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BIOSTAT LECTURE 7.

Regardless of the values of the mean and


October 12, 2017 SD, the area 1 SD around the mean is
68.26%; 2 SD around the mean is 95.46%,
Continuous Probability Distribution and; 3 SD around the mean is 99.72%
Instead of being discrete Not all curves are of the same
Data is not pinpoint, exact height = Areas are still the same
Examples: EXACT Birthday Measure of Kurtosis
As the number of data increase, the tendency is to ~0.3% lacking = The space
have a lot of rectangles in the probability covering the tail side and x-axis
histogram, such that you will only have lines, and (0.15% each side)
have a bell-shaped curve
Normal Curve
Normal Distribution Cannot be used in all measurement
SK = 0, Normal curve Data are not standardized
o Mean = Median
Properties of a Normal Curve Standard Normal Curve
1. All normal curves are bell-shaped Regardless of the unit, it is already a standard
The peak of the curve is on top of Plot on x-axis = standard scores
the mean. o Values of z-scores that do not have any
particular unit (cancelled out)
2. The curve is symmetrical with respect to o (Raw score mean) / standard deviation
the vertical axis passing thru the mean o Z = 0, if raw score = mean
Divided into two equals parts, and o Z > 0, if raw score > mean
can exactly overlap when folded o Z < 0, if raw score < mean
Area on left = 50%; Area on right Standard score measure the distance of a particular
= 50% (With respect to rule 4) raw scores in terms of standard deviation
o Z-score is +1 Distance from mean is
3. Mean = Median = Mode about one standard deviation right
o Z-score is -1 Distance from mean is
4. The total area under the normal curve is about one standard deviation left
equal to 1.0 or 100% o Proven by the formula of z-score
Sample space least of all
possible outcomes Examples (Use the Standard Normal Curve Areas Table)
p(S) = 1.0 or 100% = 1. Find the area under the normal curve bounded by
Summation of the z = 0, and z = 1
probability of possible P(0 x 1)
outcomes (A CONSTANT) The area between z-scores 0 and 1 is what
Sample space assumes a bell we are finding
shape therefore, p(S) = 1.0 = 0.00 = 0.5000; 1.00 = 0.8413
100% 0.8413 0.5000 = 0.3413
o 0.3413 is the area.
5. Tail of the curve has a tendency to
approach closer and closer to the x-axis 2. Find the area under the normal curve if the z-score
Asymptotic without actually is less than or equal to 0 but greater than or equal
intersecting until infinity to 1.
P(-1 x 0)
6. Horizontal axis can be divided into three Same with 1 since they are symmetrical
via the standard deviation.
3 divisions from left to right = area 3. Find the area under the normal curve if the z-score
is already covered is less than or equal to -1 but greater than or equal
Two parameters: Mean and to 1.
Standard Deviation P(-1 x 1)
Divisions are dictated by the sum The area is 0.6826, or by adding the area
of mean and standard deviation from -1 to 0 and 0 to 1.
on the right, and by the difference
of mean and standard deviation, 4. What is the probability if the z-score is greater than
where SD is dependent on the or equal to 1.56?
division line (-3, -2, -1, +1, +2, +3) 1.56 = 0.4406
0.5000 0.4406 = 0.0594

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5. Find the area to the left of 3.09.
P(z 3.09)
3.09 = 0.4990
0.5000 + 0.4990 = 0.9990

6. Find the area under the normal curve to the right of


1.76.
P(z 1.76)
1.76 = 0.4608
0.5000 0.4608 = 0.0392

7. P(z -2.47)
-2.47 = 0.4932
0.5000 + 0.4932 = 0.9932

Prepared by:
Samuel Joshua C. Cao
3BMT UST
Imbued with Unending Grace!

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