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SOLAF CHEMISTRY SPM 2014

RATE OF REACTION

SKEMA PEMARKAHAN - CHAPTER 1 FORM 5 RATE OF REACTION

SOALAN OBJEKTIF.

 1 Konsep ROR 1 C 6 B 11 B 16 B 2 D 7 B 12 C 17 D 3 D 8 C 13 B 18 A 4 A 9 D 14 B 19 B 5 B 10 D 15 C 20 D 2 Luas Permukaan 1 D 2 D 3 D 3 Kepekatan 1 B 3 B 5 C 7 D 2 B 4 B 6 C 4 Suhu 1 C 2 C 3 C 5 Mangkin 1 A 3 B 5 B 2 C 4 A 6 C

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SOLAF CHEMISTRY SPM 2014

SOALAN STRUKTUR

RATE OF REACTION

1
(a)
Temperature
1
(b)
Zn
+
2 HCl
ZnCl 2 +
H 2
2
(c)
Set I
= 20.00 = 0.33 cm 3 /s
1
60
Set II = 32.00
=
0.53 cm 3 /s
1
60
(d)
2
Volume (cm 3 )
Set I
Set II
Time (s)
(e)(i)
Experiment 2
1
(ii)
 The particles of reactants gain more kinetic energy
 Therefore, hydrogen ions and Zinc atom are collide each
other more rapidly
1
1
 The effective frequency of collision between hydrogen ions
and zinc increase,
1
TOTAL
11

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SOLAF CHEMISTRY SPM 2014

RATE OF REACTION

 No 2 Explanation Mark ∑ Mark (a) Able to state the meaning of the rate of reaction Sample answer : Change in quantity of reactant / product in a certain range of time // speed at which reactants are converted into products in a chemical reaction// Change in quantity of reactant / product Time 1 1 (b) Able to write a balanced chemical equation Answer : Zn + 2HCl→ZnCl 2 +H 2 1. Correct formula of reactant and product 1 2. Balanced equation 1 2 (c)(i) Able to determine the concentration of hydrochloric acid used Answer : 1. No of mole of hydrogen gas produced 2. Ratio of HCl to H 2 2 mol of HCl produced 1 mol of H 2 // 0.0025m mol of HCl produced 0.00125 mol of H 2 3. Concentration of HCl used mol dm -3 //0.05 mol dm -3 1 1 1 3 (ii) Able to calculate the average rate of reaction Answer : cm 3 min -1 // cm 3 s -1 // 6 cm 3 min -1 // 0.1 cm 3 s -1 1 1 (d) Able to explain why the rate of reaction decreases with time by using collision theory Sample answer : 1. The concentration of H + ion decreases // The number of H + ion per unit volume decreases 1 2. The frequency of collision between H + ion and zinc decreases 1 3. The frequency of effective collision decreases 1 3 (e) Able to sketch a correct curve when using the same volume and concentration of sulphuric acid to replace hydrochloric acid Answer : 1 1 Volume of gas/cm 3 60 Isi padu gas/cm 3 30 Time/min Masa/min

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SOLAF CHEMISTRY SPM 2014

RATE OF REACTION

 Number Answer / sample answer Marks CaCO 3 + 2HCl CaCl 2 + CO 2 + H 2 O 3 a) 1 1. Correct formula reactants and products 1 2 2. Balanced equation  correct label of axes and units for both axes – X and – Y and b) i) correct uniform scale 1  correct transfer of data 1  smooth curve 1 3  tangent on the curve 1 ii)  answer : 0.14 ± 0.05 cm 3 s -1 1 2 Volume of gas / cm 3 c) i) b(i) c(i) Time /s 1 (Refer to (b) (i) ii) 1. The smaller the size of reactants, the larger the total surface area // 1 2. frequency of collision between particles increases 1 3. frequency of effective collision increases 1 4 ( vice versa for (c) (i) )

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SOLAF CHEMISTRY SPM 2014

RATE OF REACTION

 4 (a) (i)Hydrogen 1 (ii) Mg + 2HCl MgCl 2 + H 2 1 - Reactants and products are correct 1 - Equation is balanced (iii) No of mol Mg = 1.2/24 = 0.05 mol Mol of H 2 = 0.05 mol 1 Volume of H 2 = 0.05 x 24 dm 3 /1.2 dm 3 /1200 cm 3 1 1 (b) - Experiment I is higher 1 - Concentration of hydrochloric acid is higher/Time taken in experiment I is shorter ** Reject if not mentioned EXP I 1 (c) -Uses of catalyst 1 - Temperature 1 TOTAL 10

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SOLAF CHEMISTRY SPM 2014

RATE OF REACTION

 5 Explanation Mark ∑ Mark ( a ) Able to draw a complete, functional and label the apparatus set-up Water Hydrochloric acid Calcium carbonate 1. Functional of apparatus: Clamp the burette, dotted line for water and hydrochloric acid, end of delivery tube below water level in the basin. 1 2. Label: Hydrochloric acid/ HCl, calcium carbonate/ CaCO 3 , water 1 2 (b) Able to draw the graph with these criterion: 1 Labelled axis with correct unit 1 Uniform scale for X and Y axis & size of the graph is at least half of the graph paper 2 1 1 3 All points are marked 1 4 4 Correct shape, Curve is smooth and start from origin point (c)(i) Able to draw the tangent and show the working and correct unit 1 Correct tangent at 90 second on the graph 1 2 Show calculation of the tangent with correct answer and unit Range ( 0.10 – 0.17 ) cm 3 s -1 1 2 (ii) Lower // accept one value than answer in c (i) 1 1 (iii) The concentration of the acid decreases 1 1 Total 10 6

SOLAF CHEMISTRY SPM 2014

RATE OF REACTION

Question
Mark
number
6
(a)
hydrogen peroxide
solution
manganese(IV)
oxide
functional diagram
label
1
1
(b)
(i)
Oxygen
1
(ii)
2H 2 O 2 
2 H 2 O
+
O 2
[formula correct and balanced]
[Formula correct but not balanced, 1 mark]
2
(c)
(i)
Experiment II
1
(ii)
Concentration of hydrogen peroxide in Expt II is higher than in Expt I
1
(iii)
II
I
2
(d)
Lower the activation energy
( 1)
Frequency of effective collision increases (1)
2
Total
11

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SOLAF CHEMISTRY SPM 2014

RATE OF REACTION

 Question Rubric Score 7(a) Able to state the comparison of the observation correctly. Sample answer More bubbles produced in Experiment II than in Experiment I // Water level in Experiment II is lower than in Experiment I // 3 Gas volume in Experiment II is more than the gas volume in Experiment I [vice-versa] 7(b) Able to state the inference correctly Sample answer Rate of reaction in Experiment II is higher than in Experiment I // 3 Rate of bubbles produced in Experiment II is higher than in Experiment I // Bubbles produced faster in Experiment II (vice-versa) 7(c) Able to state all three variables correctly Sample answer Manipulated variable : Total surface area of calcium carbonate(marble) // Size of calcium carbonate 3  name the reactant Responding variable : Rate of reaction // Rate of bubbles formed// Water level// Volume of gas Fixed variable : Mass of calcium carbonate // Volume / Concentration of hydrochloric acid// Temperature a: symbols for substances

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SOLAF CHEMISTRY SPM 2014

RATE OF REACTION

 7(d) Able to suggest a correct relationship between the MV and the RV with direction Sample answer Total surface area of calcium carbonate increases/decreases, the rate of reaction increases/decreases // 3 The bigger/smaller size of calcium carbonate, the rate reaction increases/decreases a: [2 statements] 7(e) Able to write all the burette readings with 2 decimal places 49.70 40.10 31.50 24.10 19.50 15.10 11.50 9.60 8.10 8.10 3 7(f)(i) Able to plot the graph with 1. All the correct points 2. smooth curve 3 7(f)(ii) Able to extrapolate the graph and predict the time correctly 1. a curve ending with a horizontal portion and 2. state a time [3 – 3.5] min 3 7(f)(iii) Able to calculate the rate of reaction with correct unit Sample answer 3 41.60 = [ 11.89 – 13.87] cm 3 min -1 [3 – 3.5]

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SOLAF CHEMISTRY SPM 2014

RATE OF REACTION

 7(g) Able to state the operational definition of rate of reaction refer to 3 criteria 1. describe the operation[add different sizes of calcium carbonate to hydrochloric acid] 2. *observation[more bubbles per unit time] 3. has higher rate of reaction 3  *observation can refer to 1(a) 7(h) Able to classify all the 5 ions correctly a : [names] Sample answer Positive ion : Ca 2+ , H + 3 Negative ion : CO 3 2- , Cl - , OH - 7(i) Able to describe the change of colour and compare time taken correctly. Sample answer Colour of small prawns becomes red/pink/orange faster than big prawns 3

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SOLAF CHEMISTRY SPM 2014

RATE OF REACTION

 8 (a) [able to state the colour of sulphur correctly] Example: Light Yellow / kuning muda 1 1 (b) [able to explain how to measure a fixed quantity of sulphur produced correctly] Example: 1. A piece of white paper marked ‘X’ was placed under the conical flask 1 2. Time taken for enough sulphur to produce and cover the mark ‘X’ until it disappear from sight 1 2 (c) (i) 1 [able to calculate the time correctly ] Example: 1 (s – 1 ) time 0.030 0.042 0.053 0.063 0.071 1 1 (s – 1 ) masa 1 (ii) [able to draw the graph correctly] 1. both axes are labelled correctly 1 2. All 5 points transferred correctly 1 2 (d) (i) [able to state the relationship correctly] Example: When the temperature increases, the rate of reaction increases 1 1 (ii) [able to explain using the collision theory correctly] Example: 1. Increase in temperature increases the kinetic energy of thiosulphate ion / particles // Thiosulphate ion move faster 1 2. Frequency of collision between thiosulphate ion and hydrogen ion increases. 1 3. Frequency of effective collision increases 1 3 TOTAL 10

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RATE OF REACTION

SOALAN ESEI BAHAGIAN B RESPON TERTUTUP

 Question Mark scheme Mark Σ Mark 1(a) P1. Smaller size has larger total surface area. P2. Absorb heat faster. P3. Bigger size has smaller total surface area. P4. Absorb heat slower 1 4 1 1 1 (b)(i) Copper(II) sulphate 1 1 (b)(ii) 1. Experiment I 1 2 Rate of reaction = 40/2 = 20 cm 3 min -1 1 2. Experiment II Rate of reaction = 60/2 = 30 cm 3 min -1 (b)(iii) P1. Rate of reaction in Experiment II is higher than Experiment I. P2. Substance X used in Experiment II is a catalyst. P3. Catalyst provided an alternative path with requires a lower activation energy. P4. More particles are able to achieve lower activation energy. P5. Frequency of effective collisions between zinc atoms and hydrogen ions are higher. 1 5 1 1 1 1 (b)(iv) 1. Label of axes and unit 1 2 2. Correct curve and label 1 (v) 1. Correct formula of reactants and product 1 2 2. Balanced equation 1 Zn + 2H + Zn 2+ + H 2 (vi) 1. Rate of reaction using sulphuric acid is higher. 1 4 2. Volume of hydrogen gas released is doubled. 1 3. Sulphuric acid is a diprotic acid. 1 4. Concentration of hydrogen ions in sulphuric acid is double 1 than that in hydrochloric acid. Total 20

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SOLAF CHEMISTRY SPM 2014

RATE OF REACTION

 No. Mark Scheme Sub Total Mark Mark 2 (a) Rate of reaction is the speed at which reactants are converted into products in a chemical reaction. 1 1 (b) 30 = 0.25 cm 3 s -1 (i) 2x 60 1 45 = 0.375 / 0.38 cm 3 s -1 (ii) 2x 60 1 3 15 = 0.125 / 0.13 cm 3 s -1 (iii) 2x 60 1 (c) CaCO 3 + H 2 SO 4  CaSO 4 + CO 2 + H 2 O (i) Reactant and product correct 1 2 Balance equation 1 (ii) The number of moles CaCO 3 = 0.2/40 + 12 + (16x3) = 0.002 mol 1 1 mole of CaCO 3 releases 1 mole of CO 2 . (ratio of CaCO 3 to CO 2 ) 0.002 mole of CaCO 3 releases 0.002 mole of CO 2 The maximum volume of CO 2 = 0.002 x 22.4 1 1 4 = 0.0448 dm 3 = 44.8 cm 3 1 (d) - Experiment II has a higher rate of reaction (i) compared to experiment I 1 - The concentration of sulphuric acid, H 2 SO 4 in experiment II is higher than experiment I 1 - When the concentration of the solution is increase/higher, the number of reactant particles also increase/higher. - The frequency of collision between carbonate ions and hydrogen ions increases 1 - The frequency of effective collision also increases 1 5 - Experiment I has a higher rate of reaction compared to experiment III 1 (d) - The temperature used in experiment I is higher (ii) than in experiment III 1

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SOLAF CHEMISTRY SPM 2014

RATE OF REACTION

 - Higher temperature causes particles move faster/higher//kinetic energy is increase 1 - Frequency of collision between carbonate ions and hydrogen ions increase 1 - The frequency of effective collision also increases 5 1 1 TOTAL 20

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SOLAF CHEMISTRY SPM 2014

RATE OF REACTION

 QUESTION NO Marking Criteria MARK SUB TOTAL 3 (a) - Industries emit (acidic gases)/(sulphur dioxide). 1 - These gases dissolve in rainwater forming acid rain. 1 1 - The rain water has a higher concentration of acid. - more collisions between (reacting particles)/(metal and acid) to occur. 1 4 (b) (i) Zn + 2HCl  ZnCl 2 + H 2 1 HCl : H 2 = 2 : 1 1 Mole of H 2 = ½ x 0.4 x 50/1000// 0.01 Volume of H 2 = 0.01 x 24 // 0.24 #dm 3 # 1 1 4 (ii) Volume(dm 3 ) 0.24 II III I 0 5 10 0.12 Time (min.) - Axes are labels with units 1 - Curves I, II and curve III are leveling started at 10 and 5 minutes respectively. 1 - The gradient of curves II and III are more steep than curve I 1 - Volume of graph level off in Exp. II is 0.24 dm 3 and 0.12 dm 3 in Exp. I and III. 1 4 (iii) I: rate = 0.12 x 1000/10 x 60 // 0.2 rate = 0.24 x 1000/10 x 60 //0.4 rate = 0.12 x 1000/5 x 60 // 0.4 1 II: 1 III: 1 3 (iv) Experiment I and Experiment II: - The initial rate of reaction in experiment II is higher. 1 - The concentration of hydrochloric acid in experiment II is higher. 1 - The frequency of collision between zinc atoms and hydrogen ions is higher. 1 - The frequency of effective collision also increases. 1 Experiment I and Experiment III: - The initial rate of reaction in experiment III is 1

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RATE OF REACTION

higher.

- The powdered zinc has a larger total surface area.

- The frequency of collision between zinc atoms and hydrogen ions is higher.

- The frequency of effective collision also increases.

1

1

1

8

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SOLAF CHEMISTRY SPM 2014

RATE OF REACTION

 4 (a) 1.Smaller pieces of charcoal has larger/bigger total surface total area 2.Smaller pieces of charcoal is easier to burn when exposed to oxygen 3.More heat is produced by smaller pieces of charcoal than big pieces 4.More heat energy is absorbed by the food 1 1 1 1 4 (b) (i) ) 40/160 // 0.25 cm 3 s -1 1 (ii) ) Zn + H 2 SO 4 ZnSO 4 + H 2 1+1 1. Correct formula od reactants 2. Correct formula of products 3. Mol of H 2 SO 4 = 0.5 X 50/1000 // 0.025mol 1 From equation, 1 mol of H 2 SO 4 1 mol of H 2 4. If 0.025 mol of H 2 SO 4 0.025 mol of H 2 1 5. Volume of H 2 = 0.025 x 24 dm 3 //0.6 dm 3 // 1 0.025 x 24000//600 cm 3 5 (iii) Expt I and II 1.Rate of reaction of expt I is higher 2.The size of zinc in Expt I is smaller 1 1 3.Total surface area of zinc in Expt I is bigger/larger 4.The frequency of collision between zinc atom and hydrogen ion/H + in Expt I is higher 1 1 5. The frequency of effective collision between particles in Exp I is 1 higher Expt II and III 1. Rate of reaction in Expt II is higher 2.The concentration of sulphuric acid in Exp II is higher 1 3. The no. of H + per unit volume in Expt II is higher/greater in Expt 1 II// the concentration of hydrogen ion in Expt II is higher 1 4. The frequency of collision between zinc atom and H + in Expt II is higher 1 5. The frequency of effective collision in Expt II is higher 1 10 Total 20

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SOLAF CHEMISTRY SPM 2014

RATE OF REACTION

 5 (a) Able to state (i) Sulphuric acid 1 Mg + H 2 SO 4 MgSO 4 + H 2 1 (ii) Able to draw an energy profile diagram that shows the following five information: 1. label of energy on vertical axis 1 2. The position of the energy level of the reactant is higher than the energy level of the product 1 3. Correct position of Ea 1 4. Correct position of E’a 1 5. Correct position of ∆H 1 If energy level diagram given, not energy profile diagram, award pt1 and pt2 only) Able to give explanation by stating the following information: 1. Reaction is exothermic 2. The reactants contain moare energy than the products 3. Heat given nout during bond formation is greater than heat absorbed during bond breaking 4. ∆H is the energy difference between the reactants and products 5. Activation energy, Ea must be overcome in order for the reaction to take place 6. The use of catalyst reduces the activation energy (must correspond to the energy profile diagram: negative catalyst increases the activation energy) 5 7. the use of catalyst increases the frequency of effective collision between H + ion and magnesium atom (Neagative catalyst reduces the frequency of effective collision between H + and magnesium atom) any five points: Note: If endothermic reaction: Pts 1,2,3 lost (b) (i) Able to calculate the average rate of reaction 1+ 1. volume divided by time 1 2. Correct answer with the unit Avarage rate of reaction = 400 cm 3 200 s = 2 cm 3 s -1

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SOLAF CHEMISTRY SPM 2014

RATE OF REACTION

 (ii) Able to explain the difference in the rate of reaction by stating the following information 1. The rate of reaction for Experiment II is higher/greater than Experiment I r: slower/faster 1 2. This is because sulphuric acid in Experiment II is diprotic/dibasic acid 1 3. Hydrochloric acid in Experiment I is monoprotic/monobasic acid (Basicity of acid in Experiment II is higher than acid in Experiment I gives pts 2 and 3) 1 1 6 4. Diprotic acid has higher concentration of H + ion //monoprotic acid has lower concentration of H + ion a: more/higher number/less H + 1 5. The frequency of collision between H + ion and magnesium in Experiment II is higher than in Experiment I// The frequency of collision between H + ion and magnesium in Experiment I is lower than in Experiment II r: between particles 1 6. The frequency of effective collision in Experiment II is higher/greater than in Experiment I// The frequency of effective collision in Experiment I is lower/smaller than in Experiment II

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SOLAF CHEMISTRY SPM 2014

RATE OF REACTION

 6 (a) Smaller pieces of charcoal have bigger total surface area 1 More area is exposed to oxygen 1 Big pieces of charcoal have smaller total surface area 1 Less area is exposed to oxygen 1……… 4 (b) (i) Rate of reaction of Exp I : 1/18= 0.056 s -1 1 Rate of reaction of Exp II: 1/10= 0.100 s -1 1……… 2 (ii) Mol of sulphuric acid:

10x 0.1

// 0.001

1000

Mol of Sodium thiosulphate :

 50x 0.1 // 0.005 1000

1 mol of sulphuric acid produce 1 mol of S 0.001 of sulphuric acid produce 0.001 mol of S

Mass of sulphur: 0.001 x 32 g // 3.2 g

Exp I and II

Rate of reaction of Exp II is higher Exp II has higher temperature, the kinetic energy of the particles higher The frequency of collision between hydrogen ions and thiosulphate ions increases Frequency of effective collision increases

Exp I and III Rate of reaction of Exp I is higher The concentration of Exp I is higher The number particles per unit volume in the solution increases The frequency of collision between hydrogen ions and thiosulphate ions increases The frequency of effective collision increases

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TOTAL

1

1

1

1…

….4

1

1

1

1

1……

1

1

1

1

5

1………5

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SOLAF CHEMISTRY SPM 2014

SOALAN ESEI bahagian C respon terbuka

RATE OF REACTION

 1.a.(i) The speed at which reactant are converted into product in a chemical reaction// 1 change in selected quantity of reactant or product per unit of time taken. (ii) Total surface area / concentration of reactant / temperature of reactant / use of catalyst / pressure of gaseous reactant 1+1 (any 4) b) To make the coffee powder and sugar dissolve easier in water. The heat given to the water will give more kinetic energy to the particles. 1 The particles of water, coffee powder and sugar move faster. 1 They will collide each other more frequent. The frequency of effective collision will increase. 1 Precipitate : Sulphur 1 1 c) Materials: 0.2 mol dm -3 sodium thiosulphate, 1.0 mol dm -3 sulphuric acid, a piece of white paper marked ‘X’ at the centre. 1 Apparatus: 150 cm 3 conical flask, stopwatch, 50 cm 3 measuring cylinder, 10 cm 3 measuring cylinder, thermometer, Bunsen burner, wire gauze. 1 Procedure: Using a measuring cylinder, 50 cm 3 of 0.2 mol dm -3 sodium thiosulphate solution is measured and poured into a conical flask. 1 The conical flask is placed on top of a piece of white paper marked ‘X’ at the centre. 1 5 cm 3 of 1.0 mol dm -3 sulphuric acid is measured using another measuring cylinder. The sulphuric acid is poured immediately and carefully into the conical flask. At the same time, the stop watch is atarted 1 The mixture in a conical flask is swirled. 1

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RATE OF REACTION

The ‘X’ mark is observed vertically from the top of the conical flask through the solution.

The stopwatch is stopped once the ‘X’ mark disappears from view.

Step 1 7 are repeated using 50 cm 3 of 0.2 mol dm -3 sodium thiosulphate

solution at 40 o C, 50 o C, 60 o C by heating the solution before 5 cm 3 of sulphuric acid is added in.

(Max 8)

Conclusion The increase of temperature, increase the rate of reaction

1

1

1

1

1

1

20

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RATE OF REACTION

QUESTION

2 (a)

2(b)

2(c)

2(d)

2(e)

2(f)

How does the temperature affect (the rate of reaction) / (the time for mark ‘X’ to disappear from sight)?

Manipulated variable : Temperature of sodium thiosulphate solution.

Responding variable

: The rate of reaction //

Fixed variable

the time for mark ‘X’ to disappear from sight : Volume and concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution // Volume and concentration of sulphuric acid.

When the temperature of sodium thiosulphate solution increases, (the rate of reaction increases) / (the time for mark ‘X’ to disappear from sight is short)

Substances : 0.2 mol dm -3 of sodium thiosulphate solution, 1.0 mol dm -3 of sulphuric acid.

Apparatus : Thermometer, stopwatch, conical flask, measuring cylinder 50 cm 3 , measuring cylinder 10 cm 3 , tripod stand, wire gauze, bunsen burner, white paper marked ‘X’.

Procedures :

1. 50 cm 3 of 0.2 mol dm -3 sodium thiosulphate solution is measured by using measuring cylinder and pour into conical flask.

2. 5 cm 3 of 1.0 moldm -3 sulphuric acid is measured by using measuring cylinder.

3. Sodium thiosulphate solution in the conical flask is heated until the temperature is 30 o C

4. The conical flask is put on the white paper that have marked ‘X’.

5. The sulphuric acid is poured quickly into the conical flask

and get the time for mark ‘X’ disappear from sight.

6. Repeat step 1 until 5 using different temperature.

 Experiment Temperature / o C Time for mark ‘X’ disappear from sight / s I II III IV V

Total mark

SCORE

3

3

3

3

3

3

Max 17

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SOLAF CHEMISTRY SPM 2014

RATE OF REACTION

 Question Mark Scheme Marks 3(a) Able to give the problem statement correctly 3 Sample Answer Does catalyst / (manganese(IV) oxide) affect the rate of reaction / (decomposition of hydrogen peroxide)? // How does a catalyst / (manganese(IV) oxide) affect the rate of reaction / (decomposition of hydrogen peroxide)? // What is the effect of catalyst / (manganese(IV) oxide) on the rate of reaction / (decomposition of hydrogen peroxide)? // Able to state the problem statement less accurate. 2 Sample Answer Catalyst / (manganese(IV) oxide) affects the rate of reaction / (decomposition of hydrogen peroxide) // To investigate the effect of catalyst / (manganese(IV) oxide) on the rate of reaction / (decomposition of hydrogen peroxide). Able to give an idea of problem statement. 1 Sample answer: Catalyst affects the decomposition.// Catalyst affects the reaction No response or wrong response 0

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SOLAF CHEMISTRY SPM 2014

RATE OF REACTION

 Question Mark Scheme Marks 3(b) Able to state the three variables correctly 3 Sample Answer Manipulated variable Catalyst Responding variable Rate of reaction / (decomposition of hydrogen peroxide) // Time taken for lighted splinter rekindle. Contant variable Volume and concentration of hydrogen peroxide Able to state any two variables correctly. 2 Able to state any one variable correctly. 1 No response or wrong response 0

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SOLAF CHEMISTRY SPM 2014

RATE OF REACTION

 Question Mark Scheme Marks 3(c) Able to state the relationship between the manipulated variable and the responding variable correctly with direction. 3 Sample Answer Catalyst / (manganese(IV) oxide) increases / decreases the rate of reaction / (decomposition of hydrogen peroxide) // The presence of catalyst / (manganese(IV) oxide) increases / decreases the rate of reaction / (decomposition of hydrogen peroxide) // When catalyst / (manganese(IV) oxide) is present, the rate of reaction / (decomposition of hydrogen peroxide) increases/decreases Able to state the relationship between the manipulated variable and the responding variable correctly without stating the direction. 2 Sample answer Catalyst / (manganese(IV) oxide) affects / changes the rate of reaction / (decomposition of hydrogen peroxide) // The presence of catalyst / (manganese(IV) oxide) affects / changes the rate of reaction / (decomposition of hydrogen peroxide) // When catalyst / (manganese(IV) oxide) is present, the rate of reaction / (decomposition of hydrogen peroxide) changes / different Able to state an idea of hypothesis. 1 Sample answer Catalyst affects the decomposition.// Catalyst affects the reaction // Catalyst changes the reaction // No response or wrong response 0

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SOLAF CHEMISTRY SPM 2014

RATE OF REACTION

 Question Mark Scheme Marks 3(d) Able to list completely the materials and apparatus 3 Sample Answer Materials: 20-volume hydrogen peroxide, manganese(IV) oxide Apparatus: Test/boiling tube, spatula, wooden splinter Able to list incompletely materials and apparatus 2 Sample answer Materials: Hydrogen peroxide, manganese(IV) oxide Apparatus: Test/boiling tube, wooden splinter Able to give an idea of materials and apparatus 1 Sample answer Materials: Hydrogen peroxide Apparatus: Test / boiling tube / [any suitable container] No response or wrong response 0

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SOLAF CHEMISTRY SPM 2014

RATE OF REACTION

 Question Mark Scheme Marks 3(e) Able to state the steps correctly 3 Sample Answer 1. Pour [5-10 cm 3 ] hydrogen peroxide, H 2 O 2 into a test tube / (test tube I) 2. Add [little/(0.-1.0) g] manganese(IV) oxide, MnO 2 into the test tube / (test tube I) 3. Bring/insert/place/put a glowing wooden splinter to the mouth of the test tube / (test tube I) 4. Record the time taken for the glowing splinter light up. 5. Repeat (in test tube II) the experiment / (step 1, 3 and 4) without manganese(IV) oxide Able to state the steps partially correct 2 Sample answer 1. Pour hydrogen peroxide, H 2 O 2 into a test tube / (test tube I) 2. Add manganese(IV) oxide, MnO 2 into the test tube / (test tube I) 3. Bring/insert/place/put a glowing wooden splinter to the test tube / (test tube I) 4. Record the observation. Able to give an idea of the procedure 1 Sample answer Add manganese(IV) oxide, MnO 2 into hydrogen peroxide, H 2 O 2 No response or wrong response 0

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RATE OF REACTION

Question

3(f)

Mark Scheme

Able to exhibit the tabulation of data that includes the following information:

1 Heading for the manipulated variable

2 Heading for the responding variable

 Sample Answer Experiment / test tube Rate of reaction / observation Catalyst presence / Manganese(IV) oxide/ MnO 2 / I No catalyst / II //

Rate of reaction / observation

Hydrogen peroxide/H 2 O 2 and manganese(IV) oxide/ MnO 2 /catalyst

Hydrogen peroxide/H 2 O 2

Able to exhibit the incomplete tabulation of data that includes:

1 Heading for the manipulated variable

2 Heading for the responding variable

Experiment / test tube /catalyst

Rate of reaction / observation

No response or wrong response

Total

Marks

2

1

0

17 marks

Notes : In question no. 2, accept alternate answers if student use other suitable reaction with correct reactants and catalyst.

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RATE OF REACTION

 4 (a) (i) P : [any metal situated above Cu in the ECS] Example : 1 Magnesium / Zinc / Aluminium [r : Potassium / sodium] Q : Any acid Example : 1 Hydrochloric acid / Sulphuric / Nitric acid [ a : weak acid] [Chemical equations] 1. Correct formula of reactant and product 1 + 1 4 2. Balance chemical equations Sample answer : Mg + 2HCl → MgCl 2 + H 2 (a) (ii) Experiment I : = 30 // 3 cm 3 s -1 1 10 Experiment II : = 30 // 1.5 cm 3 s -1 1 2 20 [ Unit must be correct ] (a) (iii) 1. Rate of reaction in experiment I is higher than Experiment II. 1 2. The concentration of acid in Experiment I more than in Experiment II // Number of hydrogen ions perunit volume in Experiment I more than in Experiment II. 1 3. Frequency of collision between hydrogen ion and metal P in Experiment I is higher than in Experiment II. 1 4. Frequency of effective collision between particles in Experiment I is higher than in Experiment II. 1 4

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(b)
Factor : Size of Reactant
1. [Name of reactants used]
Example :
1
Zinc / Magnesium / calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid
2. Pour [20-50] cm 3 an acid* 1.0 mol dm -3 into a conical flask.
1
3. Filled a burette with a water and inverted it over a basin of
water and clamp a burette vertically using retort stand.
1
4. Initial burette reading is recorded.
1
5. Granulated / pieces of metal / metal carbonate is added into
a conical. The conical flask is closed immediately with
stopper and delivery tube.
1
6. Start the stopwatch.
1
7. The volume of gas collected is recorded at 30 seconds
intervals.
1
8. Step 1 to 8 is repeated by using a powder of metal / metal
carbonate.
1
9. Results :
1
Exp .1 : Using a large piece of metal/metal carbonate
Time(s)
0
30
60
90
Volume of gas (cm) 3
Exp. II :Using a powder of metal /metal carbonate
Time (s)
0
30
60
90
Volume of gas (cm 3) )
10. Sketch the graph of volume of gas against time for both
experiment at same axes.
1
Volume of gas/ cm 3
II
I
Time/ s
11. [Gradient graph using powder is higher than large pieces]
1
12. Rate of reaction using powder is higher than large pieces
1
Max
10

31

SOLAF CHEMISTRY SPM 2014

RATE OF REACTION

Factor : Temperature
1. [Name of reactants used]
Example :
1
Sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid
1
2. [ 20 -100] cm 3 of sodium thiosulphate solution [ 0.1 – 1.0 ]
mol dm -3 is pour into a conical flask.
1
3. Record the temperature of sodium thiosulphate.
1
4. The conical flask is placed on the top of piece of white paper
with mark X.
1
5. 5 cm 3 of hydrochloric acid is pour quickly into a conical
1
6. A stopwatch is started immediately.
1
7. The time required for the mark X is disappear from sight is
recorded.
1
8. Step 1 to 7 is repeated using sodium thiosulphate solution at
35 o C, 40 o C, 45 o C and 50 o C.
1
9. Results :
1
Temperature( o C)
Time (s)
1/time (s -1 )
1
10.
Plot the graph of :
i) Temperature against time OR
ii) Temperature against 1 /time
Temperature / o C
Time / s
1
11.
Conclusion : The higher the temperature, the higher the rate
of reaction.
Max
10
TOTAL
20

32

SOLAF CHEMISTRY SPM 2014

Soalan 5.

Experiment 1: Na 2 S 2 O 3 + H 2 SO 4 Na 2 SO 4 + S

+ SO 2

+

RATE OF REACTION

H 2 O

 Question No. Rubric Score 5 (i) Able to give the statement of the problem accurately. Response is in question form. Sample answer: Does the temperature of sodium thiosulphate solution affect the rate of reaction? // How does the temperature of sodium thiosulphate solution affect the rate of reaction? // 3 How does the high / low temperature of sodium thiosulphate solution affect the rate of reaction? Able to give the statement of the problem less accurately. Response in question form. Sample answer: Does the increase / decrease in temperature increase/decrease the rate of reaction? // 2 How does the increase/decrease in temperature affect the rate of reaction? Able to give an idea of statement of the problem. Sample answer: Does temperature affect the rate of reaction? The increase/decrease in temperature will increase /decrease the rate of reaction. // 1 The higher / lower in temperature will increase /decrease the rate of reaction. // To investigate the effect of temperature to the rate of reaction. No response or wrong response 0

33

SOLAF CHEMISTRY SPM 2014

RATE OF REACTION

 Question No. Rubric Score 5(ii) Able to state the three variables correctly Sample answer: Manipulated variable: Temperature of sodium thiosulphate solution Rate of reaction // Time taken for mark ‘X’ to become invisible /disappear 3 Constant variable: Volume and concentration of sodium thiosulphate/ sulphuric acid / size of conical flask Able to state any two variables correctly 2 Able to state any one variables correctly 1 No response or wrong response 0

34

SOLAF CHEMISTRY SPM 2014

RATE OF REACTION

 Question No. Rubric Score 5 (iii) Able to state the relationship correctly between the manipulated variable and the responding variable with direction. Sample answer: The higher/lower the temperature of sodium thiosulphate solution, the higher/lower the rate of reaction. // The higher/lower the temperature of sodium thiosulphate solution, the shorter/longer the time taken for mark ‘X’ to disappear from sight/view // 3 The increase/decrease in temperature of sodium thiosulphate solution will increase/decrease the rate of reaction. // When the temperature of sodium thiosulphate solution increase /decrease, the rate of reaction will increase/decrease. Able to state the relationship between the manipulated variable and the responding variable with direction. Sample answer: The higher/lower the temperature, the higher/lower the rate of reaction. // The higher/lower the temperature, the shorter/longer the 2 time taken for mark ‘X’ to disappear // The increases/decreases in temperature will increase /decrease the rate of reaction. // Able to state the idea of hypothesis. Sample answer; Different temperature, different reactivity. // 1 Temperature changes, the time taken is different. No response or wrong response 0

35

SOLAF CHEMISTRY SPM 2014

RATE OF REACTION

 Question No. Rubric Score 5 (iv) Able to give complete list of materials and apparatus Sample answer: Materials: Sodium thiosulphate solution, sulphuric acid. Apparatus: 3 Conical flask, ,bunsen burner, measuring cylinder (10 ml), measuring cylinder (50 ml), stop-watch, filter /white /cardboard paper. Able to give complete list of materials and four apparatus as following. Answer: Materials: Sodium thiosulphate solution, sulphuric acid. 2 Apparatus : Conical flask, thermometer, bunsen burner, filter / white /cardboard paper. Able to give at least one substances and at least one apparatus. 1 No response or wrong response 0

36

SOLAF CHEMISTRY SPM 2014

RATE OF REACTION

 Question No. Rubric Score 5 (v) Able to list all the steps correctly Sample Answer: 1. ‘X ‘mark is drawn on a piece of white/filter/ cardboard paper. 2. 50 cm 3 of sodium thiosuphate solution [(0.01-1.0) mol dm -3 ] is measured with a (50 cm 3 ) measuring cylinder and is poured into a conical flask. 3. The solution is slowly heated until 30 o C. 4. 5 cm 3 of hydrochloric acid [(0.1- 2.0) mol dm -3 ] is measured with a (10 cm 3 ) measuring cylinder and is added to the conical flask. A stop-watch is started immediately. 3 5. The conical flask is swirled and is placed on a white/filter/cardboard paper with a mark ‘X’. 6. The ‘X’ mark is observed vertically from the top through the solution. 7. The stop-watch is stopped immediately when the ‘X’ mark cannot be seen. Time is recorded. 8. The experiment is repeated by using the sodium thiosuphate solution at 40 o C, 50 o C, 60 o C and 70 o C respectively. Able to list down steps 2, 4, 5, 7, 8 2 Able to give an idea to step 4. 1 No response or wrong response 0

37

SOLAF CHEMISTRY SPM 2014

RATE OF REACTION

Question No.

5 (vi)

Rubric

Able to tabulate the data with following aspects

1. Correct titles with units

2. Complete list of temperatures

 Temperature Time ( o C) (s) 30 40 50 60 70

Able to contruct a table.

1. At least 1 titles correct without units

2. Incomplete list of tempereatures

Temperature

30

No response or wrong response

Score

2

1

0

38

SOLAF CHEMISTRY SPM 2014

Experiment 2: 2HCl + Zn

ZnCl 2

+

H 2

RATE OF REACTION

 Question No. Rubric Score 5 (i) Able to give the statement of the problem accurately. Response is in question form. Sample answer: Does the temperature of hydrochloric acid solution affect the rate of reaction? // How does the temperature of hydrochloric acid solution affect the rate of reaction? // 3 How does the high / low temperature of solution affect the rate hydrochloric acid of reaction? Able to give the statement of the problem less accurately. Response in question form. Sample answer: Does the increase / decrease in temperature increase/decrease the rate of reaction? // 2 How does the increase/decrease in temperature affect the rate of reaction? Able to give an idea of statement of the problem. Sample answer: Does temperature affect the rate of reaction? The increase/decrease in temperature will increase /decrease the rate of reaction. // 1 The higher / lower in temperature will increase /decrease the rate of reaction. // To investigate the effect of temperature to the rate of reaction. No response or wrong response 0

39

SOLAF CHEMISTRY SPM 2014

RATE OF REACTION

 Question No. Rubric Score 5 (ii) Able to state the three variables correctly Sample answer: Manipulated variable: Temperature of hydrochloric acid Responding variable: 3 Rate of reaction // Volume of gas per unit time Constant variable: Mass/size of zinc // Volume and concentration of hydrochloric acid Able to state any two variables correctly 2 Able to state any one variables correctly 1 No response or wrong response 0

40

SOLAF CHEMISTRY SPM 2014

RATE OF REACTION

 Question No. Rubric Score 5 (iii) Able to state the relationship correctly between the manipulated variable and the responding variable with direction. Sample answer: The higher/lower the temperature of hydrochloric acid, the higher/lower the rate of reaction. // The higher/lower the temperature of hydrochloric acid, the higher/lower the volume of the hydrogen gas release per unit time // 3 The increase/decrease in temperature of hydrochloric acid will increase/decrease the rate of reaction. // When the temperature of hydrochloric acid increases/decreases, the rate of reaction will increase/decrease. Able to state the relationship between the manipulated variable and the responding variable with direction. Sample answer: The higher/lower the temperature, the higher/lower the rate of reaction. // The higher/lower the temperature, the higher/lower the volume of the hydrogen gas released per unit time. // 2 The increase/decrease in temperature will increase/decrease the rate of reactions. // Able to state the idea of hypothesis. Sample answer; Different temperature, different reactivity. // 1 Temperature changes, the time taken is different. No response or wrong response 0

41

SOLAF CHEMISTRY SPM 2014

RATE OF REACTION

 Question No. Rubric Score 5 (iv) Able to give complete list of materials and apparatus Sample answer: Materials: Zinc, hydrochloric acid Apparatus: 3 Conical flask, thermometer , bunsen burner, stop-watch measuring cylinder (50 ml), delivery tube and stopper, burette, basin, Able to give all materials and five apparatus as following. Answer: Materials: Zinc, hydrochloric acid 2 Apparatus : Conical flask, thermometer, bunsen burner, delivery tube, burette Able to give at least one substance and at least one apparatus. 1 No response or wrong response 0

42

SOLAF CHEMISTRY SPM 2014

RATE OF REACTION

 Question No. Rubric Score 5 (v) Able to list all the steps correctly Sample Answer: 1. Burette is filled with water and inverted into a basin containing water. 2. The burette is clamped vertically using retort stand. 3. Initial reading of burette is recorded. 4. [20-50] cm 3 of hydrochloric acid [(0.01-1.0) mol dm -3 ] is measured with a (50 ml) measuring cylinder and is poured into a conical flask. 5. The solution is slowly heated until 30 o C. 3 6. 2 g of zinc is weighed, and is put into the conical flask. 7. The conical flask is closed immediately with a stopper which is joined to the delivery tube and the stopwatch is started. 8. The burette reading is recorded at interval of 30 seconds until the reaction is completed. 9. The experiment is repeated by using the hydrochloric acid at 40 o C, 50 o C, 60 o C and 70 o C respectively. Able to list down steps 1, 4, 6, 8, 9 2 Able to give an idea to step 6. 1 No response or wrong response 0

43

SOLAF CHEMISTRY SPM 2014

RATE OF REACTION

Question No.

5 (vi)

Rubric

Able to tabulate the data with following aspects

1. Correct titles with units

2. Complete list of temperatures