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CHAPTER 3
SETS AND BOOLEAN
ALGEBRA
PART II BOOLEAN ALGEBRA
& LOGIC CIRCUITS
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3.4 BOOLEAN ALGEBRA
INTRODUCTION
CONNECTION BETWEEN LOGIC, SETS
& BOOLEAN ALGEBRA
BOOLEAN OPERATIONS
BOOLEAN FUNCTION & EXPRESSION

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INTRODUCTION
Boolean algebra provides the operations and
the rules for working with the set {0,1}
Boolean algebras named after George Boole,
who is well known as a pioneer logic.
The circuits can be constructed using any basic
element that has two different states. Such
elements include switches that can be either the
on or the off position and optical devices that
can either be lit or unlit.
We are going to focus on the three operation:
-Boolean Complement ; Boolean Sum ; Boolean
Product
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CONNECTION BETWEEN LOGIC,
SETS AND BOOLEAN ALGEBRA
PAGE
224

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BOOLEAN OPERATIONS
AND
Also known as Boolean Product.
Denoted = dot (.)
Has the following values:
1.1=1, 1.0=0, 0.1=0, 0.0=0
OR
Also known as Boolean Sum
Denoted = sum (+)
Has the following values:
1+1=1, 1+0=1, 0+1=1, 0+0=0
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BOOLEAN OPERATIONS
NOT
Also known as complement.
Denoted = bar (x ), negation (), ()
It interchanges 0 and 1.
Truth Table for AND, OR, NOT operations:

a b ab a+b a
0 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 1 0
0 1 0 1 1
1 1 1 1 0

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Example

1. Find the value of 1.0 (0 1)


Answer : 0 1
00
0

2. 1 1
Answer : 1 0
1
0
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BOOLEAN Function & EXPRESSIONS
Let B = {0,1}. The variables x is called a Boolean
variable if it assumes values only from B.
A function from B , the set {x1, x2 ,...., xn xi B for 1 i n}
n
B n

to B is called Boolean function of degree n .


Boolean function can be represented using
expressions made up from variables and Boolean
operation.
The Boolean Expressions in the variables x1 , x2 ,..., xn
are defined as follows:
0,1, x1 , x2 ,..., xn are Boolean expressions
If X and Y are Boolean expression then X , Y ,
X Y ,( XY ) are Boolean expressions.
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Example
Give a Boolean expression for the Boolean
function F(x,y) as defined by the following

x y F(x,y)
1 1 0 Only
1 0 1 refer to
0 1 0 value 1
0 0 0

Answer: F ( x, y ) x y is a Boolean
function of degree 2
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BOOLEAN FUNCTIONS & Boolean
expressions
Each Boolean expression represents a Boolean
function.
The values of this function are obtained by substituting
0 and 1 for the variables in the expression.
Tables that listing the values of function f for all
elements of Bn are often called the truth table for f .
Example
Find the values of the Boolean function represented by
1. F ( x, y, z ) xy z

2. P( x, y, z ) ( xy) z

3. Q( x, y, z) ( x y) z
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EXERCISE
Use a table to express the values of
each of these Boolean functions
1. F ( x, y, z) x yz
2. F ( x, y, z) x y xyz
3. F ( x, y, z) x( yz yz)
4. F ( x, y, z) z
5. F ( x, y, z) xy yz
6. F ( x, y, z) x yz ( xyz)
7. F ( x, y, z) y( xz xz)
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IDENTITIES OF BOOLEAN
ALGEBRA
Boolean algebra satisfies many of the same laws as
ordinary algebra - addition and multiplication.
The following laws are common to both kinds of
algebra:

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3.5 EXCURSION: LOGIC CIRCUITS
LOGIC GATES
SIMPLIFYING GATES
DUALITY
KARNAUGH MAPS
CANONICAL FORM

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LOGIC GATES
A computer or other electric device is made up
of a number of circuits.
Each circuit can be designed using the rules of
Boolean algebra.
The basic element of circuits gates.
We will construct combinational circuits using
five types of elements: Inverter, OR gate,
AND gate, NOR gate and NAND gate
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GATES
Inverter
OR gate
AND gate
NOR gate
NAND gate
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LOGIC gates
1) Inverter/NOT:
Accept one Boolean variable as input, and
produces the complement of this value as
output.

A A
1 0
0 1

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LOGIC gates
2) OR gate:
The inputs to this gate are the values of two
or more Boolean variables, while the output is
the sum of their values.

A B A+B
1 1 1
1 0 1
0 1 1
0 0 0
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LOGIC gates
3) AND gate:
The inputs to this gate are the values of two
or more Boolean variables, while the output is
the Boolean product of their values.

A B AB
1 1 1
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 0
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LOGIC gates
COMBINATION OF GATES
1) NOR Gate
This is a NOT-OR gate which is equal to an
OR gate followed by a NOT gate.

A B A B *The outputs of all NOR


1 1 0 gates are low if any of the
1 0 0 inputs are high.
0 1 0
0 0 1
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LOGIC gates
COMBINATION OF GATES
1) NAND Gate
This is a NOT-AND gate which is equal to an
AND gate followed by a NOT gate.

A B AB
1 1 0 *The outputs of all NAND
1 0 1 gates are high if any of the
0 1 1 inputs are low.
0 0 1
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EXERCISE
1. Drawing the circuits that produces the
output xy x y

2. Construct circuits that produce the


following outputs:
1. x y x 5. xy x y

2.
x yz 6. x y

3. x y z x yz 7. xyz x yz

4. xy xz yz 8. x y x 22
Given the circuit, find the Boolean function and the output

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SIMPLIFYING GATES

METHOD TO DUALITY
DUALITY

SIMPLIFY
KARNAUGH
MAPS 25
DUALITY

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EXAMPLE

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EXAMPLE

CAN SIMPLIFY
THE BOOLEAN
EXPRESSION

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CANONICAL FORM
Consider a function of three variables x, y, and z.
Since each variable may be complemented or
uncomplemented, there are 23 8 different
combinations.
When combinations are combined with AND, they
are called Minterms.
When Combinations are combined with OR, they are
called Maxterms.
Minterm Canonical Form Standard Products.
Maxterm Canonical Form - Standard Sums.
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MINTERM & MAXTERM
CANONICAL FORM

For n Variables there are 2^n Minterms/Maxterms 30


MINTERM CANONICAL FORM
Determine the Set of Minterms for which a function is
1-valued. These are called Minterms of the
Function
Combine all Minterms with a + Operation
The sum of minterms that represents the function is
called the sum of products expansion.

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MAXTERM CANONICAL FORM
o Determine the Set of Maxterms for which a function
is 0-valued. These are called Maxterms of the
Function
o The product of maxterms that represents the function
is called the product-of-sum expansion.

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Exercise
Find the sum-of-product and the product-of-
sum expansion for the function
1. F x, y, z x y z
2. F ( x, y, z) ( x z) y
3. F ( x, y, z) x
4. F ( x, y, z) x y
After you get answer for that question,
simplify the SOP
.
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THANK YOU
MORE PRACTICE
MORE EXPERIENCE

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