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EXPERIMENT NO : 1 DATE :

FINENESS OF CEMENT BY SIEVE ANALYSIS

AIM :
To determine the fineness of given sample of cement by dry sieving.

REFERANCE :
IS 269 1976 Specification for ordinary Portland cement and low heat.

APPARATUS :
a. 90 sieve.
b. Weighing balance.

MATERIAL :
Cement sample.

THEORY :
Fineness: The degree of grinding of cement is called fineness. The rate of hydration
i.e. the chemical reaction between cement and water and consequent rate of
development of strength depends upon degree of fineness of cement. Finer the
cement, the rate of chemical reaction is more since more surface area is available for
reaction. This result in earlier strength development though the total ultimate strength
does not change. The advantage of using finer cement is that the formwork can be
removed earlier and hence the rate of construction can be improved.
The disadvantage of fine grinding is that it is susceptible to airset and early
deterioration and is likely to cause more drying shrinkage. Excessive fineness is less
prone to bleeding.
Generally, 53 grade cements available in our country have a Blanine fineness
of around 280 to 320 m/ kg. The influence of particle size distribution within the
cement also plays a key role in various properties such as a) Rate of strength gain
and rate of hydration .
b) Texture of hardened concrete.
c) Fluidity or viscosity of cement paste.
d) Durability.
e) Generation of heat of hydration.

DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE :
1) Weigh accurately 100 grams of cement and place it on 90 IS sieve.
2) Break air set lumps if any and sieve the sample continuously for 15
min.
3) Holding the sieve in both hands a gentle wrist motion is applied for
sieving. The sieve should be rotated continuously throughout the sieving operation.
4) After 15 min. of sieving, weigh the residue left on the sieve.

OBSERVATION :

1) Make and type of cement : ______________________________________

Sr.No Weight of Weight of % of residue Fineness of


cement sample residue left on W2 x 100 cement
sieve(W2) W1
1. 100 gm.

2. 100 gm.

3. 200 gm.

4. 200 gm.

CALCULATION:

RESULT :

Fineness of cement = ________ %

I .S CLAUSE :

For O. P. C this residue left on sieve by weight should not be more than 10% of initial
weight taken.
CONCLUSION :

The given sample of cement satisfies / not satisfies the IS requirement as far as
fineness is concerned.
EXPERIMENT NO : 2 DATE :

STANDARD CONSISTENCY OF CEMENT.

AIM :
To determine the standard consistency of cement paste.

REFERANCE :
IS 4031 1968, Methods of physical test for hydraulic cement.

APPARATUS :
1) A Vicats Apparatus with plunger 10 mm diameter.
2) Weighing balance.
3) Trowel.
4) Measuring cylinder of capacity 200 ml.
5) Tray.

MATERIALS :
ACC cement( 30 Grade ) , Water.

THEORY :
Consistancy : A certain minimum quantity of water is required to be mixed with
cement so as to complete chemical reaction between water and cement.

Standard Consistancy: Standard consistency or normal consistency of cement paste is


defined as that consistency which permits the Vicats plunger to penetrate to a point 5
to 7 mm from the bottom of the Vicats mould. It is expressed as amount of water as a
percentage (by weight) of dry cement.
Generally the water percentage for standard consistency is about 30%. However
cement produced by different factories may not have same properties and so it is
necessary to standardize the consistency using standard equipment.
The knowledge of standard consistency is required while performing other important
tests such as setting time, soundness etc. as these tests are performed on cement paste
using a certain percentage of water required for standard consistency or normal
consistency.

DIAGRAM:
PROCEDURE :
1) Take 300 gm. Cement sample.
2) Add water initially 30 % by weight i.e. 90 ml to the cement and mix it
thoroughly, to make a cement paste.
3) Place the Vicats mould on a non-porous plate. Fill the mould with cement
paste. Smooth off the surface of the paste by making it level with top of the mould. To
expel air, shake the mould slightly. Take care that the time required for this operation
should be 3 to 5 min.
4) Place the mould on a non-porous plate under the Vicats plunger of 10 mm
diameter. Bring the plunger down so as to touch the surface of the cement paste and
quickly release allowing it to penetrate in to cement paste. Carry the operation
immediately after filling the mould.
5) Prepare trial paste with varying percentage of water until the amount of water
necessary for standard consistency ( which permits plunger to penetrate about 5 to 7
mm from bottom of the mould.) is determined.

OBSERVATIONS :

Sr.No Weight of Weight of Pn = W1 x 100 Penetration of


water ( W1) gm cement (W2) gm W2 needle from
bottom. (mm)
1.

2.

3.

4.

RESULT :
The percentage of water by weight of cement required to produce a paste of standard
Consistency is Pn = ________%

I .S CLAUSE :
As per IS 4031- 1968 the standard consistency is obtained when Vicatts plunger
penetrates to a point 5 to 7 mm from bottom of Vicats mould.

CONCLUSION :
For the given sample of cement, the standard consistency is achieved with
Water percentage __________.
EXPERIMENT NO : 3. DATE :

INITIAL AND FINAL SETTING TIME OF CEMENT.

AIM :
To determine initial setting time and final setting time of cement.

REFERANCE :
I.S 269 1976, Specification for Ordinary Portland Cement and Low Heat.
I.S 4031 1968, Methods of physical tests for hydraulic cement.

APPARATUS :
1) Vicats apparatus with plunger and needle of 1 mm ( 1.13 mm
diameter ) cross sectional area and 50 mm long, for initial setting time and a needle
with attachment for final setting time.
2) Weighing balance of accuracy 1 gm.
3) Measuring cylinder.
4) Trowel.
5) Stop watch.
6) Tray.

MATERIALS :
1) Ordinary Portland cement.
2) Water.

THEORY :
Initial setting time is regarded as the time elapsed between the moment the water is
added to the cement and the time when the paste starts loosing its plasticity. In actual
construction while dealing with concrete, certain time is required for mixing,
transporting, placing, and compaction and finishing. During this time the concrete,
mortar or cement paste should be in plastic condition. So normally a minimum of 30
min is given.
Final setting time is time elapsed between the moment the water is added to the
cement and the time when the paste has completely lost its plasticity. Final setting
time roughly indicate the time at which the paste has started to harden. Once the
concrete is placed in final position, compacted and finished, it should loose its
plasticity in the earliest possible time, to save time of construction.
The setting times are generally affected by minor constituents in cement such as
alkalis, sulphates and also by fineness of cement, w/c ratio, humidity and ambient
temperature, temperature of all ingredients of mix and workability of mix. Concrete
generally sets more slowly than cement paste under identical conditions because of
higher w/c ratio.
The period elapsing between the time when water is added to cement and the time at
which the needle penetrates the test block to a depth of 5 to 7 mm from bottom [ or 33
35 mm from top] is taken as initial setting time.
The time elapsed between the water added to the cement to the time when the needle
with attachment makes an impression of the center needle but the circular cutting
edge of attachment fail to do so.
At times concrete or cement pastes show abnormal setting behavior such as
a) Flase set :- This rapid setting occurs without the liberation of much heat.
Plasticity between can be regained by further mixing without the need to add more
water.
b) Flash set or Quick set :- This rapid setting occurs with liberation of
considerable heat. The plasticity of the mix can not be regained with additional
mixing of water.
The setting action is delayed by adding Gypsum at the grinding stage. But
excess gypsum is harmful leading to unsoundness.

DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE :
1. Take 300 gm of cement.
2. Add water of weight equal to 85 % standard consistency (Pn). Mix and
prepare cement paste. Start the stopwatch at the time of adding water.
3. Fill the Vicats mould with cement paste completely and smooth off the
surface making it level with top of the mould.
4. Attach the initial setting time needle (1mm cross section) and lower it gently
to the surface of the test block.
5. Release the needle quickly. Needle will penetrate in the test block.
6. Repeat this process of bringing the needle in contact with block and releasing
it, until the needle fails to pierce the block and releasing it 5 + 0.5 mm measured from
the bottom of the mould. Note this time t1, it is the initial setting time.
7. Replace the needle by final setting time needle, with annular attachment
having circular cutting edge with needle end at center. Lower the needle gently to the
surface of test block.
8. Release the needle quickly. The needle and attachment, both will form
impression on the block. Repeat the process until the time when the attachment fails
to form an impression while needle produces a mark. Note this time t2, it is the final
setting time.

OBSERVATIONS :
1. Weight of sample = ________ gm.
2. Weight of water added ( 0.85 x Pn ) = ________ ml.
3. Initial setting time ( t1) = ________ min.
4. Penetration of needle from bottom
At time (t1) = ________ mm.
5. Final setting time (t2 ) = ________ min.

CALCULATION:

RESULT :
1. Initial setting time = ________ min.
2. Final setting time = ________ min.
I. S CLAUSE :
As per IS 269 1976, the initial setting time shall not be less than 30 min. and final
setting time shall not be more than 600 min.

CONCLUSION :
The cement satisfy / not satisfy the I .S requirment.

EXPERIMENT NO : 4. DATE :

SOUNDNESS OF CEMENT.
AIM :
To determine the soundness of given sample of cement by Le- chateliers Method.

REFERENCE :
I.S 269 1976, Specification for ordinary Portland cement and low heat cement.
I.S 4031-1968, Method of physical tests for hydraulic cement.

APPARATUS :
1. Le chatliers split cylinder mould.
2. Weighing balance.
3. Measuring cylinder.
4. Glass plates.
5. Thermostatically controlled water both.
6. Scale to measure distance correct up to 0.1 mm.

MATERIALS :
Cement and water.

THEORY :
This test is performed to ascertain the soundness or unsoundness of cement, which
affects durability of the structure. The soundness of cement depends on its
ingredients. Excess of lime and/or magnesium oxide present in the cement cause
unsoundness. The test is designed to accelerate the expansion in cement paste by
application of heat.

DIAGRAM:
PROCEDURE :
1. Take 100 gm. Cement sample and add 78 % water, which required for
standard consistency of cement, and prepare the paste.
2. Fill the mould with the cement paste, keeping the mould on a glass plate; keep
the edges of the mould gently together.
3. Cover the mould with another glass plate with a small counter weight over this
plate. Then immerse the assembly in water at a temperature of 27c + 2c for 24 hrs.
4. After 24 hrs take out the assembly from water and measure the distance
between the pointers, say it d1. Replace the assembly in the same water.
5. The water is heated and brought to boiling point in 25 to 30 min. then keep
water boiling for 3 hrs.
6. Remove the mould from water, allow it cool and measure the distance
between the pointers, say it d2.

OBSERVATIONS :
1. Original distance between the pointers,d1 =___________ mm.
2. Distance between the pointers after boiling, d2 =___________ mm.

CALCULATIONS:
RESULT :
Expansion of cement = [d2 d1] = __________ mm.

I.S CLAUSE :
As per I.S 269 1987, the expansion of cement should not be more than 10 mm for
Ordinary Portland Cement.

CONCLUSION :
As expansion is less / greater than 10, hence the given cement satisfies / not satisfies
the I.S requirements.

EXPERIMENT NO : 5. DATE :

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CEMENT.

AIM :
To determine the compressive strength of cement mortars mix having proportion 1: 3.

REFERENCE :
I.S 650 1966, Specification for standard sand for testing of cement.
I.S 269 1976, Specification for Ordinary and Low Heat Portland Cement.

APPARATUS :
1. Standard moulds of size 70.7 mm X 70.7 mm X 70.7 mm = 6 Nos.
2. Vibrating machine.
3. weighing balance.
4. Trowel.
5. Measuring cylinder.
6. Non-porous enamel tray.

MATERIAL :
Cement, Standard sand, water, oil etc.

THEORY :
The quality of cement for its strength in compression is judged by finding the
compressive strength of cement sand mortar in proportion of 1: 3. The standard sand,
which is obtained from Ennore in Tamilnadu state, is used for preparing cement
mortar cubes.
The strength tests are not made on neat cement paste because of difficulties of
excessive shrinkage and subsequent cracking of neat cement. So strength of standard
sand mortar of proportion 1:3.
Standard sand : It is the sand which passes 100 percent through 2 mm sieve and 100
% through 2 mm sieve and 100 % retained on a 90 micron sieve.
The particle size distribution is as under.

SIZE PERCENTAGE
Greater than 1 mm. 33.33
Smaller than 1 mm and greater than 500 33.33
microns
Below 500 microns 33.33

The surface area of the cube is equal to 50 cm.

DIAGRAM:
PROCEDURE :
1. To perform this test, 1.2 kg neat cement and 3.6 kg. Standard sand by weight
are taken and mixed in a non- porous mixing pan to uniform colour with the help of a
trowel for one minute.
2. Add following quantity of water to mixture of cement and sand Pn/4 +3
percent by weight of total weight of cement and sand together, where Pn is the
percentage of water required for the paste of standard consistency. i.e. Wcs
3. It is mixed thoroughly to an even colour for not less than 3 min and not more
than 4 min.
4. Oil the inner surface of the mould before placing mortar.
5. Fill minimum 6 cubes (three for 3 days and three for 7 days test).
6. The mould is fitted on the table of the vibrating machine. (Which runs at a
speed of 1200 + 400 vibrations per minute.)
7. The filling and compaction of mould should be finished within 5 min.
8. The mould is then removed from vibrating machine and top surface is
smoothened off by single stroke of trowel.
9. Fill the remaining cubes in same way and place in atmosphere at 90 %
humidity for 24 hrs.
10. At the end of this period, mortar cubes are taken out of the moulds and are
immediately submerged in clean and fresh water for curing.
11. The temperature of water is maintained between 27 C + 2 C and is
removed after 3 and 7 days. Age is calculated from the time of addition of water to
dry cement and sand mix.
12. Note the load at failure of the 3 cubes. Average strength of three cubes is to be
taken for compressive strength.

OBSERVATIONS :
1. Weight of cement = __________ kg.

2. Weight of Standard Sand = __________ kg.

3. Percentage of water required for standard consistency = __________ %


4. Weight of water =
[(Pn / 4 ) + 3 ] X ( weight of cement and sand ) = __________ ml.

Sr. No PARAMETERS 7 TH DAY 14 TH 28 TH


DAY DAY

1. Comp.
2. strength
3. N / mm
4. AVERAGE

CALCULATIONS:

RESULT :
The compressive strength of the cement mortar
1. At age 7 days is = _________ N / mm

2. At age 14 days is = _________ N / mm

3. At age 28 days is = _________ N / mm

I. S. CLAUSE :
For 43 grade cement the compressive strength at 3 days ( 72 + 1 hrs ) should not be
less than 23 N / mm ( 23 mpa ) and at 7 days ( 168 + 2 hrs ) should not be less than
33 N / mm ( 33 mpa ) and at 28 days ( 672 + 1 hrs ) should not be less than 43 N /
mm ( 43 mpa ).

CONCLUSION:

EXPERIMENT NO : 6. DATE :

FINENESS MODULUS OF AGGREGATES.

AIM :
To determine the fineness modulus of metal 1 and metal 2 and sand by sieve analysis.

REFERENCE :
IS 2386 ( Part I ) 1963, methods of test for aggregates for concrete, part I
Particle size and shape.

APPARATUS :
1. A set of IS sieves.
For fine aggregates : 4.75mm, 2.36mm, 1.18mm, 600, 300, 150.
For coarse aggregates : 80mm, 40mm, 16mm, 10mm, 4.75mm.
2. Weighing balance of accuracy 1 gm.
3. Quartering shovel, trough, soft brush etc.

MATERIALS :
Metal 1, metal 2 and sand

THEORY :
The purpose of fineness modulus test is to know the character of the aggregate to be
used, as to whether it is fine, medium or coarse. It serves the purpose of comparing
one aggregate with another in respect of fineness or coarseness.
Fine Aggregate : Aggregates which passes through 4.75 mm IS sieve are called fine
aggregates.
Coarse Aggregates : Aggregates, which retained on 4.75 mm, IS sives are called
coarse aggregates.
Fineness Modulus : Fineness modulus is an empirical factor which is one hundredth
of the sum of cumulative percentage of the fractions of a sample retained when sieved
successfully through the IS sieves.

DIAGRAM:
PROCEDURE :
1. Sampling : Take the required quantity of representative sample from
stockpiles. After quartering, the weight of sample to be brought from job and to be
taken for sieving will depend on maximum size of aggregate as shown in table below
:

Maximum Minimum weight of sample Minimum weight of sample


Size to be brought for testing. to be taken for sieving.
63 100 50
50 100 35
40 50 15
25 50 5
20 25 2
16 25 2
12.5 12 1
10 6 0.5
63 3 0.2
4.75 3 0.2

2. Bring the sample to dry condition before weighing and sieving, by allowing it
to dry at room temperature or by heating.
3. For sieving use clean sieves and arranges them starting from largest size or
number to successively smaller sizes or number.
4. Place the assembly of the sieves arranges as above on sieve shaker and carry
out sieving for 15 minutes. Avoid spilling of aggregates during above operations.
5. Weigh the material retained on each sieve and record in the table given below.
6. Adopt above procedure separately for fine aggregate and for coarse aggregate.

OBSERVATION TABLE :

Metal 1 : Total weight of sample = 5 kg.


IS sieve Weight Individual Cumulative Percentage
Retained Percent Percent Passing
( gm ) Retained Retained ( 100 col. 4)
1 2 3 4 5
12.5mm
10mm
4.75mm
800
600
300
150
Receiver
Total =

Total of col. 5
Fineness modulus = ------------------ =
100

Metal 2 : Total weight of sample W =


IS sieve Weight Individual Cumulative Percentage
Retained Percent Percent Passing
( gm ) Retained Retained ( 100 col. 4)
1 2 3 4 5
10 mm
4.75mm
2.36mm
1.18
600
300
150
Receiver
Total =
Total of col. 5
Fineness modulus = ------------------ =

100

Sand : Total weight of sample W =


IS sieve Weight Individual Cumulative Percentage
Retained Percent Percent Passing
( gm ) Retained Retained ( 100 col. 4)
1 2 3 4 5
4.75mm
2.36mm
1.18mm
600
300
150
Receiver
Total =
Total of col. 5
Fineness modulus = ------------------ =
100

RESULT :
1. Fineness modulus of metal 1 = __________

2. Fineness modulus of metal 2 = __________

3. Fineness modulus of sand = ____________

IS CLAUSE :
The sand is classified as follows:
Sand Classification Fineness Modulus.
Very fine 0.5 to 2.20
Fine 2.20 to 2.60
Medium 2.60 to 2.90
Coarse 2.90 to 3.50

CONCLUSION :
The fineness modulus of given sample of aggregates is ___________ hence it is
classified as ___________.
EXPERIMENT NO : 7 DATE :

WORKABILITY OF CONRETE BY SLUMP- CONE METHOD.

AIM :
To determine the workability of concrete by slump cone test.

REFERENCE :
IS 1199-1959, Method of sampling and analysis of concrete.
Is 7320 1974, Specification for concrete slump test apparatus.
IS 456-1978, Code of practices for plain and reinforced cement concrete for general
building construction.

APPARATUS :
1) Slump cone metal mould in the form of a frustrum of a cone open at
both the ends, made of sheet metal 1.6 mm thick with foot pieces and handles.
Bottom diameter = 200mm.
Top diameter = 100mm.
Height = 300mm.
2) A tamping rod of 16 mm diameter 600 mm long and rounded on one end.

MATERIALS :
Cement, sand, coarse aggregate and water.

THEORY :
Workability : Workability is the ease with which concrete can be handled, deposited
or placed and spread in to its final location, and compacted. It depends on the fluidity
or wetness, plasticity and cohesiveness or hardness of concrete.
Factors affecting workability are :
1) Water content.
2) Mix proportion.
3) Size and shape of aggregate.
4) Grading of aggregate.
5) Surface texture of aggregate.
6) Atmospheric condition.
Slump test : Slump is the vertical subsidence of fresh concrete after removal of a
certain mould called a slump cone, in which the concrete is filled and compacted.

DIAGRAM:
PROCEDURE :
1. Clean the internal surface of the mould thoroughly and place it on a smooth,
horizontal, rigid and non-absorbent surface, such as of metal plate.
2. Consider w/c ratio between 0.5 to 0.6 and design mix proportion about
1 : 1.5 : 3 (it is presumed that a mix is designed already for the test). Weigh the
quantity of cement, sand, aggregate and water correctly and mix thoroughly. Use this
freshly prepared concrete for the test.
3. Fill the mould about one fourth of its height with concrete. While filling, hold
the mould firmly in position.
4. Compact the concrete in remaining height in three equal layers. Tamp each
layer 25 times with, the round end of tamping rod. Distribute the strokes uniformly
over the cross section.
5. After completion of tamping of the top most layer, strike off the concrete with
a trowel or tamping bar and level it with the top of mould.
6. Lift the mould vertically, slowly without disturbing the concrete.
7. the concrete will subside; measure the height of the specimen of concrete after
subsidence.
8. The slump of concrete is the subsidence i.e the difference in original height
and the height up to the top most point of the subsided concrete in millimeters.

OBSERVATIONS :
Obs no W/c ratio Amount of water Slump value in
added in litre mm
1
2
3

RESULT :
Slump of concrete :
For w/c ratio _________ is_______
For w/c ratio_________ is _______
For w/c ratio _________ is _______

IS CLAUSE :

Sr. Placing conditions of concrete Degree of Slump


No workability (mm)
1. Concreting of shallow sections with vibration such as Very low 0 to 25
road pavement, precast work etc.
2. Lightly reinforced concrete works with vibration such Low 25 to 50
as road pavements, mass concreting work, tunnel etc.
3. Lightly reinforced RCC work without vibration or 50 to 75
heavily reinforced work such as beams, columns, Medium
footings, caissons, canal linings, flat slabs etc.
4. Heavily reinforced work without vibrations and 75 to
sections where placing of concrete is difficult such as High 125
arches of tunnels, thin columns and walls etc.

Note: For concrete with aggregate of size smaller than 20 mm, the values of
workability will be lower.

CONCLUSION :
The degree of workability for given concrete mix is
EXPERIMENT NO : 8 DATE :

WORKABILITY OF CONRETE
BY COMPACTION FACTOR TEST.

AIM :
To find workability of concrete by compaction factor apparatus.

REFERENCE :
IS 1199-1959, method of sampling and analysis of concrete.
IS 456-2000, Code of practices for plain and reinforced cement concrete for general
building construction.

APPARATUS :
Compaction factor apparatus has two hoppers, one below the other and a cylinder
below the lower hopper. The distance between the bottom of the upper hopper and the
top of the lower hopper is the same as the bottom of the lower hopper and the top of
the cylinder and is equal to 203 mm.
The dimensions are as follows :

Part Top Diameter Bottom Diameter Height


Lower hopper 254 mm. 127 mm. 280mm.
Upper hopper 229 mm. 127 mm. 230 mm.
Cylinder 152 mm. 152 mm. 305 mm.

Both the hoppers have a trap door at the bottom.

MATERIAL :
Cement, sand, coarse aggregate and water.

THEORY :
The Road Research laboratory of UK developed this test. It is considered to be useful
for both stiff mixes and wet mixes. The test is based on the principle that, the
workability of concrete is reflected by its compaction by a standard amount of work
done on it by allowing it to fall under gravity through standard height in cylinder. The
ratio of the density of this concrete to the fully compacted concrete is called as
compaction factor.

DIAGRAM:
PROCEDURE :
1. Prepare a concrete of given mix proportion, for testing its workability.
2. Place the concrete in to the hopper up to its brim.
3. Open the trap door of the upper hopper and allow the concrete to fall in to the
lower hopper.
4. Open the trap door of the lower hopper and allow the concrete to fall in to the
cylinder below.
5. Remove the excess concrete above the top of the cylinder and clean it from
outside.
6. Take the weight of this concrete, which is known as weight of partially
compacted concrete say W1.
7. Empty the cylinder and refill it with the same concrete in three layers,
compacting each layer properly.
8. Take the weight of this concrete, which is known as weight of fully compacted
concrete say W2.

OBSERVATIONS :
Aggregate cement ratio =
Aggregate % is =
Obs no W/c ratio Wt of empty Wt of Wt of fully
cylinder partially compacted
comoacted concrete
concrete( w1)
1
2
3

CALCULATION:
RESULT :
The compaction factor for the 1st concrete sample having w/c ratio ________is
___________
The compaction factor for the 1st concrete sample having w/c ratio ________is
___________

The compaction factor for the 1st concrete sample having w/c ratio ________is
___________

IS CLAUSE :

Workability Compaction Factor


Very low 0.75 to 0.80
Low 0.80 to 0.85
Medium 0.85 to 0.92
High Above 0.92

CONCLUSION :
As the compaction factor of the given sample of concrete is _________ it is
considered as very low / low / medium / high workability.
EXPERIMENT NO : 9 DATE :

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF HARDENED CONCRETE.

AIM :
To determine the compressive strength of cement concrete.

REFERENCE :
IS 579-1959, Method for strength of concrete.

APPARATUS :
1. Compressive testing machine of 200 tone capacity.
2. Casting mould of metal base plate, inner surface accurately machined size
150mm x 150mm x 150mm for cubes and 150 mm diameter and 150 mm diameter
and 300 mm long for cylindrical specimens.
3. Tamping rod of 16 mm diameter, 600 mm long bullet pointed at one end or
vibrator either needle vibrator or table vibrator.
4. Trowels.
5. Curing trays or curing tanks.
6. Miscellaneous : trays for materials, sacks to cover specimens.

MATERIALS :
1. Ordinary Portland cement.
2. Sand.
3. Coarse aggregate ( 20 mm max size )

THEORY :
To determine the crushing strength of hardened concrete. This test is conducted on
test specimen of concrete either during mix design in lab or from concrete being used
on construction. It serves as good guide for quality control.

DIAGRAM:
PROCEDURE :
1. Obtain representative sample of concrete to fill 8 numbers of 150 mm x
150mm x 150mm moulds from active concrete job about 0.027 cubic meter or prepare
concrete sample by mixing the material in following proportions to make 1 : 2 : 4 mix
with w/c ratio 0.55. Take cement 8.5 kg , sand 17 kg. and dry coarse aggregates 34
kg. and water 5.1 kg. ( This mix will give concrete sufficient to fill 8cubes )
Note : minimum 6 cubes or 6 cylinders are required i.e. 3 for 7 days testing & 3 for
28 days testing. First mix cement , sand and coarse aggregate in dry state thoroughly,
then add water and mix thoroughly to have concrete of uniform colour. Mixing time
should not be more than 3 minutes.
2. Apply oil at the interior surface of mould after properly cleaning them. Place
concrete in the mould in 3 layers, if compacted by tamping rod & in two layers if
compacted by vibrator. When compacted by a rod give 25 strokes well distributed. In
case of vibrator, over vibration should be avoided. Top surface should be leveled off.
3. Prepare minimum 3 cubes ( or 6 cylinders) , 3 for 7 days and 3 for 28 days
testing.
4. Make identification marks and date of casting. If the concrete is brought from
outside job give some particular identification.
5. Cover the moulds by damp sacks or gunny bags for 24 hrs.
6. Capping of specimens : Do not cap cube moulds. Cap cylindrical moulds two
or four hours after concreting, if the top surface is note plane within 0.05mm as
checked by a straight edge. Prepare a stiff paste of neat cement and place a cap of thin
layer on the specimen by a piece of glass plate 6mm thick or a machined metal plate
13 mm thick.
7. Then remove the specimens from the moulds and place them immediately in
the clean water for curing. The temperature of water may be 24 C to 30 C.
8. At the edge of seven days, remove 3 specimens for testing, from the curing
tank and immediately place the specimen in the compression testing machine. Apply
load gradually @ 140 kg / cm per minute till maximum load is reached at which the
specimen fails. Test other specimens similarly. Note down the type of failure.
9. At the age of 28 days, test 3 specimens in the similar manner and note the
loads and type of failure.
10. Find out the compressive strength of concrete for each specimen. Find out
average of three results. State whether the results satisfy the standard of acceptance.

OBSERVATIONS :
a) Mix proportion : _________________

b) W / C Ratio : _________________

c) Date of casting : _________________

d) Size of cube : _________________

e) Size of cylinder : _________________

f) Area of cubes : _________________

g) Area of cylinder:_________________
h)
Observation table Cubes :
Compressive strength after=

W/C SR NO WEIGTH ON 7 Comp. Strength Avg Comp.


RATIO THE DAY (N/ sq.mm Strength

7 28 7 28 7 28
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
For Cylinder :
W/C SR NO WEIGTH OF Comp. Strength Avg
RATIO SPECIMEN (N/ sq.mm) Comp.
Strength

7 28 7 28 7 28
1
2
3

NOTE : If the test is done on cylinders calculate equivalent cube strength.


= 1.25 x cylinder strength.

CALCULATIONS:
RESULTS :
1. The compressive strength of the given concrete at w/c ratio

__________is __________ on 28th day.


2. The compressive strength of the given concrete at w/c ratio

__________is __________on 28th day.


3. The compressive strength of the given concrete at w/c ratio

__________ is __________on 7th day.

CONCLUSION :

EXPERIMENT NO : 10 DATE :

FLEXURAL STRENGTH TEST ON CONCRETE.


AIM :
To determine the flexural strength of concrete using flexural strength testing machine

REFERENCE :
IS 516-1959, Method for test for strength

APPARATUS :
Flexural testing machine, beam mould( size 750 150150 mm)

MATERIALS :
Metal 1 and metal 2, aggregate, sand, potable water

DIAGRAM :

PROCEDURE :
1. Test specimen shall be prepared by moulding concrete to a beam section,
curing and storing in accordance with standard procedure. The section of beam shall
be square of 100 mm or 150 m. the overall length of specimen shall be 4d-5d.the ratio
of d to the maximum particle size shall be not less than 3.
2. Circular roller manufacture out of steel having c/s with diameter 38 mm will
be used for providing support and loading point to the specimen. The length of the
roller shall be at least 10 mm more than the width of test specimen. A total of four
roller shall be 3d and the distance between the inner roller shall be d. the inner roller
shall be equally spaced between the outer roller such that the entire system is
systematic
3. The specimen stored in water shall be tested immediately or removal of water
while they are still wet. The test specimen shall be placed in machine correctly centre
s with the longitudinal axis of specimen at right angles to the roller.
4. The load shall be applied slowly without shack as such a rate as the increase
the stress at a rate of 0.06 + 0.04 N/mm2
OBSERVATIONS :

Area of beam=

Sr no w/c ratio Compressive Flexural strength on 28 th day


load in ( in N/mm2)
Newton
1
2
3

CALCULTIONS:

PRECAUTIONS :
1. Use hand gloves white, safety shoes at the type test
2. After test switch of the machine
3. Keep all the metal parts greased
4. Keep all the zods firmly fixed to the base and top plate
5. Equipment should be clean thoroughly before and after testing

RESULTS :

The flexural strength of concrete is as follows,


1) When w/c ratio________ then it is ____________
2) When w/c ratio________ then it is ____________
3) When w/c ratio________ then it is ____________