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- Hybrid Pid
- ENGD3038 - Tosional
- 3BUS094495 Lo Noout
- Controller Tuning
- Articulo Mecatronica
- A Tdof Pid Control System Design by Referring To
- Avr
- 153.pdf
- B4_Grupo3_Informe1
- Fuzzy+Tuning+of+Pid+Controller(Pakya)
- From PID to Active Disturbance Rejection Control
- ho1999.pdf
- 1 PID Tuning
- HW10
- 1. PID and Fuzzy.pdf
- Anti-Windup Schemes for Proportional Integral and Proportional Resonant Controller
- A New Pid Controller Auto-tuning Method
- Control notes 09 auto tuning
- Pso_controller
- Speed Observer System for Advanced Sensor Less Control of IM

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Control and Automation (ICCA)

Santiago, Chile, December 19-21, 2011

for Robot Manipulators

Xiaoou Li, Wen Yu

Abstract This paper addresses the iterative tuning Most robot manipulators employed in industrial oper-

method of PID control for the robot manipulator based on ations are controlled by PID algorithms independently at

the responses of the closed loop system. Several properties each joint [23]. Compared with the above linear systems-

of the robot control are used, such as any PD control can

stabilize a robot in regulation case, the colsed-loop system based tuning algorithms, there are some difficulties to

of PID control can be approximated by a linear system, design a systematic tuning method for robot PID control

and the control torque to the robot manipulator is linearly Robot manipulators are strong nonlinear systems, and

independent of the robot dynamic. By using these properties,

a novel systematic turning method for the PID control is the torque of one joint affects the other and vice versa.

proposed. Simulations and experimental results of an upper If the gains are tuned heuristically [25], Cohen-Coon

limb exoskeleton give validation of this PID tuning method. method [4] and optimization [12] methods. There are

too many gains to tune simultaneously for robot. A

I. I NTRODUCTION 6-degrees-of-freedom robot manipulator has 18 gains

to be tuned. When one gain is tuned, it requires to

The proportinal-integral-derivative (PID) control has tune the other 17 gains in turn because of dynamics

simple structure and clear physical meanings for its three coupling in robot.

gains. The control performances are acceptable in the most Based on stability analysis, the upper bounds of

of industrial processes. It has been used in more than PD gains and lower bound of derivative gain can

90% of various practical control systems [1][2]. Three be derived. However, these bounds cannot guarantee

parameters of PID controller are tuned such that the desired performances.

performances at transient, including rise-time, overshoot,

and settling time, steady-state error, are satisfied, mean- There are few research regarding PID gains tuning

while the closed-loop system is stable and robust against for robot manipulators. PID tuning algorithms cannot be

plant modeling uncertainty and disturbances. The study on used straight because the responses are nonlinear. The

tuning methods of PID controller mainly focused on linear intelligent techniques have been applied for PID gains

systems [19]. The tuning methods for PID controllers can tuning, for example fuzzy logic [22], neural networks

be grouped according to their nature and usage: [14] and genetic method [11], but the final controllers are

Analytical methods: PID parameters are calculated

no longer linear PID, they become complete intelligent

from analytical or algebraic relations between a plant control systems. Another PID tuning method for robots

model and an objective [5][6][16]. is impedance control [13], which first uses inverse dy-

Heuristic methods: These are evolved from practical

namics to transfer the robot into a linear system. Then

experience in manual tuning [25][4][2], and from some mechanical impedance ideas are applied to tune

artificial intelligence techniques [22][14][11]. PID gains. In [5] discrete-time approximation of inverse

Frequency response methods: frequency characteris-

dynamics was calculated such that PID parameters could

tics of the controlled process are used to tune the PID be adjusted. Lyapunov approach was used in [7] to adjust

controller [20]. PID controller such that it follows linearization control. All

Optimization methods: These can be regarded as a

above methods need the models of robot manipulators, and

special type of optimal control, where PID parameters their PID controllers do not have clear physical meaning.

are obtained ad hoc using an offline numerical In this paper, three important properties of PID control

optimization [12]. of robot manipulator are applied for PID gains turning.

Adaptive tuning methods: These are for automated 1) Any PD controller can stabilize a robot in regulation

online tuning, using one or a combination of the case when its gains are positive

previous methods based on real-time identification 2) The behavior of the colsed-loop system of PID

[24]. control is simple, and it can be approximated by

a linear system

Xiaoou Li is with the Departamento de Computacion, CINVESTAV-

IPN, Mexico City, Mexico.Wen Yu is with the Departamento de Control 3) The control torque to the robot manipulator is inde-

Automatico, CINVESTAV-IPN, Mexico City, Mexico pendent of the other robot dynamic.

978-1-4577-1476-4/11/$26.00 2011 IEEE 274

MonB4.3

By using these properties, we propose a new systematic ball whose radius decreases approximately 1

, see

min ( )

tuning method for PID control. The turning steps are as Lewis et al. (2004). Theoretically, PD control is sufficient

follows for robot control. However, in order to decrease steady-

1) a) Stabilize the robot with a PD control state error caused by gravity and friction, derived gain

b) Add a step input to the closed-loop system in has to be increased. The closed-loop system become slow.

(a), and save the step response. Usually, the big settling time does not allow us to increase

c) Search a linear time-invariant model, which has as we want.

a similar step response with (b). Although adding an integrator can extraordinarily de-

d) Tune PD/PID gains similar with the linear crease steady-state error, the overshoot of the closed-loop

system in (c) system becomes larger and robustness property deterio-

e) Refine PID gains in (d) by prior knowledge. rates.

Finally, we apply this method on an upper limb ex-

oskeleton. The experimental results show this PID tuning A. Tuning in closed-loop

method is effective for robot manipulator Since it is danger to send a step command to the joints

of the exoskeleton robot. We use closed-loop identification

II. PID TUNING FOR ROBOT MANIPULATORS and tuning method. Here we use two properties of the

The dynamics of robots are derived from Euler- robot dynamics:

Lagrange equation. It can be written as The control torque of the robot is dependent of the

other terms;

() + ( ) + () + () = (1)

PID control is linear.

where represents the link positions. is joint num-

It is well known the robot (1) is open-loop unstable, and

ber, () is the inertia matrix, ( ) = { } positive gains of a PD controller can guarantee closed-

represents centrifugal force, () is vector of gravity loop stability (bounded) in regulation case , see Spong

torques, () is unknown disturbance. is control and Vidyasagar (1989). We first use a PD control (2) with

input. = 0 and small and , to stabilize the robot.

Classical linear PID law is When the desired position is constant, the closed-loop

Z system is stable,

= + ( ) + (2)

0 () + ( ) + () + () = 0

where = is desired joint angle, and

Considering gravity compensation, the closed-loop system

are proportional, integral and derivative gains of the is

PID controller, respectively. This PID control law can be

() + ( ) + () + () = 0 () (5)

expressed via the following equations

= + + where () = () + () () is estimated gravity.

(3) Now we will use a tuning rule to find another PID

= (0) = 0

controller 1 for this closed-loop system. If we define

It is known that in regulation case, any positive gains the final control torque as

of the PD controller

= 1 + 0 ()

= + (4)

Obviously, the closed-loop system is

can guarantee stability of the closed-loop system, see

() + ( ) + ()+() 0 + () = (6)

Spong and Vidyasagar (1989). PD control does not guar-

antee the achievement of the position control objective The control for the closed-loop system is

because manipulators dynamics contain the gravitational = 1

torques vector, unless gravity compensation is applied. The

integrator is the most effective tool to eliminate steady- Since the PID control is linear, this idea can be extended

state error, in this way PD control (4) becomes PID to general case,

control (2). However, integrator gain has to be increased X

when the robot is heavy. This causes big overshoot, long () + ( ) + () + () = ()

settling time, and less robust. An approximation model =1

compensation can decrease integrator gain, see Kelly et where is tuning times, and

al. (2005). X X X Z

X

It is known that if the PD control law (4) is applied to = + ( ) +

each joint, the position tracking error is bounded within a =1 =1 =1 0 =1

275

MonB4.3

This means we can start from small PID gains to stabilize robot is Taylor series model as in (9). The model can be

the robot first, then tuning the other PID controllers written in frequency domain

independently. The final PID control is the summarization

()

of all these controllers. = 2 2 (11)

() + 2 + 1

or

B. Linearization of the colsed-loop system ()

=

There are several methods to linearize robot models. If () (1 + 1 ) (1 + 2 )

the velocity and gravity are neglected, the terms ( )

The responses of this second order model are similar with

and () in the nonlinear dynamics (1) are zero, resulting

mechanical motions. If there exists a big overshoot, a

in a linear model of the form,m see Goldenberg and

negative zero is added in (11)

Bazerghi (1986)

() = (7) () (1 + 3 )

= (12)

() (1 + 1 ) (1 + 2 )

It is an oversimplified model and is impossible for PID

tuning, because velocity and gravity are main control The normal input signals for PID tuning are step and

issues of robots. Most of robot, the gravity loading is a repeat inputs.

dominant component of the dynamics.

The velocity dependent term ( ) representing C. PD/PID tuning

Coriolis-centrifugal forces, can be assumed to be negli-

gible for small joint velocities. This is a rate linearization The linear PID law in time domain (2) can be trans-

scheme, see Golla et al. (1981), which results in a linear formed into frequency domain

model of the form 1

() = 1 + + () = () ()

+ = (8)

where = () |=0 = ()

0 is operating where = is proportional gain, = is integral

|=0

point. But many experiments, see Swarup and Gopal time constant and = is derivative time constant.

(1993), showed that even at low speeds ( ) should Because the robot can be approximated by a linear

be accounted for. system. Some tuning rules for linear systems can be

When the robot model is completely known, Taylor applied for the colsed-loop system tuning. We first give

series expansion can be applied, see Li (1989). At the PD tuning rules. When each joint can be approximated by

operating point 0 the nonlinear model (1) can be approx- a first-order system,

imated by

+ + = (9) =

1 +

where = () |=0 = [()+(

)]

|=0 = The PD gains are tuned as in Table 1, here Model 1 is from

()

|=0 Huang et al. (2005), Model 2 is from Chien and Fruehauf

Although the physical and mathematical structure of (1990).

the complete dynamic robot model is analytically coupled Table 1. PD turning for the first-order model

and nonlinear, the observed transient response of robot

dynamics appears to resemble the transient response of

Ziegler-Nichols tuning 05

the linear systems. Consequently, each joint of the robot

4 4

can be characterized as a single input-single output (SISO) Cohen-Coon method

3 + 4 11 +2

system. In this paper, we use this identification-based Our Method

2

1

linearization method. For each joint, typical linear model

is a first order system with transportation delay as Here and are obtained from Figure 1.

In Table 1 we list Ziegler-Nichols and Cohen-Coon

= (10) methods, they are PI controllers. From the best of our

1 + knowledge, PD turning rules are still not published and

The response is characterized by three parameters, the applied. If each joint is approximated by a second-order

plant gain the delay time and the time constant system,

. These are found by drawing a tangent to the step ()

= 2 2

response at its point of inflection and noting its intersec- () + 2 + 1

tions with the time axis and the steady state value.

The PD gains are tuned as in Table 2.

Sometimes the first model cannot describe the complete

nonlinear dynamic of robot. A reasonable linear model of Table 2. PD tuning for the second-order model

276

MonB4.3

Capsule/yuw/PID/JointSpace/srf1.wmf

is to decrease integrator gain, such that overshoot

y (t )

is small

Step 2 PD control 0 : use small PD gain to generate

a stable closed-loop system.

Km Step 3 Obtain the step responses of the closed-loop

system for each joint. Now the robot has been

compensated by gravity model, i.e.

() + ( ) + () = 0 ()

Step 4 Use the first-order or the second-order linear

t models to approximate the step responses of the

Tm closed-loop systems. PID gains are obtained by

m Table 1-Table 4, it is 1

Step 5 Refine PID gains with Table , it is 2

Fig. 1. Step response of a linear system Step 6 The final control for the robot is

= 0 + 1 + 2 ()

Method 1

51 1 +01 III. A PPLICATION TO AN EXOSKELETON

3 081

Method 2

2

1 Exoskeletons are wearable robots, which are worn by

2 the human operators as orthotic devices. The exoskeleton

Our Method 1

links, joints and work space correspond to those of the

When PD control cannot provide good performances, human body. The system may be used as a human input

PID control should be used. The PID gains for the first- device for tele operation, human-amplifier, and physical

order model is decided by Table 3. therapy modality as part of the rehabilitation process [10].

Although great progress has been made in a century-long

Table 3. PID tuning for the first-order model

effort to design and implement robotic exoskeletons, many

design challenges continue to limit the performance of

Ziegler-Nichols tuning 2 05 the system. One of the limiting factors is the lack of

(32 +6 ) 4

Cohen-Coon method

4 13 +8 11 +2 simple and effective control systems for the exoskeleton.

Our Method

2

2 1 The PID/PD control is the simplest scheme that can be

used to control robot manipulators. The exoskeletons are

The PID gains for the second-order model is decided

usually heavy, it is not easy to obtain an ideal PID for

by Table 4.

an exoskeleton robot. The 7-DOF upper limb exoskeleton

Table 4. PID tuning for the second-order model shown in Figure 2 is composed of a 3-DOF shoulder

(J1-J3), a 1-DOF elbow (J4) and a 3-DOF wrist (J5-J7).

Method 1

51

2 1 1 +01 J1-J3 are responsible for shoulder flexion-extension, ab-

3 081

2 ductionadduction and internalexternal rotation, J4 create

Method 2 2 1

2

elbow flexion-extension, J5-J7 are responsible for wrist

20

Our Method

15 10 flexionextension, pronation-supination and radialulnar

If the above four tables cannot give us good perfor- deviation.

mances, we use Table 5 to refine PID gains as 2 . The computer control platform of the UCSC 7-DOF

exoskeleton robot is a PC104 with an Intel Pentium4@2.4

Table 5. Effects of PID gains GHz processor and 512 Mb RAM. The motors for the first

Rise Overshoot Settling Steady Error Stability

four joints are mounted in the base such that large mass

P Decrease Increase

Small

Decrease Degrade

of the motors can be removed. Torque transmission from

Increase the motors to the joints is achieved using a cable system.

I

Small

Increase Increase

Large

Degrade

The other three small motors are mounted in link five.

Decrease Decrease The real-time control program operated in Windows XP

D

Small

Decrease Decrease

Minor

Improve

with Matlab 7.1, Windows Real-Time Target and C++ .

Decrease Decrease All of the controllers employed a sampling frequency of

The procedure of PD/PID tuning for robot control is 1. The properties of the exoskeleton with respect to

described as follows base frame are shown in Table 8.

Step 1 Gravity modeling (): the objective of this step Table 8. Parameters of the exoskeleton

277

MonB4.3

Capsule/yuw/PID/Exoskeleton/exosf1.wmf Capsule/yuw/PID/Exoskeleton/autof4.wmf

A ngle (r ad)

A ng le (r ad)

0 .3

0 .2

0 .2

Joint 1

Joint 2

0 .1 0 .1

a7

0

Time ( sec o nd) T im e (se con d)

1. 7 1 .8 1 .9 2 0. 8 0 .9 1 1 .1

0. 3

a4 Ang le (r ad) A ngle (ra d)

d1 0 .3

0. 2

a3

Joint 4

d5

Joint 3

0 .2

d3 0. 1

0 .1

0

T im e (se cond ) T ime ( sec on d)

0 2 .1 2. 2 2. 3 1. 9 1 .9 5 2 2 .0 5

models

()

Joint Mass (kg) Center (m) Length (m) We will design a PID tuning rule for these linear

1 3.4 .3 .7 systems and apply the tuned PID controllers to the robot.

2 1.7 .05 .1 In order to tuning PID gains for the linear systems (14),

3 .7 .1 0.2 we rewrite the PID (2) as

4 1.2 .02 .05 Z

1

5 1.8 .02 .05 = + ( ) +

0

6 .2 .04 .1

7 .5 .02 .05 where = is proportional gain, = is integral

The two theorems in this paper give sufficient conditions time constant and = is derivative time constant.

for the minimal values of proportional and derivative gains We use the following tuning rule

and maximal values of integral gains. We first use the 20 2

following PD control to stabilize the robot = = 15 = (15)

10

= [150 150 100 150 100 100 100]

(13) to tune the PID parameters. This rule is similar with Huang

= [330 330 300 320 320 300 300] et al. (2005), and Chien and Fruehauf (1990), in their case

= 5 1 1 +01

3 = 21 = 081 It is

The joint velocities are estimated by the standard filters

different with the other two famous rules, Ziegler-Nichols

e 18 and Cohen-Coon methods, where = =

() = () = ()

+ + 30 2 = 05 or = 4

+ =

3 4

The PD regulation of the first four joints are shown (32 +6 )

13 +8 = Because their rules are 4

11 +2

in the sold lines of Figure 3. Then we use open-loop step suitable for the process control, our rule is for mechanical

responses of linear systems to approximate the closed-loop systems.

responses of the robot. By the rule (15), the PID1 gains are

1 = 602093

+9+1 1 = 90 1 = 1 1 = 540

1 2 = 30 2 = 2 2 = 60

2 = 202 +3+1

09 (14) (16)

3 = 552 +4+1 3 = 40 3 = 20 3 = 20

4 = 302085 4 = 90 4 = 15 4 = 270

+8+1

The step responses of the following four linear system are We apply these PID controllers 1 to the robot, the

shown in the dash lines of Figure 3. new closed-loop system

Here the main weight of the exoskeleton is in the first () + ( ) + () 0 + () = 1

four joints. The potential energy is

The control torque becomes

= 1 1 1 + 2 (1 1 + 2 2 1 ) + 3 3 1 2

+4 [4 4 (1 3 + 2 3 1 ) + 4 4 (1 3 2 1 3 ) + 3 1 2 ] = 1 + 0 () (17)

278

MonB4.3

Capsule/yuw/PID/Exoskeleton/autof5.wmf

this method on an upper limb exoskeleton, real experiment

0 .3 A n g le (r ad ) results give validation of our PID tuning method.

T h eo ry g ai n s P ID 0 R EFERENCES

0 .2 A u to - tu n in g P ID t

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