs. The shipment and


Livrarea i recepia mrfurilor sunt reception of goods are also affected by the
afectate, la rndul lor, de efectul lovitur bullwhip effect. To handle additional
de bici. Pentru a manipula volume volumes of goods, each stage of the
sporite de produse, fiecare nivel al supply chain bears higher costs. This
lanului de aprovizionare-livrare va situation is experienced by companies
suporta costuri mai mari. Organizaiile se irrespective of the method of ensuring the
confrunt cu aceast situaie indiferent de necessary human resources, either
metoda de asigurare a resurselor umane, maintaining excess labor capacity or
ori prin meninerea unei volum hiring temporarily in response to the
excedentar ori prin angajarea temporar, demand variations.
ca rspuns la variaiile cererii.
n acelai timp, intervalul de At the same time, the lead time is
reaprovizionare este influenat de efectul influenced by the bullwhip effect.
lovitur de bici.
Un furnizor are nevoie de timp A supplier needs time to adjust
pentru a ajusta oferta sa, atunci cnd se when it faces an unforeseeable upsurge in
confrunt cu o cretere neateptat a demand. To meet the requests of the
cererii. Pentru a ndeplini solicitrile distributors/wholesalers/retailers at the
distribuitorilor/angrositilor/detailitilor immediate downstream level, a
de la nivelul imediat urmtor din avalul manufacturer may need to start a new
lanului de aprovizionare-livrare, production run and eventually to place
productorul poate avea nevoie s iniieze orders with suppliers of raw materials and
o nou serie de fabricaie i chiar s components. A distributor will place
efectueze comenzi suplimentare la additional orders with the current
furnizorii actuali de materii prime i suppliers and/or contact new suppliers.
componente. Un distribuitor va transmite
comenzi suplimentare furnizorilor actuali
i/sau va contacta noi furnizori.
n lanurile de aprovizionare-livrare In the supply chains affected by the
afectate de efectul lovitur de bici, bullwhip effect, product availability is a
disponibilitatea produselor este un critical issue. The unexpected variability
aspect critic. Variaia neateptat a of customer orders may lead to stockouts
comenzilor clienilor poate conduce la at the supplier level when demand is
rupturi de stoc la nivelul furnizorului, higher than the existing inventory. Thus,
atunci cnd cererea este mai mare dect the members of the supply chain will
stocurile existente. Astfel, membrii loose sales and profits until they are able
lanului de aprovizionare-livrare vor to respond to the end-buyer requests.
nregistra pierderi de vnzri i de profit,
pn cnd vor fi capabili s rspund la
solicitrile cumprtorilor finali.
Efectul lovitur de bici are un The bullwhip effect has a negative
impact negativ asupra profitabilitii. influence on profitability. It affects the
Afecteaz performana fiecrui nivel al performance at each stage of the supply
lanului de aprovizionare-livrare. chain. The magnitude of this effect
Amploarea acestui efect crete ca urmare increases due to the lack of coordination
a lipsei de coordonare dintre membrii between the chain members.
lanului.

32 Amfiteatru Economic
The logistics of merchandise AE
4. Principalele cauze ale efectului 4. The major causes of the bullwhip
lovitur de bici effect
Efectul lovitur de bici este The bullwhip effect is generated by
generat de o gam larg de factori. Este a wide array of factors. It is related to the
legat de politicile de optimizare axate pe focus of the optimization policies on each
fiecare nivel al lanului de aprovizionare- stage of the supply chain without
livrare, fr considerarea unor obiective considering common objectives for the
comune pentru ntreaga reea. entire network.
Printre cauzele majore care conduc Among the major causes that lead
la apariia unui decalaj ntre variaia to a gap between the variability in
cererii i variaia comenzilor la furnizori, demand and in orders to suppliers and to
precum i la amplificarea decalajului the amplification of this gap upwards in
respectiv, pe msur ce comenzile se the network range the following:
transmit din aval spre amonte, se nscriu
urmtoarele:
a) Stimulentele oferite. La fiecare a) Incentives provided. At each
nivel al lanului de aprovizionare-livrare, stage of the supply chain, companies use
organizaiile utilizeaz stimulente pentru a incentives to reward behaviors that lead to
recompensa comportamente ce conduc la the increase in own sales and profitability,
o cretere a propriilor vnzri i profituri, irrespective of the impact on the other
indiferent de impactul asupra altor members of the network. For example, a
membri ai reelei. De exemplu, o company may encourage a decline in the
organizaie poate ncuraja un declin al transportation costs, disregarding the
costurilor de transport, fr a lua n effect on the customer service level and
considerare efectul asupra nivelului de the additional inventory burden for the
servire a clientului i povara stocurilor other chain members.
suplimentare pentru ceilali membri ai
reelei. Another example consists in the
Un alt exemplu const n sales force incentives granted during a
stimulentele pentru fora de vnzri, care promotion period according to the
sunt acordate n decursul unei perioade de quantity sold to the next level of the
promovare a vnzrilor, n funcie de supply chain (sell-in), not to the quantity
cantitatea vndut nivelului imediat sold to the final customers (sell-through).
urmtor din aval, nu n funcie de Such incentives applied by a
cantitatea vndut clienilor finali. Astfel manufacturer will increase the sales to
de stimulente aplicate de productor vor distributors without any consideration of
spori vnzrile ctre distribuitori fr a the end-buyer demand, generating large
avea n vedere cererea cumprtorului variability in the order pattern during and
final i vor genera o mare variaie a after the promotion period.
comenzilor nainte i dup campania
promoional.
b) Distorsionarea informaiilor. b) Information distortion. The
Efectul lovitur de bici este nregistrat bullwhip effect is experienced by
de organizaiile care realizeaz previziuni companies that make forecasts that are
ce se bazeaz pe comenzile primite, nu pe based on orders not on demand and that
cerere, i care nu schimb informaii cu do not share information with the other
ceilali membri ai lanului de members of the supply chain.
aprovizionare-livrare.

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Adesea, organizaiile nu dispun de Often, companies do not have up-


informaii actuale, relevante i suficiente to-date, relevant and sufficient
despre cererea exprimat de utilizatorii information about the demand expressed
finali. Creterea numrului de niveluri din by end-users. The increase in the number
lanul de aprovizionare-livrare, ntre of levels within the supply chain between
organizaie i cumprtorii finali, the company and the end-buyers makes
nrutete situaia. the situation even worse.
n astfel de condiii, organizaiile Under such circumstances, the
previzioneaz vnzrile viitoare pe baza organization forecasts the future sales
celor mai accesibile date, mai precis pe based on the most easily accessible data,
baza comenzilor primite de la clieni din more precisely the orders placed by the
nivelul imediat urmtor din avalul reelei. customers from the immediate
Aceast abordare induce n eroare, downstream level. This approach is
deoarece schimbrile mici ale cererii misleading because small changes in the
finale sunt amplificate atunci cnd final demand are magnified when orders
comenzile sunt transmise n amonte, n move upstream in the supply chain.
lanul de aprovizionare-livrare. De Information distortion is also generated
exemplu, creterea vnzrilor datorit by the lack of data sharing between the
unei campanii de promovare organizate supply chain stages. For example, the
de un lan de hipermagazine fr sales increase due to a promotion
participarea sau informarea organized by a hypermarket chain without
productorului va fi interpretat de acesta the participation or knowledge of the
din urm ca o cretere permanent a producer will be interpreted by the latter
cererii. Consecina va fi un exces de as a permanent augmentation in demand.
stocuri creat de productorul care se The consequence will be excess inventory
ateapt ca sporul respectiv al vnzrilor built by the manufacturer that expects that
s se materializeze i n viitor. higher demand materializes in the future.
c) Practicile privind formularea c) Order placing practices. The
i onorarea comenzilor. Variaia poate variability may increase due to factors
spori datorit unor factori cum sunt such as ordering in large lots, large
efectuarea de comenzi pentru loturi mari, replenishment lead times, rationing and
intervalele de reaprovizionare mai mari, shortage gaming. Ordering in lots larger
practicile de raionalizare i joc n caz than actual demand will amplify the
de penurie. Efectuarea de comenzi pentru bullwhip effect. The reason for ordering
loturi mai mari dect cererea efectiv va quantities larger than the demand is the
amplifica efectul lovitur de bici. propensity towards cost reduction when
Motivul efecturii unor astfel de comenzi placing, receiving or transporting an
este nclinaia spre reducerea costurilor de order. The longer the lead time, the
efectuare a comenzii, de recepie i stronger the bullwhip effect because the
transport. Cu ct este mai mare timpul de supplier incorporates the variability of a
reaprovizionare, cu att este mai puternic larger demand volume (for example an
efectul lovitur de bici, deoarece order for one month instead of an order
furnizorul ncorporeaz variaia unui for one week). The rationing schemes add
volum mai mare de comenzi (de exemplu, variability in situation of scarce supply of
o comand pentru o lun, n loc de o product.
comand pentru o sptmn). Schemele
de raionalizare adaug variabilitate n
situaiile de deficit de produse.

34 Amfiteatru Economic
The logistics of merchandise AE
Conform unei astfel de practici, According to such a practice, the
furnizorul aloc fiecrui client solicitant, supplier allocates the available product
din volumul disponibil de produse, pe quantity to the customers based on the
baza ponderii comenzii acestuia n share of their orders in the overall volume
volumul total al comenzilor primite. of the orders received.
Totui, clienii care cunosc faptul However, the customers who know
c furnizorul aplic o schem de about the rationing scheme may apply
raionalizare vor recurge la practici de gaming practices that inflate the orders
joc ce vor consta n creterea hoping to get more of the scarce resource.
comenzilor peste nevoia real, n sperana Thus, the supplier has a distorted image
de a obine o cantitate mai mare din about the market demand and may
resursa deficitar. Astfel, furnizorul are o incorrectly perceive the increase in orders
imagine deformat asupra cererii pieei i as a demand augmentation.
poate percepe n mod incorect creterea
comenzilor ca fiind o cretere a cererii.
d) Politicile de pre. Reducerile de d) Price policies. The quantity
pre aplicate de furnizori n funcie de discounts applied by suppliers may shift
volumul comenzilor pot produce mutaii the demand expressed by the next levels
n cererea exprimat de nivelurile din within the chain. An attractive price
avalul lanului de aprovizionare-livrare. during a short-term promotion will
Un pre atractiv oferit n cadrul unei stimulate customers to order quantities
promovri de scurt durat i va stimula larger than the actual demand. The peak
pe clieni s comande cantiti mai mari period in the shipments made by supplier
dect cererea efectiv. Perioada de vrf is followed by an interval with fewer
n privina livrrilor realizate de furnizor shipments and lower sales.
va fi urmat de un interval cu mai puine
comenzi i vnzri mai mici.
e) Comportamentul membrilor e) Behavior of the supply chain
lanului de aprovizionare-livrare. members. The magnitude of the bullwhip
Amploarea efectului lovitur de bici effect also depends on the learning
depinde totodat de problemele de problems within the organizations that
nvare din cadrul organizaiilor membre participate to the supply chain. The
ale lanului de aprovizionare-livrare. companies do not learn from the bullwhip
Organizaiile respective nu nva din effect because the consequences of the
efectul lovitur de bici deoarece actions taken at a particular stage occur in
consecinele aciunilor ntreprinse la un another part of the supply chain. The lack
anumit nivel se manifest n alte pri ale of trust between the members of the
lanului de aprovizionare-livrare. Lipsa de supply chain encourages the opportunistic
ncredere n membrii lanului de approach of each stage and a focus on
aprovizionare livrare ncurajeaz local optimization.
abordarea oportunist la fiecare nivel i
concentrarea asupra optimizrii locale.
Toate cauzele menionate amplific All the above mentioned causes
efectul lovitur de bici i conduc la o amplify the bullwhip effect and lead to an
sub-optimizare pe ansamblul lanului de under-optimization of the entire chain.
aprovizionare-livrare.

Nr. 24 Iunie 2008 35


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Organizaiile care acioneaz The companies acting on the


asupra simptomelor ce sunt vizibile la symptoms that are visible at their stage
nivelul lor, n cadrul reelei, nu asupra not on the actual causes incur higher costs
cauzelor efective, vor suporta costuri mai and lower profitability until the moment
mari i vor avea o profitabilitate mai when they decide to act upon the real
mic, pn n momentul n care vor causes and adopt a supply chain
decide s acioneze asupra cauzelor reale perspective.
i s adopte o perspectiv axat pe
ntregul lan de aprovizionare-livrare.

5. mbuntirea coordonrii n lanul 5. Improved coordination in the supply


de aprovizionare-livrare chain
n prezent, filosofia managementului At present, the philosophy of the
lanului de aprovizionare - livrare subliniaz supply chain management (SCM)
c obiectivul oricrui lan este maximizarea underlines that the objective of every
valorii totale generate de membri pentru chain is to maximize the overall value
companiile lor i clieni. Managementul generated by the members to their
lanului de aprovizionare-livrare presupune companies and customers. SCM implies
gestiunea fluxurilor de informaii i managing the material and information
fluxurilor materiale astfel nct s fie flows in order to maximize the total
maximizat profitabilitatea reelei n supply chain profitability (Balan, 2006).
ansamblul ei (Blan, 2006). n esen, In essence, SCM is based on the
managementul lanului de aprovizionare- idea of cooperation among subsequent
livrare se bazeaz pe ideea cooperrii ntre stages and on external integration.
nivelurile succesive i pe integrarea extern.
Din aceast perspectiv, un grad From such a perspective, a higher
mai nalt de coordonare i integrare va degree of coordination and integration
avea ca rezultat direct o scdere will have as direct result a substantial
substanial a efectului lovitur de bici. decrease in the bullwhip effect.
Pentru a stimula coordonarea n In order to increase coordination in
lanul de aprovizionare - livrare, organizaiile the supply chain, companies may apply
pot s aplice urmtoarele strategii: the following strategies:
a) Alinierea scopurilor i a) Alignment of goals and
stimulentelor. Fiecare organizaie poate incentives. Each company may align its
alinia (corela) scopurile i stimulentele, goals and incentives, in order to maximize
pentru a maximiza efectele pozitive pe the positive effects at the supply chain
ansamblul lanului de aprovizionare- level, not at the local level of a specific
livrare, nu doar la nivelul propriu din chain stage. On one side, inside the
reea. Pe de o parte, n interiorul company, the objectives of each function
organizaiei, obiectivele fiecrei funcii are aligned with the corporate objectives.
sunt aliniate cu obiectivele generale On the other side, each member
corporative. Pe de alt parte, fiecare may apply strategies that will maximize
membru poate aplica strategii care the chain profits, such as buy-back,
maximizeaz profiturile reelei, cum ar fi revenue sharing and quantity flexibility
recumprarea produselor, mprirea contracts.
beneficiilor i contractele de flexibilitate
n privina cantitilor.

36 Amfiteatru Economic
The logistics of merchandise AE
b) Comunicarea datelor ntre b) Data sharing among members.
membri. n sectorul bunurilor de consum, In the consumer goods sector, sharing
comunicarea datelor despre vnzrile cu point of sales data will enhance the
amnuntul, obinute prin sistemul de capability of the supply chain stages to
scanare la casele de marcat, va spori cope with the bullwhip effect. The use of
capacitatea diferitelor niveluri ale lanului appropriate information technology
de a face fa efectului lovitur de bici. solution will ensure for each level more
Utilizarea unor soluii IT adecvate asigur accurate, sufficient and up-to-date
pentru fiecare nivel, informaii mai information about the market demand.
precise, suficiente i actuale despre
cererea pieei.
c) Reaprovizionarea controlat c) Single stage control of
de un singur stadiu al lanului de replenishment. This strategy consists in
aprovizionare-livrare. Aceast strategie selecting only one stage that makes the
const n selectarea unui singur nivel care replenishment decision for the entire
s adopte decizia de reaprovizionare chain. A possible alternative are the
pentru toate nivelurile din lanul de continuous replenishment programs,
aprovizionare-livrare. O variant posibil according to which the wholesaler or the
const n programele de reaprovizionare manufacturer has the responsibility to
continu, conform crora angrosistul sau regularly replenish the retailer inventory
productorul are responsabilitatea de a based on point of sale data or withdrawals
completa periodic stocul detailistului, pe of merchandise from the retailer
baza datelor de la punctele de vnzare, warehouses.
sau de a retrage mrfuri din depozitele
detailistului.
O alt strategie aplicabil este Another potential alternative
stocul gestionat de vnztor, potrivit strategy is the vendor-managed inventory
creia deciziile de reaprovizionare sunt according to which the replenishment
centralizate pentru toi detailitii, la decisions for all retailers are centralized at
nivelul unui distribuitor sau productor the level of the upstream distributor or
din amonte. Astfel, sunt evitate sau manufacturer. The large fluctuations in
diminuate substanial fluctuaiile mari ale orders are thus avoided or substantially
comenzilor. reduced.
d) Strategiile de mbuntire a d) Strategies for the
performanelor operaionale. Efectul improvement of the operational
lovitur de bici este diminuat de decizii performance. The bullwhip effect is
cum sunt: reducerea intervalului de diminished by decisions such as: reducing
reaprovizionare; scderea dimensiunii replenishment lead time, reducing lot
loturilor comandate; raionalizarea pe sizes, rationing based on past sales not on
baza vnzrilor anterioare, nu pe baza share of orders, information sharing to
comenzilor; schimburile de informaii limit gaming.
pentru a limita jocul.
e) Stabilizarea comenzilor cu e) Stabilizing orders with
ajutorul unor strategii de pre appropriate pricing strategies. Instead
adecvate. n locul reducerilor de pre of discounts provided according to the
oferite clienilor n funcie de volumul quantity of each ordered lot, suppliers
fiecrui lot comandat, furnizorii pot may consider the discounts based on the
s considere reducerile bazate pe ntreaga

Nr. 24 Iunie 2008 37


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cantitate comandat de clientul de la overall quantity ordered by the customer


nivelul imediat urmtor din aval, ntr-o from the next downstream level during a
anumit perioad, de exemplu un an. specified period, such as a year. Thus, the
Astfel, furnizorul nu ncurajeaz un supplier does not encourage a behavior
comportament ce amplific variaia n that amplifies variability within the chain.
lanul de aprovizionare-livrare. Reorientarea Shifting from the lot size-based to
de la reducerile de pre acordate n funcie volume-based quantity discounts
de volumul comenzii, la reducerile n suppliers positively impact the overall
funcie de volumul total al comenzilor chain performance.
dintr-un anumit interval va avea un
impact pozitiv asupra performanei
ntregului lan de aprovizionare-livrare.
f) Crearea de parteneriate f) Building strategic partnerships
strategice i dezvoltarea ncrederii. n and trust. At present, marketers
prezent, specialitii n marketing underline the importance of relationship
subliniaz importana marketingului marketing.
relaional. The main objectives (Grnroos,
Principalele obiective (Grnroos, 1994) followed by the organizations
1994) ale organizaiilor care aplic applying relationship marketing strategies
strategiile de marketing relaional sunt are to identify and establish, maintain and
identificarea, stabilirea, meninerea, enhance and, when necessary, terminate
dezvoltarea i, atunci cnd este necesar, relationships with customers and other
terminarea relaiilor cu clienii i alte stakeholders, at a profit so that the goals
categorii de tip stakeholder, n mod of all parties involved are met. This is
profitabil, astfel nct scopurile tuturor done by mutual exchange and fulfillment
prilor implicate s fie ndeplinite. of promises. The supply chain
Aceste lucruri sunt posibile prin schimb management is closely related to the
reciproc i ndeplinirea promisiunilor. relationship marketing philosophy.
Managementul lanului de aprovizionare-
livrare este strns legat de filosofia
marketingului relaional.
Incidena i amplitudinea efectului The incidence and amplitude of the
lovitur de bici pot fi diminuate cu bullwhip effect may be reduced by
ajutorul unor strategii i decizii strategies and decisions that are
armonizate ntre diferitele niveluri ale harmonized along the stages of the supply
lanului de aprovizionare-livrare. chain. The key words are cooperation,
Cuvintele cheie sunt cooperare, coordination, communication and trust.
coordonare, comunicare i ncredere.

Concluzii Conclusions
Articolul a explorat principalele The article has explored the major
cauze care genereaz efectul lovitur de causes that generate the bullwhip effect
bici i impactul su asupra performanei and the impact upon the supply chain
lanului de aprovizionare-livrare. performance. At the same time, it has
Totodat, au fost abordate aspecte approached the coordination issue in
referitoare la coordonare, n scopul order to diminish the bullwhip effect.
diminurii efectului lovitur de bici.

38 Amfiteatru Economic
The logistics of merchandise AE
Amploarea i influena efectului pe The size and influence of the
piaa romneasc nu au fost studiate n bullwhip effect on the Romanian market
mod aprofundat. Unele dintre aspectele have not been studied thoroughly. Some
principale ce pot constitui teme de of the main aspects that may represent
cercetare pentru viitoare studii sunt research topics for future studies are
enumerate n continuare: presented below:
incidena efectului lovitur de incidence of the bullwhip effect
bici n diferite sectoare de activitate; in various industries;
impactul efectului lovitur de actual impact of the bullwhip
bici asupra performanei fiecrei effect on the performance of each
organizaii din lanul de aprovizionare- company within a supply chain and on the
livrare i asupra profitului ntregii reele; profitability of the entire network;
obstacolele concrete n calea actual obstacles to coordination
coordonrii n lanul de aprovizionare- within the supply chain;
livrare; methods applied by market
metodele aplicate de operatorii players to diminish the impact of the
pieei pentru a diminua impactul efectului bullwhip effect;
lovitur de bici; benchmarking with the best
compararea cu cele mai bune practices of supply chain coordination in
practici din Romnia i de pe plan Romania and abroad;
mondial, n domeniul coordonrii ntre alternative methods for building
nivelurile lanului de aprovizionare- partnerships among the members of the
livrare; supply chain;
metode alternative de creare a IT solutions for information
parteneriatelor dintre membrii lanului de sharing etc.
aprovizionare-livrare; The results of such studies may
soluii IT pentru comunicarea i contribute to the better understanding of
utilizarea n comun a informaiilor etc. the bullwhip phenomenon as well as to
Rezultatele unor astfel de studii pot the profitable management of resources in
contribui la mai buna nelegere a the entire supply chain. Organizations will
fenomenului lovitur de bici, precum i switch from competing alone in the
la managementul profitabil al resurselor market to competing with the network to
de-a lungul ntregului lan de which they belong against other supply
aprovizionare-livrare. chains.
Pe plan mondial, un numr tot mai Worldwide, an ever greater number
mare de specialiti consider beneficiile of specialists consider the benefits of
cooperrii i integrrii externe n lanul de cooperation and external integration in the
aprovizionare-livrare. Impactul negativ al supply chains.
efectului lovitur de bici scade treptat, The negative impact of the
pe msur ce organizaiile nva s aplice bullwhip effect diminishes gradually as
strategii de marketing relaional i s pun companies learn to apply relationship
bazele unor parteneriate reciproc marketing strategies and build mutually
avantajoase. Membrii lanului de beneficial partnerships. The supply chain
aprovizionare-livrare pot reduce members may reduce information
distorsionarea informaiilor i mbunti distortion and improve profitability only
profitabilitatea numai prin politici by harmonized policies and joined
armonizate i reunirea resurselor. resources.

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Nota de final
1
Termenul bullwhip este originar din limba englez. O traducere echivalent n limba
romn ar putea fi lovitur de bici sau lovitur de crava. Aceti termeni pot fi utilizai
pentru capacitatea lor de a sugera variaia mai mare a comenzilor transmise furnizorilor,
comparativ cu variaia cererii la nivelul final al lanului de aprovizionare livrare. Sintagma
lovitur de bici evoc traiectoria sinusoidal a biciului n momentul utilizrii sale i
generarea unui efect semnificativ la captul biciului printr-un efort relativ mic de
manevrare a mnerului acestuia.

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40 Amfiteatru Economic