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3/17/2017

Bateriadeacumulatori

Curs3

Prehistoricbatteries
Clayjarwithironrodsurroundedbycopper
cylinder.Whenfilledwithvinegar+an
electrolytic,solutionproduces1.1voltsDC
(circa.250BCto640ADO).
ItisbelievedthattheParthians whoruled
Baghdad(circa250BC)usedbatteriesto
electroplatesilver.
TheEgyptiansaresaidtohaveelectroplated
antimonyontocopperover4300yearsago.

Voltaandhisbattery.
In1800,AlessandroVoltainventedthefirst
modernelectricbattery.
Voltademonstratedthatanelectricalcurrentis
generatedwhenmetalsandchemicalscome
intocontact.

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Ctdefiabile sunt autovehiculele?

http://www.oeamtc.at/portal/adacpannenstatistik2013+2500+1399471#knot:0

Ctdefiabile sunt autovehiculele (cont.)?


Autovehiculenumaivechide6ani,cuspecificatiitehniceneschimbatepentrucelputin3
ani,cucelputin10.000buc. vanduteintrunan,ceaunecesitatinterventiaADACla
cerereaconducatorilorauto,

Distributia defectelor
pentru anul 2012
Sursa:vezi linkanterior.

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1.Bateriileautovehiculelor
Bateriadeacumulatoriauto(baterie sauacumulator)reprezinta undispozitiv electrochimic capabil sa
produca energie electrica

1.1Cerinte impuse bateriilor (auto) Temperatura delucru


30+70oC
tensiune constanta
Curenti solicitati
curent mare <2030A,
reincarcabila >200600800A,
raporturile
t il energie/masa,energie/volum
i / i / l convenabile
bil 30mA
sa stocheze energie pe operioada maredetimp
capacitatemaresi dedurata Influente:
durata deviata mare marimea motorului termic,
starea tehnica aacestuia,
pret mic temperatura,
intretinere usoara nivelul dedotare alautoveh.

sa stocheze energie si sa ofurnizeze rapidpentru pornirea motorului termic


sa permita folosirea sistemelor electrice odurata maredetimp pe perioada nefunctionarii
sistemului deincarcare
sa preia fluctuatiile detensiune (stabilizator)dinsistemul dealimentare
sa furnizeze energia suplimentara solicitata intimpul functionarii sistemului deincarcare

1.2Alegerea bateriei

asigurarea turatiei minime depornire (temperaturi scazute)


durata defunctionare aaccesoriilor cand sistemul deincarcare nufunctioneaza

Limita lapornire

Producatorii auto:
Putere
disponibila
lapornire Satisfac necesarul deCCAcu
Putere,%

bateria incarcata 80%la7oC.

Putere
necesara la
pornire

Temperatura,oC

1.2Alegerea pozitiei bateriei

Distributia maselor componentelor vehiculului (12V/58Ah,242x175x175,14,3kg)


Distanta fata dedemaror (reducerea lungimii conductorilor)
Accesibilitate
Protectie impotriva contaminarii
Temperatura ambientala
Protectie lavibratii

Tipul vehiculului
Modul deutilizare
de utilizare
Temperatura medie defunctionare (temperaturi extreme ventilatorsau incalzitor)
Potentialul acumularii degaze

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2.Baterii acide cuplumb


2.1.Constructie

baterie

celula

vas(carcasa) Electrolit
Element
PPR

Electrozi
separatoare H20 H2SO4
(placi)

negativ Pozitiv

subst.activa Gratar (Pb Subst.activ. Gratar (Pb


(Pb spongios) +Sb,Ca) (PBO2) +Sb,Ca)

2.2.Caracteristicile bateriilor

Catcurent,cattimp?! viteza reactiei chimice ariasuprafetei placilor


temperatura
densitatea electrolitului
curentul solicitat

Capacitatea C20 Ah44Ah=2,2Ax20h(U>=1.75V/celula =10.5V)

Capacitatea derezerva RC timpul [min]ptcareI=25A/25oCU>=1,75V(44Ah 60RC)

Capacitatea depornire
de pornire larece
la rece CCA [A] t [sec] 18oCU>=7,2V
[A] t[sec]18 C U>=7 2V

Standardduty

Heavyduty(Ah,+RC+CCA)

2.2.Intretinere si incarcare
15000raniti/anUSA

Maintenance
Apa distilata,starecurata,incarcare >70%,reincarcare 6saptamani
Lowmaintenance
Maintenancefree U=ct.(14.4Vtmax <=7h)
I=ct.
Viteza incarcare=viteza descarcare 1/10Ah;1/16RC;1/40CCA boost

Incarcare rapida <5xIn T<=43oC(1h) 7880%Ah

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2.2.Electrochimie

2.2.Stocarea energiei electrice

a) Pb acid
b) Alcalin
c) ZEBRA(zeroemissionsresearchactivity)
d) Ultracondensatori
e) Celule decombustibil
f) NaS
g) Swing
Cd(s) + 2OH-(aq) --> Cd(OH)2(s) + 2e-
2NiO(OH)(s)) + 2H2O(l) + 2e-
2NiO(OH)( 2 -->
> 2Ni(OH)2(s)
2Ni(OH)2( ) + 2OH-(aq)
2OH ( )

Li(s) --> Li(in solid electrolyte) + e


MnO2(s) + Li + e --> LiMnO2(s)

2Na(l) --> 2Na(l) + 2e-


S8(l) + 2e- --> nS2(l)

4[Al(s) + 4OH-(aq) --> Al(OH)4-(aq) + 3e-]


3[O2(g) + 2H2O(l) + 4e --> 4OH-(aq)]

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NO Item ThelimitValue
Backwed Thelimitvalue
thickness(mm)
0.30 0.0015
1 Electricalresistance.d 0.30~0.50 0.0025
0.50 0.0030

2 TensileStrength Mpa 5.0


3 Maximumporesige m 25
4 Porosity % 38
5 Wettability S 5.0
6 Weightlosspickledinacid % 2.0

7 Foamingtest Foamingshouldn'tcoverall
8 Potassiumpermanganate 15
redacingsubstancesml/g

9 Lroncontent % 0.04
10 FreeCL content % 0.003
11 MoistureContent % 1.0

Molecularformula:(CH22CCl)n
Appearance:Thinyellowsheet
Use:Thestoragebatterymanufacturing
Packing:sheet/carton/cartons

PVCseparatorismadeofthespecialresinPVCandtheyarewithexcellentpuncture
resistance(>800g)highmeltingpoint,low electricalresistance.The physical&chemical
performanceofourseparatorswellsituatedforbatteriesandtheyarethereliable
separatorsforkindsofLeadAcidstoragebatteries.

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Bibliografie
Lefter,Emilian
Alimentarea cuenergie electrica aautovehiculelor,ed.Mediamira,ClujNapoca2006
(cap.5,Baterii deacumulatoare)

Hollembeak,Barry
AutomotiveElectricity,ElectronicsandComputercontrols,DelmarPublishers,1999
(cap.7,AutomotiveBatteries;cap.8,BatteryDiagnosisandService)

Denton,Tom
AutomobileElectricalandElectronicSystems,3rd ed.,ElsevierB.H.,2004
(cap.5,Batteries)

http://www.batteryuniversity.com/,
BatteryUniversity(cap.?, tot)

Regielive.ro, referate.ro ?! Curs EEEA Univ. Pitesti


(cap. 3.1 Bateriile de acumulatoare)

Goagl, Vichipedia i altele utiliznd cuvinte cheie corespunztoare.

ComparisonofEnergyDensityinBatteryCells
Thisbatterycomparisonchartillustratesthe
volumetricandgravimetricenergydensitiesbased
onbarebatterycells.

Source:
http://cas2.umkc.edu/physics/caruso/research/advanced_energy
_recovery.html

Photo Credit: NASA - National Aeronautics and Space


Administration / http://www.epectec.com/batteries/cell-
comparison.html

Specifications by Battery Chemistry (http://www.epectec.com/batteries/cell-comparison.html)


Liion
Specifications LeadAcid NiCd NiMH
Cobalt Manganese Phosphate

SpecificEnergyDensity(Wh/kg) 3050 4580 60120 150190 100135 90120

<100 100200 200300 150300 2575 2550


InternalResistance(m)
12Vpack 6Vpack 6Vpack 7.2V percell percell
LifeCycle(80%discharge) 200300 1000 300500 5001,000 5001,000 1,0002,000

FastChargeTime 816h 1htypical 24h 24h 1horless 1horless


OverchargeTolerance High Moderate Low Low.Cannottoleratetricklecharge

SelfDischarge/month(roomtemp) 5% 20% 30% <10%

CellVoltage(nominal) 2V 1.2V 1.2V 3.6V 3.8V 3.3V


2.40 Fullchargedetection
ChargeCutoffVoltage(V/cell) 4.20 3.60
Float2.25 byvoltagesignature

DischargeCutoffVoltage(V/cell,1C) 1.75 1.00 2.503.00 2.80

PeakLoadCurrent 5C 20C 5C >3C >30C >30C


BestResult 0.2C 1C 0.5C <1C <10C <10C
20to50C 0to45C 0to45C
ChargeTemperature
4to122F 32to113F 32to113F
20to50C 20to65C 20to60C
DischargeTemperature
4to122F 4to149F 4to140F
36Months 3060days 6090days
MaintenanceRequirement Notrequired
(toppingcharge) (discharge) (discharge)
Thermallystable,fuseprotection
SafetyRequirements Thermallystable Protectioncircuitmandatory
common
InUseSince Late1800s 1950 1990 1991 1996 1999
Toxicity VeryHigh VeryHigh Low Low

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AlternativefuelsandinfrastructureinsevennonEUmarkets Finalreport

WelltoWheelgreenhousegasemissionsfordifferentfueltypesforpassengercars
relativetodiesel(left)andgasoline(right),usingcurrentaverageemissionfactors
(source:www.fuelswitch.nlcompiledfrommanysourcesfrom20022011)