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Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE

International Conference on Control Applications

WM2-1 1:OO Anchorage, Alaska, USA September 25-27,2000

Production Plan & Schedule System used in Modern Refinery CIMS

Gang Xiong, Timo R. Nyberg and Guang-Yu Xiong

Paper Machine Automation, Automation and Control Institute,

Tampere University of Technologv, P. 0. Box 692,
FIN-33101 Tampere. Finland
Email: gangoad. and

Abstract: Firstly, production plan and scheduling system used in grease. As the production material of paraffin wax material,
refinery CIMS is discussed, where production procedure process, wax grease can be changed into different paraffin wax
basic production characters, refinery production and products after being processed by sweating, refining and
administration, its activity types are introduced, an refinery moulding. Reforming device, thermal cracking device and
integrated production plan and schedule system is put forward, its catalytic cracking devices are the secondary operation
problem solving process is discussed in detail. Next, a kind of devices in refinery. Reforming device uses light component
integration framework used in refinery CIMS and its computing
environment are put forward and analysed. At the end of the from the top of evaporation tower as input material, to
paper, some conclusions are drawn out. produce aromatic hydrocarbon product and high-octane
Keywords: Production plan & scheduling, MRPII, Just in time, gasoline steadily. Thermal cracking device and catalytic
Computer integrated manufacturing system, Refinery cracking device use heavy components as material, change
them into light components (gasoline, diesel oil) by
catalytic crack and thermal crack [I].
1.1 Production Process of Refinery 1.2 Basic Production Characters of Refinery

Refinery is typical continuous production system, it aims to All the refinery production is processed in different kinds of
change crude oil into different petroleum products. At devices, oil tanks and pipelines.
present, the main refinery types are those that process fuel 1) Refinery has long procedure and complex structure,
oil, lubricating oil and paraffin, the main production crude oil can be changed into fuel oil, lubrication oil
process can be described as Fig.1. Crude oil is firstly and paraffin wax product by several sets of production
processed by ordinary pressure device, reduced pressure devices, complex procedure process; The same product
device (they belong to first-time process devices, which can be processed by different production ways [ 2 ] .
includes evaporation tower, ordinary pressure tower, 2 ) There are more than one hundred types of product,
reduced pressure tower), and be divided into different most of which are compound products except for
distillation cuts through distillation principle. Then, those paraffin wax product. For example, by combining
cuts are output through different bypasses of different about ten kinds of basic oil, we can get more than one
devices. Its lighter component, which is output from the top hundred types of different lubricating oil.
of evaporation tower, every bypass of ordinary pressure 3) The enterprise aims at the following objective: material
device and first bypass of reduced pressure device, can be equilibrium, energy equilibrium, safety and high
used directly as the component oil of gasoline, kerosene efficient, low cost and good quality, and optimised
and diesel oil etc. Distillation cut of ordinary pressure I11 operation of technological process, etc.
bypass can be used as light lubricating oil. The heavy
component, which is output from the bypasses of reduced 1.2 Refinery Productions and Administration
pressure 11, 111, IV and V, can be used as the production
material of lubricating oil. The residual oil from reduced 1) Refinery production and administration relate to wide
pressure device can be used as heavy lubricating oil or extent and large span. About decision extent, there are
second operation material after asphalt is put off in propane routine ones (such as production plan, production
device. Lubricating oil material can be changed into basic schedule) and non routine ones (such as enterprise
lubricating oil by way of extraction, refrigeration, filtration development plan, administration etc.); About time
and adsorption of ketone-benzol dewaxing device, pollard- extent, there are short term (several days), periodical
aldehyde refining device and argilhydrogenation refining term (month, season, year etc.) and long term (several
device. After dewaxing process, lubricating oil from the years, several ten years); From space extent, there are
bypass of reduced pressure I1 device is changed into wax
0-7803-6562-3/00$10.0002000IEEE 754
fuel oil production system, lubricating oil production urgent need of international market, the economical
system and paraffin wax production system. analysis of a new product development etc.) [3].
2) Refinery production and administration should
consider different inner factors, outer factors. On one 2. Refinery Integrated Production Plan and
hand, we should consider a serial of problems related Schedule System
to production system (production device, oil tank,
product, procedure flow, production cost etc.). On the
other hand, we should consider business environment, 2.1 Its Overall Architecture
such as government plan, market requirement (such as
crude oil, product type, price, supplyldemand etc.) etc. Refinery integrated production plan and schedule system
can support refinery production management and decision
3) How will enterprises decision affect its economic process, especially to provide the support for decision
benefit? For example, when a refinery annually
produce oil that amounts to one hundred millions making. The overall architecture of refinery integrated
US$, 1% crease of its production and administration production plan and schedule system, which can realize the
level means to make extra profit amounts to one previous objectives, is shown as Fig.2. The basic functions
million US$. of the system are:
1) Provide efficient supporting for routine decision
4) More often that outer environment in market economy problems. Refinery production and administration,
condition is changing, more unpredicted decision
problems need be solved. which includes some basic decision activities, such as
annual, seasonal and monthly plan, the making and
adjustment of storage plan, the arrangement of
1.3 Production and Administration Activity Types of
production work plan.
a Refinery Enterprise Provide efficient supporting for non-routine decision
problems, which includes enterprise development
1) Making its development plan is one important strategy program making, some administration and production
decision of an enterprise, which will decide decision making that are related to crude oil and
enterprises development direction. Its optimal scheme product etc. For non-routine decision problem, the
is decided by enterprise development direction and system can provide decision support for all problem
suitable procedure flow, which includes new device solving processes, such as to make decision direction
type & size, its connection with existing procedure clearer, to form decision processes, and to give out a
flow, device assort, product selection, and crude oil solution or an explanation for a problem.
selection etc.
2) Making annual, monthly production plan & storage 2.2 Mathematical Description of the Problem Building
plan of an enterprise. Production and administration
activities on this level mainly deal with long term or Process [4-51
middle term production plan of an enterprise. Its
objective is to maximize its profits, which can meet Suppose that I c R is the decision intent space, P c R
with its outer and inner constraints at the same time. is the decision problem space, S c R P is the solution
3) Making production work plan. Production plan deals space. Management problems are divided into two
with production arrangement during a period of time situations. For the problem that can give out p E P directly,
(year, month etc.), decides its optimal product structure
and processing method in a given device and condition. its problem solving means to build a mapping relationship g
Production plan is realized by daily production between space P and space S:
arrangement, this kind of concrete and clear short time g : P - + S Or s = g ( p ) , p E P , s E S (1)
executing plan is production work plan, which is For actual application problem, normally h cant be built
needed, in production scheduling of a refinery. directly, but if we can build a mapping relationship f
Production work plan deals with how to arrange each between space I and space P,
production device during one period of time, to f : I + P Or p = f ( i ) ,i E I , p E P (2)
minimize its running cost, to meet product delivery And a mapping relationship g between space P and space S ,
plan, and product process flow constraints at the same then:
time. h = g * f s = g ( f ( i ) ) i, E I , s E S (3 )
4) Production administration and decision mainly solves so called ,,problem forming process,, or ,,intent decision
the urgent decision problem that is mentioned ahead. process,, is to build a mapping relationship bemeen I and p.
The decision problem includes crude oil processing ,,problem solving process,, is to build a mapping
decision (Such as refining high cost oil, substituting relationship g between P and S . Here, we mainly discuss
refining, combining refining etc.) and product decision about how to build a mapping relationship f.
(Such as to organize a special production to meet the

Suppose I c RI, P c RI are the "decision intent" space and the basic decision knowledge used in problem recognition
the "decision problem'' space corresponding to one special and intent decision supporting. Knowledge express way
application area. Normally, it is difficult to build the should be selected for users convince. The knowledge
mapping relationship f directly (Or we need not provide includes circumstances setting knowledge; enlighten
intent decision support). But, for space I, we can build a knowledge, association knowledge, association-
conjunction knowledge and element - process related
space A c R" ,their mapping relationship is f , : knowledge etc. Problem building inference engine applies
A : I - + A O ra = f , ( i ) , i E I , a E A (4) problem building knowledge for reasonable inference.
Where, A is a space composed of m "factors" ("factors"
refer to the different sections of "decision intent", such as 2.4 Problem Solving Process
time, profits etc.); On the other hand, for space P, we can
build a space E c R" that includes a mapping relation f , : The input of the problem solving system is the problem
description framework for routine decision problem, which
f , : E + P Or p = f , ( e ) , e E E , p E P (5) is drawn from problem building process, or the basic
Where E is a space composed of n "factors", which is decision process type & problem description framework for
related to deciding a "decision problem". non-routine decision problem. Based on the basic decision
If we can find a mapping relationship f,between space A process type and problem describing framework, the
and space E: objective of the problem solving system it to organize
f , : A + E Or e = f , ( a ) , a E A , e E E (6) related knowledge, module and process etc. according to
corresponding problem, and to realize integrated problem
Then: f = f , * f , * f, solving process. Its function structure is composed of two
In fact, for an actual application area, there exists f , or f, parts: (1) System main component is composed of problem
can be built, so "problem building " means decide/ build solving knowledge base and problem sloving inference
space I, A, E, P and their corresponding mapping engine; (2) Some basic modules used in problem solving
relationship f , , f , and f , . The problem building process process. Problem solving inference engine calls related
is: modules and processes through problem solving knowledge
(control type knowledge) according to concrete decision
f,:I+A; f,:A+E; f, :E+P; f :I+P (7) problem, to realize a special problem solving process.
For an actual application area, if we can decide /build set I,
A, E, P and their mapping relationship f , , f,, f , then we 3 A Kind of Integrated Framework of Refinery
can build DSS (Decision Support System) that can provide CIMS
intent decision supporting for the application area. It is not
difficult to decidebuild set I, A, E and P, the main problem
is how to decidehuild the mapping relationship f , , f,and 3.1 Integrated Framework
f,. Normally, f , and f, both are one full mapping, f , is Refinery belongs to refining production, which mainly
one fuzzy mapping relationship. The concrete forms of f , , changes physics, chemical property of crude oil. Its
f , and f , are decided by concrete application area. production mode belongs to flow and large-scale one, is a
typical continuous production. The integration framework
of refinery CIMS is created as Fig.4. It begins from crude
2.3 The Main Structure of the Problem Building
oil input to oil tank, to ordinary & reduced pressure
System distillation, catalytic cracking, charking, reforming
hydrogenation, gas recovery, MTBE, alkylation,
The main objective of the problem building system is to superposition device etc. successively, then to middle
provide intent decision supporting in refinery production product tank area, half-product tank area, oil concoction
and administration environment, its main objectives are: device, oil product tank area, oil product delivery and
(1) Recognize routine decision problem, build problem public project etc. Control, simulation computation and
description framework; optimal operation of all production processes include
(2) Support non-routine decision problem when it is intent administration & decision system according to enterprise's
decision problem, analyse the type of decision problem inner and outer environment, such as upper order, market
when the problem is solvable or give out explanation information, production ability. The integration framework
when the problem system cannot be solved. of refinery CIMS is composed of overall plans system,
The main structure of the problem building system is shown production schedule system, oil storage and delivery
as Fig.3, which is composed of four function modules. User
system, laboratory system and management information
language interface realizes the dialogue between the decider system etc.
and a computer, so its design should let the decider feel (1) Production plan system: Make refinery annual, seasonal
natural and convenient, not crudity and pressing. Problem and monthly production plan mainly by linear programming
building knowledge is the base of system function; it stores method, to realize enterprise overall optimisation.
( 2 ) Production scheduling system: To get a five-day work information integration model, in which the cliendserver
scheduling by decomposition according to monthly plan. computing mode is used [3].
The system uses non-linear production process simulation
software. For example: Petrofina of UK KBC company is a 4. Conclusions
refinery simulation software modelled by flow net, which
includes a lot of combined modules. Those modules In this paper, production plan and scheduling system of
correspond to some standalone objects of refinery, such as refinery CIMS is discussed, where production procedure
procedure device, concoction device, tank etc., integrate process, basic production characters, refinery production
them by material flow to simulate and optimise refinery and administration, its activity types are introduced, an
production. Petrofina's running needs a lot of crude oil refinery integrated production plan and schedule system is
evaluation data and procedure parameters, which are put forward, its problem solving process is discussed in
provided by real-time database and relational database, its detail. Next, a kind of integration framework used in
scheduling and optimised parameters directly control refinery and its advanced computing environment are put
production, and give a feedback to production plan system forward and discussed.
to modify production plan. It is certainly that our discussion here can help to solve the
(3) Process monitor system: The system includes interface main problems of CIMS. But, our discussion here is
with DCS (Distributed Control System) of production relatively simple, we still need further research result before
device and public project, or other control device. The we can create practically use the system in refinery CIMS.
system displays, operates and manages technical running
parameters, optimised process operation and advanced ACKONLEDGEMENT
control, process fault diagnosis & prediction etc. Process
optimised operation is one important objective of modem This research is partly supported by three resources. The project
refinery CIMS. supported by The Academy of Finland: "Integrated Modelling and
(4) Oil storage system: The system includes monitor Overall Optimisation of Strategic Automation System used in
systems of middle tank, half product tank, product tank, Modem Pulp & Paper Industry (MPPI)". The project of Process
crude oil tank, crude oil concoction system, finished oil Integration Program supported TEKES, FINLAND: "Novel
delivery station, oil dock management system etc. Where, Information Integration Technologies (NIIT) for Strategic
crude oil concoction is based on crude oil valuation data, oil Automation System (SAS) used in Modern Pulp & Paper Industry
concoction decides concoction and storage scheduling (MPPI)". Chinese High-Technology Development Foundation:
"Intelligent Production and Optimised Scheduling System based
scheme according to market need, price, and profit and oil
on PushPull Production Mode used in Process Industry".
resource. And, we should establish oil loss control data
coordination system to coordinate all oil delivery data.
( 5 ) Chemical examination and quality management system:
The system has interface with automatic analysis
instrument, which manages chemical examination (1) Gang Xiong, " The architecture and intelligent tools of CIPS
and their Applications," Doctor Dissertation, Shanghai Jiao
operation, and chemical examination data, to realize TQC
Tong University, China. 1996.10
(Total Quality Control) of crude oil, intermediate oil and (2) Fujii, MJwasaki, R., and Yoshitake, A.(1992). "The Refinery
finished oil. At present, most chemical examination data is Management System Under the Concept of Computer Integrated
input to computer by human-machine interface. Chemical Manufacturing", National Petroleum Refiners Association
examination data of automatic analysis instrument should Computer Conference, Washington, DC.
be sent to real time database by network. Real time (3) Kemper M. IBM Refinery Management System for the
database is combined with production data automatically Hungarian MOL Refinery, Erdoel Erdgas Kohle, ISSN 0179-
according to sampling time, and they are sent into history 3187, 113(6) (in German). 1997
database, which is the base of quality management. (4). Gang Xiong, Xiao-ming Xu etc. INTELLIGENT
(6) Management information system: The system includes
DEWAXING DEVICE. International Journal of Chinese
material supply, delivery & sell, property, maintenance, Chemical Engineering. No.2 1998 pp 149- 159
power plant, environment protection, engineering ( 5 ) Gang Xiong, Xiao-ming Xu, Guo-rong Huang, Xin-qi Fang
management, labour and capital, personnel, overall and Xin He. Intelligent Control System used in Energy Saving of
statistical analysis, file management etc. Distillation Separation. Control and Instruments in Chemical
Industry. (ISSN 1000-3932) Vo1.23 No.6 1996 pp21-25
3.2 Advanced Computing Environment (6) Gang Xiong. The Theories and Technologies of CIMS in
Process Industry. Postdoctoral report. Institute of Industrial
Process Control, Zhejiang University. 1998.7
The information integration model of the refinery is built by
(7) MO, Y. W., and Xiao, D.Y. "A Model-driven Approach to
the model-driven method [7]. The model is the design Information Integration in Continuous Process Industries",
guidance of CIMS the realization in the enterprise. Fig.5 Proceedings of the 14Ih World Congress of ZFAC, Beijing, P. R.
depicts the computing environment for the realization of the China, Vol. A, 1999 pp.115-120

7 57
Light kerosene product
Thermal crack Heavy keroseneproduci

Fig. I Refinery production process flow

I Man machine interface I


Problem building & solving control

Database, knowledge

Production schedule
Problem building expert system

Fig.2 Overall architecture of refinery integrated production plan and scheduling system

User language interface

Problem building inference engine

Circumstances Association Pioblem

............................................................................. ............................

management system

Fig.3 Main structure of problem building system

................................................................................................................................................. i

Administration and decision level

1-1 1 Outer information
Decision supporting Crude oil information

Management level
I Environment protection
I Personnel nianagenient
Crude oil I I I I
evaluation Repair plan Material supply plan Energy plan
I Production plan
1 I
Oil loss data coordination
I I..............................................................
Oil storage management

Process monitor level
Maintenance Chemical
examination -

Oil Oil Oil monitor,

2 control storage control management - oil dock


Oil tank area Delivery Oil storage

station and dock

Fig.4 The architecture framework of refinery CIMS

B u s i n e s s Information System N
Supplier Finance Accounting Decision Support +E
Distributor Marketing Crude Supply

Government Computing
- General Planning
R e f i n e r y Management S y s t e m
Refinery Operations Accounting
P r o d u c t ion PI a n n i n g l s chedul i n g / O p t im izat ion
Market in&
-Performance Monitoring
A A r W Supply
A PI a n n i n g
N Scheduling

DCS Distributed Control System

1 IElectronic F i l e

1 Laboratory Process U til ities Tanks

Blending &
Shipping I
Fig. 5 The computing environment of refinery CIMS