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Tunable lighting
science Q&A P. 31

LEDs shine and save
in car parks P. 55

system features P. 61

SSL challenges
legacy sources with
uniformity P. 9


See p. 49 & 52 for details on Strategies in Light
Japan and Strategies in Light Europe events

September Cover Story
SSL fixtures replace metal halide lighting
to deliver energy and maintenance
savings and a more uniformly-lit athletic
environment. (See p. 9; courtesy of GE

Potential exists for SSL to positively impact health
and wellbeing, but science lags
Maury Wright with Terry Clark, Finelite 5 COMMENTARY Maury Wright
Lighting-centric wellbeing claims
41 STANDARDS need more science
LED automotive lighting applications require unique
SAE standards 9 NEWS +ANALYSIS
Jianzhong Jiao, Osram Opto Semiconductors GE Lightings Albeo lights
Boston University athletic
49 PREVIEW center with LED high bays
SIL/LED Japan will examine epitaxy to SSL Terralux delivers an LED light engine
applications Ella Shum and Manami Konishi and flat driver for sconce retrofits
LED lighting advances in horticulture
Vizio increases LED zones in
SSL lightens the burden of the urban car park
backlighting for LCD HDTVs
Caroline Hayes
Schrder lights Nevada Interstate tunnel
61 FOCUS ON with LEDs, adds adaptive controls
Driver circuits deliver diverse features for solid- Richmond home developer installs
state lighting applications Maury Wright LED-based solar street lighting

New LED architectures and phosphor technologies
EPA announces results of LED
lower costs and boost quality Julian Carey, Intematix lamp push, plans new initiative

73 DEVELOPER FORUM DOE updates MSSLC LED luminaire spec

Driverless LED light engines deliver up to 93% DOE issues fact sheet on light and health
efficiency and no perceptible flicker DOE publishes LED outdoor lighting
Peter Shackle, report, charts performance gains
DOE Caliper report identifies
shortcomings of LED MR16 lamps
LED lamp life expectancy depends on fixture type
and usage scenario Michael Kachala, Hinkley Lighting EPA further clarifies Energy Star V1.1
lamp requirements, adds CBCP tool SEPTEMBER 2014 3




EDITOR Maury Wright

wellbeing claims CONTRIBUTING EDITOR Caroline Hayes

need more science


ART DIRECTORKelli Mylchreest
ompanies in the LED and solid-state lished appear at first glance hard to refute. SENIOR ILLUSTRATORChristopher Hipp
lighting (SSL) sectors have promoted There is likely some amount of legitimate AUDIENCE DEVELOPMENT Debbie Bouley

numerous research case studies in the past data in those studies, but the topic is way
few years that attribute tuned spectral more complex than the published stud-
power distribution (SPD) to human bene- ies have acknowledged. As Terry Clark EDITORIAL OFFICES PennWell Corporation,
fits in terms of increased productivity, bet- points out, none of the work accounts for LEDs Magazine
98 Spit Brook Road, LL-1
ter rest, and even accelerated healing. We the state of the test subject prior to expo- Nashua, NH 03062-5737
Tel: +1 603 891-0123
have published articles about many of the sure to light. Proper study would require Fax: +1 603 891-0574
studies and arguably have been a propo- an adaptation period to bring the collec-

nent of what is often called human-cen- tive set of test subjects to a steady state. SALES OFFICES
tric lighting (HCL). But we and the indus- I thought deeply about what Id hope (US EAST COAST)
Tel. +1 603 891 9186
try have almost assuredly stepped ahead to accomplish in publishing the interview
of the science that would support benefits and in writing this column. I think the (US WEST COAST)
Tel. +1 480 991 9109
of lighting, at a certain CCT and SPD, pos- SSL industry needs to continue and pur-
itively impacting our wellbeing. sue the topic of HCL. There appears to be (UK/REST OF EUROPE)
Tel. +44(0) 1992 656657
Dont misunderstand. I firmly believe great potential to favorably impact soci-
that researchers will discover a variety ety and to create opportunity for busi- (GERMANY/
AUSTRIA/SWITZERLAND) Tel. +49 89 90480 143
of useful ways to apply light that might nesses in the LED-lighting sector. But
impact our wellbeing. We know light clearly the industry needs to move a bit (JAPAN)
Tel: +81 3 3219 3641
exposure can impact the human circa- more carefully in making claims about
dian rhythm. But no one right now fully the benefits of lighting. (CHINA & HONG KONG)
Tel: +852 2838 6298
understands the science behind the inter- Funding for proper research is going to
action of lighting and human physiologi- be an issue for sure. The lighting indus- (TAIWAN)
Tel: +886 2 2396 5128 ext: 270
cal systems. try cant likely afford the study required.
We cover some of the facts about light Fortunately, as Terry Clark has pointed (KOREA)
and its impact on humans in our interview out, brain researchers will have funding Tel: +82 2 2273 4818
with Finelite CEO Terry Clark (p. 31). That to study the impact of light. The LED and (ISRAEL)
interview and this column were prompted SSL sectors need to partner and partici- Tel: +39 972 9899 5813

by a multi-author academic paper that pate in such research. CORPORATE OFFICERS

CHAIRMAN Frank T. Lauinger
discusses the shortcomings in knowledge Meanwhile, its fair to ask how this rev- PRESIDENT AND CEO Robert F. Biolchini
on the topic and also some of the human elation will impact what we publish. As CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER Mark C. Wilmoth
physiology that comes into play. editor, it is my duty to report on news that TECHNOLOGY GROUP
The scientific and medical community I think you the readers will find of inter- & PUBLISHING DIRECTOR
seems to have a pretty firm grasp on the est. And if a major company comes to me SUBSCRIPTIONS: For subscription inquiries:
human visual system how we perceive tomorrow with an HCL study, I will pub- Tel: +1 847 763-9540;
Fax: +1 847 763-9607;
color, how ambient conditions impact lish an article on it. But we will be quick e-mail:;
our vision, and what types of light might to remind you of the discrepancy in sci-
We make portions of our subscriber list available to carefully screened
improve our ability to detect objects or entific backing going forward. companies that offer products and services that may be important for
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would be responsible for any link between Maury Wright, Copyright 2014 PennWell Corp (ISSN 2156-633X). All rights
reserved. Contents of this publication may not be reproduced in any
light and human health. EDITOR form without prior written consent of Publishers.
Still, some of the studies we have pub- SEPTEMBER 2014 5

| online The LED Show
September 1618, 2014
Los Angeles, CA

Webcasts Boston Lights Exposition

September 18, 2014
Replacing traditional materials Boston, MA

with polymers for next generation LEDs: The SSL Ecosystem 2014
September 2224, 2014
LED luminaires Cambridge, MA
LightShow Southwest 2014
September 2425, 2014
Advances in direct AC Dallas, TX

LED solutions LED Japan/Strategies in Light 2014

October 1517, 2014 Yokohama, Japan

Strategies in Light Europe 2014

Retail lighting that October 2123, 2014
Munich, Germany
makes an impact Lighting Japan
January 1416, 2015
Tokyo, Japan

Editorial Digest SPIE Photonics West 2015

February 712, 2015
LEDs are succeeding in a San Francisco, CA

range of indoor projects, Strategies in Light 2015

February 2426, 2015
but challenges remain Las Vegas, NV

Aamsco Lighting .........................................16 Henkel ........................................................13 Philips Lumileds ..........................................23
American Standard Circuits .........................50 Indium Corporation .....................................17 Plessey Semiconductors Ltd. ......................35
Semicon .....................................................59 Instruments Systems GmbH .......................51 Proto Labs, Inc. ...........................................37
Citizen Electronics Ltd. ..................................8 International Led Core Radiant Zemax LLC .....................................14
Cooledge Lighting .......................................11 Technology Seminar .................................57 Samsung LED America ..................................2
Cree Inc. ...................................................CV4 Inventronics (Hangzhou) Inc.........................24 Sapa Industrial ...........................................60
E-Lite Semiconductor ..................................26 LED Consultancy BV ....................................45 Seoul Semiconductor Co. Ltd. .......................7
Electrolube .................................................46 Ledlink Optics Inc........................................21 Shanxi Guangyu LED Lighting Co. Ltd. .........27
Eptronics ....................................................75 Linear Technology .....................................CV3 Shenzhen OKT Lighting Co., Ltd...................69
ERG ............................................................34 LTF LLC .......................................................18 Shenzhen Refond
Exponation..................................................48 Lumens Co. Ltd..................................... 38-39 Optoelectronics Co. Ltd. ...........................47
Future Electronics Inc..............................4, 54 Luminus Devices.........................................44 Shin-Etsu Silicones of America Inc. .............42
G-S Plastic Optics .......................................50 Maruwa Co. Ltd...........................................20 Signcomplex Limited ...................................43
Gooch & Housego PLC ................................68 Matrix Lighting Limited, Hong Kong ...........CV2 The Bergquist Company ..............................19
Green Inova Lighting Technology MBN GmbH.................................................22 The Korean Consulate General ....................12
(Shenzhen) Limited ...................................70 Mean Well USA Inc. .....................................33 The Home Appliances, Lighting & Electronics
Guangzhou Hongli Nichifu America Inc. ....................................75 Exhibition ................................................. 74
Opto-Electronic Co., Ltd. ...........................36 ORB Optronix ..............................................58 Thomas Research Products ..........................1
Hangzhou Everfine Photo-E-Info Co. Ltd. ......29 OSRAM Opto Semiconductors GmbH ..........15 Underwriters Laboratories ...........................30
Helio Optoelectronics Corp. .........................58 Otsuka Electronics Co. Ltd. .........................32 Zhejiang Baikang Technological Co. Ltd. ......40


news views

GE Lightings Albeo lights Boston University

athletic center with LED high bays
GE Lighting has announced an LED retrofit project at the
Boston University (BU) Track and Tennis Center on the
Boston, MA campus. GEs Albeo brand supplied ABHX Series
solid-state lighting (SSL) products along with integrated con-
trol capability to deliver energy and maintenance savings and
a more pleasing environment for athletes and spectators.
The indoor athletic facility was built in 2002 to host a
variety of university events ranging from athletic practices
to commencement ceremonies. The legacy lighting con-
sisted of 127 metal halide (MH) fixtures. The university
sought to replace the lighting to achieve savings and also
to eliminate the annoying buzzing sounds that emanated
from the MH ballasts.
As the ballasts from the metal halide fixtures aged, they cut down noise levels.
created a dramatic buzzing noise that interfered with ath- Still, the lighting would not have been retrofitted just for
lete and spectator concentration, said Elijah Ercolino, the the noise concerns. But BU has embarked on an energy-effi-
BU director of building automation services. The new ciency program called Sustainability at BU. The campus
Albeo LED lighting fixtures are noticeably quieter and have has experienced a 5% reduction in energy usage page 10


Terralux delivers an LED LED lighting advances in

light engine and flat driver horticultural applications,
boosts productivity
for sconce retrofits LED-based lighting has found success in farming and
Terralux has announced the S Series LED Retrofit Kit that is intended horticultural applications in part because of energy effi-
to be used in retrofitting surface-mount fixtures such as wall sconces ciency, but more significantly based on improved pro-
and other decorative products. The ductivity. GE Lighting has enabled an urban lettuce
kit includes a rectangular LED light farm that can produce 10,000 heads daily. Researchers
engine combined with a near-flat at McGill University in Canada, meanwhile, have doc-
AC-DC LED driver that together can umented that LED lighting can boost tomato produc-
fit even in near-flat luminaires that tion, and Purdue University researchers similarly docu-
were designed for slim pin-based mented productivity improvements in bedding plants.
fluorescent bulbs. Weve covered the basics in LED lighting for horti-
The kit, model number SR95, culture previously. The narrow spectrum of LEDs in
requires less than 1 in. in terms of different colors can be selected to enhance the photo-
depth from the wall for installa- synthesis process while also offering energy savings rel-
tions. As the nearby photo depicts, ative to broad-spectrum HID or fluorescent lights used
the LEDs are mounted on a rectan- in commercial farming ( More-
gular circuit board while page 12 over, Philips Lighting recently announced a page 10 SEPTEMBER 2014 9

Sports from page 9 since 2006 despite a
14% increase in the size of the facilities. The Horticulture from page 9 partnership and there are 17,500 LED lights in use. As
university kicked off a five-year plan in 2012 with commercial grower Green Sense the nearby photos depict, the lettuce is
to further reduce consumption by 10%. Farms intended to both minimize energy grown in cultivation racks to maximize
The university conducted a rigorous evalu- usage for indoor growing towers and the use of the high ceilings. The result is the
ation of alternatives for the Track and Tennis enable food to be produced closer to con- aforementioned 10,000-head daily harvest.
Center before settling on the Albeo products. sumers ( Meanwhile, the success of the project has
The benefits extended beyond the energy the partners looking to develop other LED-
efficiency of the fixture we were also fans Tagajo lettuce farm lit farms in Japan and addressing inquiries
of the modern aesthetic and exceptional The documented benefits of LED lighting from interested parties in other regions of
durability for the application, said Ercolino. in horticulture continue to build with the the globe.
The results in terms of efficiency are recent announcement of the Mirai lettuce
clear. BU is projecting a savings of 770,000 farm in the city of Tagajo that is located Tomatoes and bedding plants
kWh annually and thats equivalent to a In other horticultural news, there
40% reduction in the centers overall energy are two recent university projects
usage. The center also has a lighting control that have been published on the
system that could enable additional savings academic website HortScience. In
with seven-zone controls that enable dim- both cases, university researchers
ming or extinguishing lighting in the zone studied mixes of red- and blue-
as the usage pattern allows. LED lighting relative to high-pres-
GE rates the fixtures for 100,000 hours of sure sodium (HPS) lighting in hor-
life so maintenance costs should be reduced ticultural applications.
as well. Moreover, the university said the The Purdue University project
new fixtures can deliver higher light levels was focused on bedding plants
than the legacy lighting. A lot of students including f lowers (http://bit.
and faculty have already begun to take in the Miyagi Prefecture (jurisdiction) in ly/1sSB5Nx). Specifically, the team studied
notice and are commenting on the facilitys Japan. GE Lighting, specifically GE Japan the growth of Antirrhinum, Catharanthus,
lighting improvements, said Ercolino. Corp, developed customized LED lighting Celosia, Impatiens, Pelargonium, Petunia,
Both universities and even pro sports orga- for the farm, which is located in a facil- Tagetes, Salvia, and Viola seedlings. A quan-
nizations are turning to LEDs for better and ity that previously hosted a Sony electron- titative measure called the Quality Index
more efficient lighting. Recently, Ephesus ics manufacturing center located in the (QI) showed much better results for Petu-
Lighting announced the first LED-lit hockey Miyagi Fukko Park.
arena for an NHL team in the Canadian Tire Development of the farm was subsi-
Centre ( Moreover, dized by the Japanese Ministry of Econ-
Duke University recently lit its soccer field omy, Trade and Industry (METI) and is part
with LEDs ( of the reconstruction effort as the region
recovers from the impact of the Great East
BACKLIGHTING/DISPLAYS Japan Earthquake that occurred in 2011.
The project leveraged the electronics-
Vizio increases LED zones in centric features of the building such as
backlighting for LCD HDTVs cleanroom facilities and thermal insula-
While the TV and display backlighting appli- tion to provide an ideal climate and air cir- nia, Salvia, and Viola plants under the LED
cation segment had driven the biggest vol- culation for the farming application. Mirai lighting, and the results relative to HPS were
ume of LED sales prior to 2013, the number worked with GE, meanwhile, to develop considered similar for the other varietals.
of LEDs used in the TV segment has lev- LED lighting tuned to the lettuce grow- The McGill University researchers, from
eled off with the advent of brighter LEDs ing cycle. METI also encouraged the use of Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, studied
and edge-lighting techniques. Vizio, how- technology in the farm that uses custom- tomato production under HPS light, HPS
ever, has announced the M-Series of TVs ized sensors and control systems for all light mixed with LED light, and LED light
with what the company refers to as Full- aspects of the agricultural environment. ( All of the mixes of
Array LED backlighting. Indeed, the poten- The partners say that the result is 50% LED light tested proved superior in tomato
tial to enhance images with more LEDs and better plant production relative to fluores- production to HPS light alone. But the best
dynamic control of light levels could lead to cent-lit farms along with a 40% reduction results were obtained by a 50:50 mix of the
another ramp in LED usage by TV makers. in energy usage. narrow-spectrum red and blue LED light-
One major advantage of LED backlight- The farm occupies 2300m2 of floor space ing combined with HPS lighting.
ing has been dynamic control of the light


level for relatively small areas of the over-
all display. TV manufacturers add control Retrofits from page 9 The SR95 was designed to replace
schemes, sometimes called local dimming, the driver is mounted in the center of the and outperform pin-based CFLs and
that can match the LED light level to the rectangle. The driver can operate from pin-based LED lamps, said Erik Milz,
content of specific areas of each frame in a 120 or 277 VAC line inputs. vice president of sales at Terralux. Know-
video stream, effectively increasing the con- The intended application for the LED ing that ambience can be very impor-
trast ratio. Vizio specification sheets list a retrofit kit is upgrade of architectural- tant in hotel and multifamily buildings,
dynamic contrast ratio of 20 million to one grade light fixtures that have been we focused on improving both light out-
for the new M-Series models. installed in settings such as hallways in put and color quality. Building owners
hotels and multitenant dwellings. Ter- are able to realize payback in as little
ralux business manager Matt Sallee as 18 months for a wall sconce retro-
said, Many fixtures in hotels and mul- fit while eliminating bulb and ballast
tifamily [dwellings] are highly decora- maintenance.
tive, architectural grade, and dont need Sallee said the design of the light
to be replaced. The new kit allows the engine is the key to good optical perfor-
building to retain the look of the lighting mance. He said placing the LEDs along
design while leveraging sources that offer the outer edge of the back plate delivers
advantages in energy efficiency and life- even illumination over the entire optical
time. The company said the SSL retrofits surface with no visible dark spots. The
deliver a 5075% reduction in energy rel- result is even illumination in environ-
ative to fluorescent lamps. ments such as hallways while maintain-
The M-Series TVs include as many as 36 Terralux has previously supported ret- ing the intended aesthetic.
separate LED zones depending on screen size. rofits of sconces with a linear LED mod- Terralux rates the retrofit kit for 60,000
The Vizio M-Series collection represents a ule product line ( hours of operation and offers a five-year
significant milestone in picture quality for Indeed, we covered a retrofit story in warranty on the product. The LED ret-
mainstream consumers, said Matt McRae, a San Jose, CA condominium complex rofit kit is available in models rang-
CTO of Vizio. We crafted a best-in-class where the fixtures were installed (http:// ing from 616W with flux output rang-
experience by increasing brightness, doubling ing from 5001450 lm. The products are
the number of Active LED Zones and boost- The new retrofit kit, however, enables designed to replace 1332W fluorescent
ing the Clear Action performance. The Clear retrofit of even thinner luminaires. More- lamps. Correlated color temperature
Action feature refers to the 240-Hz refresh over, the company says the design deliv- (CCT) options range from 2700K to 4000K
rate and image processing features meant to ers superior light output along with fast and color rendering index (CRI) is a mini-
eliminate artifacts in fast motion scenes. return on investment. mum of 80.


Consumers that care more about picture hardware is broadly used in
quality will be drawn to the slightly thicker commercial offices. The Light-
sets with more backlighting, and more zones ing Quotient believes that the
and LEDs utilized result in better images. L805 design can enable use
The new M-Series sets are still around 2-in. in both private offices and in
thin depending on screen size. open office space, and elimi-
MORE: nate the need for most over-
head lighting. The fixture
NETWORKS & CONTROLS includes 21 mid-power LEDs
focused downward to deliver
The Lighting Quotient task lighting and 42 LEDs that
launches workstation LED deliver upward indirect ambi-
fixtures with controls ent lighting.
The Lighting Quotient has announced the The potential functionality
Tambient L805 LED luminaire family designed of the L805 design, however,
for attachment to typical computer monitor is dependent on the flexibility
mounting arms and intended to provide all of that The Lighting Quotient designed into the trol of ambient light levels.
the task and ambient lighting required in an product in the form of controls. The fixture For autonomous occupancy sensing,
individual workspace in an office. can be installed in what the company calls The Lighting Quotient offers a sensor that
As the nearby photo illustrates, the L805 private office mode where the user has com- can be installed locally to the luminaire
luminaire can mount in a variety of ways to plete control of both the task and ambient and connected via an RJ11 or telephone-
computer monitor mounting systems that lighting. A second open office mode affords style cable. The sensor controls both light
meet the standards set by VESA (Video Elec- the user control of the task lighting level but sources in private mode but only the task
tronics Standards Association), and such enables autonomous or programmatic con- lighting in open mode.



Zemax broke the mold with OpticStudio 14, combining a new, easy-to-use interface with time-tested core
analytics. The new OpticStudio 14.2 sets an even higher standard for optical and illumination design software
by maximizing operation performance while minimizing the learning curve for unbeatable productivity.

prototyping costs and enabling innovation.

Test drive it


The Lighting Quotient said that the L805 design will meet all rel-
evant energy-efficiency codes including California Title 24 that will
take effect this summer and require integrated control support.

LG Electronics and Daintree deliver

intelligent lighting and building project
LG Electronics and Daintree Networks have announced that the
National Bank of Arizona branch office in Prescott, AZ will be the
first facility to utilize the partners intelligent-lighting and -build-
ing technologies. The bank branch includes LG Electronics ZigBee-
enabled LED troffer fixtures, LGs efficiency-oriented variable
refrigerant flow (VRF) HVAC system, and Daintrees ControlScope
software platform that the company initially designed to manage
intelligent lighting systems and has since expanded to manage all
smart building systems.
Daintree and LG initially announced their partnership pub-
licly back in March ( At that time LG said
it would embed Daintree-designed, ZigBee-wireless-based light-
ing control technology into SSL products intended as fluorescent
troffer alternatives. Previously, Daintree has supplied the smart-
lighting controller in modular form to be integrated in third-party
luminaires, but Daintree never intended to be a hardware provider.
The partners asserted that direct integration of the ZigBee tech-
nology would result in lower price levels for intelligent fixtures.
The 3000-ft2 facility in Prescott utilizes 24-ft LG troffer fixtures
installed across 13 lighting zones and controlled by the ControlScope
platform. Moreover, the building includes nine intelligent thermo-
stats to efficiently manage the VRF HVAC system.
The bank was motivated to install an intelligent building control
system by the Arizona state-wide initiative that hopes to reduce
greenhouse gas emissions to year-2000 levels by 2020. Theres no
question that governments are serious about implementing plans
to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas outputs, and
enforcing them via increasingly stringent standards, said Danny
Yu, Daintree CEO. Combining Daintrees software and wireless
control with LGs energy-saving products goes a long way toward
helping sustainability managers see the kinds of results they need
in order to help achieve these goals, and offers significant cost
savings, both immediate and long-term, compared with competi-
tive offerings.


Glare mitigation study Light is brilliant

University researchers, along with China- and Netherlands-based
Philips R&D teams, have completed a study that documents the Solid State
impact of glare from LED street lights on drivers and makes recom-
mendations on mitigating the glare.
The glare research, which was conducted by Fudan University in
Lighting Solutions
Shanghai, China and Eindhoven Technical University in Eindhoven,
the Netherlands, was focused on finding the key factors that cause
discomfort glare that causes humans to avert their eyes from a light
Light is OSRAM
source. Philips Research Asia and the Phil- designers to predict the level of discomfort cations. The design does rely on TIR lenses
ips Research Laboratorie in the Netherlands glare experienced by a person in various and smaller LEDs, but the company says the
also participated in the project. The research positions relative to the source. design is optimized for minimal glare. Eye
team created a laboratory setup that mim- asserts that the optical efficiency allows
ics visual conditions on a roadway and sim- Outdoor luminaires specifiers to install luminaires with lower
ulated 72 different lighting conditions work- One of the issues that contributes to glare lumen output, which would reduce glare.
ing with volunteer observers. is the high-intensity directional light pro-
Discomfort glare is notoriously difficult duced by small LED sources that are often LEDS & SOURCES
to characterize. Indeed, Mark Rea, direc- only covered by small total internal reflec-
tor of the Lighting Research Center (LRC) at tion (TIR) lenses placed directly on the LED. Seoul AC-LED light engine enables
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, discussed The TIR lenses focus the beam as we covered omnidirectional SSL lamps
the issue in an interview with LEDs Maga- in a lengthy feature a few years back (http:// Seoul Semiconductor has announced an
zine late last year ( Rea Acrich LED light engine based on the Acrich
said that neither LRC metrics for discomfort Luminaire makers are taking different 3 AC-LED driver IC and Acrich MJT 2525
glare, nor others proposed in the industry, do approaches to reducing glare. We recently mid-power LEDs. The company is supplying
a good job characterizing the problem espe- covered a Bridgelux modular light engine for the SSL module along with a reflector optic
cially as a person nears the light source. street light applications that uses larger chip- that can enable retrofit lamp designs that
The recent research, however, was able on-board (COB) LEDs and a combination of deliver the omnidirectional beams required
to focus on luminous intensity, background lens and reflector optics to form the beam in market transformation programs such as
luminance, source size, and the angle ( The larger source Energy Star.
between the source and a test subject in and reflector could serve to minimize glare. The new Acrich A19 light engine consists
evaluating glare. A model resulting from Eye Lighting, meanwhile, just announced of a round modular circuit board with the
the work, which was validated in an actual an extension of the Aphos family of LED MJT 2525 LEDs mounted around the circum-
street light installation, can allow lighting luminaires for street and area lighting appli- ference of the board. The Acrich 3 driver IC

You asked for it and we listened!
This LED is the solution for all your lighting needs.
It looks so close to an incandescent that you wont believe its an LED.

Commercial Hospitality Retail Residential Custom


100 Lamp Light Circle | Summerville, SC 29483 | 800-221-9092
High Reliability
allows the product to work directly from the erate the omnidirectional distribution.
AC mains and is mounted near the center of The Acrich 3 AC-LED driver IC was Solders and
the modular product. Only a few additional announced at LightFair International back
discrete components are required in the in June ( The new TIMs for LED
design that specifically targets retrofit lamps. driver offers better dimming support when
Many such planar light engines have come used with phase-controlled dimmers such as
to market for A-lamps and other lamp types. triacs, along with the ability to work with a
But most project the bulk of the light in the noisy AC input.
forward direction. This performance is fine
in many applications but omnidirectional Everlight adds high-voltage
beams are preferred in applications such as packaged LEDs to mid- and
table lamps where light must be projected high-power portfolio
downward in the opposite direction from Everlight Electronics has announced the
which the LEDs face. XI3030HV family of packaged LEDs as a
To enable omnidirectional performance, high-voltage addition to its standard XI3030
Seoul developed a circular reflector that line that, as the model number implies, is Clear residue solder
is meant to be mounted above the light packaged in a 33-mm plastic package. The paste
engine as depicted in the nearby photo. The product family spans the mid- and high-
reflector allows some of the light to escape power segments with some models oper- Low voiding ux-coated
upwards but also reflects light to the side ating in excess of 1W. Meanwhile, the new solder preforms
high-voltage option can greatly simplify the High performance
design of the LED driver electronics and
reduce SSL system-level cost.
thermal interface
High-voltage packaged LEDs have been materials >40 w/mK
increasingly popular in the high-power seg-
ment going back several years. For instance,
Everlight announced high-power, high-volt-
age LEDs in the HiVo series back in 2011
Learn more:
More recently, the high-voltage trend has
come to the plastic-package sector and mid-
and down toward the base so long as the pla- power LEDs. For example, Philips Lumileds
nar light engine is mounted at the equator of added high-voltage options in its mid-power
a diffuser globe.
The new Acrich A19 module is optimized
for the performance and cost requirements
of the retrofit lamp market, said Jay Kim,
Seoul Semiconductor executive vice pres-
ident of lighting sales. This new module
combines the light source, driver, optics, and
primary thermal management in a single,
compact system, simplifying designs and
lowering costs for lighting manufacturers.
The new light engine relies on the high-volt-
age LEDs that Seoul refers to as multi-junc-
tion technology (MJT). The specific mid-power
MJT 2525 LEDs utilized were introduced back
in March ( line back in March (
Seoul says the 2.52.5-mm LEDs deliver Moreover, Seoul Semiconductor has been
lumen density of 15 lm/mm2 and asserts that very active in the mid-power, high-voltage
output density is among the best performance space with its MJT technology (http://bit.
in the industry. Moreover, the LED includes a ly/1sSyljh).
primary optic unlike most mid-power devices Indeed, high-voltage LEDs are created by ASIA CHINA EUROPE USA
on the market. The optic dome on the LEDs combining multiple emitters/junctions in
2014 Indium Corporation
produces a wider beam angle that helps gen- series in the simplest of architectures and in SEPTEMBER 2014 17

some cases several parallel strings of a number said LM-80 testing is underway.
of LEDs in series. Some such packaged LEDs MORE:
simply use bond wires to connect separate
chips that are packaged together, while oth- Harvard offers LED linear
ers actually make the electrical connection to engines for manufacturers
multiple emitters on one monolithic chip that of fluorescent fixtures should allow lighting manufacturers a sim-
is segregated into separate emitters in the back Harvard Engineering has announced the ple path to market. Harvard rates the light
end of the LED manufacturing process. LER7 Low Voltage Linear Strips LED- engines for 50,000 hours of life to 70% of ini-
The higher-voltage input delivers several based light engines intended to help man- tial lumen output (L70).
potential advantages. The lower difference ufacturers of linear fluorescent fixtures Lighting manufacturers will have sig-
in line-to-LED voltage reduces the number of develop an SSL portfolio. The company says nificant flexibility in how to apply the lin-
components required in the driver and can lighting manufacturers can use the housings ear light engines. The strips can be daisy
increase energy efficiency. of existing fluorescent fixtures and substi- chained together using push-wire connec-
Everlight asserts that its XI high-voltage tute the LED strips and Harvard drivers for tions between light engines. A single Har-
LEDs deliver the system-level benefits with- ballasts and tubes. vard CoolLED driver can power as many as
out compromise in other areas. The com- The LED strips are 17-mm wide and six of the strips.
pany said efficacy is 120 lm/W at 3000K CCT offered in 284- and 568-mm-long versions. The company will offer the light engines
good but not top-level performance at the The strips use Samsung mid-power LEDs. in 3000K, 3500K, and 4000K CCT versions
warm end of the color spectrum. The LEDs Harvard said the products can generate and with the option of 80- or 90-CRI per-
are offered with 80 CRI at a minimum and 1615 lm/ft. Moreover, the efficacy, without formance. Based on the selected drivers, a
with 115-lm maximum flux output. the driver, tops out at more than 150 lm/W design based on the LED light engines can
Clearly the LEDs are brand new as Ever- when the light engines are operated at 65C. support 010V dimming with light levels
light indicated that it only has 3000 hours of Harvard has received UL listing for both down to 5% of maximum.
test data on the products. But the company the light engines and the drivers. That fact MORE:



Ideal for Dimming LED Strips
  !  !






L.T.F., L.L.C. PHONE: (847) 498 5832 FAX: (773) 337 5628 EMAIL:
Companys Address: 2905 MacArthur Blvd Northbrook, IL 60062 U.S.A.
TUNNEL LIGHTING isfies the IES RP-22-11 tunnel
lighting standard at all times,
Schrder lights Nevada said Justin Snowden, Schrders
Interstate tunnel with LEDs, tunnel and transit manager for
adds adaptive controls North America. NDOT was
The Belgium-based Schrder Group has able to realize these goals using
announced a US tunnel lighting project Schrders FV32 LED.
on Interstate 80 in northeastern Nevada. The 1394-ft tunnel bores were
Solid-state lighting fixtures have already previously lit with 1253 high-
been installed in the eastbound bore of the pressure sodium (HPS) fixtures
Carlin Tunnel, and the westbound bore will with a mix of 100W, 150W, and
be completed later this year. The project also 400W sources. The retrofitted
includes adaptive controls that allow the The transportation authorities were spe- bores will house about 789 LED luminaires.
lighting to respond to ambient light levels cifically concerned with improved safety in The fixture mentioned was specifically
and dim portions of the lighting when pos- the Carlin Tunnel. The parties sought to find designed for tunnel applications. The team
sible for maximum energy savings. a lighting system that could deliver the req- selected both 131W fixtures that integrate
The tunnel project is part of a larger uisite light levels but that also could be con- 120 LEDs, and 266W fixtures with 240 LEDS.
freeway improvement project that is being trolled in a manner to allow drivers a safe Schrder has touted the project as the first
jointly pursued by the Nevada Department transition into the artificial light even at all-LED-lit freeway tunnel in the US. That
of Transportation (NDOT) and the US Fed- freeway speeds. may be technically true, but the LED tunnel
eral Highway Administration. The $31mil- The Nevada Department of Transpor- project under the Los Angeles International
lion project that covers the Carlin Canyon tations objectives for the lighting solution Airport (LAX) is more complex and drivers
area will include seismic bridge retrofits, were a lower energy consumption, an effec- certainly hit freeway speeds in that tunnel
new pavement, and new LED-based lighting. tive control system, and a tunnel that sat- (
Tunnel lighting will surely be a growing identified Sols commercial
area for LED lighting because of both the effi- solar outdoor lighting as the
ciency of LED lighting and the technologys ideal solution.
affinity for controls ( The builder avoided the cost
MORE: of trenching, wire installation,
and electrical infrastructure
OUTDOOR LIGHTING connections that are common
in roadway lighting. And the
Richmond home developer installs city suffered less impact to traf-
LED-based solar street lighting fic and parking in the neighbor-
In new construction, the cost of connecting hood, along with less noise.
outdoor SSL to the AC grid can be significant. As demonstrated by the
We covered a number of examples includ- Randolph West project, solar-
ing LED trail lighting in Massachusetts and technology have made solar a viable option. powered outdoor street lighting brings sig-
street lighting in Abu Dhabi in an article on Such a situation arose at the Premiere nificant value to our community and helps
presentations made at February's Strategies Homes LLC (PHL) Randolph West commu- us meet our sustainability, social, and eco-
in Light conference ( nity of 70 new single-family homes. As we nomic goals, said Christopher Beschler,
Solar has not been the best match for were developing the infrastructure for Ran- chief administrative officer of operations
street lighting because of the high light levels dolph West, it soon became clear that grid- for Richmond. For this project, solar light-
required for safety and long operating hours. tied street lighting would be much less effi- ing was far more effective than traditional
Solar panels, with efficiency just over 10%, cient and would add significant time to grid-tied street lighting, enabling us to pro-
couldnt power legacy light sources without the project, said Sean Bowers, chief oper- vide our residents with visible proof of our
large panels and expensive batteries. The effi- ating officer at PHL. Once we began to citys commitment to sustainability.
ciency of LED sources and improving battery value-engineer possible options, we quickly MORE:




Balthasar-Schaller-Str. 3
86316 Friedberg Germany
Tel. +49 /8 21 /6 00 99 -0
Fax +49 /8 21 /6 00 99 -99
+ funding
EPA announces results of LED
DOE updates MSSLC
LED luminaire spec
The US Department of Energy (DOE)
has released V2.0 of the Model specifi-
cation for LED roadway luminaires that
is meant for use by members of the DOEs
Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting
Consortium (MSSLC) in LED street-light
specification projects.
The new specification is available for
download on the DOEs website (http://1.

lamp push, plans new initiative The V2.0 specifica-

tion is a follow-on to the initial specifi-
cation that was published back in late
The US Environmental Protection Agency excited about the potential to fundamentally 2011 ( The DOEs
(EPA) has announced the results of its change the way Americans light their homes intent is to help municipalities and other
Energy Star LED bulb challenge and also with Energy Star LED lighting. agencies with developing a document to
an upcoming marketing opportunity The EPA actually estimates that more than guide luminaire procurement.
for energy-efficiency program sponsors 45 million Energy Star LED lamps were sold Indeed, the specification only requires
(EEPS). US retailers sold more than 20 mil- in total during 2013 and that number dou- that a municipality fill in a template
lion Energy Star-certified lamps during the bles the total from the prior year. Many lamps with the particular specifications that
challenge that stretched were obviously sold out- are applicable to the project at hand, and
between Earth Day side of the vendors quickly generate a comprehensive pro-
(April 22) 2013 and 2014. involved in the challenge. curement document. While the devel-
The EPA continues to The agency has also opment was undertaken in support of
push LED-based lamps revealed its next mar- members of the MSSLC, the DOE freely
as a way to save energy keting push for Energy distributes the model specification.
and reduce carbon emis- Star lamps. Beginning in The new version makes some changes
sions. The agency said September, the agency intended to streamline the document but
the lamps sold as part will utilize its Facebook adds references to standards and other
of the challenge equate social-media presence documents that have emerged since pub-
to Americans saving to help EEPS reach a lication of the original document. More-
$118 million annually broader audience. EEPS over, the model specification also now ref-
in energy costs and the will be able to distribute erences the separate Model specification
elimination of emissions Energy Star-related con- for adaptive control and remote monitor-
equivalent to removing tent through the social ing template for cities that intend to con-
3.5 million vehicles from media outlet. And the nect their lights in networks. That con-
the roadways. EPA will also leverage channels including Pin- trols specification was published in the
The challenge was made to major retailers terest, Twitter, and industry blogs. spring of 2013 (
in the US including Ace Hardware, Best Buy, EEPS will be able to distribute content via Some changes and additions include
Costco, Lowes, Metro Lighting,, the program including product and promo- references to ANSI specifications for
and The Home Depot, as well as distribu- tional images with a prominent Energy Star details ranging from photocontrol
tors and online retailers. They were charged message. The EPA will also host 30-second receptacles to electrical isolation and
with educating customers about the benefits videos, EEPS will be able to promote new immunity to noise. The new specifica-
of Energy Star-certified lamps and promot- product introductions, and fun facts will be tion adds a reference to the Energy Star
ing the products with in-store displays and part of the campaign. calculator based on the Illuminating
sales materials. The EPA is asking for help from LED man- Engineering Society (IES) TM-21 meth-
EPA congratulates the many retailers, ufacturers to raise the profile of the market- odology for projecting LED luminaire
manufacturers, and utility efficiency pro- ing campaign. The agency has suggested that useful life ( The
grams who contributed to a cleaner envi- LED makers can use their relationship with spec has also been updated for harmo-
ronment by helping to reach this goal, said influential websites to help convey the signif- nization with the latest version of the IES
Ann Bailey, the Energy Star labeling branch icance of energy savings that can be achieved RP-8 standard for roadway lighting.
director. Together with our partners, we are through the use of certified products. SEPTEMBER 2014 25

funding programs +
DOE issues fact sheet on light and health
The DOE recently released a fact sheet on part by an article in
the relationship between light and health the medical jour-
and said research is still needed before nal Trends in Neuro-
solid-state lighting (SSL) can be utilized in sciences. The article,
a drug-like manner to enhance human well- penned by a group of
being, despite the growing interest in what is 14 researchers from
often called human-centric lighting (HCL). a diverse and presti-
The fact sheet entitled Lighting for health: gious set of organi-
LEDs in the new age of illumination explic- zations, discusses the
itly states that the lighting industry needs differences between
to have separate and distinct outlooks on human photorecep-
SSL as a commodity as opposed to as a drug tors for nonvisual
( stimuli as opposed
Many companies have published data to the better-under-
on benefits of tunable LED-based lighting stood receptors of the
related to human productivity, healing, and visual system. There are no metrics for nonvi- use of tunable lighting to stimulate nonvi-
wellbeing. LEDs Magazine digs into the sci- sual stimuli and certainly no way to compare sual systems. We know light impacts circa-
ence behind HCL in an interview (see p. 31 for the light used in various studies. dian rhythms but we dont understand how.
our Q&A with Finelites Terry Clark). But the Indeed, the DOE concluded that LEDs Still, researchers such as an Osram-led group
interest may go beyond the science that will shouldnt be considered more beneficial or are studying the topic including how lighting
support such SSL applications at this point. dangerous to humans than other light sources, impacts long-haul airline passengers and jet
The DOE publication was prompted in and we need more research to support the lag (



Flexible, modular design

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  ) )) 
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(!! )
"" #"#$"%)&* 



funding programs+
DOE publishes LED outdoor lighting report, charts performance gains
The DOE has released a Caliper Snapshot The DOE said outdoor area lighting prod- quality attributes that typically result in
Report on outdoor LED area lighting prod- ucts now comprise 30% of the agencys Light- efficacy penalties. For example, seven of the
ucts, based on the Lighting Facts program, ing Facts database with roadway products products have a CRI above 80 and only one
one year after the release has a CRI below 70. Such light-
of the last outdoor-centric Mean luminous effcacy (lm/W) ing delivers far superior color
report ( 100 rendering compared to HPS
That report from August 2013 lighting and makes recogniz-
noted that LED lighting could ing objects and pedestrians
not yet match high-pressure 60 much easier for drivers.
sodium (HPS) sources at the Canopy
The 400W-HPS-equivalent
400W level, but SSL manufac- Garage LED products still fall at the
turers have now delivered such 20 Directional lower end of the lumen-output
products. Moreover, efficacy 0
range of HPS luminaires. But
continues to escalate while Quarter: 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 the LED products offer supe-
light quality is also improved. Year: 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 rior efficacy. Research has pre-
The new DOE report is avail- viously shown that the broader-
able for download on the agencys SSL web- accounting for 23%. The remaining 7% is spectrum LED lighting delivers better visibility
site ( The high- spread among parking garage, canopy, and at lower lumen-output levels. Indeed, tests
level trends include a move to 4000K CCTs for directional luminaires. at a Seattle LED roadway site two years ago
a slightly warmer look relative to the predom- The DOE noted that sixteen products in revealed little decrease in object-recognition
inant 6500K LED lighting from prior years. At the database now feature efficacy above 120 capabilities even as LED lights were dimmed
the top end, efficacy has hit 150 lm/W. lm/W. And that gain has come with light- considerably (
funding programs+
DOE Caliper report identifies
shortcomings of LED MR16 lamps
The DOE has released a Caliper Application relative to MR16 lamps tested previously, but product stood out at 69 lm/W. The remain-
Summary report focused specifically the LED lamps still trail legacy lamps by a der of the lamps tested in Series 22 had a
on LED-based MR16 directional lamps significant margin. mean efficacy of 64 lm/W.
( The The DOE was only able to
Color rendering index
agency tested 27 lamps with a buy five lamps with a beam
focus on attributes required in 100 angle of 15 or less. But the DOE
applications such as hospitality reported that none of the tested
and retail as opposed to usage in lamps could match the Energy
general ambient lighting applica- Energy Star minimum Star-predicted CBCP of 50W
tions. The new report finds that the halogen lamps. Moreover, the
SSL alternatives generally fall short agency speculated that light-
of legacy halogen lamps in areas ing specifiers would prefer
including total lumen output and LED lamps with even narrower
center beam candle power (CBCP). 55
beam angles in the 4 range.
The new report is part of the 50 Clearly, the industry has a
DOEs Series 22 set of reports that 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 way to go to deliver suitable
are evaluating different lamp Correlated color temperature (K) SSL alternatives for MR16
types. The Caliper process includes Series 22 LED MR16 lamps (January 2014) Halogen benchmarks lamps. The DOE noted that
purchasing products anonymously 90+ CRI 500+ Im or =50 W 15o it had selected the MR16 cat-
LED Lighting Facts data (June 2014)
from commercial suppliers just as Energy Star data for qualifed LED products (June 2014)
egory for test specifically
any lighting designer/specifier because of the challenge
would, and testing the products in a labo- The four high-CRI products tested also incurred in packing the LED and driver elec-
ratory setting. exhibited significant efficacy penalties in tronics in such a small lamp form factor. The
The shortcomings in the LED MR16 space delivering better color performance. The tested lamps do deliver a significant efficacy
have certainly been foreshadowed. In a Cali- mean of the four was 51 lm/W, although one advantage relative to halogen alternatives.
per report released earlier this year focused
on products for retail applications, the MR16
category lagged the performance of other EPA further clarifies Energy Star V1.1
directional LED lamps including PAR30
products ( lamp requirements, adds CBCP tool
The new Caliper report covers far more The EPA has distributed yet another let- dont deliver an omnidirectional beam
products than the prior study on multiple ter regarding proposed changes to the distribution.
lamp types. The DOE set out to purchase Energy Star Lamps specification that will The EPA is adding explicit verbiage spec-
3000K-CCT lamps with flux output of at be adopted in the transition from V1.0 to ifying that the exclusion includes lamps
least 500 lm or an equivalency claim to 50W V1.1 specifications due this fall. The clari- with diameters between 41 and 78 mm
or greater halogen lamps. The agency also fications impact decorative lamps. (similar to A-lamps) with the exception of
sought to purchase 90-CRI lamps, although We covered some proposed changes in G16.5- and G25-based lamps. The agency
the DOE only found four manufacturers the decorative lamp category along with will add further detail in section 14 of the
offering such products when the lamps some changes in line-powered MR16 lamps specification on lamp dimensions regard-
were purchased in the early part of 2014. The back in late May ( ing acceptable length-to-diameter ratios.
agency further sought a set of lamps with Based on comments on the May proposal, Separately, the EPA also has posted a
a specified beam angle of 15 or less an the EPA will add further details on lamps CBCP calculation tool in the form of a
attribute desired in retail lighting applica- that will not be listed in Energy Star. Microsoft Excel spreadsheet that manu-
tions where the beam is focused on a spe- The agency has approached the changes facturers can use in characterizing MR16
cific product. because some consumers could miscon- directional SSL products (available at
Of the group of 18 lamps that either were strue the energy-efficiency and light-dis- The tool is
rated at greater than 500 lm or featured an tribution benefits of some decorative prod- designed for use with the line-voltage GU-
equivalency claim of 50W halogen lamps, ucts that look much like omnidirectional 10-base MR16 lamps that were part of a
most failed to deliver the output or CBCP of A-lamps. The EPA will simply not recog- prior story on changes to the Energy Star
a 35W halogen lamp. The DOE noted that nize lamps with G18.5 and G19 bases that specification (see above link).
performance has improved across the board


interview | SSL AND HEALTH

Potential exists for SSL to positively impact

health and wellbeing, but science lags
MAURY WRIGHT interviews Finelite CEO TERRY CLARK, and the early advocate of LED lighting shares
his investigation into the area of human-centric lighting and where science falls short of supporting
theories of benefits for now.

EDs Magazine has published numerous cludes that for now LEDs should not be con- is a healing thing or a tangible benefit to our
articles over the past several years that sidered more beneficial or harmful than con- wellbeing. We have published, and even more
would indicate that lighting with a ventional sources but cautioned the industry so companies have published, research on the
specific spectral power distri- on health claims. benefits of the right spectrum to increase stu-
bution (SPD) could yield tan- The recent escalation in dis- dent productivity, accelerate healing in hos-
gible benefits to human health cussion on HCL led us to seek pitals, eliminate jet lag on overnight interna-
and wellbeing. For example, more input on the topic. Terry tional flights, and similar scenarios. Is any of
blue energy in light is said to Clark, CEO of early LED light- that research valid?
increase alertness and produc- ing player Finelite, has both
tivity in the morning. Warmer a personal and professional Clark: Regarding that question and certainly
light is thought to prepare us interest on the topic of HCL. companies that have published research on
for a restful night. The claimed Clark is a pioneer in LED light- the benefits of the right spectrum increas-
benefits have ranged from ing and a regular speaker at ing student productivity, I have never seen a
simply better rest to accel- industry conferences. He has properly vetted article that says the color tem-
erated healing and more productive work been researching HCL so we asked for his perature or spectrum of light improves stu-
forces. Often called human-centric lighting insight on the topic and the recent research. dent test scores over any measurable period.
(HCL), the application is particularly symbi- The only one thats ever been done in the US
otic with LED-based lighting because of the LEDs Magazine: Lets start at perhaps where was one international firm did one study of
ease with which LEDs can be used to pro- we should finish. Can lighting positively one school I believe in the South, in Kentucky
duce specific SPDs, even in fixtures that can impact our health and wellbeing? Based on maybe; and we asked the school coordinator
be tuned dynamically based on the time of the recent research, I know there are many did he think the results were expandable to
day, or other criteria. But does science sup- issues that need further scientific study. But other districts, to other schools, and he said
port the HCL claims? are you of the opinion at least that lighting absolutely not. There were no controls; there
Recently, there have been questions raised can positively impact health and wellbeing? were no long-term studies; there was no con-
about the scientific evidence of real health trol of any of the outside variables. They mea-
benefits attributable to lighting. Indeed, a Terry Clark: I absolutely believe it. There is sured preference. The teacher said, Hey, I
panel of top researchers from leading orga- absolutely no doubt. But I may surprise you like this. But there was no documentation.
nizations around the globe authored an why I believe that. When I think of every Consider even Finelites work. Ive got 80 mil-
article in the academic Trends in Neurosci- good architectural site that Ive ever visited lion data points that cant tie spectrum to bet-
ences publication entitled Measuring and in my life, that lighting and that encom- ter test scores.
using light in the melanopsin age (http:// passes daylight and artificial light has The article discuss the always been an important, maybe even crit- LEDs Magazine: We have also seen a Philips
non-visual photoreceptive cells that might ical element that makes it great, memora- school study in Germany and studies from
be the key to health benefits from light expo- ble experience. You just dont get a great, medical facilities in Europe that would
sures. But the paper points out more ques- architectural emotional experience without indicate faster healing attributable to light
tions that need to be answered rather than great lighting so its been for centuries. Its spectrum.
answering questions about HCL. Indeed, nothing new with light properly applied; it
the paper led the US Department of Energy literally touches your soul. Clark: It is not a well-vetted study. The one in
(DOE) to publish the fact sheet Lighting for Europe really doesnt look at the students long
health: LEDs in the new age of illumination LEDs Magazine: So the touching your soul is enough. And the teaching moment comes
( The DOE con- nice to have. What were starting to talk about from the number one industrial engineer SEPTEMBER 2014 31

interview | SSL AND HEALTH

in the old AT&T Electric and what is called articles that proper lighting is a major fac- sity over that whole expression versus the
the Hawthorne Study. People made a change tor in assisting in dealing with jet lag. And receptivity of the rod. And then we are trying
in lighting and the productivity on the line thats the light and circadian rhythm tie to figure out how it integrates because the
went up, and AT&T got really excited Ah, with the intrinsically photosensitive reti- article says the cell is one millionth as sensi-
we have found the Holy Grail. And they went nal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) covered in the tive as your rods and cones. So to get one pho-
in and took out the temporary lighting and neuroscience research. We know there is a ton into that little cell, you need a million hit-
productivity went up again. What they found direct tie between lighting and any number ting rods and cones.
they were measuring was the employees loved of chemical regulators that come out of your Its kind of like the brain is cheated. It
the attention. They loved the fact that they brain, the hormonal secretions. And yeah, knows its got a sensitivity, but its not very
were being recognized and they were being so there is a tie. But the benefits of the right good so its literally stealing information
treated and groomed over. It wasnt the differ- spectrum again have not been fully vetted. from the rods and cones. So some of the cir-
ent light temperature at all. So if there is a tie Then your question is, does the research cadian rhythm, they have found, if you just
of spectrum and student productivity, abso- described in that complex article on the mela- put enough red light intensity into that red
lutely Ive never seen it. The tie between spec- nopsin age negate all these things or support rod you can trigger the circadian rhythm
trum and accelerated healing in a hospital I them? I sort of see them differently. The article to wake it up with a red light. Because you
have not seen properly vetted by any health- to me explains why it is so incredibly challeng- actually fire that red spot, which ties into
care facility and I will come back to that. I ing, and we as an industry if we care about the ipRGC cell; and it says OK, so whatever
havent seen that study. this have to link in literally with brain it is, maybe its a fire, maybe its something
researchers. The reason why is when you take but wake up, weve never seen this much red
LEDs Magazine: We did cover research from those ipRGCs cells they have very, very com- in our life! and the hormones start scream-
Philips on the Maastricht University Medical plex interconnections with your rods, with ing through the brain.
Center that revealed patients healing better your cones, and with their own sensing, so So when it comes to things like jet lag, is
when exposed to tunable lighting relative to they are actually reading five different wave- it the 480-nm light required or what mix can
patients under legacy lighting. The benefits lengths of light at the same time. Page 2 of I do it with just blue and 535 nm? And
were primarily attributed to patients sleep- that article has a diagram, and the rods keep thats where the dosing thing comes in. So
ing better because the lighting matched their responses at 507 nm. People respond to light you need a one-millionth time dose of 480
circadian rhythm. Likewise, there was a study both above and below that wavelength your nm thats pipelined in; and the one com-
that indicated international airline passen- color is 535 nm, your melanopsin is at 480 nm, ing in at 420 nm, the deep blue, thats got
gers rested better and were more productive and the other colors are at 565 nm. You are get- chokes and throttles on it where it gets in.
after a long flight based on tunable lighting. ting a dose into those various sensor elements What the article is saying is that the dose is
kind of, though, to your point, the whole spec- really important and its a tough mathemat-
Clark: And that goes to the third point, if trum. You have an extraordinary, complex ical thing, especially when the sensitivity of
there is any jet lag and certainly there are relationship that would take the exact inten- that blue drops off so fast.


interview | SSL AND HEALTH

So you can do it; the math will get done in we will be working more in the area of pref-
some creative time. You know, just look at erence rather than trying to claim health.
what Googles done with self-driving cars. There is very strong evidence that certain
But the math has not been done yet. And people prefer warmer or cooler colors, and
why its going to take brain researchers is it is pretty well documented that sometimes
the next thing the article says Oh, and by people get into a change of interior colors in
the way, it really depends on your state com- their space; if they had the ability to shift
ing into the light exposure. Were you tired? the color spectrum one way or another they
Were you jet lagged? Did you have too much would find the space definitely more appeal-
alcohol? What other states come into play? ing under one set of color. So giving users
There was a Light + Behavior conference control, I think, is the first step and you will
presented by the IES in Cleveland. They had see Finelite promoting that.
for the first time Ive seen in a real pub- And you will probably see Finelite under-
lic event three distinctly lit areas. One had take some research in certain specific areas
an incandescent A-lamp. The second was a to say okay, if you give people control like
magenta-saturated room and the next room that: One, do they use it, because its one
was deep saturated in blue. You walked into it thing to give them control but youve got to
and you looked at the incandescent light, and have a vetted study; do they use it? Two, do
it was just like youd expect any 2700K lamp they use it to set their own preferred level
to look like, beautiful warm yellow light. And and then leave it there forever, or do they
then they escort you into the magenta room change it during the day or do they change it
and they talk to you for two to three min- seasonally? To do that you need to take data
utes. Then you go back and look at the incan- readings almost every minute of the day for
descent and it is green. You would swear you at least a calendar year to get the data set.
are in Wizard of Oz. They claimed that your And Ill tell you weve done that in edu-
brain is desperately trying to get back to the cation and you get real quickly 80 million
black-body curve and literally changes your data points. And all that says is preference.
color perception on that magenta, and there- Maybe it doesnt even say preference. It just
fore normal white light looks green. When says do they use it, and if so, how frequently
you went into the blue room, you see it com- do they use it?
pletely differently again.
Thats an example of whats happening in LEDs Magazine: And then in the applica-
the canonical visual cortex. They say what is tions it might be different. For example, an
going on in the chemical engine is somewhat office environment would be different from
similar. Where you come from completely a medical environment or even retail.
impacts how the brain is going to get that
signal out of the nerves. So Ive got five dif- Clark: I think where we might expect to see it
ferent inputs. Ive got the early state Im com- used, for example, is in very high-end execu-
ing from that is very important, and theres tive meetings where you have lots of interna-
why they say to be careful, just really, really tional customers or very high-end hospitality
be careful. where anecdotally certain people like warm
colors and want it down to the 2700K area,
LEDs Magazine: Does that imply that you then others anecdotally like the cooler tem-
as a company, Finelite, would not offer a peratures. So wouldnt it be great if you were
product today that was promoted as being having a meeting with very important guests
human-centric or that was promoted as and you could ask them not only would they
maybe having a spectrum where you should like to adjust the intensity level so that it is
use this setting for late night, this setting most pleasant for them but also color. That
for early morning? Would you offer such can add significantly to the comfort of my
luminaires for maybe hospital applications? important guests or visitors or executives.

Clark: We are very actively participating in LEDs Magazine: When you talk about some-
the area of light color tuning. However, our thing like that executive conference room,
approach will be very carefully stated that and you approach it from saying this is really


interview | SSL AND HEALTH

a preference thing, but that doesnt prevent my God, brain researchers are working on the brightening agents. Luminus Devices had
somebody from saying, Well, if I move this the brain thing and when we figure it out a similar type of LED. But what I think you
toward the cool end of the spectrum, it may were going to get smart. But we got to take said to me at LightFair was that such prefer-
help me with my jet lag. The preference thing that deep dive and understand its going to ence tests may not be valid research because
is clear and the true jet lag benefits are kind be complex before we can claim were smart. it depends on what the test subject was look-
of loosely supported at this point. ing at before, or as we discussed earlier, the
LEDs Magazine: Regarding the brain test subjects state before the exposure.
Clark: Thats right. If they do come up with researchers, when we talked previously you
a good integrating meter as the melanopsin made the point that yeah, we need to be Clark: Yeah, and thats the thing they were
article sort of pleaded, you could put it in involved with them, but we dont want them teaching at the Light + Behavior event that
the room. And if we are building luminaires to take over our lighting world. But it does I mentioned. The perception of the white
that can adjust intensity and spectrum the have to be a partnership at some point, right? glare, how your brain perceives that color
research ultimately says, Hey, if youre at is absolutely dependent on the color it just
this intensity and this color spectrum then Clark: I think so. I think they need our exper- came from. There is very good research that
that will help jet lag. Then we will have tise on how to move the photons around and documents how people like white relative to
built a very affordable, easy-to-use system we need their expertise on how the brain the black-body curve. It is an excellent piece
where somebody could punch in the CCT works and so thats two parts of the brain. but it takes so long per student. Its some-
and adjust the intensity level and say, If you A lot of brain researchers that we were talk- thing like four hours to go through the pref-
just sit in this for 10 minutes, youll feel bet- ing to in light and behavior are dealing with erence testing because youve got to adapt,
ter. But we wont claim it. We will not claim the visual cortex part of the brain. A lot of and then once youre adapted you are asked,
that we can characterize every one of those the people in HCL are saying, I want to Do you like this color or that color better?
five spectrums and exactly how the ipRGC deal with the chemical part and they liter- and then youve got to re-adapt and ask, Do
cells are going to work. ally ignore the conscious part of the brain, you like this color or that color better? The
I dont know if you saw the area in that which is very important on color preference, room required for testing is like $50,000. We
article that said oh, by the way The doc- color fidelity, and the flicker is impacting the desperately need that rerun again and there
tors or brain researchers have already found cognitive part of the brain. just isnt budget to do it. We didnt deal with
there are at least five types of ipRGCs so the age and we didnt deal with the cultural ele-
brain chemical isnt driven by warm; there LEDs Magazine: Two years ago the LRC pre- ments. Were there more Asians in that study
are five separate chemical paths. We dont sented their study on white preference at or more Europeans? The researchers were
even know if jet lag is controlled by two of Strategies in Light that revealed most pre- amazed to find the results but have never
the five, or one of the five, or if all five have ferred white located below the black-body been able to deep-dive back into it.
to fire. So this is why I take a deep breath and curve. At LightFair we saw Philips with their
why Im also absolutely so energized. This is CrispWhite LED below the black-body curve EXTRA! Read the full version of this inter-
the best industry in the world to be in, and and also with some deep blue energy to excite view at


standards | AUTOMOTIVE

LED automotive lighting

applications require unique
SAE standards
JIANHZHONG JIAO summarizes the broad landscape of standards for LED lighting specific to
automotive applications, which includes unique characteristics in terms of lumen maintenance,
reliability, lifetime, and color spectrum.

he development of AlInGaP (alu- product is referred to as a lamp as opposed tometry test is conducted when the lamp is
minum gallium indium phosphide) to a luminaire). The system-level standards thermally stabilized.
materials technology in the early only address lamp testing and performance Furthermore, most automotive lamps
1990s led to higher efficiency and better when LED sources are used. Other source have both minimum and maximum pho-
reliability in yellow-to-red light-emitting requirements are not included. tometric level requirements (light inten-
diodes (LEDs). Around the same time, LED sity values at angular test points). There
technology for various illumination appli- Auto signaling applications is an intensity ratio requirement for com-
cations was on the rise. Automotive exte- The first established LED automotive light- bined function lamps as well. For example,
rior lighting was one of the first such appli- ing standard was SAE J1889, a standard for the intensity ratio between a stop function
cations starting with center high-mounted LED signal devices including all signal- versus a tail function must have levels dis-
stop lamps (CHMSLs). In the late 1980s, ing and marking lamps such as stop lamps, tinguishable by the human eye. These func-
the SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) tail lamps, turn signals, and daytime run- tional intensity ratio requirements are cap-
International Lighting Committee started to ning lamps (DRLs). This standard has been tured in the various SAE lamp documents.
develop LED automotive lighting standards updated several times over the years. Also, SAE J1889 addresses the areas of initial
and their work continues today. Most auto- A key item in SAE J1889 addresses how light intensity output, stabilized light inten-
motive exterior lighting lamps are consid- procedures should differ when sity output, device performance
ered safety devices, and as such, these lamps testing a signaling lamp using of minimum and maximum val-
are regulated at a federal or state level. Due LEDs versus a signaling lamp ues, as well as light intensity ratio
to the nature of safety requirements, the using incandescent sources, as requirements.
introduction of LEDs brought together sev- LED lamps include electronic
eral different perspectives that became the components while incandes- Forward lighting standards
central focus of LED lighting standard devel- cent lamps do not. Since LEDs In the early 2000s, after break-
opment with the SAE Lighting Committee. are a temperature-dependent throughs in white LED technol-
SAE LED lighting standards have two cat- light source and the light out- ogy made LED headlamps possi-
egories: component or packaged LED-level put reduces as the junction temperature ble, the SAE Lighting Committee developed
(LED package) standards and system-level increases, the testing requirements must and established an additional LED lighting
standards including the entire lamp, i.e., a capture this characteristic to ensure the standard, SAE J2650, which addresses the
signaling lamp or headlamp. (Note that in lamp installed on a vehicle fulfills the pho- need for LED forward illumination devices
the auto industry the system-level lighting tometric performance requirements. A pho- such as headlamps and fog lamps.
The tests to determine maximum and
DR. JIANZHONG JIAO, director of regulations and emerging technologies at OSRAM Opto minimum photometry level ratios and ther-
Semiconductors, Inc., is an internationally recognized lighting expert. He has been actively mal stability are similar to those of SAE
involved in LED and SSL standard development activities. He serves as the past chairman of the J1889; however, two additional performance
SAE Lighting Committee, past chairman of NGLIA, past chairman of the NEMA SSL Technical requirements have been added for LED for-
Committee, active member of IESNA Testing Procedure Committee, Roadway Lighting Committee, ward lighting devices. The first addition
and Computer Committee, ANSI SSL Working Groups, Standard Technical Panel of UL8750, is the red color content test because it is
standard committees in IEEE, CIE USA, SEMI, JEDEC and other organizations. He can be reached important to effectively render the color
at red in the roadway environment including SEPTEMBER 2014 41

obstacles, pedestrians, and signage most lumen maintenance over lifetime. Typically, Audi Matrix headlamps are an example
notably the red stop sign. SAE lighting standards do not address prod- of a multi-LED automotive lighting
The light spectrum emitting from head- uct lifetime requirements, but in this case product that can produce steerable
lamps must contain sufficient red color the consideration was based on the fact that beams for improved visibility.
content to render these signs effectively LEDs are longer-life light sources. As an
for drivers to properly recognize the signs. LED light output declines over lifetime, the Lumen maintenance
Therefore, SAE J2650 includes a requirement guideline was designed to ensure that LED In 2007, the SAE Lighting Committee started
for red color content as a percentage of the headlamps maintain a recommended min- to develop standards for testing LED lumi-
full visible-light spectral power distribution. imum photometric output of 80% of initial nous flux maintenance. After years of
The second addition is the requirement of light output over the rated lifetime. work, SAE J2938 was published in 2012. In

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standards | AUTOMOTIVE

most cases for automotive lamps Auto lamp life

designed with LED sources, the The UMTRI reports set the
LEDs are often operated at or near basis and rationale for the test-
the maximum junction temperature ing duration recommended in SAE
allowance. J2938. For passenger vehicles in the US
An LEDs operating current is typically over the life of the vehicle, the longest oper-
designed near its maximum junction tem- ational duration was a tail lamp at slightly
perature. Due to the variability of vehicle less than 2,000 hours. For DRLs, the duration
operational and environmental conditions, Osram Ostar Headlamp Pro LEDs target is approximately three times as long as a tail
this standard was designed to ensure LED Advanced Forward Lighting Systems lamp. Therefore, SAE J2938 recommends a
lamps meet minimum photometric require- (AFS) with individually controlled minimum of 2,000 hours for the duration
ments even during the worst operational emitters. of LED lumen maintenance testing. Longer
conditions. Thus, for automotive lamps, the durations can be used for DRL or heavy-duty
LED case temperature is determined for the last the lifetime of the vehicle. Although some vehicle lighting applications. If longer-term
condition where the junction temperature automakers may have measured lamp usage lumen maintenance projections are needed
reaches the maximum or within 10 of the over the lifetime of a vehicle for certain vehi- for these cases, IES TM-21 is recommended.
maximum. Even though in reality LEDs may cle models, the industry did not have a reli- Also in 2007, the application for LED
be operated in lower junction temperature able and comprehensive database to set such replaceable light sources became a topic of
regimes (resulting in extended luminous a lifetime standard. In 2008, the University of standard development. For current auto-
flux maintenance life), the SAE J2938 stan- Michigan Transportation Research Institute motive lamps, most use replaceable light
dard recommends testing that captures the (UMTRI) published two reports that provided sources (bulbs). At the time that LEDs
worst case scenario. an average-based summary on the real-world became bright enough to be used for exte-
Automotive OEMs and lamp manufactur- frequency of use of lighting equipment in pas- rior lighting, one approach was to integrate
ers have set the expectation that LEDs should senger vehicles in the United States. individual LEDs into a replaceable socket
standards | AUTOMOTIVE

design such that the LED bulb (replaceable

light source) could be used in multiple vehi- LED automotive lighting standards can provide
cle platforms or as service parts. This offers
the possibility of a range of light sources, valuable references for developing LED general
which then can be used by all device man-
ufacturers openly traded and manufac-
lighting standards.
tured by a variety of suppliers.
SAE traditionally specifies miniature which are included in SAE J573, are harmo- In LED lighting applications, lumen main-
replaceable light sources (bulbs) in SAE J573. nized with the datasheet in UN Regulation tenance alone may not be the definitive mea-
Different from the conventional bulbs, LED 128 ( sure of reliability. Other types of failures
integrated bulbs may provide additional within the LED lamp assembly also need to
advantages for light pipe lamps, reflector Failure testing be identified as quality or reliability concerns.
optic lamps, thin lamp designs, and other The latest document developed by the SAE With the range of potential impacts from the
advanced optical designs. Based on these Lighting Committee for LED lighting is SAE environment and usage in automotive appli-
practices, the SAE Lighting Committee J3014, which addresses highly accelerated cations, the committee identified three major
developed specifications that address opti- failure testing (HAFT) for LED-containing stressors that can be used to induce early fail-
cal, mechanical, and other characteristics to lamps. HAFT, sometimes referred to as accel- ures in LED lamps: temperature, vibration,
standardize these types of bulbs. erated life testing (ALT) or highly accelerated and input voltage. This test is used to realize
The standardized LED replaceable light life testing (HALT), has been an industry the operating and destructive limits of a prod-
sources for signal lighting applications practice for a long time in both automo- uct when subjected to extreme thermal, elec-
can now also be found in SAE J573. As the tive and general lighting applications. The trical, and vibration conditions.
automotive lighting market is increasingly purpose of HAFT is to identify failure types The temperature changes in HAFT test-
a global market, the LED replaceable light that provide insight into design faults or the ing will produce rapid, uncontrolled humid-
source technical data and specifications, desired rated life of the lighting product. ity swings that will act as a stressor on the



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standards | AUTOMOTIVE

lamps being tested. However, humidity is

not considered as an independent stressor
because it is a function of temperature and
the formation of condensation naturally
occurring as temperature is lowered. Con-
trolling humidity requires air exchange and
conditioning. Controlling humidity during
temperature changes is slow and test equip-
ment challenging, and during rapid temper-
ature transitions it is not possible to control
humidity. SAE J3014 recommends the anal-
ysis of the test results may also help recog-
nize variations and uncover factors that may
affect the intended performance. However,
the test results do not and should not be used Osram has developed OLEDs designed to withstand the operating environment of a
to predict operational life of the product. vehicle, such as the tail lamp shown here.
A reliable method for projecting LED and
LED lighting product long-term reliabil- standards on discrete silicon-based compo- dards can provide valuable references for
ity is highly desired in all applications and nents were used to qualify LED components, developing LED general lighting standards.
several industry expert groups continue like AEC Q101. The latest activities on dedi- In the next issue we will focus on the
to work toward this objective today. Stan- cated LED component qualification tests at global view of automotive standards in a
dards for testing and performance have long IEC are focused to consider the technology follow-up article entitled Global automo-
been part of the design considerations for and implemented in IEC 60810. As a pioneer tive qualification standards emerge for LED
LED usage in various applications. Existing application, LED automotive lighting stan- applications.


conference preview | SIL JAPAN

SIL/LED Japan will examine

epitaxy to SSL applications
ELLA SHUM and MANAMI KONISHI report on plans for the October Yokohama conference that will focus
on the SSL industry looking beyond lumens per watt as LED technology matures.

he LED Japan 2014/Strategies in Science and Engineering at Yamaguchi dent of lighting products, Frank Shum led
Light (SIL) Japan conference will University, will cover the latest GaN-on- the creation of the lamp products at Soraa.
take place October 1517, 2014 in GaN work. Yokogawa was with Panasonic He will be speaking about the multiple
Yokohama with the theme The search until March 2014. innovations in driver, optical, and thermal
beyond lumens per watt. At the packaged compo- technologies resulting in lamp-level per-
The world of solid-state light- nent level, we will have Nori- formance that is in many cases superior to
ing (SSL) has moved on from hide Yamada, vice president of integral fixtures.
extracting the last lumen per Japanese Business at Philips
watt to focusing on applica- Lumileds Lighting Company, Innovative SSL applications
tions such as human-centric presenting Whats next in At the lighting level, we have innovative
lighting and how to make SSL LED innovation? While the startup TeleLumen who will discuss how
affordable. Lumileds presentation will we can record and play back light just like
We search for ways to focus on LEDs for traditional we play iTunes music on smart devices.
understand and make SSL DC-driven SSL systems, AC- Imagine playing back Californian sun-
more beautiful, pleasant, LED driver techniques are shine on your playback luminaire in your
acceptable, and healthy for quickly moving into the main- house on a rainy day. It would certainly
people. What are the differ- Ella Shum stream. Seoul Semiconductor cheer you up. For the aging population,
ences in how we perceive light CTO Kibum Nam will present Waldmann Lighting will be discussing
by age? How about by cultural background? The evolution of AC LED technology. He biodynamic lighting focusing on the care
How do we achieve these goals technically will detail the improvements in luminous of the elderly, with particular emphasis on
and within cost parameters? Speakers at efficacy, total harmonic distortion (THD), the lighting needs of the elderly in Asia.
the Japan conference will try to answer power factor (PF), and flicker In architectural lighting
these questions. at the SSL system level. design, we look to China,
probably the most innovative
LED sources Modules and lamps region on earth. We have one
At the fundamental level, we have the war Moving to the module level, of their top award-winning
of epi (epitaxial) technology as demon- Xicato CTO Gerald Harbers outdoor lighting designers,
strated by the newcomers focusing on gal- will discuss technology inte- XU Dong Liang from Toryo
lium-nitride-on-silicon (GaN-on-Si) and gration in SSL. Lighting prod- International, to discuss the
GaN-on-GaN architectures. Shinya Nunoue, ucts have the primary func- latest designs from the coun-
chief research scientist at Toshibas corpo- tion of delivering useful light, try that will prove to be the
rate R&D center will discuss advancements but integrated intelligence can largest consumer of LED
in high-performance LEDs for general light- enable far greater energy effi- lighting.
ing applications using GaN-on-Si technol- ciency. Harbers will explain Manami Konishi
ogy. On the other side, Toshiya Yokogawa, architectural integration SSL design and regulations
professor in the Department of Materials options designed to offer better quality of Back in the product development arena,
light, reduced flicker, and control and com- two of the headaches lighting manufac-
ELLA SHUM is co-chair of Strategies in Light munications that are possible in working turers face constantly in SSL are dimming
Conferences, and partner at consulting firm with digital lighting networks and systems. and heat. Scott Brown, senior vice presi-
YEBY Associates LLC. MANAMI KONISHI is co- At the lamp level, Soraa has built an LED- dent of marketing at Dialog Semiconductor,
chair of LED Japan/Strategies in Light Japan based MR16 product that has won numer- will discuss Delivering optimal SSL
and president of Plus M Corp. ous international awards. As vice presi- dimming performance in legacy and SEPTEMBER 2014 49

conference preview | SIL JAPAN

wireless systems. Meanwhile, Cambridge market presented by Strategies Unlimited nitrides LED: Challenges and perspectives.
Nanotherm and Foxconn will examine dif- analysts. Besides lighting, we will be exam- In addition to conference programs that
ferent approaches to thermal management ining one of the hottest technologies that will address the important industry develop-
in LED-based systems. competes with LEDs: lasers. Celebrated ments discussed here, LED Japan/Strategies
Standards and regulatory specifications speaker Tetsuya Takeuchi, associate pro- in Light Japan Conference and Expo 2014
can both help and sometimes hinder inno- fessor of Meijo University, will discuss the will also include a comprehensive exhibit
vations a dilemma that is very appar- pros and cons of laser-based illumination area for three days including the two-day
ent in the SSL space. Indeed, the United
States has set many standards and regula-
tions regarding SSL. For people who want The world of SSL has moved on from extracting
to export to the US, there are hurdles to be
overcome. Voted one of the top speakers at the last lumen per watt to focusing on
Strategies in Light in the US, Alex Baker of
Philips Lumileds will explain the ins and
applications and how to make SSL affordable.
outs to exporters wishing to serve North
America. Meanwhile, Simon den Uijl of the sources compared with LED sources. conference period. The exhibit area will fea-
Connected Lighting Alliance will explore The conference will also look beyond the ture a variety of presentations by exhibitors
the merits of ZigBee as a standard wireless LED lighting sector. Deep ultraviolet (DUV) including leading Japanese LED companies
network protocol for indoor lighting. LED technology has quietly become more such as Nichia.
prominent and has great potential in applica- LED Japan/Strategies in Light Japan has
Plenary and Expo tions such as water purity tests and the puri- been a successful event for six years. We
The plenary session will include a mar- fication process itself. Cyril Pernot of Nikkiso, look forward to seeing you in Yokohama in
ket overview of the LED industry and a a company that plans to start volume produc- October to search beyond lumens per watt
detailed discussion on the global lighting tion of DUV chips soon, will present DUV together.

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SSL lightens the burden of

the urban car park
A nationwide project to replace fluorescent lighting with low-wattage LEDs in car parks across the
UK stands out, not only for its scale but also for its financing model, reports CAROLINE HAYES.

CP (National Car Parks), the lead-
ing operator of parking garages in
the UK, is replacing lighting in each
of its 500 facilities in towns, cities, airports,
and London Underground and National Rail
locations to reduce CO2 emissions by around
11,000 metric tons per annum without any
capital investment from the car park com-
pany. Indeed, the massive project is unique in
terms of scale and financing and may serve as
a model financial structure for both commer-
cial and municipal entities around the globe
that desire to retrofit legacy lighting with
energy-efficient LEDs but also struggle with
the upfront cost of solid-state lighting (SSL).
NCP was founded in 1931, when there
were considerably less than the 32 million
cars that are now on Britains roads alone.
Today, it maintains and operates over 500
roof-deck, open-surface, and multistory car
parks up and down the country, with more
than 150,000 car parking spaces.
Replacing the portfolio of car parks light-
ing for a safer, more energy-efficient envi-
ronment is a two-phase project funded by
Miami, FL-based Future Energy Solutions
(FES) and the UK Green Investment Bank.
The project is noteworthy in terms of size
and deliverables. There is nothing like it in
Europe, said Marcus Brodin, commercial
director of funding partner FES. Instead
of 5,000 to 10,000 luminaires, this project
involves 60,000 to 70,000 luminaires.
It has been an aggressive plan, reported The lively seaside town of Brighton attracts many visitors; the towns NCP car park is
Brodin, with phase one beginning January shown before the retrofit (top) and after (bottom).
6, 2014 and ending in July, with the instal-
lation of 66,000 luminaires. This phase con- radation over time, and the nature of the before the 10 million (approximately $16
centrated on multistory car parks, where car parks is that lights were left on for long million) retrofit were single, thin T8 fluo-
the legacy fluorescent lights suffered deg- hours, which further compromised lifetime. rescents. These incurred maintenance costs,
with regular replacements required and a
CAROLINE HAYES is a contributing editor with Legacy fluorescents degradation of the lumen output during its
LEDs Magazine. The majority of the fixtures (95%) used lifetime. Even given the large scale of NCPs SEPTEMBER 2014 55


business, lighting maintenance was a signif-

icant operating cost.
There can be failure rates of up to 20%
using fluorescents, according to Brodin, in
addition to the degraded light over the life-
time of the fluorescent light. In the point-
to-point replacement project, the 58W T8
fluorescent bulbs, drawing 64W to 69W
including the ballast, were replaced with
29W or equivalent LED fixtures. Sometimes,
these were 21W to 25W LEDs, said Brodin.
As a result, the lumen-to-wattage ratio or
efficacy in the facilities is among the best
on the market, says Brodin. A three- to four-
month roadmap set out how to achieve the
impressive efficiency numbers. The 80-lm/W
legacy lights were replaced with those that
achieve 110 lm/W.
The replacement low-voltage LED fixtures
were tailored to the requirements of the car
parks, with varying lux levels as needed at
floor level, on ramps, in underground areas,
and in open-surface car parks, for example.
A twin body installation was created for
each light, whether it held a single luminaire
or a board of LEDs. The double-body housing
held advantages for light spread, explained
Brodin, and the volume required for the proj-
ect meant that there was no price penalty for
the design. The structure results in less glare
from the new LED fixtures, while providing
Although the university town of Cambridge is characterized by its bicycle-riding
sufficient light for security and safety in the
students, other visitors benefit from the bright interiors of the NCP car park there.
public spaces. The improved diffusion of
light is better suited to car park users suffer- 30 million (approximately $48 million). Financing and sustainability
ing from light sensitivity or epilepsy, noted This is made up of extended lifetimes of NCPs CEO Jo Cooper was delighted with the
Brodin. The fittings also had to be robust operation, energy savings, lower UK green progress made in the first half of the year.
and as secure as possible to deter theft. tax payments, and lower maintenance costs We are already experiencing the benefits
and disposal costs. of LED technology, she said. In addition to
Controls and daylighting The lighting control policy jointly cre- saving nearly 26 million (approximately
Daylight energy harvesting and motion sen- ated by NCP and FES was to realize 65% $41.6 million) over the lifetime of the new
sors were fitted in half of the luminaires energy savings. This was exceeded in some luminaires, the project supports the com-
installed. This was a premium requirement, areas, according to Brodin. Savings rose to panys own corporate responsibility policy.
according to Brodin. Their inclusion pro- 80% in some locations, attributable to the Financially, she explained, Future Energy
longs the life of the luminaire and increases energy harvesting and the ability to turn Solutions and its funding partners have
energy efficiency. Indeed, there are passive- off lights when an area is empty for peri- tailored a deal for us which is off-balance
infrared (PIR) motion controls in more than ods of time. Brodin estimated that the sav- sheet, requires no upfront investment, dra-
half of the luminaires, as well as daylight ings per unit to NCP over the life of the LED matically reduces our operational costs for
harvesting, with the remainder being stan- is between 430 and 460 (approximately an extended period, and reduces our energy
dard or emergency fittings. $688 to $736). In addition to the reduced use substantially.
FES replaced the housing, driver, diffuser, service and maintenance costs achieved The financing of the scheme is such that
and light on a point-for-point basis. None by the longer-life LED lighting system, NCP FES designs and installs energy-efficient
were re-sited, or added, but replaced with will also reduce CO2 emissions and mono- lighting for commercial and industrial use
low-wattage LEDs. nitrogen oxide by 240 lb per annum the without requiring any capital from NCP.
The value of the project in terms of full- equivalent, noted Brodin, of 10,924 trees Remuneration will be through the savings
lifecycle client savings is estimated around being saved. made in the energy bills realized by NCP. The



naires in roof or open-surface car parks, as

well as the remaining multistory car parks
around the UK. This is the first transport
infrastructure project under the Govern-
ments UK Guarantees scheme, whereby the
Treasury assesses a scheme and, if it meets
approval, issues a guarantee for the project.
FES UK division is a lighting design,
technology, and manufacturing group that
works with European manufacturers for
European-based clients. (It has a differ-
ent business model for its US arm, which
is based on a single-rep network.) The UK
Green Investment Bank was created by the
UK Government in 2012 to attract private
funds to finance environmental preserva-
tion and improvement projects.
As Brodin observed, Car parks are
unloved, neglected places, although this
In the north of the country, the Stockport NCP car park is a beacon for the weary perception is changing as this nationwide
traveler trying to find somewhere to park. project continues. It is altering the car park
difference between the previous energy con- between FES and NCP as a profit share. landscape with well-lit, safe, and energy-
sumption and that of the new scheme will be Phase two runs from July to December and efficient lighting schemes that welcome and
calculated, and the difference will be split will focus on replacing around 30,000 lumi- reassure the user.


focus on Driver ICs
Driver circuits deliver diverse features
for solid-state lighting applications
Arguably the driver circuit is as important as the LEDs in terms of how well a solid-
state lighting (SSL) system performs. Indeed, whether the application is general lighting,
automotive lighting, or some other usage, the driver implementation is responsible for
features and characteristics such as dimming, system-level efficiency, and flicker. IC
manufacturers have continued to deliver driver ICs that both enable robust LED-based
system designs and, via features integrated on chip, reduce the bill of materials in product
developments. The ICs are regularly designed for usage in specific applications and with the
intent of delivering features and benefits that fit that application. Our collection here shows
the diversity of the available ICs, even including a couple of AC-LED driver ICs along with
the more traditional products designed for DC driver implementations. MAURY WRIGHT

88EM8187 deep-dimming driver by Marvell

One of the primary goals of many LED driver design is flicker-
free dimming of LED light engines, and that is precisely the
feature touted by Marvell in the 88EM8187 IC announced early
this year. The company asserts that the dimmer can
take light output to as low as 1% of full output.
Marvell also claims support for a broad
array of phase-controlled dimmers
and states that it has tested a
reference lamp with more
than 250 available dim- driver. Meanwhile, the companion iW3640 design integrates
mers. The IC is primarily a two drive channels so that red or amber LEDs can be used to
digital chip, and dimming make the CCT of a retrofit lamp warmer at lower light levels,
functionality is based on dig- mimicking the operation of incandescent lamps.
ital-signal-processing (DSP)
algorithms. The IC matches the
dimming algorithm to the dimmer type detected. The com- LYTSwitch-2 isolated driver IC
pany collaborated with controls specialist Lutron to verify by Power Integrations
the dimming performance of a reference SSL driver circuit. Primary-side regulation, referring to control architectures
that are implemented on the primary side of the transformer
in an isolated driver design, is known in the power-conver-
iW3600 and iW3630 dimmable driver sion sector as a way to minimize driver component count
ICs by Dialog Semiconductor and the complex-
Dimming and specifically dim-to-warm CCT technologies ity of the printed-
were hot topics at the Light+Building trade fair earlier this year, circuit board (PCB)
and the Dialog Semiconductor Power Conversion Business attributes cited
Group (formerly iWatt Inc.) announced both standard and as advantages of
warm dimming ICs at the Frankfurt event. Designed primar- the LYTSwitch-2
ily for retrofit lamps, the iW3600 enables what the company product by Power
calls seamless dimming from 100% down to 1%. Moreover, the Integrations. The
single-stage design reduces the bill of materials of the overall isolated approach
focus on | DRIVERS ICS

also allows the LED assembly to be affixed directly to a conduc- TPS92660/40/41 DC-DC driver
tive heat sink for better thermal performance. The company targets IC s by Texas Instruments
applications ranging from retrofit lamps to downlights to tubes with Multichannel LED drivers come into play when a developer either
the IC. The architecture supports 112W SSL systems. needs to support more LEDs than can be driven on a single channel
due to power limitations, or to mix LED colors to achieve a specific
white point or color on demand. Texas Instruments (TI) targets such
LT3795 spread-spectrum driver
IC from Linear Technology
Regulatory requirements covering electromagnetic interference
(EMI) in LED-based lighting products remain an issue, especially
with the driver circuits often operating at high switching frequen-
cies. Companies such as Linear Technology take different approaches

lamp or luminaire designs with the TPS92660 IC that includes a DC/

DC buck converter for one channel and a linear channel for a sec-
ondary color. Meanwhile, the TPS92640 and TPS92641 ICs are sin-
to combat the problem. The LT3795 uses spread-spectrum frequency gle-channel drivers in the same family that enable dimming ratios
modulation to spread the EMI over a relatively broad spectral band, of 500:1 and 2500:1, respectively. All of the products support analog
thereby reducing the peak energy in any narrow band, and helping or PWM dimming. The entire family of ICs is designed for lamps and
SSL products meet industry guidelines. Switching frequency can be luminaires where a microcontroller (MCU) IC might be included and
set between 100 kHz and 1 MHz. The IC offers pulsewidth-modula- TI offers the MSP430 family for such SSL applications.
tion (PWM) dimming with a 3000:1 ratio and can directly support MORE:
010V controls.
88EM8803 dual-channel DC/DC IC by Marvell
Capable of supporting white-point-tunable lamps or luminaires,
CS1615/16 single-stage driver IC by Cirrus Logic the two-channel 88EM8803 driver IC is optimized to power two
Many DC-LED drivers are dual-stage designs with a power-fac- LED strings. The product is a follow-on upgrade to the widely-used
tor-correction stage first and a constant-current source second 88EM8801 IC. Drivers that use the chip will need a separate AC/
in series, but Cirrus Logic and other DC converter for lamps or lumi-
manufacturers are pursuing single- naires powered from
stage designs especially for the cost- the line, and the
sensitive retrofit lamp market. The driver IC can
single-stage approach reduces the handle strings
bill of materials, but it makes it more with forward volt-
problematic to support legacy phase- age as high as 60V.
controlled dimming and to deliver The color tuning
f licker-free performance. Cirrus would work by mix-
Logic utilizes a state-machine-based ing a string of white-
digital approach to implement the or off-white LEDs with a
dimming algorithms and said it had string of red or amber LEDs that can add energy at the
tested the driver IC with more than 300 commercial dimmers. The warm end of the color spectrum. Moreover, such a design can
CS1615 works from a 120-VAC line input and the CS1616 works from also allow a lamp or luminaire to achieve high CRI ratings, due to
a 230-VAC line input. the addition of red energy, and maintain excellent efficacy.


focus on | DRIVERS ICS

A6263 four-channel driver IC for auto SmarteXite family and iW6401 driver
interior lighting by Allegro MicroSystems ICs by Dialog Semiconductor
Transitioning to automotive lighting, car interior applications Moving to the area of networks
include usages such as map and dome lighting and even lighting and controls, the driver electron-
designed strictly for ambience, and Allegro Microsystems targets ics will be where such capabil-
just such applications with the A6263 linear driver IC. The four 100- ity is integrated in SSL systems,
mA channels allow developers to gang channels together when the and Dialog Semiconductor is sup-
need to drive large arrays of LEDs arises, or to use each channel indi- porting such designs with the
vidually for different interior features. A sense resistor sets the cur- SmarteXite family of driver ICs.
The focus of the SmarteXite ini-
tiative is adding digital intercon-
nects between lamps and/or lumi-
naires and the iW6401 is the first
product in the family. The iW6401
supports the Ledotron controls
protocol that is being driven by a
consortium of European lighting companies. Specifically, the Dialog
chip supports the Ledotron IEC 62756-1 dimming protocol that will
enable plug-and-play operation with Ledotron-compatible controls
such as dimmers. The wired or wireless network support will come
via separate MCUs that connect via an I2C serial interface.
rent output for each channel and the IC integrates safety features
required in automotive applications to recover from faults such as
open and shorted LEDs or strings, and over-temperature conditions. 88EM8189 AC/DC driver IC by Marvell
Most driver ICs with dimmable functionality are either designed to
respond to phase control of the AC signal as implemented by triac
TPS92630 and TPS92602 driver ICs and electronic dimmer switches or to dedicated control input from
for automotive lighting by TI digital networks or 010V inputs. Marvell has integrated both capa-
Targeting both rear- and forward-facing exterior automotive lighting bilities in the 88EM8189 driver IC. The IC can directly respond to
in one announcement, TI earlier this year announced the TPS92630 phase control. And the IC can accept digital input over an I2C inter-
and TPS92602 ICs. LED lighting is growing in popularity for auto- face that would connect to a companion MCU in a network-enabled
motive applications because of energy efficiency, long life, and form
factor. The TPS92630 IC is intended for rear-facing applications such

design. The IC also includes an AC/DC converter on chip that could

power a companion MCU. Moreover, a reference design (pictured)
demonstrates that the MCU and driver functionality can be pack-
aged in a form factor that enables usage even in LED retrofit lamps.
as turn signals, reverse lights, and brake lights. The IC includes the MORE:
ability to automatically detect a single LED that fails via a short or
closed circuit, allowing for the overall rear-lighting system to con-
tinue operating properly, thereby meeting regulatory requirements TPS92411 switch for AC-LED driver circuits by TI
in many regions. TPS92602 IC is a two-channel switching driver for While most LED lighting products today still utilize DC-based driv-
forward lighting that can support buck, boost, buck-boost, SEPIC ers, AC-LED technology enables minimal driver implementations
(Single Ended Primary Inductance Converter), and flyback converter (sometimes called driverless) that can be integrated right on the PCB
topologies on a channel-by-channel basis. with the LEDs. While the AC-LED technology has been primarily the
MORE: province of companies making modular light engines, companies SEPTEMBER 2014 63

focus on | DRIVERS ICS

such as TI are making the option available to all SSL developers via
ICs dedicated to the application. Indeed, the TI TPS92411 ICs can early this year) combines a switching boost converter with a linear cur-
each switch power to a segment of a large LED string that comprises rent regulator in the HV9805. The design is cost optimized for LED-
a light engine. The switched approach isolates each of the segments based retrofit lamps and tubes. Because the second stage is a linear
and allows developers to place a capacitor across each segment, design, its critical for efficiency that the first stage be tuned to deliver a
thereby getting far better utilization of the LEDs when the AC input DC voltage input to the linear stage that is very near the compliance volt-
is too low to drive most of the string. See the Developer Forum on p. age of the LED string. The use of boundary conduction mode in the boost
73 for yet another approach to AC-LED drive technology. stage allows for flexibility in what Supertex calls headroom voltage.

Acrich3 AC-LED driver IC by Seoul Semiconductor iW3623 two-stage AC-DC driver IC

Seoul Semiconductor is one of the long-time proponents of AC-LED by Dialog Semiconductor
technology that has offered numerous light engines based on the A universal AC input voltage (100 to 277 VAC) will allow the iW3623
technology and more recently began offering ICs to developers. At driver IC to serve in lamps and luminaires sold around the globe and
LightFair International (LFI), the company announced the Acrich3 targeted for residential or commercial lighting applications. Dialog
AC-LED driver IC. The product
provides three primary improve-
ments relative to the prior gen-
eration Acrich2 IC and two are
in the area of dimming. The IC
responds more smoothly to leg-
acy triac or phase-controlled dim-
mers. Indeed, an LFI demonstra-
tion showed a light engine that
responded smoothly across the
scale with no evident sparkling or
flicker and a very uniform appearance with the LEDs behind a sim-
ple diffuser. Moreover, Acrich3 works much better with 010V dim-
mers, especially at the low end of the dimming range where smooth
low-light adjustment is key for lighting designers/specifiers. Semiconductor specifically targets applications including down-
MORE: lights, PAR retrofit lamps, LED T8 tubes, and ceiling troffers with
the driver IC. The driver IC does not support dimming but is meant to
be an economical option that still delivers the low ripple current and
HV9805 driver IC for LED lamps less flicker features that are inherent in many two-stage driver
and tubes by Microchip architectures. Moreover, the driver IC features lamp and luminaire
There are many options for implementing the AC/DC and DC-constant- protection from over-voltage or over-temperature conditions.
current stages in an LED driver, and Supertex (acquired by Microchip MORE:



New LED architectures and phosphor

technologies lower costs and boost quality
Flip-chip LED architecture promises to pervade the packaged component space, and JULIAN CAREY
explains how the sapphire-up design can combine with new phosphor technologies to increase light
quality and lower costs.

Over the last year, we have definitely seen the of optical-ceramic materials that may be
levels of solid-state lighting (SSL) adoption applied directly onto the light-emitting sur-
increasing with widespread installations, as face of LED chips. The promise of these novel
industry analysts have been predicting for manufacturing technologies is to eventually
several years now. We are seeing installa- enable wafer-level packaging (WLP) of LED
tions ranging from street lighting to park- chips. WLP promises to lower chip manufac-
ing garages, from expanded uses in retail turing costs by eliminating redundant pack-
and hospitality applications to commercial aging steps while simultaneously improving
and industrial applications. The technolo- LED chip efficacy, reliability, and quality.
gies being incorporated, the applications, Ultimately, these technologies, combined
and the range of installations are growing with improved manufacturing systems and
dramatically. Still, light quality and compo- processes, could lead to the elimination of
nent cost remain issues for the LED industry, binning producing white LED chips with
and new chip architectures and phosphor- a performance variance within 2 SDCM
application techniques can deliver benefits (standard deviation of color matching or a FIG. 1. Samsung announced its LED flip-
in both regards. two-step MacAdam ellipse). chip architecture at the Strategies in
Indeed, the increased demand for SSL is Still in development, these manufactur- Light 2014 Conference & Exhibition.
pressuring the industry to simultaneously ing techniques are currently being tested
improve quality, lower costs, and reduce on flip-chip LED architectures, where both the substrate is at the bottom of the mate-
manufacturing complexity throughout the positive and negative contacts are on the rial layer stack that comprises the LED (Fig.
supply chain. In response to these pres- bottom of the chip. Fig. 1 depicts a Sam- 2). Flip chips have many advantages in sim-
sures, new LED manufacturing technologies sung flip-chip LED with a uniform light- plifying design and manufacturing. First,
are being developed across the full range of emitting surface. Samsung announced the since the electrical contacts are on the bot-
chip fabrication techniques, starting with architecture in a keynote address at the tom, there is no need for the wire-bonds that
a new generation of semiconductor capital Strategies in Light 2014 conference (http:// are required to connect with the electrical
equipment, improved process engineering, contacts on the top of a lateral LED (Fig. 3).
and the development of advanced materials. Indeed, the flip-chip approach enables This means that you can eliminate a full step
In this vein, Intematix is focused on engi- a more planar light-emitting surface than in the manufacturing process. Furthermore,
neering more rugged and efficient phosphor the typical wire-bonded lateral chip archi- wires as a potential failure point are no lon-
materials, as well as phosphor-application tecture, providing an easier implementation ger a concern.
schemes, to reduce manufacturing cost and of the new phosphor-application technique. Flip chips also improve chip efficiency.
complexity while improving light quality. Furthermore, flip chips are becoming more With the electrical contacts out of the way,
common in the industry, as even second-tier more of the chip surface is available to emit
Phosphor pre-formed films manufacturing companies have caught on light. The entire chip surface becomes a
In one innovative example of new tech- to the benefits they provide and have thus window into the light.
nologies, phosphors are being manufac- increased their flip-chip manufacturing. This window allows the phosphor mate-
tured into pre-formed polymer film sheets rials to be laid right over the top of the chip.
or glass tiles. We will even study the use WLP with flip-chip architectures The full planar surface of the chip is thus
The most prevalent LED chip architecture available. At this point, you can apply the
JULIAN CAREY is the senior director of in the SSL technology sector today remains phosphor material either at the packaging
marketing for LED phosphors at Intematix Corp. the so-called lateral chip structure in which step in LED manufacturing or at the wafer SEPTEMBER 2014 67


level or perhaps somewhere in between. Lateral LED chip architecture To reach this market ideal,
With flip-chip architecture, phosphor manufacturers would start
pre-forms, manufactured in large polymer p-electrode out with a uniform blue LED
or glass sheets or ceramic platelets, can be Contact layer wafer with a wavelength uni-
precisely targeted to uniformity standards formity between 2 and 2.5 nm
p-GaN layer
within 1 SDCM. Moreover, such phosphors in wavelength, or 1 SDCM as
can be applied to LED chips in two different Active layers converted through the phos-
ways as mentioned before (Fig. 4). n-GaN layer
phor. A phosphor film that is
In the first method, the pre-formed phos- also uniform to 1 SDCM is laid
phor can be applied at the wafer level. Dur- Sapphire Mirror layer over the entire wafer, which
ing the manufacturing of LED wafers, all Contact layer is then diced up into individ-
of the individual LED chips are attached to ual LED chips. With this pro-
one another on the wafer. Before singulating cess, every chip matches each
the die (i.e., sawing the wafer into individ- FIG. 2. A legacy lateral LED chip architecture has the other within 2 SDCM. There
ual chips), a film, glass, or ceramic phosphor electrical contacts on top of the layer stack, requiring would be no need to sort the
pre-form is placed on the top of the entire wire bonds at the package level. chips further, since each one
wafer. This creates a sort of phosphor hat is essentially uniform. While
on each chip. The wafer is then sawed into Binning is currently required since each this process creates a path to
individual LED chips with the phosphor on LED wafer typically has areas of wave- this industry goal, the technology must still
top, thus creating what some call an LED length nonuniformity. LED manufacturers make substantial progress before we can
white chip. The LED has a minimal pack- sort their production of LED chips by vari- claim to have achieved it.
age and a white reflective coating is applied ous wavelength bins, allowing light source
to the sides of the structure to maximize manufacturers to select only those LEDs Use of phosphor pre-forms
light extraction. that meet their acceptable performance post-singulation
ranges while maximizing the overall man- A second way that phosphor pre-form can
Binning requirements ufacturing yield and usage of each of the be applied is after the wafer has been singu-
This WLP technique offers many benefits bin ranges. Binning is a time-consuming, lated. Actual wafers dont necessarily have
beyond the typical emitter or chip-on-board costly, and inefficient process. As the next perfect wavelength uniformity; instead,
(COB) packaging available today. Bulk pro- generation of metal organic chemical-vapor there are various zones wherein the chips
cessing is moving in this direction for effi- deposition (MOCVD) reactors critical will be a few nanometers off from the desired
cacy, uniformity, and low cost. This technique to LED formation comes on line, offer- wavelength. A couple of processing choices
will ideally take the industry to new manu- ing improved within-wafer and wafer-to- can be made at this point. The phosphor can
facturing efficiency levels, whereby binning wafer wavelength uniformity, binning may be applied to the entire wafer, as described
is greatly reduced or no longer needed. be greatly reduced. previously, or the individual LEDs can be

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sub-binned. When the wafer Flip chip LED architecture

is singulated, individual chips
are tested and sorted by wave- Phosphor flm
n-GaN layer
length, and then theyre picked Active layers
and placed into bin-tiles of
Sapphire p-GaN
chips of the same wavelength. p-electrode substrate
This basically creates a new
wafer, based on the test data
from individual chips, and a Metal n-electrode
uniform bin tile.
Solder bump
Once the wafer has been
divided and the LED chips
FIG. 3. A flip-chip design implies that the LED is
are virtually transferred to
flipped upside down after epitaxial processing with
their appropriate bin tiles, the
the substrate used as the light-emitting surface and
phosphor pre-form may then
contacts on the bottom being directly accessible to
be sawed into pieces that per-
the package.
fectly match the size of the LED
chips on the bin-tile. The seg-
mented pre-forms can then be applied to the Polymer versus glass phosphor pre-forms
appropriately matched bin tile, producing As mentioned previously, phosphor pre-
highly uniform, 2-SDCM white LED chips forms are being developed in both film
while eliminating the cost of conventional and glass. The film is a polymer carrier,
packaging techniques. and in Intematixs case an outgrowth of the
The pick-and-place bin-tile process companys remote phosphor development
enables greater efficiency, reduces binning, effort, which gave the company the tech-
and lowers costs. However, this can actu- nology and capacity to develop these pre-
ally be disadvantageous to manufactur- formed phosphor solutions. These films, or
ers. Since phosphor is sensitive to certain glass pre-forms, can be manufactured with
wavelengths, manufacturers will be forced various phosphor recipes to produce a cus-
to increase their inventory of pre-formed tomers required quality of light at a given
phosphor sheets to match the typical range chip wavelength.
of chip wavelengths. With current manufac- Glass pre-forms, however, are more of a
turing processes, LED packaging companies manufacturing challenge. Integrating the
store the phosphor materials, which are phosphor material into glass is inherently
then mixed differently for each bin tile. In more difficult than with polymer film and
the wafer-level application, companies only will require more development work. Yet
need one film that delivers the desired color. glass provides a higher refractive index,
Yet this pick-and-place application process offering greater efficiency and giving the
forces companies to store frozen pre-formed chips and SSL package another efficacy
films for each color that match the differ- boost. Intematix believes that the industry
ent bin tiles, thus creating an explosion of could see phosphor pre-form manufactur-
products. Storage logistics are one techni- ing using the phosphor polymer film carrier
cal detail that will need to be addressed as technique by the end of 2014. Manufacturing
this process moves forward. with the glass pre-form will take a little lon-
This is where it becomes obvious that ger, but we could begin to see it used by early
the front-end of line (FEOL) improvements 2015 for flip-chip architectures only.
mentioned at the beginning of this article
can have a big impact. As within-wafer and Optical ceramic phosphor converters
wafer-to-wafer uniformities become bet- As we have established, optical ceramic
ter, reliance upon pick-and-place methods phosphor materials represent a third tech-
can be greatly reduced. Manufacturers will nical approach for the application of phos-
be able to reduce their SKUs (stock keeping phor materials directly onto the light-emit-
units). Moreover, manufacturing complexity ting surface of LED chips. Different than
throughout the supply chain will be reduced polymer or glass pre-forms, it offers sig-
and prices will come down. nificant advantages for high flux-density SEPTEMBER 2014 69


applications such as spotlighting, projec- in high flux-density applications. advantages of this technology outweigh
tion, and automotive headlights. Ceramic converter material can be made the cost considerations.
Optical ceramic converters offer several in yellow, green, and white emission. Since
thermal advantages. First, these materials the white color coordinates are within Euro- Polymer pre-forms with wire-bonded chips
have much higher thermal conductivity, pean Commission for Europe (ECE) specifi- Intematix also believes that, despite the
allowing for faster thermal dissipation. The cation for headlights, ceramic materials are advantages, flip-chip production will rep-
resulting lower operating temperature typi- good applications for automobiles, accord- resent only about 25% of the market in 2015
cally produces greater conversion efficiency ing to Schott, a global manufacturer of spe- as the technology matures. This means that
for the light source. SSL light sources using cial glass and specialty materials. 75% of the market will continue to comprise
this technology can offer greater energy Currently, the biggest disadvantage for lateral chips or chips using wire-bonding
efficiency or will allow for the LED chips ceramic phosphors is their higher cost. To techniques. This large segment of the mar-
date, a limited number ket shouldnt be ignored, as there are pos-
of chemical systems sibilities that the polymer film approach
have been explored could work with wire-bonded LEDs if it is
a nd de velope d a s laminated onto the chip. Such a scenario
ceramics. Addition- would require that the chip already be
ally, ceramic process- wire bonded and working, then the poly-
ing steps beyond mak- mer would be applied over it. The material
ing the powder are would need to be in a soft gel phase such
required in ceramic that the wire bonds would remain as they
phosphors, which are are and not be disturbed. As the technol-
not necessary for glass ogy continues to evolve, Intematixs goal
FIG. 4. Phosphor pre-forms can be applied either to the entire
and film phosphors. is to extend the approach beyond flip-chip
wafer before singulation or after the wafer has been divided.
Due to these addi- architectures to include wire-bonded chips,
tional steps, manufac- as well.
to be driven at higher current densities for turers must invest in ceramic processing Overall, Intematix believes that these
greater light output. These same proper- equipment, which drives up the manufac- new manufacturing technologies hold
ties also give the light source much greater turing costs. In the near future, due to this great promise to reduce manufacturing
thermal stability over time, hence greater higher cost differential, it is unlikely that costs, improve light quality, and provide
system reliability. The overall lower operat- optical ceramic phosphor materials will greater efficiency while simultaneously
ing temperature means that the phosphor be used in any but the most heat-sensitive offering reduced binning ultimately driv-
materials are much less likely to experience or high flux-density applications such as ing toward simplification of the LED light
thermal damage or to brown, especially automobile headlights where the distinct source manufacturing process.


developer forum | AC LEDS

Driverless LED light engines

deliver up to 93% efficiency
and no perceptible flicker
PETER SHACKLE describes an AC-LED light engine that connects directly to the AC mains while
delivering photometric and electrical performance similar to that achieved by DC-driven designs.

n the last several years driverless LED This new branch on the lighting technology
light engines (also known as AC-LED tree has the potential to reshape the future
light engines) have become increasingly growth of the SSL industry.
important to the solid-state lighting (SSL)
sector and to the lighting industry at large. How it works
Indeed, some leading luminaire companies In order to understand the dramatic nature
rely on AC-LED based products for as much of this innovation, we will start by reviewing
as half of their sales. The allure from a cost conventional technology. The earliest gen-
and complexity perspective is clear in that the eration of driverless LED light engines used
minimal driver circuit can be placed on the circuits such as the one shown in Fig. 1.
circuit board that hosts the LEDs and no sep- In this arrangement, the AC power line FIG. 1. Early driverless engines simply
arate driver module is needed. And the latest is rectified and applied to a string of LEDs rectified the main and used a resistor to
implementations combine up to 93% electri- with a total forward voltage requirement limit current.
cal efficiency with low cost and no percepti- just less than the peak of the AC power line
ble flicker. voltage. A resistor in series with the LEDs LEDs are always switched on), the flicker is
AC-LED light engines have numerous limits the current to be within the rating of less noticeable in the Fig. 2 circuit relative to
advantages starting with a flat and com- the LEDs. This circuit produces an intense that in the Fig. 1 circuit. However, some people
pact form factor enabled by the lack of an flash of light 120 times per second, result- can still perceive the flicker, especially in their
LED driver, thereby simplifying the lumi- ing in a quality of light similar to that from peripheral vision, and for this reason many
naire design. But many products on the mar- a magnetic ballasted fluorescent tube. specifiers still object to the light quality.
ket today suffer from 120-Hz flicker (close to Technologists improved this arrangement
100%) and efficiency is typically only around by adjusting the number of LEDs in series Eliminating flicker
83%. The high flicker renders them unac- with the power line by operating switches In our new architecture (Fig. 3), the LED
ceptable to many lighting designers/speci- throughout the line cycle as shown in Fig current is kept almost constant, with a very
fiers for lighting applications such as offices 2. Many different arrangements for con- brief 1.5-msec gap in the output current dur-
and workshops. trolling the switches have been developed. ing which capacitors are recharged, twice
We will describe here a new driverless Sometimes instead of a simple resistor, a every power line cycle. This circuit operation
LED light engine that produces less flicker current-controlled resistor or a current- corresponds to a frequency of above 600 Hz,
and offers higher efficiency than many exist- limiter circuit may be used. These circuits which far exceeds what the human eye can
ing products. The new technology results involve relatively expensive IC controllers detect and is therefore perceived as flicker-
in prototype light engines with essentially and numerous costly high-voltage switches. free. It does not use expensive IC driver chips
no perceptible flicker at 120 Hz and dem- The segmented-switched scheme produces or costly power switch chips, which are com-
onstrated electrical efficiency of 93%. The a total LED current that resembles a series of monplace in conventional technology.
design described is being utilized in a light half sine waves and the input current closely A simple way to explain how this cir-
engine manufactured by ERG Lighting. resembles a sine wave. As a result, these prod- cuit works is to follow the currents gener-
ucts have good power factor and total har- ated by the AC power line or voltage source
PETER W. SHACKLE (pshackle@photalume. monic distortion (THD). But the half sinu- (S1). When the voltage on the left side of the
com) is an industry consultant at Photalume. soidal output current means that the flicker source is rising positively, a displacement
com and owns the patent application for the at 120 Hz is close to 100%. Since some level current flows through capacitors C4 and
light engine technology described in this article. of LED current is always flowing (and some C9, which sends a current through LED array SEPTEMBER 2014 73

developer forum | AC LEDS

10 and back to the power D2

line. When the input volt- R6
age becomes sufficiently LED C9
high, additional current Switch LED Array 7
flows through LED array controller LED
7, through diode D2 and
LED Array 10
then resistor R6. Thus, the D15
operation is characterized
by first displacement cur-
rent flowing through the D14 Array 11
LED arrays and then gal-
vanic current. FIG. 2. Designs that segment the LEDs with switches Array 12
While the input voltage is driving each segment improve AC-LED performance. C4
rising positively, capacitor
C8 is being charged up to the peak of the line pick up and keeps the LED current going lon-
through diode D14. In this manner, capacitors ger. The net result is a relatively long period D5
C8 and C9 operate alternately; while one is of output current at a relatively uniform level.
being discharged, the other is being recharged. An experimental design of the AC-LED FIG. 3. The new AC-LED circuit combines
Hence as soon as the input power line voltage architecture featured total LED current pass- displacement and galvanic current drive.
gets slightly above (or below) zero, a full out- ing through all four strings of a 19W prototype
put current can start immediately from the light engine (not shown). This prototype was Practical details
pre-charged capacitor. When the displace- running at 93% electrical efficiency. The input Now lets consider the operation of the cir-
ment current starts to decrease in the middle current was relatively sinusoidal, resulting in cuit at the SSL system level. The light out-
of the half cycle, the galvanic current starts to a power factor of 0.53 and THD of 24%. put comes from four strings of LEDs that


1409leds_REV_74 74 9/5/14 11:15 AM

developer forum | AC LEDS

operate in sequence. Fig. 4 200 FIG. 4. Graphing the current

Input through each of the LED
shows the four LED string cur- V(1) (V) 0
rents and the summed current -200
arrays, we see a relatively
versus time, as computed in a 400m consistent summed current.
Summed 200m
SPICE simulation. LED I(V9) (A)
It can be seen that each currents lights, and undercabinet lights
string is only excited once 300m in a consumer environment.
Current 200m
every 16 msec. In order to through I(V8) (A) 100m
Without the physical lim-
produce the desired uniform LEDs 11 0 itations of the LED driver,
light output, one LED from 300m
luminaire designers are now
Current 200m
each string must be mounted presented with an all-new
through I(V6) (A) 100m
closely together in an array LEDs 10 0 platform from which to cre-
of four, and then these arrays -100m ate. Square, rectangular, cir-
need to be packed together Current 120m cular, and other shapes are
through I(V7) (A) 60m
until their combined LED LEDs 12
possible. Light engines can
forward voltage is compara- -60m be made in different sizes and
ble to the power line voltage. Current 160m shapes without sacrificing
The capacitors are advanta- through I(V2) (A) 80m performance. More advanced
LEDs 7 0
geously ceramic capacitors, -80m products with improved power
since electrolytic capacitors 160m 170m 180m 190m 200m factor and continuous light
cannot stand the large ripple Time (sec) output are in development and
current involved. form factor enables proper placement of the the lighting industry can look forward to
The proposed architecture can be applied LEDs as discussed previously. Such a light a new evolution of products as a result of
in a broad array of products so long as the engine is ideally suited for task lights, cove driverless technology. SEPTEMBER 2014 75

last word

LED lamp life expectancy depends

on fixture type and usage scenario
director of engineering at Hinkley Lighting, explains that
consumers need data on LED lamp life expectancy in specific application

arely does always or never consti- less power and thus produces less light while must also remain cool enough to touch.
tute valid advice. An elder may have operating at higher temperatures, we mea- Electronics folks know there are no new
shared, Never stick your finger in an sured CFL ballast enclosure temperatures as technical breakthroughs in thermal man-
empty light socket; you must always assume directed by lamp manufacturers. agement. The latest LED lamps run elec-
the electricity is on. Bring that uncertainty After compiling results of different lamp tronics hotter than their predecessors and
forward to the life and reliability of an LED brands, our findings indicated CFLs needed at drivers can fail quickly from de-soldering or
lamp in an Edison socket. I believe the indus- least 20 in.3/W in enclosed lighting chamber thermal breakdown of components.
try in making lamps look like their incandes- volume, such as a typical ceiling flush mount. Energy Star long-term testing for LED
cent grandparent is falsely addressing lim- For example, a dual 13W CFL lamps occurs with 40C
its on LED adoption. The assumption is that lamp would meet stated life degree air surrounding the
you can always consider using the LED in in an 18-in. diameter bowl fix- lamp, and not in typical fix-
place of incandescent. Yet the only warning ture. A dual 60W incandes- tures. We find in our 25C
we have is to never use most available lamps cent fixture could be as small temperature-controlled test
in an enclosed fixture. as 13 in. Semi-enclosed fixtures lab that the lighting chambers
Consider for a moment the ecological pre- depended upon lamp up or of semi-enclosed wall sconces
decessor of the LED lamp the CFL. Has it down and how close the glass regularly exceed 60C with 8W
become common knowledge among consum- shade was to the lamp. Inter- lamps. Enclosed multi-lamp
ers that CFLs will not perform as claimed in estingly, we also learned that ceiling fixtures can exceed
some fixture applications? Whose responsi- the majority of CFLs quickly 90C. So what are the impacts
bility is it to make them aware of these lim- reduced power attaining a typ- to anticipated life because of
itations? Is it the belief that LED will over- ical 70% level of stated light output. elevated operating temperature?
come CFLs inherent shortcomings? In fact, Our lab attempted similar testing for LED Insiders may know that Energy Star
LED lamps can and do fail even sooner and lamps. With the exception of a single lamp attempted to address testing temperature in
of course at higher fiscal cost. brand with specs on use in enclosures, no the recent revision of the standard. Presum-
I had the opportunity to share these other lamp manufacturer had tempera- ably, utilities shot down any testing change.
thoughts with an engineer from a lamp man- ture data to share with us. We learned that The market desire and dynamics to adopt
ufacturer. He acknowledged that the lamp no standards exist to test and provide this energy-saving technology have inertia in the
manufacturers have known for years that information, more so that the LED lamp is form of rebates the utilities are compelled to
when CFLs are placed in the socket-up posi- considered an isolated thermal plane and apply. And the recent proposal to change test-
tion, they last an average of 3,000 hours. Yet not considered to dissipate heat into the fix- ing standards by the US Department of Energy
despite this knowledge, the package declara- ture. To further complicate matters, some does not revise the 40C test, nor address any
tion to consumers only states 12,000 hours as manufacturers shared that the ceramic aspect of varying lamp applications.
the life expectancy. Our government regulates paint covering the metal heat sink or plastic The general public needs a range of life
the packaging information. enclosure surrounding the driver is applied expectancy as the lamp is used by the con-
While expanding our GU24-socket fix- that way in part for product safety. It seems sumer. We have to move beyond the never
ture product offerings, we undertook testing that consumers understand not to touch an and always paradigm, or we risk having
to determine the maximum CFL wattage as operating incandescent lamp with a bare LED technology disappoint the buying pub-
required by UL. Knowing a lamp consumes hand, but since CFLs are cooler, LED lamps lic more than CFLs have.




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